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discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280078603

Optimization of 320T BOM for torpedo ladle for

higher life.

Technical Report · July 2015

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2848.1121


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1 author:

Abhishek Anand
National Institute of Technology Rourkela


All content following this page was uploaded by Abhishek Anand on 15 July 2015.

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VoCational training proJeCt

optiMization of 320t torpedo ladle BoM for
higher life


As a part of Graduate Trainee Training program

At Tata Steel, Jamshedpur

Under the Guidance of: Compiled by:

Mr. Sujat Ali Khan Abhishek Anand
Chief/Head: IM Refractories 3rd Year/B.Tech
Ceramic Engg.


This is to certify that Mr. Abhishek Anand has successfully

completed his project titled as “Optimization of 320T Torpedo
Ladle BOM for Higher Life” under my guidance, as a
requirement to complete the Graduate Trainee Training

Mr. Sujat Ali Khan

Chief/head: IM Refractory


I would like to express my gratitude to all the people who provided me with support
and guidance throughout the course, especially all the members of the HML
department who explain all the process that are involved , relevant to my
VOCATIONAL TRAINING program(Mr. Mousom Bag , Mr. Kapil Saxena and Mr.
Dhiman Banerjee).

I would like to express my deep gratitude to my project guide Mr. Sujat Ali Khan
(chief/head: IM Refractory) for giving me knowledge and his valuable support
throughout the project. It was very enriching and enlightening experience to work
under his guidance. He has been helpful and supportive, without his support this
project would not have been possible.

3rd Year, B.Tech (Ceramic Engg.)
National Institute of Technology,


 Tata Steel – At a Glimpse

 Iron making process: a brief overview

 Steel making process

 What is Torpedo ladle

 Introduction of project

 Wear map and wear profile of torpedo ladle

 Maximizing efficiency of torpedo operations

 Specification of the bricks used in TLC

 Introduction of micro-porous insulation board

 Proposal for new lining concept

 Mathematical verification of the new lining

 Results

 Conclusion

 Way forward

 References

TATA STEEL- At a glimpse

The Tata group comprises over 100 operating companies in seven business sectors:
communications and information technology, engineering, materials, services, energy,
consumer products and chemicals. The group has operations in more than 80
countries across six continents, and its companies export products and services to 85

The total revenue of Tata companies, taken together, was $83.3 billion (around
Rs3,796.75 billion) in 2010-11, with 58 per cent of this coming from business outside
India. Tata companies employ over 425,000 people worldwide. The Tata name has
been respected in India for more than 100 years for its adherence to strong values
and business ethics.

Every Tata company or enterprise operates independently. Each of these companies

has its own board of directors and shareholders, to whom it is answerable. There are
31 publicly listed Tata enterprises and they have a combined market capitalisation of
about $79.99 billion (as on May 24, 2012), and a shareholder base of 3.6 million. The
major Tata companies are Tata Steel, Tata Motors, Tata Consultancy Services (TCS),
Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, Tata Global Beverages, Tata Teleservices, Titan, Tata
Communications and Indian Hotels.


Tata Steel Limited (formerly TISCO and Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited) is
a multinational steel company headquartered in Mumbai, India and subsidiary of Tata
Group. It is the tenth-largest steel producing company in the world, with an annual
crude steel capacity of 23.5 million tonnes, and the largest private-sector steel
company in India measured by domestic production. Tata Steel is ranked #370
globally in Fortune Global 500 list in 2012.
It is the eighth most-valuable Indian brand according to an annual survey conducted
by Brand Finance and The Economic Times in 2010. It has also been listed as World's
most ethical companies by Forbes.

Tata Steel's largest plant is located in Jamshedpur, Jharkhand. With its recent
acquisitions, the company has become a multinational with operations in various
countries. The registered office of Tata Steel is in Mumbai. The company was also
recognized as the world's best steel producer by World Steel Dynamics in 2005. The
company is listed on Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange of
India, and employs about 80,000 people.

In August 2007 Tata Steel won the bid to acquire the UK-based steel maker Corus
in what was, to date, the largest international acquisition by an Indian company. It
made the Tata Group the world's fifth largest steel maker, and catapulted them to the
global league

Areas of business
Apart from the main steel division, Tata Steel's operations are grouped under
strategic profit centers like tubes, growth shop (for its steel plant and material
handling equipment), bearings, ferro alloys and minerals, rings, agrico and wires.
Tata Steel's products include hot and cold rolled coils and sheets, tubes, wire rods,
construction bars, structural, forging quality steel, rings and bearings. In an attempt
to 'decommoditise' steel, the company has recently introduced brands like Tata
Steelium (India's first branded cold rolled steel), Tata Shaktee (galvanised
corrugated sheets), Tata Tiscon (re-rolled bars), Tata pipes, Tata bearings, Tata
Wiron (galvanised wire products) and Tata Agrico (hand tools and implements).

