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International Journal of Modern Research in Engineering and Technology (IJMRET)

www.ijmret.org Volume 2 Issue 7 ǁ November 2017

Vibration Suppression of Vehicle-Bridge-Interaction System using

Multiple Tuned Mass Dampers

Mehmet Akif KOÇ1, İsmail ESEN2, Yusuf ÇAY3, Ömer ÇERLEK3, Muhammed Asım
KESERCİOĞLU3, RecepKILIÇ3, Hüseyin DAL3, Mustafa EROĞLU3
(Mechatronics Engineering, Sakarya University, Turkey)
(Mechanical Engineering, Karabuk University, Turkey)
(Mechanical Engineering, Sakarya University, Turkey)

ABSTRACT :In this study, vibration suppression of vehicle-bridge interaction system has been studied in
terms of bridge dynamics. In vibration suppression, some configurations of tuned passive mass dampers have
been considered. Motion equations of vehicle and absorbers are coupled with the motion equation of the bridge
beam using first four mode of beam and Lagrange equations. Then the coupled equation of vehicle-bridge-
absorbers (VBA) has been solved using the fourth order Raunge-Kutta algorithm. It is proved that the
configuration of the absorbers that are placed on the anti-nodes of first and second mode shapes of the bridge
beam is the most effective one of all others.

KEYWORDS -Anti-nodes,Tuned mass damper, Vehicle bridge interaction,Vibration suppression

I. INTRODUCTION been reported in[6] that it is impossible to suppress

Vibrations of bridges under moving loads all the vibration due to the VBI, since the excitation
are vital in engineering and have been studied over a frequency of the moving load is not constant. For a
century. Early studies of the moving load problem constant velocity of the load [7], for vibration
have been carried out by structural engineers who absorbers [8] , for Timoshenko beams [9], for
accepted the moving load as a moving point force. optimized damped-absorbers [10] are the other
Later, with the implementation of the increased valuable studies in this field. Plate structures under
transport speed, the subject has also been examined moving loads are also research interests and some
by the automotive and railway engineers. Now the FEM of such system can be found in [11]. Resonant
subject, as vehicle-bridge-interaction (VBI), has response of a beam plate of a high-speed a railway
been studied in terms of both vehicle and bridge bridge has been optimized by [12] using passive
dynamics with the new direction such as vibration viscous dampers. Vibration suppression of a plate
suppression of the both systems. In this field, some structure under random excitation using PTMD and
of analytical studies[1,2] are valuable for the its H∞ and H2 optimizations have been given in [13]
dynamics of the bridge beams under different and it is the early study of PTMD. It has reported
loading cases and end support conditions. When that the most effective use of PTMD is to place it at
higher transportation speeds are implemented, the a point where the mode shape is maximum at an
dynamic amplification factor (DAF) is considered as anti-node. One of the other implementation field of
important due to the inertial effects of the moving the PTDM is defence science applications such as
loads in rail and other transportation systems. projectile barrel interaction in various type of heavy
Vibration suppression and control of the bridge and light gun systems. For example, studies [14,15]
beams have been studied by [3–6]. It has been have reported that the muzzle vibrations of barrels
reported that using Passive Tuned Mass Dampers can be decreased at 50 percent using proper
(PTMD), the vibration of a high-speed train bridge optimized PTMD.
at 300 km/h had been reduced by 21 percent. One of the biggest challenges in PTDM
Another application of PTMD has been reported by use, the influence frequency of the moving vehicle is
[4] for a thin bridge under successive moving loads. not constant and when the vehicle velocity is altered,
Under a periodic excitation [10] has been studied it is changed. Secondly, there can be more than one
vibration reduction of a thin beam by PTMD. It has vehicle on the bridge system with different

