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Philosophy - Renaissance - Human experience is defined by the

- Emphasis on the human person views, emotions and actions of the


I. Definition of Philosophy
- Use of philosophy to understand individual.
-
society, nature and humanity - Soren Kierkegaard, Friedrich
- from the Greek word philosophia
- Petrarch, Desiderius Erasmus, Nietzche, Martin Heidegger, Jean
meaning “love of wisdom”
Niccolo Machiavelli, Francois Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir
II. Man as a rational being
Rabelais viii) Pragmatism
- Man is born with dignity
iv) Rationalism - Emphasis on the practical use of
III. St. Thomas Aquinas’ 5 ways of proving
- 17th to 18th century knowledge and ideas
God’s existence
- The Enlightenment - Charles Peirce, William James, John
i) The way of motion (The argument
- Reason and logic as the basis of Dewey
of the unmoved mover)
knowledge and belief ix) Phenomenology
ii) The way of Efficient Causes (The
- Man has innate knowledge that can - Experience is studied based on the
argument of the Uncaused cause)
be accessed through intuition or subjective viewpoint of the
iii) The argument of Contingency
deduction individual
iv) The argument from Degrees of
- Essence of man - Edmund Husserl
Perfection
- Rene Descartes, Immanuel Kantz, x) Absurdism
v) The argument from Design
Gottfried Leibniz - Man will never understand the
IV. Western Philosophy
v) Empiricism human conditions and the meaning
i) Stoicism
- Knowledge is gained through the of life
- 1st century B.C.E. to 5th century C.E.
senses and experience - Albert Camus
- Ancient Rome
- Reliance on inductive reasoning to
- Emphasis on morality, virtue, calm
arrive at a generalization
and emotional fortitude
- David Hume, Francis Bacon, John
- Exists because of our belief in the
Locke
definite end of man (death) and
vi) Social and Political Philosophy
that they must possess these
- Discussion on the ideal human
- Seneca, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius
situation and society
ii) Scholasticism
- Emphasis on individual rights and
- 5th century to 15th century
liberties
- Medieval period
- Voltaire, Jean Jacques Rousseau,
- Application of philosophy to define
Thomas Hobbes, John Stuart Mill
and explain religious doctrines
vii) Existentialism
- spirituality
- 19th to 20th century
- St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Augustine
- Modern Period
iii) Humanism
- 14th to 17th century