Tata Steel is also exploring opportunities in the ferro-chrome and titanium


Joint ventures, associates and subsidiaries

Tata Steel has numerous joint ventures and subsidiaries. Among them are:
 Tinplate Company of India
 Tayo Rolls
 Tata Ryerson
 Tata Refactories
 Tata Sponge Iron
 Tata Metaliks
 Tata Pigments
 Jamshedpur Injection Powder (Jamipol)
 TM International Logistics
 M junction services
 Jamshedpur Utility and Service Company (JUSCO)
 The Indian Steel and Wire Products(ISWP)
 Lanka Special Steel

 Sila Eastern Company

Environment management
Jamshedpur was India's first planned Industrial Township. In more recent times, Tata
Steel has received ISO 14000 certification for environment management for most of
its works, plants, mines and collieries.

Corporate social responsibility

Tata Steel is one of the few Indian companies to be invited to join the UN-sponsored
Global Compact. It has also been conferred the prestigious Global Business
Coalition Award (GBC) for Business Excellence in the Community in view of its
outstanding work in the field of HIV / AIDS awareness.

Global Network

Tata steel has presence in 50 countries with manufacturing operations in 26

countries. It has manufacturing operations in these locations. Asia (India, Malaysia,
Vietnam, Oman), Africa (Ivory Coast, Mozambique, South Africa), Australia
(Central Queensland), North America (Canada), Europe (United Kingdom,
Netherlands, France)

Key Market Sectors

Tata steel serves customers in these market sectors globally:

Automotive, Construction, Consumer goods, Engineering, Packaging, Lifting and

Excavation, Energy and Power, Aerospace, Shipbuilding, Rail.

Iron making process: A Brief Overview
LD1, LD#2 & Slab Caster, LD3 & TSCR are part of the LP & FP division and is
responsible for converting Hot Metal from Blast Furnaces into Steel Slabs. Key role of
this department is to manufacture defect free slabs. Basic properties like chemical
composition and steel cleanliness of the final product are established in the
steelmaking and Slab Casting.
Fig below indicates the position of LD2 & SC department in the value chain of FP. The
shop was commissioned in FY’94 as a 1.2 million tons (MT) facility. It has a capacity
of 4.0 MT today.

Position of LD #2 & SC in FP Value chain

Process Flow: The Process Flow of LD#2 & Slab Caster is outlined below

Primary Secondary Slab Casting

Steel making
Primary steelmaking involves removal of For It converts Liquid steel
impurities from hot metal i.e. Sulphur, buffering, into solid slabs by
phosphorus, Silicon and Carbon. Mild steel temperature continuous cooling and
produced in the process is alloyed with control, strand withdrawal. Slab
manganese, aluminium etc. micro grading is done as per
alloying, QA norms.

 Introduction to Blast Furnace
The Blast Furnace engages in producing hot metal through the Blast Furnace
route of Iron making and which is transported to the Steel melting shops for
steel making and casting. The extraction of iron from ore is carried out through
chemical reduction process in the blast furnaces.

The quality and quantity of hot metal produced from Blast Furnace is critical
to the Steel Works and has immense bearing on the end product’s quality and

The major sub- processes within this Blast Furnace Plant are:

1. Blast Furnace Process –Blast Furnace is the chemical reactor in

which the reduction of ferrous oxides is carried out. This is a hermitic
stave cooled shell lined with protective refractories at necessary
places. The Raw material charge coming from RMHS and Stock House
descends from the top of the furnace with a counter current of reducing
gases ascending upwards. The hot metal and slag are formed
continuously at the bottom as a result of reaction and are tapped
intermittently at Cast House through tapholes.

2. Cast House – This section / sub-area is responsible for the
management of molten hot metal and slag coming out of the Blast
Furnace. The cast house process involves separating the hot metal
and slag, handling them till the ladles and granulation system
3. Stock house Operation – This sub-plant is responsible for
preparation (screening & batching) and charging of the weighed raw
material feed (ore, coke, sinter and fluxes) to the blast Furnace top.
4. Stoves Operation – These external combustion stoves are
responsible for pre-heating the Cold Blast air from the Blower house
to the required temperature of 1150 deg C (by burning of fuel gases).
This hot blast is pushed into the furnace to react with the raw material
feed and produce hot metal.
5. Gas Cleaning Plant – This is responsible for quenching and cleaning
of the by-product BF gas to make it amenable to be used as a fuel in
the Steel Works
6. Coal Injection Plant – This plant is responsible for pulverizing raw
coal and injects it into the furnace along with the hot blast. This plant
is responsible for partial replacement of the costly coke in the fuel
and is one of the key cost drivers of the department

7. Slag Granulation Pits– This sub-plant is responsible for the online

granulation of molten slag after separation in cast house and
dewatering and transportation of the same.
8. Top Recovery Turbine – This plant recovers the pressure energy of
the BF gas by expansion in a turbine and generates electrical power.

