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CENTRAL COUNCIL FOR RESEARCH IN UNANI MEDICINE

Unani Medicine in India


An Overview

Prof. Rais-ur-Rahman

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Director General, CCRUM &
Adviser (Unani), Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India

CENTRAL COUNCIL FOR RESEARCH IN UNANI MEDICINE


Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH)
Government of India

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UNANI MEDICINE IN INDIA – AN OVERVIEW

June 2016 • 10,000 copies

ISBN: 81-87748-47-8

Inputs Provided by:

Dr. Khalid M. Siddiqui, Deputy Director General


Dr. Jamal Akhtar, Research Officer (Unani)
Dr. Qamar Uddin, Research Officer (Unani)
Mr. Mohammad Niyaz Ahmad, Research Officer (Publication)
Mr. Suhail M. Adhami, Consultant (Statistics)
Mr. Anirban Rej, Investigator (Statistics)
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Published by:
CENTRAL COUNCIL FOR RESEARCH IN UNANI MEDICINE
Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India
61-65, Institutional Area, Janakpuri, New Delhi - 110058
Telephone: +91-11-28521981, 28520501, 28525831/52/62/83/97
Fax: +91-11-28522965
Email: unanimedicine@gmail.com
Website: www.ccrum.net

Printed at:
Rakmo Press Pvt. Ltd.
C-59, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase-I, New Delhi - 110 020, India

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Foreword

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


The Unani System of Medicine is an age-old but time-tested system of healthcare, which
came to India from Greece (Yünän) through Arab and Iran, developed scientifically to great
heights and earned wide public acceptance in this country. The Government of India has
recognised Unani Medicine as an Indian System of Medicine and systematically integrated it
in the national healthcare delivery system. The Government has been providing increasing
patronage and funds for multifaceted development of Unani System of Medicine as well
as other Indian systems of medicine. As a result, a wide network of educational, research
and healthcare institutions of Unani Medicine has been developed and India has emerged
as the world leader in Unani Medicine.

With formation of a full-fledged Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani,


Siddha, and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) in November 2014, AYUSH systems of medicine have
got a further boost. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in AYUSH systems
of medicine in both developing as well as developed countries of the world, particularly
because of the fact that the drugs used in these systems have curative value with no major
adverse effects and strengthen the immune system of the body.

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Prevention and control of cancer, diabetes, and other chronic and non-communicable
diseases (NCDs) pose a global challenge to the medical fraternity and scientists. To address
the emerging challenges of healthcare, the Ministry of AYUSH has been taking serious
initiatives for integrating AYUSH systems with the conventional medicine. The Ministry
in collaboration with Directorate General of Health Services has launched a programme
to integrate Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathy with National Programme for Prevention
and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) through
its research councils with the objectives of prevention, early diagnosis and reducing
complications of these diseases.

The present document provides a bird’s-eye view of Unani Medicine with details on its
origin, fundamentals, education, research & development and status in India. This revised
edition is being brought out with the hope that it shall be useful in spreading the rich and
age-old knowledge about Unani System of Medicine for universal health benefits.
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

New Delhi (Anil Ganeriwala)


12th May, 2016

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From the Desk of Director General
The Unani System of Medicine owes its origin to Greece (Yünän). The Greek philosophers and physicians
systematized ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian healthcare concepts and developed them into a Science of
Medicine. From Greece, Medicine travelled to Rome where it was further advanced. In the Middle Ages, it
came to the Arab and Central Asian countries, and parts of Europe. The Arab and Persian scholars enriched
it with their experiences and knowledge and developed it to great heights. From Arab countries and Iran,
this system came to India where it flourished tremendously and found great acceptance among the people.
Now, it is in India that Unani System of Medicine has the most cherished, longest and continuous history
and is being taught and practiced in the most developed form. Ever since Independence, the Government
of India has been extending increasing support and funds for the multi-pronged development of Unani
Medicine as well as other indigenous medicines. As a result, education, research and healthcare in Unani
System of Medicine have been developed considerably in the country. Thanks to the governmental

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


patronage, today India leads the world in Unani Medicine. In view of the growing global interest in this
time-tested system of medicine, India is trying its best to scientifically validate the strengths of the system
and promote it worldwide.

Today, the country has a well-developed infrastructure of academic, research and healthcare institutions
of Unani System of Medicine. There are 46 teaching institutions that offer Unani medical education and
training. Of them, 34 offer undergraduate (UG) courses only, 11 offer both UG and postgraduate (PG)
courses, and one – National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM), Bengaluru (Karnataka) – set up by
the Central Government to conduct postgraduate education and research in Unani System of Medicine
offers only PG courses. Apart from these, Ph.D. programme has also been initiated at NIUM, Bengaluru
and Government Nizamia Tibbi College (GNTC), Hyderabad. The Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian
Medicine (PLIM) is functioning since 1970 as an appellate laboratory for testing of traditional medicines
including Unani drugs and development of Pharmacopoeial standards under the purview of Pharmacopoeia
Commission for Indian Medicine (PCIM). The education and practice of Unani System of Medicine are
under the regulatory control of Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM), a statutory body established
through an Act of Parliament – the Indian Medicine Central Council (IMCC) Act, 1970.

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The country has a large network of Unani hospitals and dispensaries, which are mainly functioning under
Central and State Governments. A National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB) is functioning under the
Ministry of AYUSH to coordinate and support conservation, cultivation and trade of medicinal plants.
Besides, there is Indian Medicines Pharmaceutical Corporation Limited (IMPCL), Mohan (Uttarakhand)
- a Government of India enterprise for supply of medicines to Government dispensaries and hospitals.
There also exist a good number of licensed manufacturing units for Unani drugs in the private sector
of the country. The Government is making well-planned efforts to develop international cooperation to
propagate Unani System of Medicine as well as Ayurveda in other countries. As a result, a Unani Medicine
Chair has been established at the University of Western Cape, South Africa.

The Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM) - an autonomous organization under
the Ministry of AYUSH – has been engaged in conducting scientific research on the applied as well as
fundamental aspects of the system for over the past three and a half decades of its existence. The Council
has over the years made significant strides in its research programmes. The Council’s progress in the
areas of clinical research, drug standardization, survey and cultivation of medicinal plants, and literary
research has attracted international attention. The Council has won appreciation from various quarters for
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

the patents it has been granted for innovative research outcomes, and publication of its research work in
scientific journals of international repute. It has also initiated steps to start M.D. and Ph.D. programmes
in Unani Medicine and allied sciences at CRIUM, Hyderabad, and RRIUM, Srinagar.

In order to further develop and promote Unani Medicine, the Government of India has allotted 10 acres of
land at Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh for the establishment of All India Institute of Unani Medicine (AIIUM).
To prevent the biopiracy and misappropriation of the classical Unani formulations, the Government of
India has launched the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL), a joint initiative of the Ministry of
AYUSH and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. Under this project, 1,75,150 Unani drugs have
been transcribed in a digital database in a patent-compatible format using multi-linguistic data that have
been made accessible to the international patent offices under non-disclosure agreement to examine patent
applications based on traditional medical knowledge. This initiative has prevented wrong patenting of a
number of Unani Medicine-based products.

Through this document entitled Unani Medicine in India – An Overview, which is the revised and updated
edition of the same title published in 2013, CCRUM aims to introduce Unani System of Medicine to a
worldwide audience, especially those interested in the system. It presents an overview of the historical

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development of Unani System of Medicine as well as its unique philosophy, basic principles and
fundamentals, modes of treatment, use of natural drugs, and scientific achievements. It also provides an
insight into the contemporary research and development activities, besides the regulatory mechanism for
education, training and practice of Unani System of Medicine. I am confident that the document will help
widely publicize the strengths of the system and the progress it has made under the patronage and support
of the Government of India in different fields.

We are deeply indebted to Shri Ajit M. Sharan, Secretary, Ministry of AYUSH for his valuable guidance
for bringing out the revised edition of this important document on Unani System of Medicine. We are
also grateful to Shri Anil Ganeriwala, Joint Secretary, Ministry of AYUSH for his sincere advices and
encouragement. We also wish to place on record our sincere thanks to all the experts, reviewers, and
editors for their inputs and suggestions in bringing out this document.

We would also like to put on record our appreciation to Dr. Khalid M. Siddiqui, Deputy Director General;
Dr. Mushtaq Ahmad, former Director, CRIUM, Hyderabad; Mr. Mehr-e-Alam Khan, former Consultant
(Portal); Dr. Jamal Akhtar, Research Officer (Unani); Dr. Qamar Uddin, Research Officer (Unani); Dr. Bilal

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Ahmad, Research Officer (Unani); Mr. Mohammad Niyaz Ahmad, Research Officer (Publication); Mr. Suhail
M. Adhami, Consultant (Statistics) and Mr. Anirban Rej, Investigator (Statistics) for their contribution
in updating and revising this document. We sincerely hope that this revised edition will attract a wider
readership and help build a better understanding of the various aspects of Unani System of Medicine. We
welcome suggestions and comments, if any, for further improvement.

