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Eikon

User’s Guide
Revised on 28-Mar-00.
Version 3.02
Copyright  2000 Automated Logic Corporation. All rights reserved.
1150 Roberts Boulevard, Kennesaw, GA 30144
Phone (770) 429-3000 FAX (770) 429-3001
Visit us at http://www.automatedlogic.com
Printed in the United States of America.

Automated Logic is a registered trademark of Automated Logic Corporation.


All other brand and product names are trademarked by their respective owners.

This manual was produced using FrameMaker.


Contents

Chapter 1 Getting Started 5


Welcome to Eikon 5
About this Guide 6
Installing Eikon 6
Minimum requirements 7
Removing Eikon from your hard disk 8
Getting help 9
Using Eikon 9
Microblocks 10
Editing modes 10
The status bar 11
Using the keyboard 11

Chapter 2 Planning a GFB 15


Hardware considerations 15
Exec 3.x 16
Exec 4.x 16
Exec 6.x 17
Zone GFB 18
GFBs and SuperVision 19
File Compatibility 19
File Information 20
Screen Resolution 21
Designing the Graphic Function Block 22
Drawing guidelines 22
Programming guidelines 22
A bad example 26

Contents • 3
Chapter 3 Creating a GFB 29
Drawing the GFB 30
Wires and Labels 31
Text 36
Symbols 38
Deleting and Undoing 40
Editing the FB’s variables 41
Parameters 41
MbCodes 42
Parameter and Status page text 43
Password levels 47
Setting the order of the Parameter and Status pages 49
Compiling the FB 50
Testing the FB 52
Defining the simulation environment 52
Changing microblock parameters 53
Simulating more than one FB 54
Making the FB 56

Chapter 4 Sample GFBs 59


Symbol Files 59
Fan Powered Induction Unit 61
Air Handling Units 62
Boiler 68
Centrifugal Chiller 69
Heat Pumps 70
Single Zone Packaged Unit 72

Chapter 5 Glossary 73

Chapter 6 Index 79

4 • Contents
1 Getting Started

Welcome to Eikon
Eikon is a Microsoft Windows-based software program that allows
you to graphically program, display, and interact with any HVAC
sequence of operation. Programs that control or monitor HVAC
equipment are called Function Blocks (FBs). Function blocks that are
created in Eikon are usually referred to as Graphic Function Blocks
(GFBs). FBs are loaded into individual control modules, which
directly control the equipment. The operating parameters and current
status of FBs can be accessed using any version of SuperVision
software. Trend reports are no longer generated or viewed as in
previous versions of Alert EL. Refer to the SuperVision User’s Guide
and the Gofer help file for details about viewing trend information.

The GFB is made in


Eikon...

...associated with
equipment in EDB... SuperVision
The FB tells the module
transfers the FB
how to control the
into the module,
...and loaded on the equipment.
and monitors the
workstation operation of the
FB and the status
of the
equipment.

Figure 1-1: GFBs and ALC products

Chapter 1: Getting Started • 5


About this Guide

About this Guide


This manual explains the functional operation of Eikon, including
how to create Graphic Function Blocks for use by SuperVision. Eikon
is a Windows program, so all the standard techniques for using
Windows software apply. Refer to your Windows documentation if
you need assistance in this area.

The following terms are used in this manual to describe actions:

• Click - pick a button, option, or object with the left mouse


button

• Double-click - double-click the left mouse button

• Press - press a key on the keyboard

• Right-click - click the right mouse button

• Shift-click - hold the Shift key and click the left mouse button

• Select - highlight specific characters in text

• Type or change - enter text by typing on the keyboard

Installing Eikon
Before beginning the installation:

• Verify that enough free disk space exists on your hard drive.

• Exit all Windows programs and turn off virus-detection and


screen-saver software. This frees up memory and prevents
conflicts between the Installer and other programs.

Installation programs for Eikon are located on the SuperVision and


Alert version 3.02 CDs. The installation takes about ten minutes. If you
want to abort the installation before it is complete, you can click the
Cancel button at any time. You must complete the installation before
you can run the software.

6 • Chapter 1: Getting Started


Installing Eikon

Minimum requirements
Eikon version 3.0 requires the following minimum configuration:

• Windows 95A with Service Pack 1 or Windows NT 4.0 with


Service Pack 3

• Microsoft Internet Explorer v4.0 (IE v5.0 recommended)

• Pentium 166MHz processor (PII recommended)

• Two serial ports, one parallel port

• 32Mb of RAM, 512Kb cache

• 100Mb hard disk space available

• 1.44Mb (3 1/2”) floppy drive

• Iomega Zip drive recommended

• 6x CD-ROM drive

• 2-button mouse

• 101-key keyboard

• SVGA display card and monitor which support a resolution


of 1024x768 pixels with 16-bit High Color

Chapter 1: Getting Started • 7


Installing Eikon

To install Eikon
1. Close all open programs.

2. Insert the SuperVision or Alert CD into your CD-ROM drive.

3. In Windows Explorer, browse to the InterOp Tools 3.02 Install


folder and double-click setup.exe.

4. At this point, the setup program begins. Follow the directions


on each dialog box to install the software.

Eikon’s program files and data files can be installed anywhere


on your hard drive, but Eikon will not run if these files are
moved later into other folders.
The setup program overwrites any existing files having the
same file name and a file date older than what is included on
the install media.
5. When the installation is complete, the Setup Complete dialog
box appears. Click an option to indicate when your computer
should restart (now or later) and then click Finish.

NOTE You must restart your computer before you can use the Eikon
software.

Removing Eikon from your hard disk


If you decide to remove Eikon from your hard disk, use the following
procedure.

To uninstall Eikon

1. Exit Eikon.

2. From the Windows Start menu, click Settings-Control Panel.

3. Double-click Add/Remove Program.

8 • Chapter 1: Getting Started


Getting help

4. Click InterOp Tools 3.0.

5. Click Add/Remove.

NOTE This uninstalls EDB and Draw as well.

Getting help
There are several ways to get assistance when working with Eikon.
This manual is one source of information about Eikon. Other sources
are:

• Eikon Microblock Reference: This manual provides detailed


descriptions of each microblock in Eikon. If a printed copy of
the Eikon Microblock Reference is unavailable, this manual is
also available at http:\\www.automatedlogic.com.

• On-line help: The Help menu in Eikon provides access to


Eikon’s online help.

• If you are looking for information about a specific item,


click the Index tab.

• If you need assistance using the Help system, press F1


while in Eikon Help Contents.

• Dealer contact: Your dealer of Automated Logic Corporation


(ALC) products has access to a wide range of technical
resources.

Using Eikon
During the Eikon installation, a Windows program group is created
containing an icon for Eikon. This group may also contain icons for
other Automated Logic applications like SuperVision and Alert. If you
want Eikon to launch automatically when Windows is started, copy
Eikon into the Windows Startup Group.

To start Eikon, double-click the Eikon icon.

Chapter 1: Getting Started • 9


Using Eikon

Microblocks
Graphic Function Blocks (GFBs) are composed of individual blocks of
programming code, called microblocks, which are assembled with
graphical wires to create a logical sequence of operation for HVAC
equipment. Eikon includes many standard microblocks, which are
grouped into different libraries according to their function. Custom
microblocks can be created using Operator’s Control Language
(OCL), which is provided with Eikon.

Microblock libraries can be displayed one at a time on the right side of


the Eikon window by clicking Options-Mblocks. Each library displays
a list of icons representing the different microblocks available in that
library. You can scroll forward through the different libraries by
clicking on the name of microblock library, or scroll backward by
right-clicking on the library name. A specific library can be displayed
by clicking the library name on the Mblocks menu.

Editing modes
Eikon has several modes of operation in which different functions can
be performed by clicking an object with the mouse. The action that is
performed on the object depends on Eikon’s current editing mode.
The current mode is displayed on the status bar at the bottom of the
Eikon window. You can change modes by activating one of the Edit or
Selection menu options or by using one of the associated hot keys.
Eikon’s editing modes are as follows:

• Copy - copy one or more items in the GFB

• Delete - delete one or more objects

• Deselect - deselect one or more objects

• Draw - place microblocks and labels, draw wires or other


figures

• Edit Attributes - change the font, direction, color, or


alignment of text

• Edit Selected - change the attributes of all selected text

10 • Chapter 1: Getting Started


Using Eikon

• Edit Shape - change the shape of a wire or figure or move a


microblock

• Edit Variables - change a microblock’s settings. This is the


mode Eikon is in when the program is launched

• Move - move one or more items to a new location

• Select - select one or more objects. Selected objects can be


moved, copied, deleted or edited as a group

The status bar


The status bar appears at the bottom of the Eikon window when the
Options-Prompt menu option is enabled. The status bar displays
information about Eikon including:

• the current editing mode

• the Exec version of the FB, which indicates what family of


hardware products the FB will be made for

• the status of the Magnetism option, which when enabled


automatically positions objects on a grid as they are drawn

• the position of the cursor in pixels

Using the keyboard


Large GFBs can occupy more space than is visible on the screen at
once. You can use the following keys to navigate through large GFBs:

• Page Up - moves the display down; the amount depends on


what is currently visible

• Page Down - moves the display up; the amount depends on


what is currently visible

• Home - displays the GFB in its original position

• End - displays the extreme lower portion of the GFB

Chapter 1: Getting Started • 11


Using Eikon

• Arrows - moves the display up, down, left, or right 8 pixels


(one grid width)

Keyboard shortcuts are available for many menu commands and


options. The following tables list the keys and key combinations used
by Eikon to execute a command or set an option. For more information
about these functions, refer to the appropriate sections.

