Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

Mass Transfer 2 CPB 20104

Experiment 4


Filtration is the removal of solid particles from a fluid by passing the fluid
through a filtering medium on which the solids are deposited. Industrial filtrations
range from simple straining to highly complex separations. The fluid maybe a liquid or a
gas, the valuable stream from the filter may be the fluid or the solids or both. In
industrial filtration the solids content of the feed ranges from a trace to a very high

Fluid flows through a filter medium by a virtue of a pressure differential across

the medium. Filters are also classified, therefore into those that operate with pressure
above the atmospheric level on the upstream side of the filter medium and those that
operate with atmospheric pressure on the upstream side and a vacuum on the
downstream side. Pressures above the atmospheric level may be developed by a pump
or blower. Many industrial filters are pressure filters, vacuum filters or centrifugal
separators. Filters are divided into 3 types: cake filters, clarifying filters and cross flow
filters. Cake filters separate relatively large amounts of solids as a cake of crystal or

Filter presses are pressure filters designed to de-water chemically conditioned

sludge on a batch basis using mechanically applied pressure to achieve high solid
content sludge cakes. The filter consists of a series of parallel plates, each dressed with
a filter cloth and rigidly held together in a structure frame. The filter plates are placed
between the stationary and moving platens.

In operation, the hydraulic closing device compresses the plate pack. The
recessed chamber between the individual plates forms the cake space in which the
suspended solids are then retained. The slurry to be filtered is fed by slurry pump
which pressure subjected to the allowable pressure needed for filtration. During the
filtration cycle, the filtrate passes through the filter cloth and drains along a grooved rib
of the plates while the solid is retained within the cake chamber. Once the filtration
pressure is reached and the filtrate discharge is reduced, the compressed air is
introduced to inflate the membrane to speed up the filtration process. Once the filtrate
is reduced to droplets the compressed air is released, releasing the hydraulic pump
then opens up the press and shifting the filter plates either manually or mechanically
discharges the cake.

In industrial filtration a common filter medium is canvas cloth. Synthetic fabrics

such as nylon, polypropylene and various polyesters are also highly resistant
chemically. Filter aids are used in the filtration of very fine solids or slimy to increase
the porosity of the cake to permit the passage of the liquor at a reasonable rate. Filter
aids are diatomaceous silica, perlite or other inert porous solids. The filter aids are
percoated on the filter medium. Precoats prevent gelatinous solids from plugging the
filter medium as well as giving a clearer filtrate.

1 FG/Exp4/Jan2015
Mass Transfer 2 CPB 20104


 To study the operation of filter press for filtration of calcium carbonate slurry.
 To determine filter medium resistance and specific cake resistance from filtration
data obtained.


a) Materials
 Calcium Carbonate powder (commercial grade)
 Water in the tank 100 litres for making calcium carbonate slurry
b) Ancillary Equipments
 2 beakers of at least 5 litres capacity
 2 stop watches for recording time

Dissolve 3.0 kg of calcium carbonate in a container and transfer it to the slurry tank. In
100 litres of water it will be 3% wt calcium carbonate slurry.


1. Open the air regulator outlet valve
2. Check the pressure gauge setting
3. Release the hydraulic pump air valve and operation valve (knob)
anticlockwise to release the hydraulic pressure.
4. Pack the filter press by pushing it towards the stationary platen. At the same
time dress up the filter cloths with creases.
5. Move the moving platen towards the filter plate pack.
6. Lower down the trust bar and alignment it inline with the hydraulic piston.
7. Move the hydraulic piston towards the trust bar by pumping the hydraulic
pump using the lever.
8. Check the filter pack alignment and the cloths to ensure no crease is formed.
In order to have a proper good sealed compression.
9. Pull the PVC drip tray towards the stationary platen at the bottom of the
filter pack. To contain any dripping during filtration process if occur.
10. Start pumping the hydraulic ram until it reach to the require working
pressure. Then lock it by turning the operation valve (knob) clockwise.

Check to ensure that the slurry tanks had enough slurry before operating the
pump, never run the pump in a dry condition even for a few revolutions or the
stator will be damaged.