BF Gas
Screened and weighed Sinter
Top Gas Ore, Sinter, Pellet & Stock Plant
Recovery Cleaning Coke House
gas Turbine Plant Pellet
Ore & Flux
Flue dust
Hot Raw Material
Stoves Cooling water
Oxygen handling

Steam Water Pump

Hot Blast houses

House Hot Metal LD2 &
Slab caster
Slag Dry Slag for
Injection Granulation Cement making

10 | P a g e
Torpedo ladle: a brief overview

Torpedo ladle is used to transport molten iron from blast Furnaces to BOF convertor.
At times hot metal is also treated in the vessel for removal of impurities like sulphur,
silicon, etc. During De-Sulphurization or De-Siliconization operations the refractory
lining of working layer has to withstand chemical attack. However mostly it has to
withstand the impact of incoming iron, abrasion of molten iron and thermal shock
caused by repeatedly filling-up and emptying.
Torpedo Ladles represents an important link between the Blast Furnace operation and
the steel works.

The refractory linings need to have thermal shock resistance, abrasion resistance,
impact and corrosion resistance and if the lining is carbon-bonded, it needs to have
oxidation resistance. So, Al-SiC-C bricks were developed to meet the more arduous
conditions experienced in treated ladles. The use of this type of lining has also become
more prevalent in untreated torpedo ladles.
Castable materials used to repair and extend the working lining life of a Torpedo Ladle.

 Outer layer of torpedo ladle is called SHELL. Shell is made by steel.

 Its conical part is called Venturi.
 Its cylindrical part is called Barrel. Mouth is present on Upper side of barrel.
Hot metal is poured in the torpedo ladle from the mouth.
 Charge Pad is a part of torpedo ladle where the hot metal is directly poured in
the torpedo.
 Inner layer (linings) is made by Refractory bricks.

11 | P a g e
The so-called torpedo ladle used in steel mills to transport liquid iron alloys must meet
many stringent requirements. One major criterion for the transfer between the melt
shop and downstream shops is to have a good insulation against the metal which is
up to 1525oC.

The lining is therefore made of refractory materials but these are subjected to heavy
strain and wear due to the filling and emptying of the molten iron. With a view to
preventing critical breakouts due to damaged lining, weak points in the torpedo ladle
linings must be detected early. Otherwise this will lead to the time consuming
downtimes with costly clean-up and repair work and the risk of the personnel injury.

12 | P a g e
Evolution of Torpedo ladle car campaign

Decade of 70’s and beginning of 80’s

 Alumina Bricks impregnated with pitch.

Previously high-grade chamotte brick was used to line torpedo cars. However,
because of FeO addition and hot metal treatment in the car, FeO and CaO content in
slag increased causing the slag to react with SiO2 and Al2O3 in the chamotte brick to
form the low melting compound products such as fayalite, hercynite, and anorthite,
hence it became infamous later with time.
Final of the 80’s and beginning of the 90’s

 Al2O3 / SiO2 / SiC / C Bricks bonded by Resin

As a counter-measure a new type of brick based on Al2O3-SiC-C was developed by

increasing the Al2O3 content in the brick prove to be corrosion resistance and adding
carbon to improve resistance to spalling and slag infiltration and SiC to prevent the
oxidation of carbon.
Starting From 2003

 Hot Metal Production increased substantially by the use of Al2O3-SiC-C Brick.

13 | P a g e
So, the Al2O3-SiC-C comes under use as the main refractory lining. Its constituent
varies as per the uses in different areas of the torpedo ladle.

High-Alumina based unshaped refractory such as refractory castable,

gunning/spraying mix and mortars are the complementary material for repaired mouth
and other part of torpedo ladle.
Refractory bricks used in working line are:-
Al2O3-SiC-C Brick

Chamotte brick for the permanent (safety) lining of the torpedo ladle (which is used
previously not used now because of its low corrosion resistance).

Shift from chamotte bricks to Al2O3-SiC-CBricks:-

Torpedo ladle, as the containers transferring molten iron tapped from blast furnaces
up to steel-making plants, have been conventionally lined with chamotte bricks.
Since the 1980’s, molten iron preliminary processing has become popular to remove
impurities from the metal by the process of dephosphorization, desulphurization or
desiliconization. However, under such conditions, the conventional chamotte bricks
linings, having shown severe deterioration in their life span, were replaced with Al2O3-
SiC-C bricks, which are far superior in terms of corrosion resistance and thermal
spalling resistance.
Proposing optimal lining design in line with operating conditions.

14 | P a g e
Each portion Requirement
For the slag line corrosion resistance
For the metal impact zone abrasion resistance
For the ceiling oxidation resistance

Recently, materials which shows substantially lower thermal conductivity have been
developed and applied to the torpedo ladles to effectively protect the steel shell from
the deformation.
Furthermore, the bricks provided with a coat of excellent oxidation resistance also
been developed to control the oxidation of the brick surface when the torpedo ladle is

Midterm repair contributes to the optimization of repair cycle.