Prof. Rais-ur-Rahman
Director General, CCRUM &
Adviser (Unani), Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India

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Unani Medicine in India — An Overview
Contents
Foreword 3

From the Desk of Director General 5

List of Figures 11

Transliteration Table 13

INTRODUCTION 15

1. ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT 15

2. FUNDAMENTALS OF UNANI MEDICINE 24

3. DIAGNOSIS 27

4. PREVENTION OF DISEASE 28

5. THERAPEUTICS 32

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


RESEARCH 35

1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 35

2. CENTRAL COUNCIL FOR RESEARCH IN UNANI MEDICINE 37

3. MANAGEMENT OF THE COUNCIL 38

4. INSTITUTIONAL NETWORK OF CCRUM 41

5. PROGRAMME PROFILE 48

I. CLINICAL RESEARCH PROGRAMME 55

i. Achievements of the CCRUM 59

ii. Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations 72

iii. Development of Unani Drugs for Common / Seasonal Ailments 72

iv. Validation of Regimen Therapies 73

v. Collaborations 74

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vi. Mobile Clinical Research Programme 75

vii. Intellectual Property Rights 76

II. FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH 76

III. PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH 78

IV. DRUG STANDARDIZATION RESEARCH PROGRAMME 79

V. SURVEY AND CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS PROGRAMME 81

VI. LITERARY RESEARCH PROGRAMME 88

VII. HEALTHCARE SERVICES 89

i. General Outpatient Department (GOPD) Programme 89

ii. School Health Programme 90

iii. Co-location of Unani Medical Centres in Allopathic Hospitals 91

iv. Medical Relief Operations 91


Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

v. Integration of Unani Medicine with NPCDCS 92

vi. Swasthya Rakshan Programme 92

VIII. COLLECTION AND DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION 93

EDUCATION AND HEALTHCARE 99

1. HOSPITALS/ DISPENSARIES 101

2. EDUCATION 102

3. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF UNANI MEDICINE 115

4. ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF UNANI MEDICINE (AIIUM) 117

5. LICENSED UNANI PHARMACIES 118

Important Websites 119

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List of Figures
Sl.No. Figure Details Page
1. Portrait of Hippocrates (Buqräö) 16
2. Portrait of Avicenna (Ibn Sénä) 17
3. Portrait of Abulcasis (Abü al-Qäsim al-Zahräwé) 17
4. Portrait of Ùakém Muhammad Ajmal Khan 19
5. Schematic diagram of Humours (Akhläö) 26
6. Wet Cupping (Ùijäma bi’l-Sharö) 33
7. Leeching (Ta‘léq) 33
8. A page from the book Kitäb al-Tañréf li-man ‘Ajiza ‘ani’l-Ta’léf showing some surgical 34
instruments
9. Ùakém M.A. Razzack 38
10. Ùakém M. Khalid Siddiqui 38

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


11. Ùakém S. Shakir Jamil 38
12. A view of Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM) Headquarters, 45
New Delhi
13. Shri Pranab Mukherjee, Hon’ble President of India being briefed on Unani 47
Medicine by Dr. Khalid M. Siddiqui, Deputy Director General, CCRUM during
the inauguration of AYUSH Wellness Clinic at President’s Estate
14. Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Hyderabad – a renowned centre for 48
Vitiligo treatment
15. Foundation stone laying ceremony of combined building for RRIUM, 56
Mumbai and Regional Research Institute of Homoeopathy
16. Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Chennai 60
17. Unani physician examining a patient of Vitiligo in OPD at CRIUM, Hyderabad 61
18. Efficacy of Unani drugs in Vitiligo 64
19. Efficacy of Unani drugs in Psoriasis – Pre- and post-treatment 66
20. Wet Cupping (Ùijäma bi’l-Sharö) 73
21. Dry Cupping (Ùijäma bilä-Sharö) 73

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Sl.No. Figure Details Page

22. Research Officer of RRIUM, Srinagar attending to pateints at Mobile OPD 75


23. Prof. Rais-ur-Rahman, Director General, CCRUM & Adviser (Unani), Ministry of AYUSH 77
delivering his welcome address at foundation sotne laying ceremony of new hospital
block and inaugration of upgraded biomedical laboratory and scholar house
at CRIUM, Hyderabad
24. Shri Ajit M. Sharan, Secretary, Ministry of AYUSH, Prof. Rais-ur-Rahman, Adviser (Unani), 78
Ministry of AYUSH and Director General, CCRUM with Dr. Seema Akbar, Incharge,
RRIUM, Srinagar and other officers during the former’s visit of the institute
25. A view of Drug Standardization Research Institute, Ghaziabad 80
26. Drug Standardization Research Laboratory, RRIUM, Srinagar 81
27. Za‘farän (Crocus sativus Linn.) 83
28. Bihé (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) 83
29. Tén (Ficus carica Linn.) 83
30. Bäbché (Psoralea corylifolia Linn.) 83
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

31. Süranjän (Colchicum luteum Baker.) 84


32. Khubäzé (Malva sylvestris Linn.) 84
33. CCRUM researchers gathering information on medicinal uses of plants 85
34. Plantation of medicinal herb at CRIUM, Hyderabad 86
35. A view of herb garden of CRIUM, Hyderabad 87
36. Releasing of a publication on medicinal plants and folklore claims 89
37. Research Officer of RRIUM, Srinagar delivering lecture on preventive aspects of 90
diseases to the school children
38. Staff of RRIUM, Chennai organizing IPPI Programme at the institute premises 97
39. A view of Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 103
40. A view of Ayurvedic & Unani Tibbia College, Delhi 104
41. A view of Government Nizamia Tibbi College, Hyderabad 113
42. A view of Faculty of Medicine (Unani), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 113
43. A view of National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bengaluru 116

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Transliteration Table
The following Arabic letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as mentioned against
each:

a r f
b z q
t s k
th sh l
j ñ m
ù ò n
kh ö h

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


d z y
dh gh

The following Persian letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as expressed against
each:

p g th
t n ch
ch bh dh
d ph kh
r th gh

• has been transliterated with elevated coma (’) if used in the mid or end of word followed
by relevant vowel and this elevated coma is not expressed at the beginning and only related
vowel has been used directly.

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• Letter is transliterated as elevated inverted coma (‘).

• Letter as Arabic letter is transliterated as w and as Persian/Urdu letter is transliterated as


v.

• and are not expressed in both pause and construct forms.

• Article is transliterated as al- (’l- in construct form) whether followed by a moon or a sun
letter.

• as a Persian/Urdu conjunction is transliterated as ( o ) and as an Arabic conjunction is


transliterated as wa-.

• Short vowel ( ) in Persian/Urdu passive or in conjunction form is transliterated as (-i).

• Double letters have been expressed as following:


Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

= uww

= iyy

• Short & long vowels and diphthongs are used in the following forms:

Short vowels Long vowels Diphthongs

= a = ä = aw
= i = ä = ay
= u =ü

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Introduction
Origin and
Development
The Unani System of Medicine, as its name suggests, owes its origin to
Greece. The roots of this system go to Egypt and its sister civilization

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Mesopotamia. It was further adopted by the Arabs, and was developed
and improved tremendously by them. The herbal basis of Unani therapy
can be traced back to its earliest originators in ancient Egypt who gave
primary place to plants in disease treatment. They also initiated the use of
surgery as a method of treatment. The studies of Papyri show the ability
of Egyptians in the field of Medicine. Imhotep (2800 BC) and Amenhotep
(1550 BC) are some noted physicians of Egyptian period. Due to their
great contributions in the field of Medicine, Mesopotamians also occupied
an important place in history. They used urine sample as a diagnostic tool.
The Greek period of Unani Medicine began with Asclepius (Asqalébüs-1200
BC), who was a great scholar of Medicine. During Asclepian period, the
Greeks developed the art of Medicine in the light of medical knowledge of
Egyptians and Babylonians.

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It was the Greek philosopher-physician Hippocrates (460-370 BC) who freed Medicine from the realm of
superstition and magic, and gave it the status of Science. He emphasized the natural causes of disease and
recorded the existing medical knowledge to set the grounds for Medicine to develop as a systematic science.
The three fundamentals of Hippocratic Medicine were observation, experience, and rational principles,
which still hold valid in the field of Medicine and Science. The theoretical framework of Unani Medicine
is based on the teachings of Hippocrates. After Hippocrates, a number of other Greek scholars enriched
the system considerably. Of them, Galen (129-200 AD) stands out
as the one who stabilized its foundation, on which Arab
physicians like Rhazes (865-925 AD) and Avicenna
(980-1037 AD) constructed an imposing edifice.

Unani Medicine got enriched by imbibing


what was best in the contemporary systems
of traditional medicine in Egypt, Syria, Iraq,
Persia, India, China and other Middle East
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

and Far East countries. It also benefited


from the native medical systems in
vogue at the time in various parts of
Central Asia. That is why this system is
known, in different parts of the world,
with different names such as Greco-
Arab Medicine, Ionian Medicine, Arab
Medicine, Islamic Medicine, Traditional
Medicine, Oriental Medicine, etc.

Hippocrates (460-370 BC) –


the Father of Unani Medicine

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Unani Medicine in India — An Overview
Ibn Sénä (980-1037 AD) Abü al-Qäsim al-Zahräwé (936-1013 AD)

Unani System of Medicine was introduced to India by the Arabs, and soon it took firm roots in the soil.
The Delhi Sultans, the Khiljis, the Tughlaqs and the Mughal Emperors provided state patronage to the
scholars and even enrolled some as state employees and court physicians. The system found immediate
favour with the masses and soon spread all over the country. During the 13th and 17th century, Unani
Medicine had its heyday in India. Among those who made valuable contributions to this system in the
period were, to name only a few, Abu Bakr bin Ali Usman Kashani, Sadruddin Dimashqui, Bahwa bin
Khwas Khan, Ali Geelani, Akbar Arzani and Mohammad Hashim Alvi Khan.

Unani System of Medicine came to India in the eighth century and developed as a comprehensive
medical system due to multi-pronged original contribution and new applications by scholars of successive
generations. It has been practised, taught and scientifically documented in different parts of the country and
flourished as a scientific medical system. The Government of India facilitated the growth and development
of Unani Medicine by recognizing its utility and scope and integrated it into healthcare delivery system.
With its wide network of quality educational institutions, comprehensive healthcare facilities, state‑of‑the‑art

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research institutions and quality drug manufacturing industries and on account of its utilization by a large
number of people for their healthcare needs, India has emerged as the global leader in Unani System of
Medicine.

During the British rule, Unani Medicine suffered a setback, but since the system enjoyed faith among
the masses, it continued to be practiced. It was mainly the Sharifi Family in Delhi, the Azizi Family in
Lucknow and the Nizam of Hyderabad due to whose efforts Unani Medicine survived in the British period.
An outstanding physician and scholar of Unani Medicine, Ùakém Ajmal Khan (1868 -1927) championed
the cause of Unani System of Medicine in India. The Hindustani Dawakhana and the Ayurvedic and Unani
Tibbia College in Delhi are the two living examples of his immense contribution to the multipronged
development of the two Indian systems of medicine – Unani Medicine and Ayurveda.

The Majeedi family of Delhi, especially Ùakém Abdul Hameed (1908-1999), made valuable contribution
towards modernization of Unani drug industry. Ùakém Abdul Hameed also established an Institute of
History of Medicine and Medical Research (IHMMR) in New Delhi that developed into a deemed university
– the Jamia Hamdard in 1989. Also, some other families such as the Niamathullah Family of Madras (now
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Chennai) and the Usmani Family of Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh) played significant role in the advancement
of Unani Medicine in the 20th century.