Table 1-1. Keyboard shortcuts

Delete F2 F3 F4 F5 F6

key only Edit- Edit-Draw Edit-Move Edit-Copy Edit-Edit Edit-


Delete Variables Delete
Selected Object

Alt+key File-Exit Edit-Edit


Attributes

Ctrl+key Edit-Edit
Shape

Shift+key Edit-Edit Edit-


Selected Delete
Selected

F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12

key only Edit-Undo Edit-Scale Selection- Selection- Text- Reorder-


Select Deselect Horizontal Later
Object Object

Alt+key Text- Reorder-


Ascending First

Ctrl+key Text- Reorder-


Descending Last

Shift+key Selection- Selection- Text-Vertical Reorder-


Select All Deselect Sooner
All

12 • Chapter 1: Getting Started


Using Eikon

C F G M P R S

key only Options- Options-


Grid Magnetism

Ctrl+key GFB- GFB- Edit-Go File-Print File- File-


Compile Make FB to Redraw Save

♦ ♦ ♦

Chapter 1: Getting Started • 13


Using Eikon

14 • Chapter 1: Getting Started


2 Planning a GFB

Before beginning a new Graphic Function Block (GFB), it is


worthwhile to spend some time planning and preparing. A number of
factors contribute to the efficiency and usability of a GFB, aside from
the actual programming of it. In some cases, the type of module being
used will affect the way the FB is programmed; in others, the
programming of the FB will affect what module can be used. In
addition to deciding what equipment the FB will control and how, you
should consider the following things:

• What type of control module will the FB be used with?

• What version of SuperVision will communicate with the FB?

• Will SuperVision display the GFB? If so, at what resolution?

Hardware considerations
Depending on the type of control modules used, there may be certain
microblocks which cannot be used by the FB. Many older control
modules do not support newer microblocks. Newer control modules
do not support certain older types of microblocks. In addition, T,U,
and Z-Line control modules, which are designed specifically for zone
control, have special requirements that must be met by any FB that
they will run.

Eikon provides several options for configuring FBs for different types
of control modules. The Options menu displays a check mark next to
the option that is enabled for the current GFB. Be sure the correct
option is enabled when creating your FB; otherwise, the FB is created
as an Exec 6.x FB. You will not be able to compile an FB or successfully
transfer it to the control module if you select a microblock that is not
supported by the type of control module selected.

Chapter 2: Planning a GFB • 15


Hardware considerations

Exec 3.x
This option configures the FB for use with Exec 3.x firmware. Each
microblock in an Exec 3.x FB displays only those settings that are
compatible with Exec 3.x. Following are some of the limitations of
Exec 3.x FBs:

• Expander modules, new trends, and Alert alarms are not


supported.

• All microblocks introduced since Eikon 2.1 are not supported.


(The Eikon Microblock Reference Guide indicates the
microblocks that are not supported by each Exec version.)

• A maximum of 500 microblock outputs can be used in an Exec


3.x GFB.

Use the Exec 3.x option to create FBs that will be run by one of the
following modules: 442, 622, P10, U12, 8/8, ACM, ICM, or Z-Line
modules using Exec 3.6.

Exec 4.x
This option configures the FB for use with Exec 4.x firmware. Each
microblock in an Exec 4.x FB displays settings that are compatible with
Exec 4.x. While Exec 4.x FBs do support expander modules, new
trends, and Alert alarms, there are some limitations to consider:

• The OCL microblock is not supported in an Exec 4.x FB.

• A maximum of 500 microblock outputs can be used in an Exec


4.x GFB.

• FBs for Exec 4.x T-Line and Z-Line modules should use the
Zone GFB option described on page 18; otherwise the FB must
be approved by Dealer Services before it can be transferred to
the module.

• Depending on the size of the FB, Exec 4.x TPI modules may
not be able to display a GFB using SuperVision’s Live GFB
feature.

16 • Chapter 2: Planning a GFB


Hardware considerations

Use the Exec 4.x option to create FBs that will be run by one of the
following modules: R683, G-Line modules, T-Line modules, or Exec
4.x TPI and Z-Line modules.

NOTE Exec 5 was an interim step using the improved hardware of Exec
6 modules but not supporting BACnet points or ARC156
communications. Exec 5 modules can be upgraded to Exec 6 by
downloading an Exec 6 module driver.

Exec 6.x
This option configures the FB for use with Exec 6.x firmware. Exec 6.x
FBs can use an unlimited number of microblock outputs. They fully
support the OCL microblock and the BACnet microblocks. Because of
Exec 6.x’s newer technology, however, only Alert alarms are
supported. The following microblocks are not supported by Exec 6.x
FBs:

• Set Alarm Flag and Set Message Flag (use the Alert Alarm
microblock instead)

• Set Runtime Exceeded Flag (use the Runtime Monitor


microblock instead)

• OA2 - Primary/Secondary Outside Air Broadcast (use the


OA3 - Primary/Secondary Outside Air Broadcast instead)

Use the Exec 6.x option to create FBs that will be run by one of the
following modules: M-Line modules, Portal, S-Line, UNI/30, or
UNI/59. Additionally, FBs created for use with BACview1 and
BACview2 must be created with the Exec 6.x option selected.

TIP An FB created for Exec 6.x firmware can be used by a module


running Exec 4.x firmware as long as the GFB:

• has only 500 microblock outputs or less

• does not use any BACnet microblocks

• does not use any microblocks not compatible with Exec 4.x

Chapter 2: Planning a GFB • 17


Hardware considerations

Zone GFB
This option configures the FB for use with T, U, and Z-Line modules
that use Exec 4.x or Exec 6.x firmware and with U-Line modules which
use Exec 6.x firmware. This option should be used in combination
with the Exec 4.x or Exec 6.x option. GFBs that do not use this option
cannot be transferred to these modules without assistance from
Automated Logic Corporation. All Zone GFBs must meet the
following standards, or the GFB cannot be compiled:

• The GFB must use a Scheduler or Scheduler with Override


microblock.

• The GFB for an Exec 6 module with built-in actuator, such as


U341v+, must include a Zone Controller and an Airflow
Control microblock.

• The GFB must use a setpoint microblock.

• The setpoint microblock in the FB must have either a BACnet


Analog Input, an Analog Input (AI) microblock, or a LogiStat
Zone Sensor wired directly into it. The BACnet AI or the
Analog Input microblock must have an AI labeled "ZONE
TEMP." If using an Exec 6.01 module that supports a LogiStat
Zone Sensor microblock, the LogiStat Zone Sensor must have
the Zone Temp input attached to the setpoint microblock.

• If using a direct-acting PID, the cooling setpoint from the FB’s


setpoint microblock must be wired into the PID.

• If using a reverse-acting PID, the heating setpoint from the


FB’s setpoint microblock must be wired into the PID.

• Only one Set Color If True microblock may be used.

• OCL has been added to the list of approved microblocks for


Zone GFB. However, it can only be transferred to Exec 6 or
higher modules.

• The following microblocks are not supported:

• Pulse to Analog

18 • Chapter 2: Planning a GFB


GFBs and SuperVision

• Receive Run Requests


• Receive Heating Requests
• Receive Cooling Requests
• Receive Heating and Cooling Requests
• Transmit Electrical Demand Level
• Outside Air Broadcast
• OA2 - Primary/Secondary Outside Air Broadcast
• OA3 - Primary/Secondary Outside Air Broadcast
• Linked Setpoint Optimization
• Set Color
• Dewpoint Temp Calculator
• Wet Bulb Temp Calculator
• Toggle
• Lead/Standby
• Integrate

GFBs and SuperVision


Because of the improvements made in recent versions of both Eikon
and SuperVision, it is important to know what version of SuperVision
is used on the computer that will communicate with the FB. GFBs
created in Eikon v3.0 can be used with any version of SuperVision.
Eikon v3.0 contains some new microblocks which are only supported
by Exec 6.x hardware. These microblocks may not be visible in the
Live GFB feature of versions 2.6 and earlier of SuperVision.

NOTE: SuperVision’s Live GFB feature can only display packed GFBs.

File Compatibility
Eikon allows you to save a GFB in different formats depending on the
version of Eikon or SuperVision that will use the FB in the future.
Eikon version 2.5 introduced changes in the way GFB files are saved,
so that versions of Eikon prior to version 2.5 cannot use the new

Chapter 2: Planning a GFB • 19


GFBs and SuperVision

format. It is possible, however, to save a GFB using Eikon version 2.5


or higher so that it will be compatible with Eikon versions below 2.5.
Save File as Type on the SAVE File Name dialog box allows you to save
a GFB as a Compatibility 1 GFB or Compatibility 2 GFB.

Compatibility 1 GFBs can be used with any version of Eikon and


SuperVision; however, this type of file does not support features
introduced with Eikon version 2.5 or later. If a GFB created in Eikon
2.5 is saved as a Compatibility 1 file, any features in the FB that are
unique to Eikon 2.5 (such as font support or the Sunrise/Sunset
microblock) will be lost. This applies even if the GFB is later opened
by Eikon 2.5.

Compatibility 2 GFBs can only be used with Eikon and SuperVision


versions 2.5 and above. Compatibility 2 GFBs support all the
microblocks and features of the latest versions of software, but cannot
be edited in versions of Eikon prior to 2.5.

File Information
The File-Info dialog box allows you to view information about the
current file and to enter a description for the file. It displays the file
name, the directory the file is saved in, and the date the file was
created. The Date last revised indicates the date the file was last saved
and displays the version of Eikon that the file was revised in. If the file
was revised in a version of Eikon prior to version 2.5, the version
number is listed as Unknown.