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characteristics. Thirdly, the moving mass case, II. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING

taking into account the effects of mass inertia, the
natural frequencies of the bridge beam are changed In order to reduce vibrations of the vehicle
depending on the position of the moving load. and bridge due to vehicle-bridge interaction, a
Further, a VBI system is coupled and its special system shown in Fig. 1 has been studied.
linearization is difficult. The system consists of a single degree of freedom
In order to suppress vibrations of the vehicle, a simply supported Euler- Bernoulli beam
vehicle and bridge beam, in this study, the idea of on which the vehicle moves with constant velocity v,
the usage of the anti-nodes for the location of the and pasive vibration absorbers that are placed at
PTDM in [13] has been extended, and developed 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 of the length of the beam. Where
such that at least the anti-nodes of the first and m is the mass of the vehicle, k and c spring constant
second mode shapes may help more effectively. and the damping coefficient of the suspension
Since a general vibration, response of a vibrating system, while y is the vertical displacement of the
system can be approximated by superimposing of vehicle body; and parameters ki and mi (i = 1, 2, 3),
the effect of each vibration mode. Using this idea, in respectively, are the stiffness and mass of the
this study the vibration response of the beam has absorbers at the given locations i=1, 2, and 3, as
been approximated including the effect of the first shown in Fig. 1. Symbol ycis the displacement of
four modes. Then tuned mass dampers are the wheel at the contact point of the beam and wb(x,
considered for the anti-node of the first mode at the t) is the displacement of the beam at point x and time
mid-point of the bridge beam, and the anti-nodes of t. The displacements of the absorbers are
the second mode that are the 0.25 and 0.75 of the represented by y1, y2, y3from left to rigth.
bridge length L. The tuning of the absorber at the In the formulation for the vehicle-bridge-
mid-point is carried out using the fundamental absorbers (VBA) analysis following assumptions
frequency while the tunings of the absorbers at the will be adopted:
0.25 and 0.75 locations, the second mode frequency  The bridge is modelled as a simple
is used. Except this, the effects of one undamped supported beam based on Euler-Bernoulli
absorber and damped absorber are also studied as a theory.
comparison. Moreover, the effect of the other  The vehicle is modelled as a single DOF
position of the PTDM on beam has been analysed lumped parameter system.
widely. From this perspective, this study can help  Only one vehicle is accepted moving on the
both structural and automotive engineers in order to bridge with constant velocity v.
extend the service life of the bridges and predict the  The wheel is always in contact with the
dynamic forces applied to the vehicle from VBI, and bridge.
to achieve desired ride-safety and passenger  The effect of road roughness upon vehicle
comfort. and bridge dynamic is not considered
during analysis in this study.

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m y(t)

k c

F EI,ceq ,
 t vt

w(  t  t)
k1 b
k2 k3
y1 (t) y2 (t) y3 (t)
m1 m2 m3

Figure 1. Model of Euler-Bernoulli Bridge beam with attached PTMDs and subjected to moving vehicle.
wb ( x, t )   i ( x)bi (t ),
With all these assumptions, for the system i 1

of vehicle-bridge- absorbers (VBA) shown in Fig. n

w b ( x, t )   i ( x)bi (t ),
1 the kinetic and potential energy are expressed as i 1
follows, respectively: n
wb( x, t )   i( x)bi (t ),
i 1

 L
 2  i x 
1     w
 b 2 ( x, t )  dx  my 2 (t )   i ( x )  sin   , i  1, 2,..., n.
Ek  0  , (1a) L  L  (1a)
2 
m1 y1 (t )  m2 y2 (t )  m3 y3 (t ) 
2 2 2
  
whereηbi is the i-th time dependent
L  generalized nodal coordinate,φi is i-th mode shape
  EI  wb ( x, t ) dx  k  y(t )  wb ( (t ), t )  +
2 2

0  function. The applied static axle load of the
1 2
E p  k1  y1 (t )  wb ( L / 4, t )  k2  y2 (t )  wb ( L / 2, t )   H ( x,  (t )), vehicle at the contact point of the wheel can be

2  (1b)
 k3  y3 (t )  wb (3L / 4, t ) determined as:

 
 
fc ( x, t )  (mgH ( x   (t ))), (3)
whereμ and EI, refer to the mass of the
unit length and flexural rigitidy of the bridge whereH(x-ξ(t))is the Heaviside function.
girder, respectively. For the vehicle- bridge system the Rayleigh’s
dissipation function can be expressed as below:
For the system shown in Fig.1, in order to
obtain the equations of motion one can use the
virtual work principle, Hamilton's principle and

ceq w b2 ( x, t )  c[ y (t )  w b ((t ), t )]2 H ( x  (t )) , (4)
D'Alembert's principle. In this study, motion
equation of the VBA integrated system is optained In Eq. (4) ceq is the equivalent damping
using Langrange’s equations and mode expansion coefficient of bridge girder. In addition, for the
method. For any point x on the beam at time tthe given system, the Lagrangian (L = Ek- Ep) is equal
deflection function wb (x, t) can be aproximated to the difference of the kinetic and potential
using the Galerkin’s method: energies. In such a case, for the five independent
coordinates, the Lagrange equations can be as