The development of Unani Medicine as well as other Indian systems of medicine gained considerable
momentum after independence. A Health Survey and Development Committee appointed in the year 1943
underscored the future role to be played by the indigenous systems of medicine of India. In 1946, the
conference of health ministers resolved that adequate provisions should be made at the Centre and provinces
for research in indigenous systems of medicine, Ayurveda and Unani. The conference also recommended
starting educational and training institutions of these systems. In pursuance of the recommendations of
the conference, a number of committees were appointed by the Government of India, famous of them
being Colonel R.N. Chopra (1946) and C.G. Pandit (1949) Committees. These committees recommended
detailed outline for the development of Indian systems of medicine.

The Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy including Unani System of Medicine got a boost in
1969 with the Government of India establishing Central Council for Research in Indian Medicine and
Homoeopathy (CCRIMH) to conduct research and scientific activities. The dissolution of CCRIMH in 1978
to accord focused attention for research in individual systems led to setting up of four separate research

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Unani Medicine in India — An Overview
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Ùakém Muhammad Ajmal Khan (1868-1927 AD)
councils – one each for Ayurveda & Siddha, Unani Medicine, Yoga & Naturopathy, and Homoeopathy.
Initially, the Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy (ISM&H) were taken care of by a division within
the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. In March 1995, it was replaced by a full-fledged Department
of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy in the ministry, which was renamed as Department of
AYUSH in November, 2003 for overall development of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and
Homoeopathy. With the aim of providing focused attention to the development of education and research
in AYUSH systems of medicine, the Department of AYUSH has been elevated to a full-fledged Ministry of
AYUSH with effect from 09 November, 2014.

At present, Unani System of Medicine, with its own recognized practitioners, hospitals and educational and
research institutions, forms an integral part of the national healthcare delivery system. The Government of
India is providing increasing support and funds for the manifold development of Unani Medicine as well
other indigenous medical systems to have the fullest advantage of these systems in healthcare delivery to
the masses.

Major Milestones
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

5000 BC Use of medicinal plants by Egyptians as recorded in the Papyri


3000 BC Medical writings by Mesopotamian Physicians
3000 BC Establishment of some medical schools in Egypt like Heliopolis, Sais, Memphis,
Thebes and Abydos Medical Schools
3000 BC Morphological study of the sheep’s liver in Mesopotamia
1800 BC Kahun Papyrus dealing with women’s health and gynaecological disorders
1600 BC Edwin Smith Papyrus carrying description of 48 surgical cases
1552 BC Berlin Papyrus dealing with medical and surgical cases
1300 BC Hearst Medical Papyrus dealing with general ailments
1200 BC Initiation of experimental method to study diseases and their treatments by Asclepius
and his descendants
580-489 BC Pythagoras introduced the four proximate qualities - hot, cold, wet and dry and
described the crisis period of diseases.
500 BC Discovery of the first antidote by Asclepius II

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490-430 BC Concept of four elements by Empedocles
460 BC Concept of Atomism by Democritus
460-370 BC Concept of four humours (Akhläö) and medical ethics by Hippocrates
384-322 BC Comparative study of Anatomy and establishment of Lyceum Academy by
Aristotle
370-287 BC Theophrastus founded a Herbal Medical Museum
322-283 Alexandria’s Museum, Library and Medical Faculty were founded
310 BC Erasistratus dissected human bodies and founded human physiology
305 BC Herophilus (Father of Anatomy) dissected a large number of human dead bodies
1st Century AD Compilation of illustrated book “De Materia Medica (Kitäb al- Ùashä’ish)” consisting
of 600 drugs by Dioscorides
200 AD Organization of the Unani System of Medicine by Galen
400-500 AD Establishment of Academy of Jundéshäpür, Iran

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


737-831 AD Development of Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Geber
750-850 AD Translation of Greek medical texts into Arabic
800 AD Establishment of Bayt al-Ùikma (House of Wisdom), Baghdad for translation and
compilation of Unani Medicine related works
800 AD Introduction of Unani System of Medicine in India
865-925 AD Description of infectious diseases by Muùammad ibn Zakariyya Räzé
936-1013 AD Invention and description of surgical instruments by Abü al-Qäsim al- Zahräwé in
his book, Kitäb al-Tañréf
980-1037 AD Compilation of an encyclopedia of Unani System of Medicine Canon of Medicine
(al-Qänün fi’l-Öibb) by Avicenna (Ibn Sénä)
1200-1526 AD Development of Unani System of Medicine in India during Sultanate Period
1526-1857 AD Development of Unani System of Medicine in India during Mughal Era
1595 AD Establishment of Där al-Shifä’, the first Unani teaching hospital of Deccan founded
by Sulöän Muùammad Qulé Quöub Shäh
1865 AD Initiation of a course on Unani System of Medicine by Punjab University

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1891 AD Establishment of Madrasa Öibbiyya, Hyderabad, founded by Naväb Mér Maùbüb ‘Alé
Khän Ãñif Jäh VI
1904 AD Establishment of Hindustäné Dawäkhäna – a manufacturing unit of Unani Medicine
in Delhi
1906 AD Establishment of All India Ayurvedic and Unani Tibbi Conference by Ùakém Ajmal
Khän
1909 AD Establishment of Girls’ Tibbi School (Madrasa Öibbiyya Zanäna) by Ùakém Ajmal
Khän
1920 AD Resolution of All India Congress Committee for Promotion/Official Patronage of
Indian Systems of Medicine (Ayurveda and Unani)
1921 AD Inauguration of Ayurvedic & Unani Tibbia College, Delhi by Mahatma Gandhi
1926 AD Establishment of Research Committee and Research Unit at Ayurvedic & Unani
Tibbia College, Delhi
1927 AD Establishment of Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

with five years degree programme of Unani System of Medicine


1935 AD Establishment of Department of Unani Medicine (Maùkama Öabäbat Yünäné) in the
State of Hyderabad by Mér ‘Uthmän ‘Alé Khän, VIIth Nizäm
1952 AD Establishment of All India Unani Tibbi Conference by Ùakém ‘Abd al-Ùaméd
1962 AD Establishment of Institute of History of Medicine & Medical Research, New Delhi
1963 AD Establishment of Ibn Sénä Academy, Aligarh
1964 AD Setting up of Unani Pharmacopoeia Committee by Government of India
1969 AD Establishment of Central Council for Research in Indian Medicine and
Homoeopathy
1970 AD Setting up of Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicine (PLIM)
1971 AD Enforcement of Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970, and establishment of
CCIM
1972 AD Initiation of Postgraduate education in Unani System of Medicine at Ajmal
Khan Tibbiya College, AMU, Aligarh and Government Nizamia Tibbi College,
Hyderabad

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1978 AD Establishment of Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, New Delhi
1979 AD Passing of Pashchim Banga Unani Medicine Act
1983 AD Incorporation of Chapter IV-A with separate regulatory provisions for Ayurveda,
Siddha and Unani Medicine in the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and rules
thereunder
1983 AD Setting up of West Bengal State Council of Unani Medicine
1983 AD Setting up of Indian Medicines Pharmaceutical Corporation Limited (IMPCL)
1995 AD Setting up of Department of Indian Systems of Medicine & Homoeopathy (ISM&H)
in Union Ministry of Health & Family Welfare
2000 AD Establishment of National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB)
2002 AD Formation of National Policy on Indian Systems of Medicine & Homoeopathy
2003 AD Constitution of Task Force for Unani Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL)
and Launching of TKDL (Unani)
2003 AD Renaming of Department of Indian Systems of Medicine & Homoeopathy (ISM&H)

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


as Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy
(AYUSH)
2004 AD Establishment of National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM)
2005 AD Mainstreaming of AYUSH strategy adopted under National Rural Health Mission
(NRHM)
2010 AD Establishment of Pharmacopoeia Commission for Indian Medicine
2011 AD Setting up of Unani Chair at University of Western Cape, South Africa
2014 AD Elevation of Department of AYUSH to a full-fledged Ministry of AYUSH
2015 AD Relocation of Literary Research Institute of Unani Medicine from Jamia Hamdard to
Jamia Millia Islamia and its renaming as Hakim Ajmal Khan Institute for Literary &
Historical Research in Unani Medicine (HAKILHRUM)
2015 AD Establishment of AYUSH Wellness Clinic (Unani Wing) at President’s Estate, New
Delhi

23
Fundamentals
of Unani Medicine
Unani System of Medicine is based on the specific principles put forward by
Hippocrates. He was the first person to establish that disease is a natural process,
its symptoms are the reactions of the body to the disease, and that the main
function of the physician is to aid the natural forces of the body. He was the
first physician to introduce the humoral theory.

The most important principle of Unani Medicine is temperament (Mizäj) which


classifies human beings, diet, drugs, etc. into four qualitative types: Hot & Dry,
Hot & Wet, Cold & Wet and Cold & Dry. Different characters are found in
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

persons having different temperament, for instance a Hot & Dry Temperament
is associated with a lean built, excessive anger, etc. The temperament of diet,
drug, etc. is known by some physical characters and effects on human beings,
for example, a non-succulent, pungent or salty vegetable is likely to be Hot &
Dry. This allows the identification of the diet which is proper for maintaining the
healthy Temperament of a human being. Pathological shift in the temperament
causes disease, and reversing the abnormal temperament to the normal, by using
drugs/diets of opposite temperament cures the disease.

Unani System of Medicine possesses fundamental principles for all medical


fields i.e. Physiology, Anatomy, Preventive Medicine, Pathology, Diagnostics,
Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Seven Natural Factors, viz. Elements (Arkän),
Temperament (Mizäj), Humours (Akhläö), Organs (A‘òä’), Pneuma (Arwäù),
Faculties (Quwä) and Functions (Af‘äl) make the totality of a human being.
The disease is caused by the imbalance in the temperament and humours,
disorganization and discontinuity of the structure leads to the development of
disease.