The Compatibility indicates this file's level of compatibility with


SuperVision. A compatibility level of 2 indicates that this file is only
compatible with SuperVision version 2.5 or later. Files that are
compatible with SuperVision versions prior to 2.5 are considered to
have a compatibility level of 1. Compatibility 2 files can be saved in the
Compatibility 1 format so that they may be used with SuperVision
and Eikon versions below 2.5, but any features in the graphic that are
unique to Eikon version 2.5 will be lost.

The Size indicates the size of the file on the disk in bytes. The
Description edit box is a free-form text field that can be used to enter
any descriptive text for this file, up to a maximum of 255 characters.
This description can be viewed, but not edited, on the File Open dialog

20 • Chapter 2: Planning a GFB


GFBs and SuperVision

box. Click OK to exit the dialog box and save changes, or click Cancel
to exit without saving.

NOTE When using the File-Info option for the first time with a file
created with an earlier version of Eikon, a compatibility warning
appears. The warning indicates that this feature is not available for this
file unless you upgrade the file's compatibility. If you select Yes to
upgrade, the graphic will no longer function properly with SuperVision
versions prior to 2.5. If you select No, the File-Info operation will be
aborted. In order to use an upgraded graphic with versions of Eikon or
SuperVision below 2.5, you must save the file as a Compatibility 1
Graphic using the File-Save As option.

Screen Resolution
Because SuperVision can be run on a different computer than the one
running Eikon, SuperVision might display at a different screen
resolution. This can cause problems if you display the GFB in
SuperVision using the Live GFB feature. For example, a GFB might be
created in Eikon at a resolution of 1024x768. However, the computer
running SuperVision might only be capable of displaying images at a
resolution of 640x480. If the GFB were created using the entire screen
width, it would be necessary to do a lot of scrolling in SuperVision to
view the entire GFB. For this reason, we recommend that you create
GFBs at the same resolution they will be viewed at in SuperVision. If
the GFB will be viewed on more than one computer, use the lowest
common resolution of all the computers that will view the GFB.

Chapter 2: Planning a GFB • 21


Designing the Graphic Function Block

Designing the Graphic Function Block


Once you have determined what options you will use to create the
Graphic Function Block (GFB), you can begin planning the actual FB
program. Following is a list of guidelines we recommend you follow
when designing, drawing or changing your GFB.

Drawing guidelines
• All Input microblocks should be on the left of side of the GFB
screen, and all Output microblocks should be on the right
side. Arrange microblocks so that logic flows from left to
right, so that a sequence of operation can be easily followed by
the eye.

• All microblock outputs should be terminated, even if only to


labels. An FB will compile when microblock outputs are not
terminated, but it is not a recommended practice.

• Do not tie a microblock output to another microblock output.

• Do not tie analog wires or labels to digital wires or labels.

• Each wire must end at a microblock, a label, or another wire


that ends at a microblock.

• Each label must end at a microblock input or output or at a


wire.

• Use standard labels wherever applicable. Standard labels are


described in the section “Wires and Labels” on page 31.

• Use symbols where applicable. Symbols are described in the


section “Symbols” on page 38.

Programming guidelines
The following guidelines are recommended to prevent common
problems in FBs. For details about specific microblocks, refer to the
Eikon Microblock Reference. In addition, the section “Sample GFBs” on
page 59 provides a number of sample GFBs you can review for further
assistance.

22 • Chapter 2: Planning a GFB


Designing the Graphic Function Block

Make sure the FB broadcasts a color


A Setpoint, Set Color, or Set Color If True microblock (but not a
combination of these) must be in every FB. There cannot be more than
one Setpoint or Set Color microblock in a FB, although there may be
more than one Set Color If True microblock (see the section “Set Color
If True” in the Eikon Microblock Reference for limitations on this).

Do not duplicate schedules


Only one Scheduler or Scheduler with Override microblock should be
used per FB.

Be careful when making changes


When making changes to a Function Block, be sure that the FB is not
displayed in SuperVision. If it is displayed, SuperVision may shut
down.

Verify valid Outside Air conditions


All FBs which use Outside Air conditions should include logic to
evaluate and reconcile invalid Outside Air conditions. Outside Air
conditions are considered invalid when a module does not receive an
outside air broadcast from the CMnet for one hour (or for 30 minutes
after a module is powered up).

Figure 2-1: Validating Outside Air conditions

Use the correct range of values for Output microblocks


Avoid placing any microblocks between Linear Converter
microblocks and Output microblocks that would cause the output’s
value range to be distorted.

Chapter 2: Planning a GFB • 23


Designing the Graphic Function Block

Figure 2-2: Using the correct range of values

Limit requested runtimes


All FBs that can originate requests should have a High Limit of 30 on
outgoing requests. This prevents FBs from receiving requests for 255
minutes which, under certain conditions (such as someone
downloading a Holiday schedule), could allow equipment to run for
undesirably lengthy periods.

In addition, all FBs that use a scheduler and a setpoint microblock to


drive an outgoing Transmit Request microblock should also use a
Low Limit microblock to prevent the GFB from momentarily
transmitting request times of zero minutes during “unoccupied” to
“occupied” transitions. A low limit of five minutes is recommended.

Figure 2-3: Limiting request times

Prevent request times from being cancelled


If a GFB’s update time expires twice and no requests are received, the
current request time is reset to zero. To prevent this, Receive Request
microblocks should use a Ramp (down) microblock on the “Run for...”
output (see Figure 2-4). A Binary Parameter microblock driving a Not
microblock can be wired to the Ramp microblock’s go input to create
the parameter Allowed to cancel run requests.

24 • Chapter 2: Planning a GFB


Designing the Graphic Function Block

Figure 2-4: Preventing requests from being cancelled

Define all necessary Alert microblock inputs


When using Alert microblocks, be sure to define any optional inputs
that are required to retrieve data from the FB, so that this data can be
displayed in Alert.

Figure 2-5: Using the Alert microblock with optional inputs

Enable the Options-Highlight BACnet menu option


Options-Highlight BACnet displays an indicator dot next to all
BACnet microblocks in a GFB. This option should always be turned
on, especially when creating an Exec 3.x or Exec 4.x GFB, because
BACnet microblocks do not work in these types of modules. By
enabling the Highlight BACnet option, you can tell at a glance which
microblocks, if any, are BACnet-capable.

Figure 2-6: Highlight BACnet option enabled

Chapter 2: Planning a GFB • 25


Designing the Graphic Function Block

A bad example
The example below (Figure 2-7) illustrates some common mistakes to
avoid when creating a GFB. Note that Eikon’s compile process would
not identify all of the errors shown in this example. (Compiler-
identified errors are indicated by the error dots.)

Figure 2-7: A bad example

The numbered errors in the figure above are explained as follows:

1. The Digital Output microblock should be positioned at the


extreme right. Move the Output microblock to the right side
of the GFB and reconnect the input wire to correct the
problem.

2. Use a wire instead of the label “OA Temp.” Although the label
“OA Temp” is not technically an error, it would have been
much easier to draw a wire across to the facing microblock.
However, using a label might be a good idea if the value is
going to be used in many places in the GFB.

26 • Chapter 2: Planning a GFB


Designing the Graphic Function Block

3. Use the Get System Variable microblock to receive this


broadcast. Although it is possible to use the LAN Analog
Input microblock to receive the outside air temperature
broadcast, the Get System Variable microblock is a more
efficient method of getting this information.

4. The M dots indicate that an incorrect wire type has been used.
In this case, an analog wire type has been used to connect a
digital wire to a microblock input that expects a digital value.
To correct this, replace the analog wire with a digital wire.

5. The Digital Input microblock should be positioned at the


extreme left. Move the output microblock to the left of the
GFB and reconnect the output wire to correct the problem.

6. The DO/DI Proof microblock has an unconnected output.


Although the FB will compile with an unconnected output, it
is recommended that all outputs are terminated, even if only
to a label.

7. The O dot indicates that a microblock output is overlapping


another microblock output. This usually happens when a
microblock is accidentally inserted in exactly the same
position as another microblock by clicking the mouse
multiple times in the same place when Eikon is in Draw mode.
To correct this problem, delete or move the microblock(s) on
top.

8. The FB does not have a Set Color microblock. Every FB that


does not have a Setpoint microblock must have a Set Color or
Set Color If True microblock; otherwise, the FB’s color will be
purple in SuperVision.

9. The W and U dots both indicate the same problem: the wire is
not connected to the microblock input. To correct this
problem, delete the wire and redraw it so that the end of the
wire is placed directly on the microblock’s nib.

10. The U dot indicates that the microblock input is not connected
to a wire or label. To correct this problem, connect the OR-2
microblock’s output to the Alert Alarm microblock’s input
with a wire.

Chapter 2: Planning a GFB • 27


Designing the Graphic Function Block

11. An inappropriate microblock has been used for the type of


value received. A Time Status microblock is used to display a
temperature value from the Analog Input microblock. To
display the temperature value correctly, use an Analog Status
microblock instead.

♦ ♦ ♦

28 • Chapter 2: Planning a GFB


3 Creating a GFB

Graphic Function Blocks (GFBs) can be easily created by following a


few simple steps. If you haven’t done so already, read the chapter
“Planning a GFB” to become aware of the factors that affect how
efficient and usable your GFB will be. You may also want to sketch out
your GFB on paper so you have something to refer to when you begin
drawing. The steps below will guide you through the process of
drawing, editing, compiling, and making the FB.