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d  L  L R total eight second order differential equations for

    0 , k  1, (5a)
dt  p k (t )  pk (t ) p k (t ) the vehicle, bridge and absorbers. The first four
equations are for vehicle and the absorbers and
they are transferred into first order equations by
d  L  L D [16]. In addition, the bridge dynamic is expressed
    Qi , i  1,2,3,4, (5b)
dt  i (t )  i (t ) i (t ) by using the second order differential equations in
With the state variables that are:
Eq. (9). In this study, the bridge dynamic is
calculated by considering the first four-vibration
mode and it is represented with four differential
p(t )   y(t ) ,  (t)  1 (t) 2 (t) 3 (t) 4 (t) ,
equations of second order. These four differential
equations are transferred to eight equations by [16].
And the corresponding generalized forces In order to solve this equation system, comprising
are: of sixteen equations, a fourth order Runge-Kutta
L method has been used[16].
Qi   i ( x) f c ( x, t )dx, i  1, 2,3, 4, (7)
Using the orthogonality conditions and
Galerkin approach for displacements of the beam, In this section, using four different VBA
(Eq. (2)) the equation of motion is obtained for models (Model A, B, C, D) the effects of the
VBA interaction model given in Fig. 1. In this absorbers on the vehicle and bridge dynamics have
case, the equation for the acceleration of the been studied extensively. System equations of
vehicle body and absorbers are written as follows, motion Eq. (8a-d) for the VBA is solved by using
respectively: Runge-Kutta algorithm of the fourth order, with a
special m.file prepared MATLAB © environment.
1 The integration time step size for numerical
y  -c[ y (t ) - w b ( x, t )] - k[ y(t ) - wb ( x, t )]
 , (8a) (
m analysis during the study Δt = 0.01 s, the solution
1 final time is taken to be t = L / v. In addition, the
y1  -k1[ y (t ) - wb ( L 4, t )]
 , (8b) (
m1 parameters used in this study for the systems VBA
1 are presented in Table 1.
y2  -k2 [ y (t ) - wb ( L 2, t )]
 , (8c) (
m2 When the vehicle moves over the bridge,
1 it forces the bridge to vibrate. At certain vehicle
y3  -k3[ y (t ) - wb (3L 4, t )]
 , (8d)
m3 speeds, the bridge enters into resonance and the
Dynamic equations of the bridge as the n amount of oscillation increases significantly. The
second order ordinary differential equations can be velocity of the vehicle that causes resonance is
expressed as follows: called the critical velocity vcr and it is calculated
using the circular natural frequencies of the beam.
N ii (t )  ceqi2 ( x)i (t )   ii (t ) For a simply supported beam the natural
frequencies of jth vibration mode is expressed
 f c  c  w b  (t ), t  1 - y (t ) 
 
i 1 (t )    (
 k  w  (t ), t   - y (t ) 
 
 (9)
 k1  wb ( L 4, t ) - y1 (t )   k2  wb ( L 2, t ) - y2 (t )  j 4p 4 EI
w2j = (rad / s) (11)
 k3  wb (3L 4, t ) - y3 (t )   0 i  1, 2,3, 4. mL4
whereΛ is: When Eq. (11) and the excitation
frequency of a moving vehicle on the bridge are
ïì 1, for 0 £ t < t1 rearranged, the following is obtained[16]:
L = ïí (10)
ïïî 0 elsewhere,
1/ 2
w w vL æ m ö v
a= = = 2 çç ÷ ÷ =
÷ , (12)
Where t1is the time when the vehicle wj 2p f j j p çè EI ø vcr
leaves the bridge. The coefficient Λis time
dependent and is used with Eigen function Using Eq. (12), Fig. 2 shows the first three
φi (ξ(t))in order to determine motion equation. modes of vibration of the bridge beam. Frequency
In Eqs. (8a), (8b-c) and (9), shows the values of the first three modes of vibration of the