24
Assessment of Temperament (Mizäj)

Parameter Temperament (Mizäj)


Sanguine Phlegmatic Bilious Melancholic
(Damawé) (Balghamé) (Ñafräwé) (Sawdäwé)
Complexion Ruddy (Reddish / Chalky Pale Purple
Wheatish Brown) (Whitish) (Yellowish) (Blackish)
Built Muscular & Broad Fatty & Broad Muscular & Thin Skeleton
Touch Hot & Soft Cold & Soft Hot & Dry Cold & Dry
Hair Black & Lustrous Black & Thin Brown & Thin Brown & Thin
Thick, Rapid Slow Growth Rapid Growth Slow Growth
Growth
Movement Active Dull Hyperactive Less Active
Diet (most Cold & Dry Hot & Dry Cold & Moist Hot & Moist
liked)

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Weather (most Spring Summer Winter Autumn
suitable)
Sleep Normal (6-8 hours) In excess Inadequate Insomnia
Pulse Normal in Rate Slow in Rate Rapid in Rate Slow in Rate
(70-80/min) (60-70/min) (80-100/min) (60-70/min)
Large in Volume Normal in Volume Normal in Volume Less in Volume
Emotions Normal Calm & Quiet Angry Nervous

(Maximum number of ticks in a particular column denotes the dominant temperament.)

The fundamental framework of this system is based on Hippocratic theory of four Humours (Akhläö) – Blood
(Dam), Phlegm (Balgham), Yellow Bile (Ñafrä’) and Black Bile (Sawdä’). Admixture of different elements
and their qualities in specific ratio in a particular entity, whether living or non-living, denominates its
temperament (Mizäj). Human temperament is commonly denoted by the dominant humour i.e. Sanguine
(Damawé), Phlegmatic (Balghamé), Choleric (Ñafräwé) and Melancholic (Sawdäwé), which can be correlated
with the temperament of diet, drugs, environmental factors, etc. as the entities of non-human universe

25
being made up directly of elements are described in terms of qualitative temperament. Any disturbance in
the equilibrium of humours causes disease, and therefore the treatment aims at restoring the equilibrium
by giving factors (including drugs) of opposite temperament. In addition, Unani System of Medicine
believes that medicatrix naturae (Öabé‘at Mudabbira Badan) is the supreme power, which controls all the
physiological functions of the body and provides resistance against the diseases.

Thus, the humoral imbalance can be corrected by proper diet and medication. The physician prescribes
drugs according to the temperament of patient, causative humour, faculty of organ involved and severity
of the disease. These drugs are classified as per the specific temperament (Mizäj) and are graded in the
first, second, third and fourth degree according to their potency.

Unani Medicine gives more importance to maintenance of health and prevention of disease rather than
treatment. In a completely healthy person it prescribes lifestyle, diet and environment appropriate for his
or her temperament, while in healthy but weak persons or healthy persons who have become vulnerable
to disease, special diets, non-drug manipulations or regimens and even drugs are prescribed to maintain
health and prevent disease.
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Every person is supposed to have a unique humoral


constitution, which represents his healthy state. To
maintain correct humoral balance, there is a power
of self-preservation or adjustment called medicatrix
naturae (Öabé‘at Mudabbira Badan) in the body.
If this power weakens, imbalance in the humoral
composition is bound to occur and this causes
disease. In Unani Medicine, great reliance is placed
on this power. The medicines used in this system, in
fact, help the body regain this power to an optimum
level and thereby restore humoral balance, thus
retaining health. Also, correct diet and digestion are
considered to maintain humoral balance.

Schematic diagram of Humours (Akhläö)

26
Diagnosis
Unani System of Medicine uses the unique holistic diagnostics comprising
history, physical examination, pulse and inspection of urine and stool.
History taking and physical examination are undertaken according to
general parameters and specific parameters required by the particular
problem of the patient, guided mainly by the ‘Ten Fundamental Categories’
(Ajnäs ‘Ashara). Ten features of pulse particularly observed during the
diagnosis of a disease are - size of expansion, force, duration of movement
and rest, condition of vessel wall, palpation of pulse, volume, equality
and inequality, rhythm and weight of pulse. Apart, some other types of
compound pulse have also been described in Unani System of Medicine.

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Unani scholars have described pulse in great detail under several headings
such as normal pulse, factors governing pulse, effects of intrinsic factors
such as age and sex, temperament, season, region and country, food and
drink, sleep and wakefulness, exercise, bath, pregnancy, pain, swelling,
and emotions.

Physical examination of urine helps a lot in the diagnosis of not only uro-
genital diseases but also other systemic disorders. Several aspects are taken
into account for diagnosis, e.g. quantity, colour, odour, consistency, foam
or froth, precipitates, clearness and turbidity. The physical examination
of stool also helps in the diagnosis of various diseases. Colour, quantity,
consistency and presence of foreign bodies are observed during its physical
examination. In addition to the above, Unani physicians have stressed on
the importance of physical examination of the patient e.g. diagnosis by
skin, nails, tongue, etc. Other modern tools of diagnosis are also used to
confirm the diagnosis.

27
Prevention of Disease
Unani Medicine recognizes the influence of surroundings and ecological
conditions on the state of health of human beings. The most basic principle
in promotion of health and prevention of disease is temperament (Mizäj). The
Classics of the Unani System of Medicine clearly lay down that maintenance of
Health (Ùifzän-i Ñiùùat) is superior to treatment. In disease, treatment is done
by using the non-drug (diet) and drug factors of opposite temperament, while
for maintenance of health, mostly non-drug factors of the same temperament
are used. For maintenance of health, Unani Medicine specially places emphasis
on the Six Essential Factors (Asbäb Sitta Òarüriyya), i.e., Air (Hawä’), Food
and Drink (Ma’kül-o-Mashrüb), Bodily Movement and Repose (Ùarakat-o-Sukün
Badané), Psychic Movement and Repose (Ùarakat-o-Sukün Nafsäné), Sleep
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

and Wakefulness (Nawm-o-Yaqza) and Evacuation and Retention (Istifrägh-o-


Iùtibäs). The lifestyle disorders like Depression, Hypertension, Coronary Heart
Disease, Obesity etc., which are the major health burden of present times, can
be successfully, economically and safely prevented by following the instructions
with regard to these essential factors. In fact, Unani System of Medicine describes
all the Factors affecting health and disease, of whom those affecting all human
beings perpetually are called Essential (Òarüriyya), while, the rest are called
Non-Essential (Ghayr Òarüriyya).

Air (Hawä’)

Air is the most crucial factor for life. It helps in the production and maintenance
of pneuma, which is the source of vitality. Air is the medium of most of the
external factors affecting life and health. Unani System of Medicine uses air in
prevention and treatment chiefly by taking into account the seasonal variations
in Air. For instance, in summer, air becomes hotter, so cold food and moderate
movement and exercise should be adopted to remain healthy.

28
Food and Drink (Ma’kül-o-Mashrüb)
Food is second only to air in maintaining life and health by replacing the body’s used-up and broken-
down components (Badal mä Yataùallal). Unani System of Medicine makes extensive use of diet both for
promotion of health and treatment of disease. It has been very successful in identifying appropriate food
by using the principle of temperament. Similarly, drinks especially water is crucial since food becomes
effective in solution. Therefore, Unani System of Medicine provides extensive guidelines for the type of
water and the appropriate time for drinking it.

Bodily Movement and Repose (Ùarakat-o-Sukün Badané)


Unani System of Medicine gives great importance to both appropriate movement and rest for maintaining
health and curing disease. Movement is necessary for evacuating waste products, and rest is needed for
retaining nutrients till the completion of digestion.

Psychic Movement and Repose (Ùarakat-o-Sukün Nafsäné)

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Unani System of Medicine recognizes the role of psychic states in maintaining health and preventing disease
and describes mental states in terms of the movement and repose of pneuma. Unani Medicine considers
the heart as a seat of pneuma (Rüù) and the soul (Nafs), while brain as the seat of psychic faculties (Quwä
Nafsäniyya). So, mental states described by Unani Medicine in terms of psychic movement and repose
specially affect heart and brain function.

Sleep and Wakefulness (Nawm-o-Yaqza)


Sleep is necessary for preserving pneuma and vitality and providing replacement of wear and tear, while
wakefulness is necessary for voluntary functions. Therefore, moderation should be exercised with regard
to sleep and wakefulness.

Evacuation and Retention (Istifrägh-o-Iùtibäs)


Evacuation is needed for removal of waste products which may cause obstructions or embolism and
toxicity. Evacuation takes place by defecation, micturition, sweating, etc. Retention of nutrients is needed
for health and prevention of the diseases.

29
Principles of Treatment in Unani Medicine
In Unani System of Medicine, following basic principles are used in the management of diseases depending
upon the pathology involved in the disease process:

1. Removal of the causative factor (Izäla-i Sabab): The causative factors in the pathology of the
disease process are determined and removed for the proper management of the disease.

2. Normalization of the morbid temperament (Ta‘dél-i Mizäj): The disease in which the temperament
of a person is altered without affecting the quality and quantity of humours, only correction of
simple morbid temperament is required. This is achieved simply by modifying the lifestyle of
the patient in the light of description of the essential and non-essential factors in the literature
of Unani System of Medicine.

3. Evacuation of morbid material (Tanqiya): The temperament is changed due to increase in the
quantity of certain humours and that morbid material in the body gets accumulated. The morbid
material of the body is evacuated by various therapies through different routes for the treatment
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

of the disease e.g. Cupping (Ùijäma), Venesection (Fañd), Leeching (Ta‘léq), Concoctive (Munzij)
Purgative (Mushil) Therapy, Expectoration (Tanfés), Diuresis (Idrär-i Bawl) and Diaphoresis
(Ta‘réq).

4. Heterotherapy (‘Iläj bi’l-Òidd): This is the main principle of treatment in Unani System of
Medicine in which the drug having temperament opposite to the disease is administered for the
correction of morbid temperament and cure of illness.

5. Holistic approach: In the management of the systemic diseases, the entire lifestyle and the
constitution of the patient is taken into account for making diagnosis and prescribing correct
treatment. It includes habits, habitat, physical, emotional, temperamental and humoral status
of the patient and condition of system/organ of the body involved. Taking all these factors into
account, the treatment of the disease is prescribed.

6. Surgical and para-surgical procedures (‘Iläj bi’l-Yad): In Unani System of Medicine, diseases
of the structure (Sü’-i Tarkéb) and breach of continuity (Tafarruq-i Ittiñäl) are treated by using
suitable operative and para operative techniques as applied for the treatment by the Unani
scholars.

