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EE105 – Fall 2014

Microelectronic Devices and Circuits

Prof. Ming C. Wu
wu@eecs.berkeley.edu
511 Sutardja Dai Hall (SDH)

Lecture13-Small Signal Model-MOSFET 1

Small-Signal Operation
MOSFET Small-Signal Model - Summary
IG = 0
Kn 2
ID = (VGS −VTN ) (1+ λVDS )
2

Transconductance:
gm = 2I D = 2K I
n D
•  Since gate is insulated from VGS −VTN
channel by gate-oxide input
resistance of transistor is infinite. Output resistance:
•  Small-signal parameters are
controlled by the Q-point. ro = 1 = 1+λVDS ≅ 1
•  For the same operating point, go λID λID
MOSFET has lower
transconductance and an output Amplification factor for lVDS<<1:
resistance that is similar to the
BJT. 2Kn
µ f = gmro = 1+λVDS ≅ 1
λID λ ID

Lecture13-Small Signal Model-MOSFET 2

1
MOSFET Small-Signal Operation
Body Effect in Four-terminal MOSFETs
Drain current depends on threshold
voltage which in turn depends on vSB.
Back-gate transconductance is:

∂iD ∂iD
gmb = =−
∂vBS Q-point
∂vSB Q-point
# &# &
% ∂iD (% ∂VTN (
gmb =− % (% ( =−(−gmη)= gmη
%
$ ∂VTN ('%$ ∂vSB ('
Q-point

0 < η < 3 is called the back-gate


transconductance parameter.

bulk terminal is a reverse-biased diode.


Hence, no conductance from the bulk
terminal to other terminals.

Lecture13-Small Signal Model-MOSFET 3

MOSFET Small-Signal Operation


Small-Signal Model for PMOS Transistor
•  For a PMOS transistor
vSG = VGG − vgg
iD = I D − id
•  Positive signal voltage vgg reduces
source-gate voltage of the PMOS
transistor causing decrease in total
current exiting the drain, equivalent to an
increase in the signal current entering
the drain.
•  The NMOS and PMOS small-signal
models are the same!

Lecture13-Small Signal Model-MOSFET 4

2
Common-Source Amplifiers
Small-Signal Analysis - ac Equivalent Circuit

•  ac equivalent circuit is constructed by assuming that all


capacitances have zero impedance at signal frequency and dc
voltage sources are ac ground.

Lecture13-Small Signal Model-MOSFET 5

Common-Source Amplifiers
Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit

•  Input voltage is applied to the gate terminal


•  Output signal appears at the drain terminal
•  Source is common to both input and output signals
Thus circuit is termed a Common-Source (C-S) Amplifier.
•  The terminal gain of the C-S amplifier is the gain from the
gate terminal to the drain terminal

vd
AvtCE = = −gm RL RL = ro RD R3
vg

Lecture13-Small Signal Model-MOSFET 6

3
Common-Source Amplifiers
Input Resistance and Signal-Source Gain

vg
Define RiG as the input resistance RiG = = RG
looking into the base of the transistor. ii
Rin is the resistance presented to vi Rin = RI + RG

The signal source voltage gain is: vo vo vg RG


AvCS = = = AvtCS
vi vg vi RI + RG
" RG %
AvCS = −gm RL $ '
# RI + RG &

Lecture13-Small Signal Model-MOSFET 7

Common-Source Amplifiers
“Rule of Thumb” Design Estimate
" RG %
AvCS = −gm RL $ CS
' ≅ Avt AvtCS = −gm RL RL = ro RD R3
# RI + RG &
I D RD
Typically: ro >> RD and R3 >> RD AvCS ≅ −gm RD = −
" VGS −VTN %
$ '
# 2 &
I D RD represents the voltage dropped across drain resistor RD
V
A typical design point is I D RD = DD with VGS −VTN = 1 V
2

∴ AvCS ≅ −VDD

Our rule-of-thumb estimate for the C-S amplifier:


the voltage gain equals the power supply voltage.
Note that this is 10 times smaller than that for the BJT!

Lecture13-Small Signal Model-MOSFET 8

4
Common-Source Amplifiers
Voltage Gain Example
•  Problem: Calculate voltage gain, input
resistance and maximum input signal
level for a common-source amplifier with
a specified Q-point
•  Given data: Kn = 0.50 mA/V2, VTN = 1 V,
•  λ = 0.0133V-1, Q-point is (0.241 mA, 3.81 V)
•  Assumptions: Transistor is in the active
region. Signals are low enough to be
considered small signals.
•  Analysis:
λ −1 +VDS
gm = 2K n I D (1+ λVDS ) = 0.503 mS ro = = 328 kΩ
ID
RG = R1 R2 = 892 kΩ RL = ro RD R3 = 17.1 kΩ

Lecture13-Small Signal Model-MOSFET 9

Common-Source Amplifiers
Voltage Gain Example (cont.)

gm = 0.503 mS ro = 328 kΩ RG = 892 kΩ RL = 17.1 kΩ


# RG & # 892kΩ &
AvCS = −gm RL % ( = −0.503mS (17.1kΩ) % ( = −8.60 ( 0.999 ) = −8.59
$ RI + RG ' $ 1kΩ + 892kΩ '
# RG & # RG &
Rin = RI + RG = 893 kΩ vgs = vi % ( → vi % ( ≤ 0.2 (VGS −VTN )
$ RI + RG ' $ RI + RG '
2I D # 893kΩ &
VGS −VTN ≅ = 0.982 V ∴ vi ≤ 0.2 ( 0.982V ) % ( = 0.197 V
Kn $ 892kΩ '
Check the rule-of-thumb estimate: AvCS ≅ −VDD = −12 V (ballpark estimate)

Lecture13-Small Signal Model-MOSFET 10

5
C-E and C-S Amplifiers
Output Resistance

Lecture13-Small Signal Model-MOSFET 11

C-E and C-S Amplifiers


Output Resistance (cont.)

Apply test source vx and find ix (with vi = 0)


vgs = 0 → gm vgs = 0
vbe = 0 → gm vbe = 0
vx
vx ∴ Rout = = RD ro
∴ Rout = = RC ro ix
ix
Rout ≅ RD for ro >> RD
Rout ≅ RC for ro >> RC

For comparable bias points, output resistances of C-S and C-E


amplifiers are similar.

Lecture13-Small Signal Model-MOSFET 12

6
BJT and FET Small-Signal Model Summary

Lecture13-Small Signal Model-MOSFET 13

Common-Emitter / Common-Source
Amplifiers Summary

Lecture13-Small Signal Model-MOSFET 14

7
Amplifier Power Dissipation

Static power dissipation


in amplifiers is found
from their dc equivalent
circuits.

(a)  Total power dissipated in BJT: (b) Total power dissipated in MOSFET:
PD = VCE IC + VBE IB PD = VDS ID
Total power supplied is:
Total power supplied is:
PS = VDD ( ID + I2 )
PS = VCC ( IC + I2 )

Lecture13-Small Signal Model-MOSFET 15

Amplifier Signal Range

vCE = VCE −Vm sin ω t where Vm is the


output signal. Active region operation Similarly for MOSFETs:
requires vCE ≥ vBE So: Vm ≤ VCE −VBE
VM ≤min#$% I D RD,(VDS −(VGS −VTN ))&'(
Also: vRc (t ) = I C RC −Vm sin ω t ≥ 0
∴Vm ≤ min %& I C RC , (VCE −VBE )'(

Lecture13-Small Signal Model-MOSFET 16