Additionally, developed gunning materials for midterm repair, which is effectively
applied to adjust the rotation and schedule of torpedo ladle repair in integrated iron
and steel plants.

Advantages of the TLC’s

 As blast furnaces and converters have become larger and more efficient, the
use of torpedo cars has increased as it prevents heat loss from the hot metal
and the cost construction as well as maintenance is comparatively low.

15 | P a g e
 The torpedo car was originally used for transportation and storage of hot
But after that many industry uses torpedo as the hot metal pre-treatment (i.e.
desiliconisation, desulphurisation and dephosphorisation) has been separated
from the from decarburization processing (done in a convertor) and was done
in the torpedo car after that.

 Based on the need for the corrosion resistance against FeO, Na2O and CaF2.
Al2O3-SiC-C bricks has been developed comprising of alumina as the main
aggregate, graphite which provides resistance to spalling and slag penetration
and SiC which protects graphite
from oxidising.

Factors affecting the present lining:-

 Hot metal temperature

 Slag chemistry
 Metallurgical treatments
 Holding time of the metal
 Transportation time and distances
 Thermal cycling rates

16 | P a g e
Introduction of the Project

The main function of Torpedo ladles is to transfer hot metal from the blast furnace to
steel working shops and in some cases liquid iron is treated in the ladle to remove
impurities, such as S, Si and others.
320T torpedo ladles (TLCs) were introduced in Tata steel in 2005 after the upgradation
of G blast furnace. Handling larger TLCs had been concern since induction. Some
TLCs had obtained higher life but the same couldn’t be sustained and some failures
occurred. As a management decision it was decided to restrict the TLC’s life to 1000
trips initially. Condition monitoring through Infrared camera and validation of the results
by physical inspection is performed.

Increasing and sustaining the life of 320T Torpedo ladle Life from base level to higher
level without affecting reliability of the equipment.

Efficiency of given Torpedo ladle can be increased in two ways:-

One by decreasing the thickness in such a way that the volume content increases by
some amount but this process has following limitations

1) Higher throughputs in each trips but may not increasing the life

2) Loading on carriage etc. shall increase and they may not be designed for
the same so this process goes wrong with our objective
3) With reduced lining thickness life would be lower, so there may not be
enough returns for such changes.
Another way to do the same thing is by keeping the thickness same but changing its
internal arrangement.

and the composition of the brick lining of torpedo ladle. This can efficiently increase
the overall life of torpedo ladle as well as iron making process.

17 | P a g e
Present lining of 320T torpedo ladle
(At Tata steel)
Area Details

Charge pad Tata Al 65 SiC

Metal line Tata 85XD

Slag line Tata 85XD

Mouth LC-90 Castable

Back Up 42% Al2O3 Brick

Problem Occurring in the Torpedo Ladles

• Thermal wear: caused by the heat load of hot metal

• Oxidation: especially upper arch, which is not covered with

hot metal or slag.

• Chemical wear: involves variable slag/ metal chemistry.

• Thermal shock: severe when the TLC is made empty.

• Mechanical wear: Impact on refractory during pouring,

bath agitation during transport and stresses on mouth
refractory during taping of hot metal.

18 | P a g e

Area Properties required

Charge pad High impact resistance
Metal zone High thermal shock resistance
Good hot strength
Volume stability at opening temp.
Good hot metal erosion and corrosion resistance

Slag zone High BF slag resistance

TSR, Oxidation resistance

Torpedo ladle management

 Optimised insulation inspection by thermographic monitoring of ladles.

Thermal imaging systems are excellently suited to inspect the condition of the ladles,
enabling us to detect critical points by the means of hot-spots on the outside shell.
Measurements with handheld thermographic cameras, which have been used
sporadically so far, do no guarantee a 100% inspection. In contrast, deploying the
stationary system will enable us to implement an effective management system
using a downstream database.

19 | P a g e
Type of refractory Alkali attack Attack by FeO Thermal Spalling

conductivity Temperature

(W/m1K) (0C/min)

 Alumina  Severe  Severe 1.5-2.2 5.0

 Mullite  Medium  Severe 2.15-2.2 8.0

 Carbon  Low  Low 18-22 400

 SiC  Low  Low 10-14 50

 Al2O3-C  Low  Low 6-8 25

 Al2O3-SiC-C  V.low  V.low 8-10 32

20 | P a g e
Wear mechanism of the refractory lining:

 Corrosion of the matrix by the by reaction with slag oxides producing low
density and low melting phases.
 Wear by HM and iron oxide

Slag and metal corrosion:

21 | P a g e

– Mullite (3Al2O3. 2SiO2)

– Silica (SiO2)
– CaO (slag) + brick= Anorthite (CaO.Al2O3.2SiO2)
– More CaO + mullite = Guelenite (2CaO.Al2O3.SiO2)
– MgO (slag)+ brick = Cordierite (2MgO.2Al2O3.5SiO2)

For torpedo ladle car, service life is determined by refractory thickness in critical areas
with high erosion rate. One is slag line area, at the torpedo side wall, eroded by slag
floating on the molten iron. Another is metal impact area at the bottom of torpedo ladle.
Timely and precise inspection of refractory accurately at high temperature is effective
in extending its service life by efficient refractory use and by increasing its
maintenance. One method was measuring the inner brick surface profile by laser
rangefinder with laser scanner.