30
7. Psychiatric treatment (‘Iläj Nafsäné): Unani System of Medicine treats psychiatric diseases and
psychic element of psycho-somatic diseases by using drugs, modifying mind-related processes
like sleep and psychotherapy. It is able to use drugs by its discovery of the ‘substance of mind’
i.e. psychic pneuma (Rüù Nafsäné) while its appreciation of the medical importance of processes,
physical conditions, etc., which it organizes as ‘Six Essential Factors’ (Asbäb Sitta Òarüriyya),
helps it closely relate sleep, etc. to the improvement of psychiatric and psycho-somatic diseases.
It also makes use of psychotherapy by manipulation of mind by verbal means. But its main
reliance is on drug treatment as it has discovered the subtle substance of mind and its relation
with drugs due to their common temperament.

8. Spiritual treatment (‘Iläj Rüùäné): Unani System of Medicine recognises the role of spiritual
health and treatment by discovering that the spirit (Nafs Näöiqa) is joined to the pneuma and
through it, to the body, and is the supreme regulator of man. However, Unani System of Medicine
restricts itself to the pneuma and body, and leaves spiritual treatment to religious and spiritual
counselling by spiritual authorities. Although, it does not oblige the physician to be a spiritual
authority but culturally most physicians are also spiritually advanced and provide spiritual

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


counselling which has a powerful role in healthcare by facilitating a healthy lifestyle and de-
stressing. The technical limitations of medicine to only pneuma and body allows people of all
religious persuasions to practice Unani System of Medicine, while recognition of religious and
spiritual counselling as a complementary activity permits spiritual dimension of health-care.

9. Three primary sources of drugs (Mawäléd Thalätha): In Unani System of Medicine, drug
substances are obtained from herbal, animal and mineral sources for the medication purposes
in their natural form. Sometimes, these drugs are used in simple form and sometimes in the
form of a compound of various drugs. They may be subjected to physico-chemical processes but
without breaking up their natural character. Thus, Unani System of Medicine uses only natural
substances in treatment.

31
Therapeutics
In Unani System of Medicine, four types of treatment are employed when the
prevention is failed and disease occurs, which include Regimen therapy (‘Iläj
bi’l-Tadbér), Dietotherapy (‘Iläj bi’l-Ghidhä’), Pharmacotherapy (‘Iläj bi’l-Dawä’)
and surgery (‘Iläj bi’l-Yad). The preference is given to Regimen therapy and
dietotherapy. Pharmacotherapy and surgery are used only if required. Psychiatric
treatment (‘Iläj Nafsäné) and spiritual treatment (‘Iläj Rüùäné) are also used.

Regimen therapy (Iläj bi’l-Tadbér) is one of the most popular methods of treatment
practised by Unani physicians since antiquity. Literally, Tadbér is an Arabic word
meaning ‘regimen’ or ‘systematic plan’ whereas ‘Iläj means ‘therapy’ or ‘treatment’.
Thus, ‘Iläj bi’l-Tadbér means treatment through regimen by which care of the sick
person is taken and the general health is maintained. Regimen therapies are mostly
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

non-medicinal procedures by which we modulate the lifestyles for preservation of


health and treatment of disease. Unani physicians have described various regimens
for the management of diseases, either independently or in combination with
other regimens including changes in diet, physical exercise, lifestyle and measures
to eliminate the morbid humours (Tanqiya) from the body or divert them. The
regimen therapies practiced in Unani Medicine include Cupping (Ùijäma), Massage
(Dalk), Leeching (Ta‘léq), Venesection (Fañd), Purgation (Ishäl), Emesis (Qay’),
Diuresis (Idrär-i Bawl), Enema (Ùuqna), Diaphoresis (Ta‘réq), Expectoration
(Tanfés), Counter Irritation (Éläm), Sitz Bath (Äbzan), Turkish bath (Ùammäm),
Irrigation (Naöül) and Fomentation (Takméd), etc.

Dietotherapy aims at preventing and treating certain ailments by administration


of specific diets or by regulating the quantity and quality of food. Unani Medicine
lays great stress on treating certain ailments by administration of specific diets.
In addition to nutritional properties, various foods have pharmacological actions
too. For example, many foods are laxative, diuretic and diaphoretic.

32
Wet cupping (Ùijäma bi’l-Sharö) Leeching (Ta‘léq)

The weakness of certain organs is corrected by administering the same organ of an animal by way of food;

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


for instance, disorders and weakness of liver are treated by including the goat liver in the patient’s diet.
Likewise, heart, kidney and brain are recommended in the respective organ’s treatment.

Pharmacotherapy deals with the use of naturally occurring drugs, mostly herbal, though drugs of animal
and mineral origin are also used in Unani Medicine.

In Unani Medicine, single drugs or their combinations in raw form are preferred over compound
formulations. Further, the materia medica of Unani Medicine being vast, the medicines are easy to get for
most of them are available locally. The naturally occurring drugs used in this system are symbolic of life
and are generally free from side-effects. Such drugs as toxic in crude form are processed and purified in
many ways before use.

The Greek and Arab physicians encouraged poly-pharmacy and devised a large number of poly-
pharmaceutical recipes which are still in vogue. In Unani Medicine, although general preference is for
single drugs, compound formulations are also employed in the treatment of various complex and chronic
disorders. Since in this system stress is laid on the particular temperament of the individual, the drugs

33
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

A page from the book Kitäb al-Tañréf li-man ‘Ajiza ‘an al-Ta’léf showing some surgical instruments.

are prescribed according to the temperament of the patient, thus accelerating the process of recovery and
also eliminating the risk of drug reaction.

Surgery (‘Iläj bi’l-Yad) has always been a part of treatment in Unani System of Medicine since ancient
times. In fact, the ancient physicians of Unani Medicine were pioneers in this field and had developed
their own instruments and techniques. Abü al-Qäsim al-Zahräwé, an Arab Unani physician, wrote a book
entitled Kitäb al-Tañréf li-man ‘Ajiza ‘An al-Ta’léf with illustrations of surgical instruments, consisted of 30
volumes on topics of medicine, surgery, pharmacy and other health sciences. The last volume, comprising
300 pages, is dedicated to surgery. He treated surgery as a separate subject for the first time in the history
of medicine. He described several procedures, and techniques, including extraction of cataracts, removal
of kidney stones, tonsillectomy, tracheotomy, craniotomy, caesarean section, dentistry, etc.

34
Research
Historical
Background
The movement of research in Unani System of Medicine dates back to
the times of its origin when Greek physician-philosopher Hippocrates

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


freed Medicine from superstitions and presented it in the initial scientific
form. Thereafter, the Roman scholar Galen stabilized the foundations of
Hippocratic medical thoughts on which the Arab and Iranian physicians
like al-Räzé and Ibn Sénä built an edifice and developed the system to great
heights. Ibn Sénä laid down guidelines for clinical testing of drugs as early
as in 11th century.

The scientific research in Unani System of Medicine was given a boost


in India by a versatile genius, Maséù al-Mulk Ùakém Ajmal Khan, in the
1920s. He spotted Dr. Salim al-Zaman Siddiqui, a chemist, for undertaking
chemical studies on some important medicinal plants used in Unani System
of Medicine. Dr. Siddiqui discovered the medicinal properties of the plant
commonly known as Asravl (Rauwolfia serpentina Linn.) and successfully
isolated an antiarrythmic agent from the plant in 1931 which he named as
Ajmaline after his mentor Ùakém Ajmal Khan. Later, he also extracted some
other alkaloids from the same plant that included Ajmalinine, Ajmalicine,
Isoajmaline and Neoajmaline for the treatment of mental and cardiovascular

35
ailments. This paved way to sustained research in the system. A number of committees appointed by the
Government of India recommended detailed outline for the development of Indian systems of medicine
including Unani System. Systematic scientific research in these systems thereafter started with the
establishment of Central Council for Research in Indian Medicine and Homoeopathy (CCRIMH) in 1969.
Research in Unani System of Medicine continued under the CCRIMH for about a decade.

In March 1978, the Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM) was set up, which started
functioning from 10th January 1979 to build up research base for the system with focused objectives and
plans. Over the years, the CCRUM has emerged as the leading government organization of scientific research
in Unani System of Medicine. Research in Unani System of Medicine is being conducted in the country
with a multidisciplinary approach. The areas of research include fundamental research, preclinical and
clinical research, drug standardization, survey and cultivation of medicinal plants, and literary research.
Scientific studies in these areas have also been conducted by some other institutions, e.g. National Institute
of Unani Medicine, Bengaluru; Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh; Faculty
of Medicine (U), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi; Government Nizamia Tibbi College, Hyderabad, and some
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

other institutions. More than 1000 theses of postgraduate research in various disciplines of Unani Medicine
have been produced from different academic institutions. Besides, 27 theses in collaboration with CRIUM,
Hyderabad; 15 theses with RRIUM, Srinagar and five theses at All India Institute of Medical Sciences have
also been awarded in allied health sciences based on the collaborative research in Unani Medicine.

36
Central Council for
Research in Unani Medicine
The Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM) is an
autonomous organization under Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy,
Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Government of India. The main
objectives of the Council are as follows:

• Formulation of aims and patterns of research on scientific lines in


Unani Medicine
• To undertake research or any other programmes in Unani
Medicine
• Prosecution of and assistance in research and propagation of

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


knowledge and experimental measures generally in connection with
the causation, mode of spread and prevention of diseases
• To initiate, aid, develop and coordinate scientific research on
different aspects, fundamental and applied, of Unani Medicine,
and to promote and assist institutions of research for the study of
diseases, their prevention, causation and remedy
• To finance enquiries and researches for the furtherance of objectives
of the Council
• To exchange information with other institutions, associations and
societies interested in the objectives similar to those of the Council,
especially in the observation and study of diseases in the East in
general, and in India in particular
• To prepare, print, publish and exhibit any papers, posters, pamphlets,
periodicals and books for furtherance of the objectives of the
Council and to contribute to such literature.