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bridge beam are, respectively, f1=0.2108 Hz, first natural frequency of the bridge is f1 = 0.2108
f2=0.8432 Hz, and f3=1.8972 Hz. Using these Hz. Therefore, the absorber is tuned to resonate at
values and Eq. (22), the critical speeds for vehicles the first natural frequency
moving on the bridge are calculated, respectively, f1 = (2p )- 1 k1 m1 = 0.2108 . Thus, it is expected
as vcr1=42.15 m/s, vcr2=168.62 m/s, and vcr3=252.82
that this absorber can reduce the vibration energy
of the beam caused from the first vibration mode of
x 10
1 the bridge. In the second model, model B, a
viscous damper added to the spring mass system.
The damping coefficient of the absorber was
chosen as c2=10000 Nsm-1, not on purpose but to
show the effect of any damping in the absorber.
The critical damping value
-0.5 Mode 1 ( 0.2108 Hz. )
Mode 2 ( 0.8432 Hz. ) ccr 2 = 2m2 wn = 2 k2 m2 = 26476.46 Nsm-1, and
Mode 3 (1.8972 Hz. )
0 20 40 60 80 100
the damping ratio of the damper is
Length of the bridge (m)
z = c2 ccr 2 = c2 (2m2 wn ) = c2 (2 k2 m2 ) = 0.377
Figure2.Mode shapes of the bridge.
obtained using the parameters listed in Table 1.
In order to analyze the effects of the When this damper is added, the natural frequency
absorbers on the dynamics of vehicles and bridges of the absorber has reduced from 0.2108 Hz to
four different models of the VBA shown in Fig. 3. 0.195 Hz that is the damped natural frequency,
In the model A as shown in Fig. 3a, an undamped where wd = wn 1- z 2 = 1.226 rad / s = 0.195 Hz.
mass spring system is suspended from the bridge at it is expected that adding damping may not be
the mid-point. The main vibration displacement of useful in order to reduce the vibration energy of the
the bridge system is affected mostly from the first mode. However, it should be known that in
fundemantal mode of the beam, for such reason the some case the damping could be considered in
absorber is placed at the mid point where the terms of design criteria. These issues are examined
maximum deflection occurs at the midpoint when in detail in the following sections.
the beam vibrates with only the first mode. The

y a-) Model A v=const. y b-) Model B v=const.

m m
EI,ceq ,
c EI,ceq , c
k k
x=vt x=vt
x x

k2 k2 c2
m2 mode 1 mode 1
L/2 L/2

y v=const. y
c-) Model C m mode 2 d-) Model D m
EI,ceq , EI,ceq ,
k c k c
x=vt x=vt
x x

k1 k2 k3
m1 m2 m3 mode 1
mode 1
L/2 L

Figure 3. Model of a vehicle-bridge-absorber interaction system (a) an undamped absorber at middle

of the bridge; (b) A damped absorber at middle of the bridge; (c) three undamped absorbers at 0.25L, 0.5L, and
0.75L of bridge length; (d) without absorber.
The Models A and B can reduce oscillations originating from the first mode of the