Another method was estimating the refractory thickness from temperature distribution
monitoring of container shell by the infrared camera.
At the final impact area, erosion rate is the fastest in the all of torpedo ladle refractory.
Therefore, to preventing metal break out from this area, the torpedo ladle is cooled to
room temperature and inspected after a fixed number of molten metal has been
transported. Because it is repaired or relined as necessary by the inspection results,
the refractory with castables was often relined.

For improving the refractory thickness maintenance accuracy, the refractory thickness
meter for thermal impact zone, which has two surface profilers,
can be installed at torpedo repair shop for evaluating its measurement stability and
refractory thickness measurement accuracy.

22 | P a g e
Analysis of the torpedo ladle till so far

The cycles of filling and empting of hot metal in the torpedo causes severe thermal
shock to the refractory lining. Further, corrosion and erosion by hot metal and slag
also contributes to the wear/damage to the refractory lining. The mechanism of wear
of refractory can be explained as follows:

 Corrosion in working lining: corrosion in working lining is caused by infiltration

of FeO in slag reacting with refractory components viz. Al2O3 and SiO2 to form
low melting phases of hercynite (MP=15500C) and fayalite (MP=12100C) and
cordierite (MP=13200C).
Also CaO in slag with alumina-silicate refractory to form low melting
compounds like anorthite (MP=15500C). Formation of these low melting
phase detoriates the refractory lining.

 Brittle layer formation: The open pores in Alumina containing refractory allows
infiltration of hot metal by capillary action, resulting in formation of
densified/altered layer. The infiltration depth/altered layer not only depend on
porosity and pore size distribution of the bricks but also on the slag viscosity
and temperature gradient in the bricks. The altered layer densifies and
spalling occurs resulting in dislodgement of brittle layer.

 Spalling due to thermal shock: The working lining refractory is subjected to

severe thermal shock during pouring and waiting of empty torpedo for the next

23 | P a g e
Process ahead in its better efficiency
The life of TLC’s could be enhanced by introducing the critical maintenance practice.
A schedule is followed for-
 Taking out torpedo ladles from the operation for inspection and refractory
 Regular condition monitoring by the IR imaging.
 Proper and efficient gunning process.

Condition monitoring To understand and monitor the condition of refractory lining of a

TLC’s regular shell temperature monitoring by IR camera of loaded TLC’s is done to
identify worn out location in the lining. Programmed maintenance by hot gunning is
done based on the thermography report.
Gunning practice in TLC’s Hot gunning is done manually by inserting the gun-pipe
through the opening in mouth. The efficiency of gunning depends on the quality of
gunning castables, performance of the machine used and water consistency of the
gunning mix. For critically damaged refractory lining, superior quality imported
gunning castable is used while for regulation application, indigenous castables are

Operation based gunning: The few of TLC’s shows the higher wear rates were
observed than other TLC’s. The higher wear rates was the result due to the higher
number of trips in a day and also higher hot metal temperature. (E.g.-G & H Blast
furnace at the Tata steel, Jamshedpur observes higher wear rates in comparison to
other blast furnaces.)

24 | P a g e
After effects
On regular monitoring efficiency of torpedo car increases. With higher frequency of
IR imaging the condition of TLC’s have improved a lot. The gunning schedule has
also been modified based on not only life of individual TLC but also to accommodate
the frequent repairs of TLC’s operating. Based on the above TLC life expectancy has
increased from base level of 1350 trips to 1450 trips. The left out thickness is as
expected about 40% of the original lining thickness.

But it reaches hardly up to 1350 trips maximum, which doesn’t make any great
sense with having the leftover thickness of the 40-45%. We have to induce some
major change that should customize so that the no. of trips should be somewhere
around the 1800 or more.
Reason for Heat losses in the case of torpedo ladle car
Pig iron losses heat while the vessel is being filled, and this can be attributed to
radiation from the stream being poured in air, and to the flow to the vessel. The
stream of liquid iron gets in contact with air in a similar way to that shown in the
figure that shows pouring into a ladle. Heat losses can be calculated taking into
account that:-

 Heat losses are controlled by radiation, a high emissivity coefficient layer is

 The surrounding area of the stream
 The falling time (generally is 20mins)
 Surface radiative heat loss because there is about 4-6 hours onload time
which cause maximum heat loss.

25 | P a g e
Similarly, the heat losses also occurs by iron while flowing within the cast house
before being poured into the vessel can be computing taking into account the
following hypothesis
 Heat losses are due to radiation, of which 50% are recovered back by the
radiation shields or absorbed by the slag,
 The emissivity of the hot metal,
 The surface area of the steam being projected into the vessel,
 The time of transit.