37
Management
of the Council
The policies, directions and overall functioning of the Council are regulated by
the Governing Body. Minister of State (Independent Charge), Ministry of AYUSH,
Government of India is the president of the Governing Body and has general
control on the affairs of the Council. There is a Standing Finance Committee
(SFC) under the chairmanship of Joint Secretary, Ministry of AYUSH, Government
of India to consider and recommend various financial proposals, developmental
activities, etc. The Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC), headed by an expert
of Unani Medicine as its chairman and reputed scientists in different disciplines
as members of the committee, provides direction to the research activities. The
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

SAC helps the Council in formulation, appraisal, implementation, monitoring


and evaluation of the research projects and identify topics of research for the
development of the system. Sub-committees of each of the research programmes,
e.g. clinical research subcommittee, drug research subcommittee, literary research
subcommittee, survey and cultivation of medicinal plants subcommittee have
also been constituted for close monitoring of the programmes. A committee for
claim-of-cure has been constituted to examine the claim for treatment of various
diseases. Local scientific advisory committees have also been constituted for
the close monitoring of the research activities of the institutes. In accordance
with the standard guidelines to look into the ethical issues involved in research
studies undertaken by the Council, the Institutional Ethics Committees (IECs)
have been constituted in all the clinical research centres of the Council.

38
Management of the Council

Governing Body

Standing Finance Scientific Advisory Institutional Ethics


Committee Committee CommitteeS

RESEARCH

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


SUB-COMMITTEES

Clinical Research Drug Research Literary Research Survey & Cultivation


of Medicinal Plants Claim of Cure
Sub-committee Sub-committee Sub-committee
Sub-committee Sub-committee

Head of the Council

The Council is headed by a Director General (earlier Director till June 2009) duly appointed by Ministry
of AYUSH, Government of India. He manages technical & administrative affairs and supervises overall
functioning of the council and its subordinate offices. Following is the list of Directors/Directors General
who headed the council from its inception till now.

39
Period
S.No. Directors
From To
1. Ùakém M.A. Razzack 10.01.1979 11.01.1988
2. Mr. S.B. Goel 12.01.1988 15.10.1989
3. Dr. A.M. Ansari 16.10.1989 27.08.1990
4. Ùakém M.A. Razzack 28.08.1990 28.02.1991
5. Ùakém (Mrs.) Ummul Fazal 28.02.1991 28.10.1991
6. Mr. R.K. Mukhi 28.10.1991 09.07.1993
7. Ùakém M. Khalid Siddiqui 09.07.1993 12.09.1993
8. Ùakém (Mrs.) Ummul Fazal 13.09.1993 17.11.1993
9. Ùakém M. Khalid Siddiqui 17.11.1993 06.08.2002
10. Prof. A.A. Ansari 06.08.2002 17.11.2003
11. Ùakém M. Khalid Siddiqui 17.11.2003 11.06.2009
Directors General
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

1. Ùakém M. Khalid Siddiqui 12.06.2009 30.06.2010


2. Mrs. Meenakshi Negi 01.07.2010 09.09.2010
3. Prof. S. Shakir Jamil 10.09.2010 31.01.2015
4. Prof. Rais-ur-Rahman 01.02.2015

Ùakém M.A. Razzack Ùakém M. Khalid Siddiqui Prof. S. Shakir Jamil

40
Institutional Network
The Council has its headquarters at New Delhi with 23 centres functioning in different parts of the country.
The institutional network of the Council includes two Central Research Institutes of Unani Medicine
(CRIUMs) - one each at Hyderabad and Lucknow; eight Regional Research Institutes of Unani Medicine
(RRIUMs) - one each at Chennai, Bhadrak, Patna, New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Aligarh and Srinagar; Hakim
Ajmal Khan Institute for Literary & Historical Research in Unani Medicine (HAKILHRUM) at New Delhi;
Drug Standardization Research Institute (DSRI) at Ghaziabad; two Regional Research Centres (RRCs) – one
each at Allahabad and Silchar; six Clinical Research Units (CRUs) - one each at Bhopal, Burhanpur, Meerut,
Bengaluru, Kurnool and Edathala; Drug Standardization Research Unit (DSRU) at Ghaziabad; Chemical
Research Unit (Grant-in-aid) at Aligarh; and Clinical Research Pilot Project at Imphal, Manipur.

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


A view of Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM) headquarters, New Delhi

41
Besides, the Council has two co-location centres in
allopathic hospitals in New Delhi for providing free
Unani treatment under one roof. These include a
Unani Medical Centre at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia
Hospital and a Unani Speciality Centre at Deen Dayal
Upadhyay Hospital.

Further, the AYUSH Wellness Clinic (AWC),


established at the President’s Estate, New Delhi on
25th July, 2015, is jointly managed by the CCRUM.
The AWC is a unique project where all the AYUSH
Shri  Pranab Mukherjee,  Hon’ble President of India, systems have come under one roof to provide medical
being briefed on Unani Medicine by Dr. Khalid M. services to the residents of the President’s Estate. All
Siddiqui, Deputy Director General, CCRUM during manpower needs and medical facilities related to
Unani Medicine is catered by the CCRUM.
Inauguration of AYUSH Wellness Clinic at President’s
Estate. In a move to strengthen its research infrastructure
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

and institutional network, the Council has recently


upgraded the laboratories at CRIUM, Hyderabad and RRIUMs, Chennai, Srinagar and Aligarh with state-
of-the-art equipment, modern technology and fresh structure. It has also constructed buildings for its
three institutes – Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine (RRIUM), Patna and Bhadark, and Central
Research Institute of Unani Medicine (CRIUM), Lucknow.

Hakim Ajmal Khan Institute for Literary & Historical Research in Unani Medicine (HAKILHRUM) has
been reorganised and relocated to Jamia Millia Islamia, a reputed Central University and a great campus of
teaching and research. Clinical facility has also established at the Institute. The Institute earlier named as
Literary Research Institute of Unani Medicine was located in the campus of Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.

42
State-wise Network of CCRUM

Srinagar

Meerut

New Delhi Ghaziabad

Aligarh
Manipur
Lucknow
Patna
Allahabad

Bhopal Kolkata

Silchar
Burhanpur
Karimganj (Assam)

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Mumbai Bhadrak
Hyderabad

Kurnool
CCRUM Headquarters
Bengaluru
Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine


Chennai
Regional Research Centre
Edathala (Kerala)
Clinical Research Unit

Unani Medical Centre

Unani Speciality Clinic

AYUSH Wellness Clinic


Hakim Ajmal Khan Institute for Literary &
Historical Research in Unani Medicine
Drug Standardisation Research Institute

Drug Standardisation Research Unit

Chemical Research Unit

Clinical Research Pilot Project

43
CCRUM institutes/
centres

Central Research
Institute of Unani Central Research
Medicine Institute of Unani
Opp. E.S.I. Hospital Medicine
A.G. Colony Road Basaha, Kursi Road
Erragadda Lucknow - 226 026
Hyderabad - 500 038 Uttar Pradesh
Telangana Hakim Ajmal Khan
Institute for Literary &
Historical
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Research in Unani Medicine


Jamia Millia Islamia, Okhla
New Delhi - 110 025
Regional Research Delhi
Regional Research
Institute of Unani Institute of Unani Medicine
Medicine University of Kashmir
1, West Meda Hazrat Bal
Church Street, Royapuram Srinagar - 190 006
Chennai - 600 013 Jammu & Kashmir
Tamil Nadu Regional Research
Institute of Unani
Medicine
D-11/1, Abul Fazal Enclave
Jamia Nagar, Okhla
New Delhi - 110 025
Delhi

44
CCRUM institutes/
centres

Regional Research
Institute of Unani
Medicine
Post Box No. 70
A.K. Tibbiya College Hospital
(New Block)
Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh - 202 001 Regional Research
Regional Research Uttar Pradesh Institute of Unani
Institute of Unani Medicine
Medicine
Guzri, Patna City
Chandbali Bypass Road
Patna - 800 008
(Near Rural Police Station)
Bihar
Bhadrak - 756 100
Regional Research
Odisha
Institute of Unani
Medicine
J.J. Hospital Compound

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


(Behind Eye Bank)
Byculla
Mumbai - 400 008
Maharashtra
Regional Research Regional Research Centre
Institute of Unani Medicine S.M. Dev Civil Hospital
79, Chitranjan Avenue Silchar - 788001 (Cachar)
Kolkata - 700 073 Assam
West Bengal

Regional Research Centre


B-501/4, G.T.B. Nagar
(Opp. Dulhan Palace)
Allahabad - 211 016
Uttar Pradesh

45
CCRUM institutes/
centres

Clinical Research Unit


(Unani)
D. No. 40/23
Dr. Abdul Haq Unani
Hospital Premises
Park Road
Kurnool - 518 001
Clinical Research Unit Andhra Pradesh
(Unani) Clinical Research Unit
(Extension Centre of RRC, Silchar) (Unani)
Ullaskar Dutta, Masjid Road Edathala (N), P. O. Aluva
Karimganj - 788 710 Ernakulam (Dist.) - 683 534
Assam Kerala
Clinical Research Unit
(Unani)
National Institute of Unani
Medicine Campus
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Kottigepalya
Magadi Main Road
Bengaluru - 560 091
Clinical Research Unit Karnataka Clinical Research Unit
(Unani) (Unani)
Saida Hospital Campus Department of Pharmacology
Khandwa Road Gandhi Medical College
Burhanpur - 450 331 Bhopal - 462 001
Madhya Pradesh Clinical Research Madhya Pradesh
Pilot Project (Unani)
Ground Floor, Regional
Research Institute of
Homoeopathy (RRIH) Building
New Checkon Road
Opposite Tribal Colony
Imphal East - 795 001
Manipur

46
CCRUM institutes/
centres

Drug Standardization
Research Institute
PLIM Building
Opp. ‘M’ Block, Sector-23
Kamla Nehru Nagar
Ghaziabad - 201 002
Drug Standardization Uttar Pradesh
Chemical Research Unit
Research Unit Near Dean Office
PLIM Building
Faculty of Science
Opp. ‘M’ Block, Sector-23
Aligarh Muslim University
Kamla Nehru Nagar
Aligarh - 202 002
Ghaziabad - 201 002
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Clinical Research Unit
(Unani)
Cantonment General

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Hospital (Sotiganj)
Begum Bridge
Meerut - 250 001
Uttar Pradesh Unani Medical Centre
(Extension Centre of RRIUM,
AYUSH Wellness Clinic New Delhi)
(Unani Wing) Room No. 304
President’s Estate Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital
New Delhi - 110 004 New Delhi - 110 001
Delhi Delhi
Unani Speciality Centre
(Extension Centre of
RRIUM, New Delhi)
Dr. Deen Dayal Upadhayay
Hospital
New Delhi - 110 064
Delhi