1. Draw the GFB.

• Place microblocks.
• Draw wires and labels.
• Use other drawing tools as necessary for further
clarification.

2. Edit the FB’s variables.

3. Set the order of the FB’s parameter and status screens.

4. Compile the FB.

5. Simulate the FB.

6. Make the FB.

Chapter 3: Creating a GFB • 29


Drawing the GFB

Drawing the GFB


Begin drawing your GFB by selecting the correct type for your control
module on the Options menu. If you do not select one, it will be
created as an Exec 6.x FB. Then place the microblocks in the desired
locations and draw wires and labels to connect the microblock inputs
and outputs. Place the Input and Output microblocks first, so that no
important inputs or outputs are overlooked.

NOTE For best results, turn Magnetism on when working in Eikon (click
Options-Magnetism). A check mark appears next to the option when it
is turned on. Magnetism is always on when you start Eikon.

To place microblocks

1. To begin a new GFB, click File-New.

2. Find the microblock you want to use in the Microblock


Library.

Click on the name of the Library (at the top of the column) to
display a different library. If the library is not visible, click
Options-Microblocks.

TIP Click the left mouse button to scroll forward through the
Microblock Libraries. Click the right mouse button to scroll backward
through the libraries. You can also use the options on the Mblocks menu
to display a specific Microblock Library.

3. Click the icon in the Microblock Library that represents the


microblock you want to use.

Eikon enters Draw mode.

4. Click in the drawing area where you want to place the


microblock.

You can hold down the left mouse button and drag the outline
of the microblock to the exact position.

30 • Chapter 3: Creating a GFB


Drawing the GFB

If you want to move a microblock, press F3, then drag the


microblock to the new location.
If you want to delete a microblock, press F6, then click the
microblock you want to delete.
Remember to save your work frequently. Since Eikon only
recognizes the first three letters of a GFB file name when
making a GFB, use the format xxx.eik when saving a file. Note
also that the file name must begin with a letter, not a number.

TIP Use symbol files to paste preestablished logic in the GFB. Refer to
the section “Symbols” on page 38 for more information.

Wires and Labels


Wires are special lines in a GFB that transmit values from one
microblock to another. Wires can connect to microblock inputs or
outputs, or to other wires. Microblock inputs and outputs are defined
either as digital or analog, depending on the type of information the
input or output accepts. Wires that transmit analog data are solid gray
lines, while wires that carry digital data are dashed gray lines. Labels
perform the same function as wires without appearing as a visible line
on the screen.

Analog wire Digital wire

Label

Figure 3-1: Wires and labels

Chapter 3: Creating a GFB • 31


Drawing the GFB

Follow these rules when drawing wires and labels:

• Analog microblock outputs can only transmit data to analog


microblock inputs. Analog wires and labels cannot connect to
digital wires, labels, or inputs.

• Digital microblock outputs can only transmit data to digital


microblock inputs. Digital wires and labels cannot connect to
analog wires, labels, or inputs.

• Microblock inputs cannot be connected to other microblock


inputs unless they are also connected to a microblock output.

• Wires and labels can connect to any point on a wire.

• Labels can be used in place of either analog or digital wires


but cannot be used to connect dissimilar wires. For example,
a label on a digital output of one microblock cannot be used as
an analog input on another microblock.

• Wires and labels must connect directly to a microblock’s nib


in order to complete the connection. Refer to the example
below.

Correct

Incorrect

Incorrect

Figure 3-2: Connecting wires and labels

32 • Chapter 3: Creating a GFB


Drawing the GFB

Drawing labels differs from drawing wires in that a label must be


edited after it is drawn in order to enter the label’s name and
determine its direction. Some standard labels have been established
for specific purposes. Use these labels when applicable to make your
GFB more easily understood by others.

Table 3-1. Standard Labels

Label Standard Use

* Color (for example, on a Set Color or Zone Setpoint microblock)

# Request time

A1 Alarms (likewise A2, A3, etc.)

M1 Messages (likewise M2, M3, etc.)

To draw wires

1. Click on the wire in the Microblock Library that you want to


draw.

The dashed gray line represents a digital wire; the solid gray
line represents an analog wire.
When you click the wire in the Microblock Library, Eikon
enters Draw mode.

2. Click and hold the mouse button on the nib of the microblock
output where the wire should begin.

3. Drag the wire in the direction you want to go.

Wires automatically turn 90° when the cursor is moved away


from a straight line. To turn the wire another 90°, click the
right mouse button while continuing to hold the left mouse
button.

4. When the wire has reached its destination, release the left
mouse button.

Chapter 3: Creating a GFB • 33


Drawing the GFB

Be sure the wire is correctly connected to the microblock or


wire; refer to Figure 3-2 for an example.
If the wire is not connected correctly, or you are not satisfied
with the wire’s shape or location, you can press F7 to undo the
wire and draw it again.
If you want to move a wire without changing its shape, first
press F3, then drag the wire to the new location.
If you want to delete a wire, first press F6, then click the wire
you want to delete.

TIP You can change the shape of the last segment of a wire using the
Edit-Edit-Shape option. Press Ctrl+F5 to enter the Edit Shape mode. Then
click and hold the left mouse button on the wire. Eikon moves the cursor
to the end of the wire and allows you to edit the last segment drawn.
To delete the last segment of the wire, press Backspace.

Remember to save your work frequently.

To draw a label

1. Click LABEL in the microblock library.

Eikon enters Draw mode.

2. Click on the nib of the microblock or on the wire where you


want to connect the label.

TIP You can click and hold the left mouse button anywhere in the
drawing, then drag the label to the exact location while you are
holding the button. When the label is in the correct position, release the
left mouse button.

3. To give the label a name and set its direction, press F5.

Eikon enters Edit mode.

4. Click the label.

34 • Chapter 3: Creating a GFB


Drawing the GFB

Figure 3-3: I/O Label dialog

5. On the I/O Label dialog, click input or output depending on


whether the label is connected to a microblock input or a
microblock output.

As shown in the Label Type diagram on the I/O Label dialog,


this option determines the direction the label faces.

6. Click the Label name field and type a name for the label.

Use a standard label name if applicable (refer to Table 3-1 on


page 33 for a list of standard labels).

7. Click Accept to close the dialog and set the label.

If the label is facing the wrong direction, repeat steps 3


through 5, and be sure to click the correct button (input or
output). Then click Accept.
If you want to change the label’s name, follow steps 3 through
7 again.
If you want to move a label, press F3, then drag the label to the
new location.
If you want to delete a label, press F6, then click the label.
Remember to save your work frequently.

Chapter 3: Creating a GFB • 35


Drawing the GFB

Text
You can use text to annotate parts of a GFB. For example, you may
want to enter a phrase indicating what a particular microblock is used
for, so that the GFB is more easily understood.

Figure 3-4: Using text in a GFB

You can choose a text color from the palette (which can be displayed
by clicking Options-Palette). Using the options on the Text menu, you
can choose a font, font size, direction and alignment. The Tiny, Small,
Medium and Large menu options set the size of the default font
(Wafer). The Choose Font option allows you to choose a different font
for your text. The All Available, Fixed-Pitch only, True Type only and
Scalable only menu options determine which fonts appear on the Font
dialog when you use the Choose Font command.

The Horizontal, Vertical, Descending, and Ascending options


determine the direction of the text. If Descending is chosen, the text
displays at a 45° angle reading from upper left to lower right. If
Ascending is chosen, the text displays at a 45° angle reading from
lower left to upper right.

The Align options allow you to align the text to the left, center, or right
of the text's starting point (or origin).

Text can be moved, deleted, and copied just like other objects in a GFB.

36 • Chapter 3: Creating a GFB


Drawing the GFB

To enter text

1. Click Abc in the microblock library.

Eikon enters Draw Mode.

2. From the Text menu, click the options for the font, direction,
and alignment you want to use.

3. To choose a different color for the text, click the desired color
on the palette.

If the palette is not visible on the screen, click Options-Palette.


The default color is medium gray.

4. Click in the GFB where you want the text to begin.

Text is aligned around the point you click. For example, if you
chose the Align Center option, the text is centered on the point
you click.

5. Type the desired text in the Text dialog box and press Enter.

To edit text

1. Press Ctrl+F5.

2. Click the text you want to change.

3. In the Text dialog box, type or change the text as needed.

4. Click OK or press Enter to save your changes.

Chapter 3: Creating a GFB • 37


Drawing the GFB

To change text attributes

1. Press Alt+F5.

You can also click Edit-Edit-Others-Attributes.


Eikon enters Edit Attributes mode.

2. Click the text whose attributes you want to change.

3. Click the desired options.

You can change the text's font, size, direction, or alignment


using the commands on the Text menu. To change the text's
color, click the desired color from the palette. (If the palette is
not showing, click Options-Palette.)

4. When you are finished, click on a blank space in the GFB or


choose a different Edit menu command.

Symbols
You can use the same sequence of programming in a number of FBs.
For example, you might want to program the same sequence in every
FB in a system to control a fan’s operation. You can do this by saving
the programming sequence as a symbol. A symbol can be any number
of elements in a GFB that are selected and can be saved as a separate
file by clicking Edit-Copy To. Once saved, the elements can then be
pasted into other GFBs by clicking Edit-Paste From. After a symbol is
pasted in a GFB, each of the items in the symbol can be individually
edited.