Present working scenario of the TLC 320T lining

Shell- 32mm (made of steel)

Insulation board- 1200 x 100 x 13
822 x 100 x 13
1110 x 100/85 x 13
1110 x 85/68 x 13
1110 x 68/52 x 13
Insulating brick- 230 x 113 x 37
230 x 113/108 x 37
42% Alumina brick- 230 x 113 x 75/65 (A2)
230 x 113 x75/65 (W 2)
230 x 113 x68/55 (W 1)
230 X 150 X 115
230 X 113 X 75/70 (A1)
Charge pad brick- 300 x 225 x75/70 (W1)
(ASC Brick) 300 x 225 x 75/60 (W 2)
300 x 150 x 75/60 (W 2)
85% Alumina brick- 250 x 150 x 100
250 x 150 x 75/70
250 x 150 x 75/60
Shape 1, Shape 2, Shape, Shape KJ
Mortar- 75% Alumina Mortar
26 | P a g e
Castables- 86% Alumina CC
83% Alumina Plicast LX 85 LCC
Brick- 230 x 113 x 37
(As insulation) 230 x 113/108 x 37
Total thickness of the torpedo ladle brick wall comes out to be
At the barrel region = 13 + 37 + 113 +250 =413mm
At the charge pad region = 13 + 37 +113 +300 = 463mm

Specification of the bricks used

ASC (Alumina-silicon-carbide) bricks used in charge pad

Charge Pad Alumina-silicon-carbide brick

Al2O3 72
SiC 6.5
C 11.5
A.P 7
B.D 2.97 @1000degC
CCS (Kg/cm2) 400 @ 1000degC
PLC (%) 11.5

85% Alumina brick (working lining)

Working Lining 85% Alumina dense brick

Al2O3 (%) 85(min)
Fe2O3 (%) 1.5(max)
TiO2 (%) 3.5(max)
SiO2 (%) 12(max)
AP (%) 20(max)
BD (g/cc) 2.9(min)
CCS (Kg/cm2) 500(min)
RUL (ta) 1650
PLC (%) 0.3 to -0.3
PCE 38
Spalling 10 cycles (water Quenching @1300degC)

27 | P a g e
42% Alumina brick (As a backup lining)

Safety 42% Al2O3 Dense Bricks

Refractoriness (degC) 1717

RUL (ta) 1450

CCS (Kg/cm2) 300
AP (%) 19

Insulation brick

Insulation (42% Al2O3 Ins. brick)

Al2O3 55
SiO2 -
Fe2O3 0.8 (max)
BD (kg/dm3) 1.1 (max)
CCS (Kg/cm2) 15 (min)
AP (%) -
K (W/mK) 0.3 @ 400degC

Insulation board

Board Vaccum pressed ceramic insulation board

Al2O3 + SiO2 (%) 85

Linear Shrinkage 1.0 @1200degCx24hrs

CCS (Kg/cm2)

BD (kg/m3) 800 @ 110degC x24h

K (W/mK) 0.15

28 | P a g e
Gunning material for the life enhancement

Gunning Material Amount (in %)

Al2O3 79
SiO2 12.8
Fe2O3 1.2
CCS (Kg/cm2) 714 @ 1500X3h
Water Addition (%) 11-13%

Castable for TLC mouth casting

water addition at site 5.6-6%

maximum grain size 6mm
B.D. 2.78 after firing 10000C
A.P. 16% after firing at 10000C
RTE at 10000C 0.68%
Alumina 83%
Silica 11%
Fe2O3 1.10%
CaO 2.20%
Cold Crushing Strength (1100C) 1150 kg/cm2
(12000C) 950 kg/cm2
(14000C) 500 kg/cm2
Modulus of Rupture (1100C) 120 kg/cm2
(12000C) 100 kg/cm2
(14000C) 65 kg/cm2
Permanent Linear Change (14000C) 1.45%
Thermal Conductivity (2000C) 2.73 w/mk
(5000C) 2.41 w/mk
(8000C) 2.22 w/mk
(10000C) 2.17 w/mk

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Alumina-Silicon Carbide-Carbon bricks –
These bricks are made from the high purity alumina clinker,
graphite, and silicon carbide
 High mechanical strength
 Very high corrosion resistance to slag.
 Very high resistance to molten pig iron.
 High thermal and spalling resistance.

Al2O3 → Corrosion resistance increases.

Carbon → Spalling and slag infiltration resistance.
SiC → Prevents oxidation of the carbon.

Along with this ceramic coating is also necessary so that the carbon contained
in the refractory material doesn’t get superficially oxidised and hence
becomes porous.