47
Programme Profile
The research programme of the CCRUM mainly comprises clinical research including
toxicological and pharmacological studies of Unani drugs, validation of the fundamentals,
drug standardization and quality control, survey and cultivation of medicinal plants, and
literary research. Information, education and communication (IEC), and human resource
development (HRD) are also part of the Council’s activities in addition to extension of
healthcare services. Over the years, the CCRUM has emerged as the global leader for research
in Unani System of Medicine.
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Hyderabad,


a renowned centre for Vitiligo treatment

48
Centre-wise Activities of the Institutes / Units
S.No. Centre Activities
1 Central Research Institute of Clinical Research Programme
Unani Medicine (CRIUM), • Clinical Studies on New Investigational Drugs
Hyderabad • Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations
• Research on Fundamentals of Unani Medicine
Pharmacological Research Programme
Research-oriented Health Services
• General, Geriatric, RCH and Post-trial Treatment
Accessibility OPDs
• Regimen therapy OPD
• Mobile Clinical Research Programme
• School Health Programme
• Swasthya Rakshan & Parikshan Programme
Survey and Cultivation of Medicinal Plants Programme

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Drug Standardisation Research Programme
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) activities
2 Central Research Institute of Clinical Research Programme
Unani Medicine (CRIUM), • Clinical Studies on New Investigational Drugs
Lucknow • Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations
Research-oriented Health Services
• General, Geriatric, RCH and Post-trial Treatment
Accessibility OPDs
• Regimen therapy OPD
• Mobile Clinical Research Programme
• School Health Programme
• Swasthya Rakshan & Parikshan Programme
• National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer,
Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS)
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Activities

49
3 Regional Research Institute Clinical Research Programme
of Unani Medicine • Clinical Studies on New Investigational Drugs
(RRIUM), Chennai • Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations
Research-oriented Health Services
• General, Geriatric, RCH and Post-trial Treatment
Accessibility OPDs
• Regimen therapy OPD
• Mobile Clinical Research Programme
• School Health Programme
• Swasthya Rakshan & Parikshan Programme
Drug Standardisation Research Programme
Survey and Cultivation of Medicinal Plants Programme
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) activities
4 Regional Research Institute Clinical Research Programme
of Unani Medicine • Clinical Studies on New Investigational Drugs
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

(RRIUM), Bhadrak • Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations


Research-oriented Health Services
• General, Geriatric, RCH and Post-trial Treatment
Accessibility OPDs
• Regimen therapy OPD
• Mobile Clinical Research Programme
• School Health Programme
• Swasthya Rakshan & Parikshan Programme
Survey and Cultivation of Medicinal Plants Programme
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Activities
5 Regional Research Institute Clinical Research Programme
of Unani Medicine • Clinical Studies on New Investigational Drugs
(RRIUM), Patna • Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations
Research-oriented Health Services
• General, Geriatric, RCH and Post-trial Treatment
Accessibility OPDs

50
• Regimen therapy OPD
• Mobile Clinical Research Programme
• School Health Programme
• Swasthya Rakshan & Parikshan Programme
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Activities
6 Regional Research Institute Clinical Research Programme
of Unani Medicine • Clinical Studies on New Investigational Drugs
(RRIUM), Aligarh • Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations
Pharmacological Research Programme
Research-oriented Health Services
• General, Geriatric, RCH and Post-trial Treatment
Accessibility OPDs
• Regimen therapy OPD
• Mobile Clinical Research Programme
• School Health Programme

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


• Swasthya Rakshan & Parikshan Programme
Drug Standardisation Research Programme
Survey and Cultivation of Medicinal Plants Programme
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Activities
7 Regional Research Institute Clinical Research Programme
of Unani Medicine • Clinical Studies on New Investigational Drugs
(RRIUM), Mumbai • Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations
Research-oriented Health Services
• General, Geriatric, RCH and Post-trial Treatment
Accessibility OPDs
• Regimen therapy OPD
• Mobile Clinical Research Programme
• Swasthya Rakshan & Parikshan Programme
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Activities

51
8 Regional Research Institute Clinical Research Programme
of Unani Medicine • Clinical Studies on New Investigational Drugs
(RRIUM), Srinagar • Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations
Pharmacological Research Programme
Research-oriented Health Services
• General, Geriatric, RCH and Post-trial Treatment
Accessibility OPDs
• Regimen therapy OPD
• Mobile Clinical Research Programme
• School Health Programme
• Swasthya Rakshan & Parikshan Programme
Drug Standardisation Research Programme
Survey and Cultivation of Medicinal Plants Programme
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Activities
9 Regional Research Institute Clinical Research Programme
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

of Unani Medicine • Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations


(RRIUM), Kolkata Research-oriented Health Services
• General, Geriatric, RCH and Post-trial Treatment
Accessibility OPDs
• Mobile Clinical Research Programme
• School Health Programme
• Swasthya Rakshan & Parikshan Programme
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Activities
10 Regional Research Institute Clinical Research Programme
of Unani Medicine • Clinical Studies on New Investigational Drugs
(RRIUM), New Delhi • Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations
Research-oriented Health Services
• General, Geriatric, RCH and Post-trial Treatment
Accessibility OPDs
• Regimen therapy OPD

52
• Mobile Clinical Research Programme
• School Health Programme
• Swasthya Rakshan & Parikshan Programme
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Activities
11 Regional Research Centre Clinical Research Programme
(RRC), Allahabad • Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations
Research-oriented Health Services
• General, Geriatric, RCH and Post-trial Treatment
Accessibility OPDs
• Mobile Clinical Research Programme
• School Health Programme
• Swasthya Rakshan & Parikshan Programme
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Activities
12 Regional Research Clinical Research Programme

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Centre (RRC), Silchar • Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations
with extension Centre at Research-oriented Health Services
Karimganj • General, Geriatric, RCH and Post-trial Treatment
Accessibility OPDs
• Swasthya Rakshan & Parikshan Programme
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Activities
13 Clinical Research Unit Clinical Research Programme
(CRU), Bengaluru • Clinical Studies on New Investigational Drugs
• Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations
Research-oriented Health Services
• General, Geriatric, RCH and Post-trial Treatment
Accessibility OPDs
• Mobile Clinical Research Programme
• School Health Programme
• Swasthya Rakshan & Parikshan Programme
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Activities

53
14 Clinical Research Unit Clinical Research Programme
(CRU), Meerut • Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations
Research-oriented Health Services
• General, Geriatric, RCH and Post-trial Treatment
Accessibility OPDs
• Regimen therapy OPDs
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Activities
15 Clinical Research Unit Clinical Research Programme
(CRU), Bhopal • Clinical Studies on New Investigational Drugs
• Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations
Research-oriented Health Services
• General, Geriatric, RCH and Post-trial Treatment
Accessibility OPDs
• Regimen Therapy OPD
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Activities
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

16 Clinical Research Unit Clinical Research Programme


(CRU), Burhanpur • Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations
Research-oriented Health Services
• General, Geriatric, RCH and Post Trail Treatment
Accessibility OPDs
• Mobile Clinical Research Programme
• School Health Programme
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Activities
17 Clinical Research Unit Clinical Research Programme
(CRU), Edathala • Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations
Research-oriented Health Services
• General, Geriatric, RCH and Post-trial Treatment
Accessibility OPDs
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Activities

54
18 Clinical Research Unit Clinical Research Programme
(CRU), Kurnool • Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations
Research-oriented Health Services
• General, Geriatric, RCH and Post-trial Treatment
Accessibility OPDs
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Activities
19 Hakim Ajmal Khan Institute • Literary Research Programme
for Literary & Historical • General Outpatient Department (GOPD) Programme
Research in Unani Medicine • Regimen Therapy OPD
(HAKILHRUM), New Delhi

20 Drug Standardisation • Drug Standardisation Research Programme


Research Unit (DSRU),
Ghaziabad
21 Drug Standardisation • Drug Standardisation Research Programme

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Research Institute (DSRI),
Ghaziabad
22 Chemical Research Unit • Chemical Investigations of Unani Medicinal Plants
(CRU) (Grant-in-aid),
Aligarh
23 Clinical Research Pilot • General Outpatient Department (GOPD) Programme
Project (CRPP), Imphal
(Manipur)

Clinical Research Programme


The programme has been taken up with a view to formulate pattern of clinical research keeping the Unani
principles intact and co-relating them with the modern diagnostic parameters and using appropriate research
methodology in order to have unbiased assessment of the potentiality of the system. The Council since
its inception has been busy in conducting pre-clinical safety evaluation studies, and clinical trials on new

55
investigational Unani formulations in different disease conditions. Open-label, multi-centric, randomised
controlled clinical trials (RCTs) are being conducted with a view to develop safe and effective Unani
treatments. Besides, clinical validation of Unani pharmacopoeial / classical formulations is also conducted
with a view to establish their safety and efficacy.
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Shri Shripad Yesso Naik, Minister of State (Independent Charge), Ministry of AYUSH, Prof. Rais-ur-Rahman,
Director General, CCRUM & Adviser (Unani), Ministry of AYUSH and Dr. R.K. Manchanda, Director General,
Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy at the foundation stone laying ceremony of Regional Research
Institute of Homoeopathy and Unani Medicine, Mumbai

56
Centre-wise List of Diseases Studied/Under Study
Centre Disease
Central Research Institute of Unani Vitiligo (Barañ), Diabetes Mellitus Type II (Zayäbéöus Sukkaré Qism
Medicine (CRIUM), Hyderabad Säné), Essential Hypertension (Zaghö al-Dam Qawé Läzimé), Hepatitis
(Waram al-Kabid), Chronic Sinusitis (Iltihäb-i Tajäwéf-i Anf Muzmin),
Hyperlipidaemia (Farö Tashaùùum al-Dam), Duodenal ulcer (Qarha
Isnä ‘Asharé), Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), Psoriasis
(Dä’al-Ñadaf), Cerebroasthenia (Zu‘f al-Dimägh), Overactive bladder
(Zu‘f al-Masäna), Leucorrhoea (Sayalän al-Raùim), Nephrolithiasis
(Ùañäh al-Kulya), Palpitation (Khafaqän), Amnesia (Nisyän), Chronic
Catarrh (Nazla Muzmin) and Osteoarthritis (Taùajjur al-Mafäñil)
Central Research Institute of Unani Vitiligo (Barañ), Rheumatoid arthritis (Waja‘al-Mafäñil), Diabetes
Medicine (CRIUM), Lucknow Mellitus Type II (Zayäbéöus Sukkaré Qism Säné), Overactive bladder
(Zu‘f al-Masäna), Anaemia (Sü’ al-Qinya), Helminthiasis (Dédän al-
Am‘ä’), Leucorrhoea (Sayalän al-Raùim), Gout (Niqris), Dyspepsia