TIP When you paste a symbol in a GFB, you can have Eikon
automatically assign new MbCodes to the microblocks in the symbol.
On the Paste Selected Symbol From dialog box, Auto-assign MbCodes
is enabled by default. Leave this option enabled to assign new
MbCodes to the microblocks in the symbol. If you want the microblocks
in the symbol to retain their original MbCodes, disable the Auto-assign
MbCodes option.

38 • Chapter 3: Creating a GFB


Drawing the GFB

To save part of a GFB as a symbol

1. Open the GFB you want to work with, or draw the


programming sequence you want to save.

2. Select all of the items you want to save in the symbol.

If all the items are near each other on the screen, you can press
F9, then click and hold the right mouse button while dragging
a rectangle around the entire sequence. All of the items inside
the rectangle are selected. Otherwise, you can press F9 and
click each individual element, including wires and labels.
If you accidentally select the wrong item, press F10 and then
click the incorrectly selected item.

3. Click Edit-Copy To.

4. In the Copy Selected Items to dialog, type a name for the


symbol in the File Name field.

Symbols are given a default extension of .sym.

5. Press Enter or click OK to save the symbol.

Press Esc or click Cancel to close the dialog without saving.

To paste a symbol into a GFB

1. Open the GFB you want to use the symbol with.

2. Click Edit-Paste From.

3. In the Paste Selected Symbol From dialog, click on the name


of the symbol file you want to use.

If necessary, you can navigate to a different directory. By


default, Eikon searches for files with an extension of .sym. If

Chapter 3: Creating a GFB • 39


Drawing the GFB

your symbol has a different extension, click All Files in the


Files of Type drop-down list box.

4. Press Enter or click OK.

Eikon stores the symbol in memory and enters Insert mode.


You must now choose where you want the symbol to appear
in the GFB.

5. Click where you want to place the symbol in the GFB.

You can hold the left mouse button and drag the symbol to the
exact location. Eikon remains in Insert mode until another
item from the microblock library is clicked, or another editing
mode is chosen. If you want to place the same symbol in
several GFBs, you can open each GFB and repeat just this step
to place the symbol for as long as Eikon remains in Insert
mode.
If you change your mind after placing the symbol, you can
press F7 to undo this step. If Edit-Undo is not available, you
must delete each item that makes up the symbol. Press F6,
then click and hold the right mouse button while dragging a
rectangle around all the items. All of the items inside the
rectangle are deleted. You can also press F6 and click each
individual item to delete them.

Deleting and Undoing


Items in a GFB can be deleted by clicking Edit-Delete. You can delete
individual objects one at a time, or you can select several objects to be
deleted at once. To delete individual objects, press F6 to enter Delete
mode. Click each object you want to remove.

To delete a group of items, press F6, then click and hold the right
mouse button while dragging a rectangle around all the items. All of
the items inside the rectangle are deleted.

If the items you want to delete are not grouped together, you can first
select the items you want to delete. Be sure that only the items you
want to delete are selected; press Shift+F10 first to deselect all items.

40 • Chapter 3: Creating a GFB


Editing the FB’s variables

Then to select items, press F9 and click each item you want to delete.
To delete the selected items, press Shift+F6.

If you are drawing and editing your GFB and make a mistake, you can
quickly reverse it by pressing F7 or clicking Edit-Undo. Note that the
Undo feature will not reverse the effects of Reorder-Edit Order.

Editing the FB’s variables


The parameters that are displayed on a FB’s Parameter page are
contained within the FB’s microblocks. You can set initial parameter
values and in some cases modify Parameter and Status page
descriptive text from within Eikon. By determining this information
now, before the FB is completed, you will save time editing the
Parameter page when you are ready to transfer the FB to the control
module.

Each microblock has a dialog box that displays the microblock’s


parameters, the password level of the microblock, and the
microblock’s MbCode. If the descriptive text that appears on the
Parameter and Status pages for the microblock can be edited, this
information also appears on the dialog.

Parameters
Each microblock’s parameters are described in the Eikon Microblock
Reference Guide. Note that some parameters that can be set in Eikon
cannot be changed on the Parameter page. For example, the Analog
Status microblock allows you to set the range of the value in Eikon;
however, this range cannot be changed on the Parameter page.

Chapter 3: Creating a GFB • 41


Editing the FB’s variables

MbCodes
An MbCode is a number that Eikon assigns to each microblock as it is
placed in a GFB. It is possible to change most microblocks’ MbCodes,
although it is not normally necessary. If the microblock does not have
a dialog box, you cannot change the MbCode. If you want to change
an MbCode, be sure to follow these rules:

• MbCodes must begin with a letter.

• Only letters and numbers can be used in an MbCode.

• Each MbCode within an FB must be unique.

• The MbCode must be four characters or less.

• The following reserved MbCodes must be used for specific


microblocks:

CTRL Analog Input, BACnet Analog Input, and


LogiStat Zone Control
CLSO Transmit Cool Request
HTSO Transmit Heat Request
ZONE Zone Controller
AIRF Airflow

• The following letter combinations cannot be used as


MbCodes because they are used internally by the Eikon
application: CCAP, CDES, DUMY, ESP, HCAP, HDES,
HEAD, SCHD, SETP, STPT, NEXD, NEXT, QACT, QAOS,
XPH, XSH, YNOS, TRN1, TRN2, TRN3, TRN4.

NOTE When you paste a symbol in a GFB, you can have Eikon
automatically assign new MbCodes to the microblocks in the symbol.
On the Paste Selected Symbol From dialog box, Auto-assign MbCodes
is enabled by default. When the option remains enabled, new
MbCodes are assigned to the microblocks in the symbol. If you want
the microblocks in the symbol to retain their original MbCodes, disable
Auto-assign MbCodes.

42 • Chapter 3: Creating a GFB


Editing the FB’s variables

Parameter and Status page text


Some microblocks display text descriptions on the Parameter and
Status pages that can be changed. If it is possible to change the
parameter or status descriptive text for a microblock, the microblock’s
dialog box will show the default text in an editable field.

TIP You can also edit Parameter and Status page descriptive text by
clicking Reorder-Edit Order. To edit text, right-double-click in the PAR or
STAT field in the Edit Order window. When you have finished editing a
field, press Enter.

You can change the way the text appears on the Parameter or Status
page by inserting special characters in the fields on the microblock
dialog. Following are the options you have for formatting text.

• Display the parameter or status value

• Remove a line feed to display two or more microblock


parameters on the same line

• Insert a blank line

• Prevent a microblock’s parameters from appearing on the


Parameter page under certain circumstances

To display the default parameter or status text for a microblock, type


the words “Use Default” (without quotes) or leave the field on the
microblock’s dialog blank. If you do not want any text to appear on the
Parameter or Status page at all for a particular microblock, type an
asterisk (*) in the field or fields on the microblock dialog.

Display the parameter value


To display the value of the parameter in the text of the description,
you must use the underscore character (_). You must enter enough
underscores to account for all the digits required to display the value;
otherwise, the value will be truncated.

Chapter 3: Creating a GFB • 43


Editing the FB’s variables

Example

Heat and Cool allowed _____ mm:ss after fan


The example above includes five underscores, since a maximum
of five characters could be used to display the parameter’s value.
The Parameter page in this case would display "Heat and Cool
allowed 10:15 mm:ss after fan", where "10:15" appears in editable
blue text.

Display the status value


To display the status value in the text of the description, use the tilde
character (~). You must enter enough tildes to account for all the digits
required to display the value; otherwise, the value will be truncated.

Example

Run Time Remaining: ~~~~~


The example above includes five tildes, since a maximum of five
characters could be used to display the status value. The status
page in this case would display "Run Time Remaining: 12:13",
where "12:13" appears in non-editable yellow text.

Place text for two microblocks on the same line


If you want to place the descriptive text for two microblocks on the
same line on the parameter or status page, use the asterisk character
(*) at the end of the text for the first microblock. The asterisk (*)
truncates any text that follows it, including line feeds.

Example

Switch-NC to Variable microblock:


Lock Flow setpoint at ______ CFM? *

Binary Parameter microblock:


___
The example above shows the Parameter page descriptive text
entered for two different microblocks. The descriptions would

44 • Chapter 3: Creating a GFB


Editing the FB’s variables

appear on the Parameter page as “Lock flow setpoint at 500


CFM?”Y, where 500 and Y appear in editable blue text.

Insert a blank line


To insert a blank line on the Parameter or Status page, type the caret
character (^) where you want the blank line to be. One blank line will
appear for each caret that is typed.

Example

Time of day for daily trend report:^ _____ hh:mm 24 hr


The example above would display the following on the Parameter
page:

Time of day for daily trend report:


02:00 hh:mm 24 hr
where 02:00 appears in editable blue text

Hide information on the Parameter page


It is possible to prevent parameter text for certain microblocks from
appearing on the Parameter page, based on certain conditions.
Normally this feature is used when you want a certain microblock’s
parameters to be hidden if another microblock in the same FB does not
have a channel number defined. You can type an expression in the
parameter text field indicating which channel number must be
defined in order for the text to appear. If the specified channel number
is defined, then the text following the expression will appear. If there
is no channel number defined, the text following the expression will
not appear on the Parameter page.

NOTE If All Options is set to Y on the Parameter page, the text will be
displayed whether or not the channel number is defined.

The expression is “$$ $P$xxxxx $$", where "$xxxxx" represents the


dollar string for the microblock parameter that is evaluated. To obtain
the dollar string, right-click the parameter in SuperVision v3.0. When
typing this expression in the parameter text field, it is important to

Chapter 3: Creating a GFB • 45


Editing the FB’s variables

type all of the characters in the correct order. It is not necessary to


include spaces or quotes in the expression.