11. On the control panel, press the feed pump “start” button and the RUN light
will light. This indicates that the process of feeding the slurry into the filter
press has started.
12. When feeding of the slurry into the filter press had reached the preset timing
or pressure by the consolidation timer and feeding pressure gauge. Which
ever come first the pump will be stopped and RUN light will be off.

2 FG/Exp4/Jan2015
Mass Transfer 2 CPB 20104

Do not release the hydraulic pump pressure before operating the squeeze process. Also,
ensure that the feed process is completed. Do not inflate the rubber membrane when
there is no solids in the filter pack.

13. Close the air regulator valve and SLOWLY open the inlet valve. This will let
the compressed air in so as to inflate the rubber membrane SLOWLY. These
processes will squeeze the water out of the filtrate or cake.
14. Upon completion, close the air regulator inlet valve and open the outlet valve
slowly to deflate the rubber membrane slowly.
15. Do not release the hydraulic pump pressure until the compress air outlet
valve is fully opened.
16. Shift the drip tray away from the bottom of the filter pack.
17. Release the hydraulic pump pressure by turning the operation valve (knob)
anticlockwise. The hydraulic piston will retract back to the body.
18. Swing the trust bar back to the stopper and hold.
19. Push the moving platen back towards the hydraulic piston.
20. Move the end filter plate i.e the one next to moving platen towards the
hydraulic piston.
21. Let the solid cakes drop onto a receptable at the bottom of the filter press.
Subsequently unpack the rest of the filter plate one by one.
22. Clean the residue from the filter cloth by mean of a plastic scrapper.
Do not use any sharp object to clean the filter cloth; it can damage the
filter cloth.
23. Ensure that all the sealing edges are clear of residues especially the bottom
area. It is to prevent any improper sealing during the next filtration
compression process.
24. Upon completion, for the next filtration process subsequently repeat the
operating process.

 The volume of filtrate collected, V in litres collected at different time intervals are
recorded at a given pressure drop. Record all the data in the data sheet.
 Filter area in cm2 is noted down. The mass of solid per unit volume of filtrate is
also noted.
 Note down the weight of wet cake.
 Dry the wet cake in the oven, overnight and note down the weight of the dry

3 FG/Exp4/Jan2015
Mass Transfer 2 CPB 20104

Table of Results:

Weight fraction of calcium carbonate in slurry : _________________ %

Weight of wet cake Tray 1 : _________________ g

Tray 2 : _________________ g
Tray 3 : _________________ g

Weight of dry cake Tray 1 : _________________ g

Tray 2 : _________________ g
Tray 3 : _________________ g

Weight ratio of wet cake to dry cake (

mF ) : _________________
Viscosity of filtrate (  ) : _________________ Pa.s
Density of filtrate (  ) : _________________
Density of calcium carbonate : 2.93 g/cm3
Total active filter area : 47 cm x 470 cm
Pressure drop (ΔP) : _________________
Total filtration time : _________________ s
Total volume of filtrate : _________________ litre

Filtrate Volume, V (L) Time, t (s)


4 FG/Exp4/Jan2015
Mass Transfer 2 CPB 20104


Discuss all your results. The questions below only serve as a guideline. Your discussion
should not only limited to these questions.

1. Plot the data relating t/V versus V to obtain a straight line graph.
Kc 1
2. The slope of each line is in seconds per litre and from the intercept
2 qo
of the line.
3. Obtain the value of filter medium resistance (Rm) and cake resistance (  )
from the equations below:

1 Rm

q o A( P)
Kc 
A 2 P
Where  = viscosity of filtrate
A = filter area
P = pressure drop
c = mass of solid deposited in the filter per unit volume of
filtrate (kg/L)

4. Explain briefly how filter medium resistance can affect the pressure in
filtration process.
5. Explain three advantages and disadvantages of plate and frame filter press.


1. Svarovsky, L. “Solid-Liquid separation” Butterworths, 3rd Edition (1990).

2. Rushton, A. “Mathematical models and design methods in solid-liquid
separation” Martinus Nijhoh, (1985).
3. Geankoplis, Transport process and unit operation 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall
4. McCabe, Smith and Harriott, Unit operations of Chemical Engineering,
McGraw Hill 6th edition (2000).

5 FG/Exp4/Jan2015