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bridge during vibration. Because these absorbers speed is chosen so that it is applicable in
prepared at a middle point of maximum amplitude transportation.
of the first mode of the bridge and their resonance For Model D model that there is no
frequency is set to the first oscillation frequency of absorber, the maximum midpoint displacement is
the bridge. However, structures are not only 20.34 mm when the vehicle is at about 0.75 L,
affected from the first mode of vibration the while for Model A, the maximum displacement is
contribution of the higher modes are also involved. observed as 15.8 mm, which means a decrease of
Therefore, in addition to the first vibration mode 22.32 percent when compared with no absorber
for the second vibration mode of the bridge a case. After a damped absorber in Model B is used,
second and a third absorber are placed at the the maximum midpoint displacement is 17.6 mm
locations 0.25 L and 0.75 L of the bridge; and they when the vehicle has reached to 81.2 percent of the
are tuned to the second natural frequency of the bridge length. When a damping added to the
bridge beam. As seen from Figure 3 the peaks of absorber, the occurrence time of the maximum
the second mode shape of the beam are at these bridge midpoint displacement shifted to forward,
locations. In order to compare with the effects of because of the added phase difference from
the three previous models, the Model D has no damping. Damping in the passive absorbers could
absorber. The parameters of the bridge and the not reduce the displacements much when compared
vehicle used in the study are presented in Table 1. to the undamped absorbers. For Model C, a special
case when three absorbers are used, the maximum
Table 1.Prpoperties of the vehicle and bridge. displacement of the midpoint of the bridge is 15
Bridge Vehicle parameters mm and; that means the displacement has been
L (m) 100 m (kg) 2172 c2 ( Ns/m) 10000 reduced by 26.25%. All the results are presented in
E 207 k (kg) 85439.6 m1( Ns/m) 10000
(Gpa) 0.174 c (kg) 2219.6 m2( Ns/m) 10000 Table 2.
I (m4) 20000 k1 ( N/m 280401. m3( Ns/m) 10000
μ 1750 ) 59 k3 ( N/m ) 280401. Table 2.Comparation of the four different models according to
(kg/m) k2 ( N/m 17525.0 59 bridge midpoint maximum displacement (m).
ceq ) 8 Model Max. Mid-point Location of According to
(Ns/m) disp.(mm) the vehicle the Model D,
(%) the reduction
Based on the four different VBA models rate (%)
A 15.8 73 22.32
in Figure 3, Figure 4, displays the midpoint
B 17.6 81.2 13.47
displacements wb (x=L/2, t) of the bridge beam for
C 15 87.5 26.25
a vehicle speed of v=90 km/h = 25 m/s that this D 20.34 75 ----

x 10
Midpoint displacement of the bridge (m)

Displacement of the absorbers (m)

0 0


Model A
Model B
model A -0.02
-15 Model C 0.25L
model B Model C 0.5L
model C -0.025
Model C 0.75L
-20 model D
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100
Position of the vehicle on the bridge ( m ) Position of the vehicle on the bridge ( m )

Figure 4. The effect of the absorber upon bridge midpoint dynamic response for vehicle constant velocity v=25
m/s and time step size ∆t=0.01 s (a) Bridge midpoint displacement; (b) Absorber displacement.

In traditional highway or railroad bridge

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design, the Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF) is IV. CONCLUSION

considered. DAF means the ratio of the maximum
dynamic displacement to the static displacement In this study, in order to reduce the
when the load is located at the midpoint of the vibration of the vehicle that is caused by vehicle –
bridge; and can be expressed as given below: bridge- interaction (VBI), the effects of various
dynamic vibration absorbers on the bridge
dynamics have been investigated. Due to the
L L
DAF  Rd   Rs   (13) complexity of the loading in moving load problem,
 
2 2 that the interaction is a non-linear coupled system
of the two multiple degree of freedom subsystems.
The DAF of any bridge system can be In the vibration of any beam system one can
affected by many parameters such as vehicle consider the general forced vibration response of
velocity, mass of the vehicle, natural frequency of the beam can be calculated by super positioning the
the bridge, and road roughness, etc. considering the mode shapes of consecutive modes at least
Models A, B, C and D, the DAFs of the different including the first-four modes. However, in this
velocities of the vhecile are presented in Figure 5. assumption the effect of the first fundamental mode
As shown in Figure 5, for the Model D, that is no and the second mode is compromises the 80
absorber on the bridge the maximum value of the percent of the response even in very flexible
systems. In such a case, the anti-node points of the
DAF is 1.65 for the vehicle speed v = 26 m/s, while
two first nodes can be used as the location of the
for the Model B, the maximum value of the DAF is
absorbers. The anti-node is the midpoint in the
1.47 for the vehicle speed v = 18.5 m / s; and for first mode, and they are at 0.25L and 0.75 L in the
the Model C the maximum value of the DAF is second mode shape. From the results of the
1.45 for the vehicle speed v = 13.5 m / s; and for analysis, the Model C in this study, represents this
the model A the DAF=1.37 at v=12.35 m/s. Up to situation where three absorbers have been placed
a speed of 31 m/s, the Model A showed the best on the beam at the location of the anti-nodes of the
performance, but after this speed, the Model C was first and second modes, is the best design for the
the best in reducing the vibrations. Considering reduction of the vibrations of the bridge.
this situation it can genarally be accepted that
velocity of the vehicle determine the behaviour of REFERENCES
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