Example

$$ $P$M001$CHAN $$Trip point is ______


In this example, the text "Trip point is 3.0" will only appear on
the Parameter page if a channel number is defined for microblock
M001 in this FB.

Multiple conditions for displaying text may be defined by using


additional characters representing and (*), or (+), and not (!).
Parentheses may also be used to organize complex conditions. See the
examples below.

Example

$$ $P$M001$CHAN * $P$M002$CHAN $$Trip point is ______


In this example, the text "Trip point is 3.0" will only appear when
channel numbers are defined for both microblocks M001 and
M002.

Example

$$ ($P$M014$CHAN * $P$M002$CHAN) + $P$M005$CHAN $$Trip


point is ______
In this example, the text "Trip point is 3.0" will appear when
channel numbers are defined for both microblocks M014 and
M002, or for microblock M005.

The examples above show how you can hide information based on
whether or not a channel number is defined. You can also show or
hide information based on a parameter's value. See the example
below:

46 • Chapter 3: Creating a GFB


Editing the FB’s variables

Example

$$ $P$TRN1$NABL $$Collect trend data daily at _____ or every


_____(hr:mm)
In this example, the MbCode, $TRN1$NABL, represents a
microblock whose parameter page text is "Save trend data history
to file? ____." The text "Collect trend data daily at 1:30 or every
6:00" will appear only when the parameter value for
$TRN1$NABL is yes or on. If $TRN1$NABL is set to no or off, then
the line of text is hidden.

Note that if you change the value of the $TRN1$NABL parameter,


the change to the text is not immediately visible; you must refresh
the parameter page.

Password levels
Each microblock that generates parameters that can be altered on the
Parameter page has a password level assigned to it. These password
levels correspond to the operator access levels in SuperVision (see
Table 3-2 on page 48). You must have a password level equal to or
higher than the microblock’s password level in order to change the
microblock’s parameters in SuperVision.

NOTE The Eikon access levels are multiplied by 10 for SuperVision


v3.0. For example, a microblock with a level 6 password requires an
operator access level of 60 in SuperVision v3.0.

Default password levels are set at recommended levels in Eikon and


should not be changed without careful consideration. We recommend
that a user’s password level should be increased before a microblock’s
password level is lowered. This rule is particularly important in the
case of I/O points, which contain parameters for the definition and
operation of the point. Changes made to the point’s definition could
affect the intended operation of the FB.

Chapter 3: Creating a GFB • 47


Editing the FB’s variables

The default access of a password level includes the particular level’s


default access and the default access of all lower levels.

Table 3-2. Default Password Levels

Level in Level in
SuperVision SuperVision Description Default Access
v3.0 v2.6

10 1 Trainee Users at this level may only examine the


system.

40 4 Maint-1 Users at this level may change schedules.

50 3 Maint-2 Users at this level may change setpoints.

60 6 SUPRVISR Users at this level may change parameters


for microblocks assigned with this level of
access. *

80 8 System Users at this level may change anything


(except for passwords), including all
parameters, setup, and connections.

100 10 Owner Users at this level may change everything


(except for making a parameter
uneditable), including passwords.

* The required SuperVision 3.x access level is 10 times the level assigned in Eikon. For example, if a
parameter in a microblock is assigned an access level of 7 in Eikon, a SuperVision 3.x operator must have
an access level of 70 to change it.

To change a microblock’s default settings

1. Open the GFB you want to work with.

2. Press F5 to enter Edit mode.

3. Click on the microblock whose settings you want to edit.

4. Type or change the information as desired.

48 • Chapter 3: Creating a GFB


Setting the order of the Parameter and Status pages

TIP To change a numerical value, you can use the "number scrolling"
method. Place the cursor beneath the digit you want to change. Click
and hold the left mouse button to increase the value; click and hold the
right mouse button to decrease the value. When the correct number is
displayed, release the mouse button.

5. Click Accept to record the changes.

If you make a mistake, you can repeat these steps to correct


the information.

Setting the order of the Parameter and Status pages


The order in which items appear on the Parameter and Status pages is
determined by the order in which microblocks are placed in Eikon.
This order can be changed by using the commands on the Reorder
menu. Reorder-First places the microblock’s parameters at the top of
the Parameter page. Reorder-Sooner and Reorder-Later place the
microblock’s parameters before or after the previous microblock’s
parameters, respectively. Reorder-Last places the microblock’s
parameters at the bottom of the Parameter page.

Reorder-Wires First and Reorder-Wires Last do not affect the order of


the text on the Parameter or Status pages. These commands only affect
the appearance of the GFB on the screen.

You can check the order of the FB’s Parameter and Status pages by
clicking GFB-Make Screens. This command compiles the Parameter
and Status pages for the FB. You can then view the pages by clicking
GFB-Parameter Screen and GFB-Status Screen.

You can edit both the order of the microblock parameters on the
Parameter page and the parameter and Status page descriptive text by
clicking Reorder-Edit Order. Use the Cut and Paste options to put
microblocks in the desired order. You can select more than one
microblock to be cut at a time by holding the Ctrl key and clicking a
microblock. To edit text, right-double-click in the PAR or STAT field.
When you are finished editing a field, press Enter.

Chapter 3: Creating a GFB • 49


Compiling the FB

To change the order of the GFB

1. Open the GFB you want to work with.

2. Click Reorder-Last.

3. Click each microblock in the order you want the parameters


to appear.

If you make a mistake, click Reorder-Sooner and Reorder-


Later to move a microblock’s parameters up or down on the
Parameter page.
Click Reorder-Edit Order to view the order of the microblocks
as you edit.
Remember to save your work frequently.

TIP To see what the Parameter and Status pages will look like, click
GFB-Make Screens, then use GFB-Parameter Screen and GFB-Status
Screen.

Compiling the FB
The Compile command on the GFB menu checks the FB for drawing
errors. When the compile is finished, a dialog box appears showing
the number of errors found in the GFB and the number of microblock
outputs used and available. Eikon indicates an error in the GFB by
displaying a pink dot. Each dot contains a letter that indicates the type
of error found:

• Shorted wire (S) - This error occurs when two microblock


outputs are connected together.

• Unconnected wire (W) - This error occurs when a wire is not


connected to a microblock’s nib. Refer to Figure 3-2 on
page 32 for an example of proper connection.

• Unconnected label (L) - This error can occur when a label is


not connected to a microblock’s nib. Refer to Figure 3-2 on
page 32 for an example of proper connection.

50 • Chapter 3: Creating a GFB


Compiling the FB

• Analog/digital mismatch (M) - This error occurs when an


analog wire is connected to a digital microblock input, output,
or another digital wire, and vice-versa.

• Unconnected microblock input (U) - This error occurs when a


microblock input is not connected to a wire or label or when
the input is connected to a label that is not connected to a
microblock output.

• Overlapping microblock outputs (O) - This error occurs most


often when two microblocks are accidentally drawn on top of
each other by clicking the mouse twice when placing a
microblock.

GFB-Compile can be used at any time during the creation of the FB,
and can be repeated as often as necessary until all the errors have been
corrected.

The compile process checks for drawing errors only. For examples of
other common errors that are not identified by the compiler, refer to
the section “A bad example” on page 26.

To compile the GFB

1. Open the GFB you want to work with.

2. Click GFB-Compile, or press Ctrl+C.

Eikon checks the FB for drawing errors and displays the


results in a dialog box. Errors are indicated in the GFB itself by
pink dots.

3. Correct any errors that are found.

If you need to redraw a wire, you can delete the wire and
draw a new one, or you can edit the wire’s shape. To delete
the wire, press F6 and then click the wire you want to delete.
To change the wire’s shape, press Ctrl+F5, then click the end
of the wire, dragging the mouse to reshape the wire.

Chapter 3: Creating a GFB • 51


Testing the FB

If you need to delete an overlapping microblock, press F6,


then click the microblock you want to delete.
For more information about drawing the GFB, refer to the
section “Drawing the GFB” on page 30.

4. Save the GFB.

Testing the FB
You can test an FB’s operation before making the actual FB files and
transferring them to the control module. Eikon provides a simulation
mode where you can specify microblock parameters and define the
operating environment to see how an FB will operate under certain
conditions.

Eikon enters simulation mode when you click GFB-Simulate. The


menu bar changes to display the simulation commands, and yellow
text appears in the GFB indicating the value of each microblock’s
output.

Defining the simulation environment


You can control the simulated environment your FB will run in by
using the Setup command. The following factors can be established on
the Setup dialog.

• OA conditions - Eikon sends a simulated OA broadcast to the


FB using the outside air conditions specified here. The OA
Valid setting lets you determine whether the simulated
broadcast is sending a valid OA temperature.

• Time increment - This section lets you determine how fast the
simulation will run. The Step Every setting indicates how
often the entire FB should be calculated. The One Step setting
indicates how much time should pass between steps. For
example, if Step Every is set to one minute, and One Step is set
to ten minutes, then the entire FB simulation will be calculated
every minute; but every time the simulation is calculated, it is
calculated as though ten minutes have passed.

52 • Chapter 3: Creating a GFB


Testing the FB

• Calendar - Eikon sends a simulated time and date broadcast


to the FB using the time and date specified here. The time and
date will increase as the simulation progresses, according to
the settings in the Time increment section.

• Communications - You can simulate valid or invalid BACnet


or ALC legacy communications. Toggle the appropriate
button to simulate normal or lost communication.

• Demand level - Eikon sends a simulated demand level


broadcast to the FB using the demand level specified here.
Normal demand level is 0, while 1, 2, and 3 are increasing
levels of demand.