Statistical data of the used 320T Torpedo ladles are:-

Working lining details:-

TLC NO. Trips Tonnage

22 1385 370,135

19 1334 349,491

39 1367 366,792

(At Tata steel)

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Charge pad(mm) Barrel (mm) Ventury (mm)

300/155 250/120 ED/210

300/195 250/155 ED/205
300/145 250/170 ED/195
300/200 250/200 ED/175
300/240 250/200 ED/165
300/250 250/150 ED/240

Charge pad(mm) Barrel (mm) Ventury (mm)
300/150 250/125 ED/190
300/207 250/165 ED/200
300/145 250/180 ED/185
300/210 250/190 ED/145
300/245 250/200 ED/150
300/258 250/120 ED/240

Sample(85XD) Original Current Difference

1 250 183 67
2 250 182 68
3 250 170 80
4 250 160 90
5 250 180 70
6 250 185 65
7 250 150 100(all in mm)*

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Wear rate = (120/1230) = 0.09756 mm/trips
Wear rate= (120/329528) =0.00036415 mm/tonne of HM
Wear rate = (150/1297) = 0.11565 mm/trips
Wear rate = (150/335810) = 0.00029778 mm/tonne of HM
Wear rate = (145/1319) = 0.10993 mm/trips
Wear rate = (145/353863) = 0.00040976 mm/tonne of HM
Taking averages of all the three conditions we get:-
Avg. wear rate = 0.10139 mm/trips
Avg. wear rate = 0.00035723 mm/tonne of HM
Additional trips added
= (Additional thickness/ wear rate)
Now, from here by using the method of hit and trial we will try to adjust this additional
thickness of the newly added micro-porous insulation layer by keeping the overall
thickness constant.
Things need to be optimized are:-
 Micro-porous board implemented will be replacing the insulation brick and
insulation board were used previously.
 Shell temperature will be lowered up to ~2400C.
As per the available data one is more likely to be chosen out of these iteration
will be of the thickness varying as 300-100-15(for barrel region) & 350-100-15(for the
charge-pad region)
Working lining - Backup lining – Micro-porous insulation board
Hence the overall new relining thickness will be as =
114mm → 100mm
250mm → 300mm
300mm → 350mm
+ micro-porous insulation board
- (Insulation brick + Insulation board)

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Introduction of micro-porous insulation
board and proposed difference:-
A micro-porous insulation board having very high insulating property will be very
helpful in reducing the shell temperature and also increases the no. of trips having
conductivity of 0.028 W/mK at 6000C. This micro-porous insulation material have the
conductivity of the order of magnitude lower than ceramic fiber material. It can be the
integral part of the thousands of thermal management applications with temperature
as high as 9500C.
It is a combination of the ultra-fine silica powders, specially processed refractory
oxides and glass reinforcing fibers compacted under tones of force to form a light
weight yet rigid structure.
Its structure is microporous, which is very less dense and hence minimizes conductive
heat transfer and its billions of nano-pockets which block convection and reflect heat
energy-like mirrors-back to its source.
It is nearly immune to the thermal shock and its drawback is that it got adversely
effected by water, oil or other liquid.
Composition – SiO2, SiC, Other oxides.
It exhibit a tightly compressed uniform pore structure facilitating its machinability to
high tolerances. Precisely machined parts can be obtained through the use of
conventional carbide tooling.

Temperatures W/mK (Thermal conductivity)

2000C 0.023
4000C 0.028
6000C 0.030
Fig. - Thermal conductivity of micro-porous board compared to various other materials.

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Fig. – Thermal calculation for the present lining in TLC in the barrel region.
Worn-out case

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Fig. – Thermal calculation for the pre-existing condition in the charging pad region.
Worn-out case

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Fig. – Thermal calculation for the present lining in TLC in the barrel region.
In the initial phase.

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Fig. – Thermal calculation for the pre-existing condition in the charging pad region.
In as it is case

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Worst case previously i.e. when the working lining becomes zero.
In the absence of the micro-porous insulation board.

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After the installation of the micro-porous board in place of the insulating brick in the
ladle relining.
Fig. – Thermal calculation for the present lining in TLC in the barrel region.
In the initial phase.

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Fig. – Thermal calculation for the new condition in the charging pad region after the
installation of the micro-porous insulation board.

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After the installation of the micro-porous board in place of the insulating brick in the
ladle relining.
Fig. – Thermal calculation for the present lining in TLC in the barrel region.
Worn-out phase

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Fig. – Thermal calculation for the new condition in the charging pad region after the
installation of the micro-porous insulation board.

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Thermal Calculation of the brick lining in the torpedo ladle car as per newly proposed

In the worst case i.e. when working lining becomes zero.