• Alert - Eikon sends simulated Alert alarms to Alert when the


Send Alarms to Alert setting is yes. Only Alert microblock
alarms are sent to Alert; Return-to-Normal messages cannot
be sent to Alert. Alert alarms are sent using the line number
and system indicated in this section.

You can change the simulation environment with the Setup command
while the simulation is running; Eikon will pause the simulation while
the Setup dialog is open.

Changing microblock parameters


You can change a microblock’s parameters while Eikon is in
simulation mode to see what effect a change will have on the FB’s
operation. To change a microblock’s parameters, click the microblock
in the simulation window. The microblock’s dialog box appears,
where you can make the changes you want. If the simulation is
running when a microblock is clicked, the simulation pauses until the
dialog box is closed.

If you want to save the changes made to a microblock’s parameters


during simulation, click File-Save before exiting simulation mode.

Chapter 3: Creating a GFB • 53


Testing the FB

Simulating more than one FB


You can simulate more than one FB at a time to see how FBs will
interact with each other. The same Setup information applies to all
open GFBs.

Information that must be communicated between FBs during


simulation (such as heating or cooling requests, or information from
LAN Inputs or Outputs) is stored by Eikon in cells (temporary
memory locations). Cell numbers must be defined for the transmitting
and receiving microblocks in order for the simulation to function
properly. To define the cell number while in simulation mode, click on
the microblock.

The following rules apply to using cells in simulation.

• A cell may be used to pass requests or an analog/digital


value, but not both in the same simulation. Use different cell
numbers to pass different types of information.

• A cell can receive information from only one LAN Output;


but a cell can send information to more than one LAN Input.

• A cell can receive information from more than one Transmit


Request microblock, and can send information to more than
one Receive Request microblock.

• Microblocks that use cells to pass information do not need to


be in the same FB.

Figure 3-5 on page 55 shows how information can be passed between


FBs using cells. Note that the microblocks on the left do not all have to
be in the same FB (likewise for the microblocks on the right).

54 • Chapter 3: Creating a GFB


Testing the FB

Figure 3-5: Using cells

To simulate a GFB’s operation

1. Open the GFB you want to work with.

2. Click GFB-Simulate.

If necessary, save the GFB. Eikon enters simulation mode.

3. Click Setup and establish the environment for the simulation.

4. Click Run to start the simulation.

If you want to pause the simulation each time the FB is


calculated, click Step instead of Run. Then, each time you
want to calculate the FB, you can click Step again. To run the
simulation continuously, click Run.
If you want to stop the simulation without leaving the
simulation window, click Stop.
If you want to simulate another FB at the same time, first open
a new window using the Window-New Window command.

Chapter 3: Creating a GFB • 55


Making the FB

Then use the File-Open command to open the other GFB. You
can view multiple windows at once using the Window-Tile
Vertically and Window-Tile Horizontally commands.

5. To leave simulation mode, click File-Exit or press Esc.

Making the FB
The final step in the process of creating an FB is to generate the actual
Function Block files that are transferred to the control modules. These
files are generated by issuing the GFB-Make FB command. The Make
FB process also creates the Parameter and Status pages for the
Function Block, and creates a random update time for the FB. The
update time determines how often the FB sends LAN broadcasts and
update information to the gateway module (if no changes have been
made that would cause the update to happen sooner). The type of
module is selected here.

TIP You can create an FB that uses Celsius temperature


measurements by enabling the Metric option on the Options-Edit
Options dialog. Eikon checks this setting before generating the
Function Block files. Enable this setting for Eikon to make the FB using
degrees Celsius. Disable this setting to make the FB using degrees
Fahrenheit. This option must be set before you insert any temperature-
specific microblocks (such as a setpoint microblock) into the GFB. If you
want to change the units on an existing FB, select the appropriate units
option and then delete and reinsert all temperature-specific
microblocks.

Files generated during the Make FB process are stored in the same
directory as the .eik file. To change the Make FB directory, click File-
Save As and save the .eik file in the desired directory. You can also
change the directory by editing the EMS.INI file. This path name must
not exceed 100 characters.

NOTE Eikon only uses the first three characters of the GFB’s file name
to name the Function Block files. Be sure that no two GFB’s share the
same three-character name; otherwise, one of the FBs will overwrite the
other. If necessary, you can rename a GFB file (*.eik file) before issuing
the Make FB command.

Each time an FB is made, the FB’s revision number is increased by one.


The revision number is only visible on the Parameter page of the FB.

56 • Chapter 3: Creating a GFB


Making the FB

If a GFB is modified and made in Eikon, then loaded in SuperVision


but not transferred to the module, an FB revision mismatch error will
occur. To correct this problem, transfer the FB to the module.

To make the GFB

1. Open the GFB you want to work with.

2. Make sure the FB is complete and free of errors.

3. Check the Options menu or the Options-Edit Options dialog


to make sure the correct options are chosen for the FB.

4. Be sure to use the proper naming conventions (xxx.eik).

5. Click GFB-Make FB.

Eikon generates the appropriate Function Block file or files


and stores them in the same directory as the .eik file.

♦ ♦ ♦

Chapter 3: Creating a GFB • 57


Making the FB

58 • Chapter 3: Creating a GFB


4 Sample GFBs

The following pages display sample Graphic Function Blocks. The


figures also illustrate the type of output generated by the Print to
Bitmap feature. These GFBs are provided only as samples. Please feel
free to use them as models when creating your own GFBs. Some of
these samples can be found in the InterOp Tools 3.01b Install folder.

Symbol Files

Figure 4-1: trndhist.sym

Figure 4-2: Receive Request Code.sym

The Receive Request Code OCL microblock encodes the time


remaining of a zone’s occupancy or unoccupancy, run and night
setback status to be transmitted to an AHU using a Run Request.
Further details are available by selecting the Edit-Edit-Variables
command in Eikon.

Chapter 4: Sample GFBs • 59


Symbol Files

Figure 4-3: Receive Request Code.sym

The Send Request Code OCL microblock decodes the Run Request
generated by the Receive Request Code OCL microblock and provides
information to the AHU on the time remaining of a zone’s occupancy
or unoccupancy, run and night setback status of a zone. Further
details are available by selecting the Edit-Edit-Variables command in
Eikon.

60 • Chapter 4: Sample GFBs


Fan Powered Induction Unit

Fan Powered Induction Unit

Chapter 4: Sample GFBs • 61


Air Handling Units

Air Handling Units

62 • Chapter 4: Sample GFBs


Air Handling Units

Chapter 4: Sample GFBs • 63


Air Handling Units

64 • Chapter 4: Sample GFBs


Air Handling Units

Chapter 4: Sample GFBs • 65


Air Handling Units

66 • Chapter 4: Sample GFBs


Air Handling Units

Chapter 4: Sample GFBs • 67


Boiler

Boiler

68 • Chapter 4: Sample GFBs


Centrifugal Chiller

Centrifugal Chiller

Chapter 4: Sample GFBs • 69


Heat Pumps

Heat Pumps

70 • Chapter 4: Sample GFBs


Heat Pumps

Chapter 4: Sample GFBs • 71


Single Zone Packaged Unit

Single Zone Packaged Unit

♦ ♦ ♦

72 • Chapter 4: Sample GFBs


19 Glossary
ADAPTIVE OPTIMAL START A method used by certain Zone Setpoint
microblocks to regulate setpoints so that the ideal temperature
range can be achieved when building occupancy begins. The
Adaptive Optimal Start routine adjusts setpoints at a constant rate
based on the heating or cooling capacity of the equipment and the
amount of time remaining prior to occupancy. See also Learning
Adaptive Optimal Start.

ADDRESS A series of four numbers that indicate the location of a


Function Block in a system. The address is composed of the site
number, gateway number, module number, and Function Block
number. For example, a Function Block with an address of 1,2,7,3
is the third Function Block in module number seven, which is
connected to the second gateway in site number one.

ALERT A comprehensive event management software package. Alert


is designed for maximum event handling flexibility, including
several event notification options and reporting actions.

CELL A temporary storage location used to simulate the transmission


of data between Function Blocks in Eikon’s simulation mode.

CHANNEL NUMBER A two-digit number that tells a Function Block


where to locate an input or output point on a control module. The
channel number represents the physical input or output channel
on a module and can be configured on the Parameter page or on
the microblock dialog.

CMNET A peer-to-peer local area network which allows up to 99


control modules to communicate with one another with equal
authority.

Chapter 19: Glossary • 359


CONTROL MODULE A microprocessor-based hardware product
designed for stand-alone direct digital control of HVAC
equipment. Many types are available in a variety of input/output
configurations. Control modules are wired together to form a
local area network called a CMnet.

DUTY CYCLE A period of time during which equipment is alternately


on and off.

EIKON A Windows-based application which provides the ability to


graphically program, display, and interact with any HVAC
sequence of operation. It features microblocks (representing
common control devices and complex energy management
functions) interconnected on the screen by graphical wires to form
logical connections.

EXEC See Firmware.

EXPANDER MODULE A module which is added to an existing module


in order to expand the number of I/O points. One or more
expander modules connected to a base module is called a “stack”.
Each expander has a unique address in the stack which is called
the expander number.

EXPANDER NUMBER A number that tells a Function Block which


expander module contains an input or output point. Expander
numbers are assigned to points using either the point
microblock’s dialog or the Parameter page.

FIRMWARE The software program that resides in a control module’s


Programmable Read-Only Memory (PROM). The firmware, or
Exec, controls the processing of the Function Blocks in the
module.

FUNCTION BLOCK (FB) A software program designed specifically for


controlling HVAC equipment. A Function Block (FB) consists of
small program blocks (called microblocks) that can be linked
together to create logical control sequences. Operating parameters
for the Function Block can be assigned by the operator or by the
Function Block’s designer and can be changed in SuperVision on
the Parameter page. The current status of these parameters can be

360 • Chapter 19: Glossary


viewed on SuperVision’s Status page. See also Graphic Function
Block.

GAIN A parameter which a Function Block multiplies with an analog


I/O value in order to convert the signal into desired units (for
example, converting mA to degrees Fahrenheit). Gain is used with
the Offset parameter to calibrate a point.

GLOBAL COMMAND A number that describes the type of LAN


broadcast sent between Function Blocks which may or may not be
located on the same CMnet.

GLOBAL POINT LAN Input and Output microblocks are sometimes


referred to as global points, since they can transmit and receive
information between CMnets residing on the same LGnet.

GLOBAL VARIABLE A value (such as outside air temperature or


electrical demand level) that is broadcast by a LAN Output
microblock. Global variables are available to Function Blocks on
different CMnets that share the same LGnet.

GRAPHIC FUNCTION BLOCK (GFB) A Graphic Function Block (GFB) is


a term used to describe the graphic representation of a Function
Block program. This representation is created in Eikon and can be
viewed in SuperVision using the Live GFB feature.

LABEL A method of connecting microblocks to each other in a


Graphic Function Block. Labels are used to carry analog or digital
values between microblocks when a wire cannot be drawn or is
not appropriate. See also Wire.

LEARNING ADAPTIVE OPTIMAL START A method used by certain Zone


Setpoint microblocks to regulate setpoints so that the ideal
temperature range can be achieved when building occupancy
begins. The Learning Adaptive Optimal Start routine adjusts
setpoints based on the heating or cooling capacity of the
equipment, which is adjusted (or learned) over time as the
equipment meets or fails to meet the ideal temperature range. See
also Adaptive Optimal Start.

Chapter 19: Glossary • 361


LGNET A peer-to-peer global network that allows Function Blocks on
different CMnets to communicate with equal authority. Each
CMnet communicates with the LGnet through a gateway (like a
LANgate or LGRM-E). LAN Input and Output microblocks can be
used to broadcast information between Function Blocks residing
in different CMnets that share the same LGnet.

MBCODE A code assigned to each microblock in a Function Block.


MbCodes can be changed by the Function Block’s designer if the
microblock has its own dialog box.

MICROBLOCK An individual block of programming code that has a


specific purpose and is represented by a graphic symbol.
Microblocks are combined in Eikon with wires and labels to create
Function Blocks. Custom microblocks can be created using
Operator’s Control Language (OCL).

NIB A small pin on the side of a microblock. Wires and labels must
connect with a microblock’s nib in order for the Graphic Function
Block to compile.

OFFSET A parameter which a Function Block adds to an analog I/O


value in order to shift its range to match a standard range (for
example, 4-20mA, 3-15psi, or 0-10V). Offset is used with the Gain
parameter to calibrate a point.

PARAMETER PAGE The Parameter page is a display in SuperVision


where a Function Block’s operating parameters can be viewed or
changed. The Parameter page is composed of the settings for each
microblock in the Function Block. The Function Block’s
programmer can control the content and appearance of the
Parameter page using special editing features in Eikon.

PARAMETER PAGE HEADER The Parameter page header is the topmost


portion of the Parameter page. The header includes general
information about the function block such as its name, ID, system
address, and update time. In Exec 3.x modules, the header is also
used to configure and enable trends, alarms, and messages.

362 • Chapter 19: Glossary


REQUEST Requests are the method by which FBs communicate their
heating and cooling needs to each other. By using requests you
can construct a software "chain" mimicking the mechanical chain
of equipment in the building. When properly constructed,
requests allow you to schedule terminal or zone equipment only,
and allow other equipment to respond to the zone requests.
Requests are communicated using Transmit and Receive
microblocks, which are located in the SysIn and SysOut
microblock libraries.

RUNTIME The amount of time a piece of equipment has been running.

SETPOINT A temperature value that is maintained by the HVAC


equipment. Separate setpoints are determined for heating and
cooling.

STATUS PAGE The Status page is a display in SuperVision where the


current status of a Function Block’s operating parameters can be
viewed. The Function Block’s programmer can control the content
and appearance of the Status page using special editing features
in Eikon.

SUPERVISION A full-featured software package designed as a


graphical HVAC system interface featuring high resolution,
dynamic color graphics.

SYMBOL A group of graphic objects (such as microblocks and wires)


that are stored together in a separate file. Symbol files use the
extension .sym, and can be created using Eikon’s Edit-Copy To
menu command. Symbols can be used to store graphic
programming sequences that are used in more than one Function
Block, like a sequence that controls a fan’s operation.

SYSTEM An entire grouping of control modules that share the same


CMnet or LGnet. Systems can be divided into sites. Function
Blocks can only communicate with other Function Blocks that are
located in the same system.

TOKEN PASS The method used by control modules to communicate


with one another on the CMnet. The gateway transmits a signal,
or "token" to the first control module on the CMnet, which in turn
transmits the token to the next module, and so on back to the

Chapter 19: Glossary • 363


gateway, which begins the token pass again. When a module
receives the token, it transmits data such as colors, prime
variables, LAN broadcasts, and requests to other modules on the
CMnet.

UPDATE TIME The frequency at which a Function Block transmits


important information to the gateway module. When the update
time expires and the Function Block’s module has the token, the
Function Block transmits the following information to the
gateway: color, prime variable, and broadcasts from LAN Input
and Output microblocks. In addition, Function Block’s that can
receive heating, cooling, or run requests ask for those requests
when the update time expires (and the module containing the
Function Block has the token).

WIRE A special line drawn in Eikon to transmit values from one


microblock to another. Analog data is transferred along solid
wires, and digital data is transferred along dashed wires. Wires
can be connected to microblocks, labels, or other wires. When a
wire cannot be drawn or should not be used, a label serves the
same purpose. See also Label.

♦ ♦ ♦

364 • Chapter 19: Glossary


6 Index

A control module 74
compatibility with exec version 15
actuator 18 expander module 74
adaptive optimal start 73 G-Line 17
address 73 M and MX modules 17
airflow control 61 Portal 17
Alert 73 S-Line 17
Alert alarm T-Line 16
defining inputs 25 TPI module 16
alignment 36 TPI32 17
Xcpu 17
B Z-Line 16
copy to 38
BACnet microblocks
highlight option 25
D
C deleting 40
deselecting items 39
cell 73 direction
See also testing an FB 54 text direction 36
Celsius 56 drawing 30
channel number 73 duty cycle 74
cmnet 73
color 23, 27
compile 26, 50 E
l dot 50 editing mode 10
m dot 27 error 50
o dot 27 Exec 74
s dot 50 Exec 3.x 16
u dot 27 Exec 4.x 16
w dot 27 Exec 5.x 17
expander module 74
expander number 74

Chapter 6: Index • 79
F L
Fahrenheit 56 l dot 50
file name 31, 56 label 22, 26, 31, 75
firmware 74 changing a label’s name 35
fixed-pitch 36 deleting labels 35
font 36 drawing labels 32, 34
function block 5, 74 editing labels 33
changing an FB 23 moving labels 35
making an FB 56 standard labels 33
programming guidelines 22 learning adaptive optimal start 75
lgnet 76
G logistat control 61

gain 75 M
G-Line 17
global command 75 m dot 27
global point 75 magnetism 11, 30
global variable 75 make FB 56
graphic function block 5, 75 make screens 49
drawing 30 mbcode 42, 76
drawing guidelines 22 mblocks 10
mistakes 26 metric system 56
naming 31 microblock 10, 76
samples 59 changing parameters 48
saving 31 deleting 40
microblock library 10, 30
H moving 30–31
placing 30
Highlight BACnet microblocks 25 MX modules 17

I N
installation 6 nib 27, 32, 76
number scrolling 49
K
O
keyboard 11
keyboard shortcut 12 o dot 27
OCL 16–17
offset 76

80 • Chapter 6: Index
outside air status page 41, 56, 77
validity of 23 default text 43
editing status text 43
P make screens 49
setting the order 49
palette 36 step
parameter 41 See also setup, testing an FB 55
changing during testing 53 SuperVision 5, 19–21, 77
changing microblock parameters 48 Live GFB feature 16, 21
parameter page 41, 56, 76 symbol 31, 38, 77
default text 43 pasting 39
editing parameter text 43 saving 39
header 76 system 77
make screens 49
setting the order 49 T
password level 47
paste from 38 testing an FB 52
Portal 17 defining the environment 52
printing setup 52
print to bitmap 59 testing more than one FB 54
text
R using text in a GFB 36
tilde 44
reorder 49 T-Line 16
request 77 token 77
limiting runtimes 24 token pass 77
preventing cancelled requests 24 TPI module 16
runtime 77 TPI32 17
trend historian 59
S True Type 36
type 56
s dot 50
saving 31
U
scalable 36
schedule 23 u dot 27
selecting items 39 underscore 43
setpoint 77 undo 40
setup 52 uninstall 8
S-Line 17 update time 56, 78
status bar 11

Chapter 6: Index • 81
W
w dot 27
Wafer 36
wire 22, 31, 78
changing shape of wires 34
deleting wires 34
drawing wires 32–33
moving wires 34

X
Xcpu 17

Z
Z-Line 16
zone control 61
Zone GFB 18
standards 18

82 • Chapter 6: Index