** All these graphs was done while considering the ladle to be un- gunned at the
initial phase of preheating.

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Results (Iteration basis)
As new condition Worn-out case
(Thickness in mm) (Thickness in mm)
Barrel Charge-pad Barrel Charge-pad
250-114-37-13 300-114-37-13 100-114-37-13 120-114-37-13
15250C→3230C 15250C→3130C 15250C→3560C 15250C→3570C
(Existing condition Present 000-114-37-13
Scenario) 15250C→3830C (worst case)
250-150-15 300-150-15 100-150-15 120-150-15
15250C→2200C 15250C→2160C 15250C→2330C 15250C→2230C
(Same condition but less 000-150-15
Profitable) 15250C→2430C (worst case)
275-125-15 325-125-15 100-125-15 120-125-15
15250C→2230C 15250C→2180C 15250C→2390C 15250C→2370C
(Almost same & less profitable) 000-125-15
15250C→2490C (worst case)
300-100-15 350-100-15 100-100-15 120-100-15
15250C→2250C 15250C→2210C 15250C→2440C 15250C→2420C
(Maximum number of 000-100-15
Output is observed) 15250C→2550C (worst case)
325-75-15 325-75-15 100-75-15 120-75-15
15250C→2280C 15250C→2280C 15250C→2500C 15250C→2480C
(Not reliable due to minimum 000-75-15
Safety line thickness) 15250C→2620C (worst case)
Therefore from these calculations we got the additional number trips that can be
used/available for the higher torpedo life will be calculated as:-
Additional trips = (additional thickness/ wear rate)
= (50/0.10139)
~ 495 trips more
Therefore the increased total number trips is = 1350 + 495 ~1845 trips

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Hence, utilizing the above stated measure will give the maximum no. of trips to
increase the efficiency of the torpedo ladle to maximum extent.
And the proposed bill of materials will be as follows:-

(Bill of Materials)
Specification Quality Size Quantity required
Back up lining 42% Al2O3 Dense 230 x 100 x75/75 460

42% Al2O3 Dense 230 x 100 x 75/70 2898

42% Al2O3 Dense 230 x 100 x 75/65 600

42% Al2O3 Dense 230 x 100 x 65/55 1000

42% Al2O3 Dense 230 x 150 x 115 536

Binder 75% Alumina - 4

Castable 86% Alumina - 4
83% Alumina 9
Plicast LX 85 CC
Charge pad ASC 350 x 225 x 75/65 756

ASC 350 x 225 x 75/55 1162

ASC 350 x 150 x 75/60 85

Micro-porous Highly insulating 1200 x 100 x 15 350

insulation board
Highly insulating 822 x 100 x 15 420

Highly insulating 1110 x 100/85 x 15 225

Highly insulating 1110 x 85/68 x 15 225

Highly insulating 1110 x 68/52 x 15 225

Working lining 85XD 300 x 150 x 100 343

(85% Alumina brick)
85XD SHAPE-10 (ED) 2300

85XD SHAPE-11 (ED) 550

85XD SHAPE-12 (ED) 1180

85XD SHAPE-KJ (ED) 210

85XD 300 x 150 x 75/70 340

85XD 300 x 150 x 75/60 2400

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In this research, the optimization of 320T torpedo ladle for higher life and its brick
lining with different configuration has been studied. And the main conclusions drawn
from this research are the following:-

 The maximum allowable final shell temperature should be around 2400C for
better working efficiency, this was achieved.

Ceramic board used are of high resistivity which replace current insulation lining
because of its property of its structure is micro porous, which is very porous
and hence minimizes conductive heat transfer and its billions of Nano-pockets
which block convection and reflect heat energy-like mirrors-back to its source.

By the implementation of this new technique the life of the torpedo can be
significantly increased,
Currently working lining works for around 1350 trips,
Total working trips will be around 1835 trips with new lining.

The final hot metal through-put also got enhanced by the volume of ~
128205.12 tonne of the hot metal,
Now the total through-put of the hot metal will be ~ 467905 tonnes of hot

The newly lined torpedo can work for around five months more than the
previously lined torpedo brick.

TLC available for operation would increase.

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 Materials as per new BOM has to be ordered/sourced after installation, the

torpedo has to be monitored continuously for its performance.

Gunning schedule needs to be developed seeking to changed lining


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 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0272884294900620
 http://www.automationtatasteel.com/brochures/torpedo-ladle.pdf
 http://data.etherm.cz/land/aplikace/landscan_dat_en.pdf
 http://www.pyrotek.info/documents/techpapers/Thermal%20Insulation%20of%
 http://www.nssmc.com/en/tech/report/nsc/pdf/n9810.pdf
 http://www.riegl.com/uploads/tx_pxpriegldownloads/Lacam_Torpedo_in_Iron_
 www.ptcer.pl/mccm
 https://www.mayerton.com/industries/iron/torpedo-ladle
 http://www.vesuvius.com/en/end-markets/iron-steel/ironmaking/torpedo-ladle/
 http://www.krosaki.co.jp/english/taika/t1/t_1_4.html
 Torpedo ladle brick lining details @Tata steel data base
 http://www.newbharat.co.in/products/torpedo-ladle-bricks/
 http://www.nssmc.com/en/tech/report/nsc/pdf/n9810.pdf
 https://books.google.co.in/books?id=A8YuR8fp7LUC&pg=PA33&lpg=PA33&d

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