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


(Sü’ al-Hazm), and Amnesia (Nisyän)
Regional Research Institute Hepatitis (Waram al-Kabid), Rheumatoid Arthritis (Waja‘al-Mafäñil),
of Unani Medicine (RRIUM), Osteoarthritis (Taùajjur al-Mafäñil), Fatty Liver (Tashaùùum al-Kabid),
Chennai Amnesia (Nisyän), Melasma (Kalaf), Gout (Niqris), Scabies (Jarab),
Anorexia (Zu‘f al-Ishtihä’), Diabetes Mellitus Type II (Zayäbéöus
Sukkaré Qism Säné), Nephrolithiasis (Ùañäh al-Kulya), Headache
(Ñudä‘), Productive Cough (Su‘äl Raöb), Stomatitis (Qulä‘), Chronic
Urticaria (Sharä Muzmin), Common Cold (Nazla Ùärr), Toothache
(Waja‘al-Asnän) and Pharyngitis (Waram-i Ùalaq)
Regional Research Institute Lymphatic Filariasis (Dä’ al-Fél), Scabies (Jarab), Boils and Pustules
of Unani Medicine (RRIUM), (Busür-i Jild), Bleeding Piles (Bawäsér Dämiya), Common Cold
Bhadrak (Nazla Ùärr), Rheumatoid Arthritis (Waja‘al-Mafäñil), Nephrolithiasis
(Ùañäh al-Kulya), Helminthiasis (Dédän al-Am‘ä’), Cough (Su‘äl),
Anorexia (Zu‘f al-Ishtihä’), Stomatitis (Qulä‘), Chronic Urticaria
(Sharä Muzmin), Common Cold (Nazla Ùärr) Pharyngitis (Waram-i
Ùalaq) and Toothache (Waja‘al-Asnän)

57
Regional Research Institute of Leucorrhoea (Sayalän al-Raùim), Boils and Pustules (Busür-i Jild)
Unani Medicine (RRIUM), Patna Rheumatoid Arthritis (Waja‘al-Mafäñil), Stomatitis (Qulä‘), Common
Cold (Nazla Ùärr), Headache (Ñudä‘), Toothache (Waja‘al-Asnän),
Urticaria (Sharä), Pharyngitis (Waram-i Ùalaq), Hyperacidity
(Kasrat-i Ruöübat Ùumüzé), and Dyspepsia (Sü’ al-Hazm)
Regional Research Institute Vitiligo (Barañ), Diabetes Mellitus Type II (Zayäbéöus Sukkaré Qism
of Unani Medicine (RRIUM), Säné), Essential Hypertension (Zaghö al-Dam Qawé Läzimé), Anaemia
Aligarh (Sü’ al-Qinya), Hyperacidity (Kasrat-i Ruöübat Ùumüzé), Anorexia (Zu‘f
al-Ishtihä’), Leucorrhoea (Sayalän al-Raùim), Overactive bladder (Zu‘f
al-Masäna), Gout (Niqris), Palpitation (Khafaqän)
Regional Research Institute Essential Hypertension (Zaghö al-Dam Qawé Läzimé), Common
of Unani Medicine (RRIUM), Cold (Nazla Ùärr), Anorexia (Zu‘f al-Ishtihä’), Dry Cough (Su‘äl
Mumbai Yäbis) Chronic Cough (Su‘äl Muzmin), Hepatitis (Waram al-Kabid),
Pharyngitis (Waram-i Ùalaq), Toothache (Waja‘al-Asnän), Stomatitis
(Qulä‘), Headache (Ñudä‘) and Productive Cough (Su‘äl Raöb).
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Regional Research Institute Vitiligo (Barañ), Essential Hypertension (Zaghö al-Dam Qawé Läzimé),
of Unani Medicine (RRIUM), Nephrolithiasis (Ùañäh al-Kulya), Dry Cough (Su‘äl Yäbis), and
Srinagar Scabies (Jarab)
Regional Research Institute Bleeding piles (Bawäsér Dämiya), Hepatitis (Waram al-Kabid),
of Unani Medicine (RRIUM), Helminthiasis (Dédän al-Am‘ä’), and Dyspepsia (Sü’ al-Hazm)
Kolkata
Regional Research Institute of Vitiligo (Barañ), Diabetes Mellitus Type II (Zayäbéöus Sukkaré Qism
Unani Medicine (RRIUM), New Säné), Essential Hypertension (Zaghö al-Dam Qawé Läzimé), Fatty
Delhi Liver (Tashaùùum al-Kabid), Dysentery (Zaùér), Anaemia (Sü’ al-
Qinya), Leucorrhoea (Sayalän al-Raùim), Dry Cough (Su‘äl Yäbis),
Nephrolithiasis (Ùañäh al-Kulya), Insomnia (Sahr) and Bleeding piles
(Bawäsér Dämiya)
Regional Research Centre (RRC), Nephrolithiasis (Ùañäh al-Kulya), Palpitation (Khafaqän) and Diabetes
Allahabad Mellitus Type II (Zayäbéöus Sukkaré Qism Säné)

58
Regional Research Centre (RRC), Rheumatoid Arthritis (Waja‘al-Mafäñil), Pyrexia (Ùummä), Common
Silchar Cold (Nazla Ùärr), Productive Cough (Su‘äl Raöb), Stomatitis (Qulä‘),
Headache (Ñudä‘), Toothache (Waja‘al-Asnän), Urticaria (Sharä),
Pharyngitis (Waram-i Ùalaq)
Clinical Research Unit (CRU), Rheumatoid Arthritis (Waja‘al-Mafäñil), Pyrexia (Ùummä), Common
Karimganj Cold (Nazla Ùärr), Productive Cough (Su‘äl Raöb), Stomatitis (Qulä‘),
Headache (Ñudä‘)
Clinical Research Unit (CRU), Psoriasis (Dä’al-Ñadaf), Boils and Pustules (Busür-i Jild), Diabetes
Bengaluru Mellitus (Zayäbéöus Sukkaré), Scabies (Jarab) and Rheumatoid
Arthritis (Waja‘al-Mafäñil)
Clinical Research Unit (CRU), Premature Ejaculation (Sur‘a al-Inzäl), Dysentery (Zaùér), Rheumatoid
Meerut Arthritis (Waja‘al-Mafäñil), Anorexia (Zu‘f al-Ishtihä’), Dyspepsia (Sü’
al-Hazm) and Chronic Cough (Su‘äl Muzmim)
Clinical Research Unit (CRU), Eczema (När Färsé), Dysentery (Zaùér), Nephrolithiasis (Ùañäh al-
Bhopal Kulya), Scabies (Jarab), Helminthiasis (Dédän al-Am‘ä’), Hepatitis

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


(Waram al-Kabid), Melasma (Kalaf) and Psoriasis (Dä’al-Ñadaf)
Clinical Research Unit (CRU), Boils and Pustules (Busür-i Jild), Gout (Niqris), and Premature
Burhanpur Ejaculation (Sur‘a al-Inzäl)
Clinical Research Unit (CRU), Hepatitis (Waram al-Kabid), Leucorrhoea (Sayalän al-Raùim) and
Edathala Anorexia (Zu‘f al-Ishtihä’)
Clinical Research Unit (CRU) Common Cold (Nazla Ùärr), Anorexia (Zu‘f al-Ishtihä’), Rheumatoid
Kurnool Arthritis (Waja‘al-Mafäñil), and Productive Cough (Su‘äl Raöb)
Stomatitis (Qulä‘), Headache (Ñudä‘), Hepatitis (Waram al-Kabid),
Pharyngitis (Waram-i Ùalaq), Leucorrhoea (Sayalän al-Raùim),
Dyspepsia (Sü’ al-Hazm), Urticaria (Sharä)

Achievements of the CCRUM


The Council has conducted disease- and drug-based trials and achieved some significant leads in the
treatment of certain diseases, e.g. Vitiligo (Barañ), Eczema (När Färsé), Psoriasis (Dä’al-Ñadaf), Sinusitis
(Iltihäb-i Tajäwéf-i Anf), Rheumatoid Arthritis (Waja‘ al-Mafäñil), Bronchial Asthma (Zéq al-Nafas),

59
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Chennai

60
Hyperlipidaemia (Farö Tashaùùum al-Dam), etc. Apart from these areas, the Council has also undertaken
clinical studies on other diseases, e.g., Malaria (Hummä Ijämiya), Lymphatic Filariasis (Dä’ al-Fél),
Dysentery (Zaùér), Helminthiasis (Dédän al-Am‘ä’), Infantile Diarrhoea (Ishäl-i Aöfäl), Infective Hepatitis
(Iltihäb al-Kabid), Leucorrhoea (Sayalän al-Raùim), etc. Thirty-one formulations have been developed for
the treatment of these diseases, and results have been published through a number of research papers
and 12 monographs.

Under clinico-pharmacological activity, the CCRUM has conducted pharmacological and toxicological studies
on 130 single drugs and compound formulations. One hundred twenty formulations have been evaluated
clinically for their efficacy and safety in 30 diseases. Validation of safety and efficacy of pharmacopoieal
formulations on scientific parameters in different diseases has also been undertaken by the Council.

Besides clinical validation of Unani pharmacopoeial drugs, the efficacy of different forms of Regimen therapy
in different diseases has been validated by the Council. Efficacy of Cupping (Ùijäma) in osteoarthritis and
Leeching (Ta‘léq) in hypertension and frostbite has been validated. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
for various forms of Regimen therapy has also been developed by the Council. Cosmo-therapeutic effects

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


of 12 Unani formulations have also been studied by the Council and found effective.

Unani Physician examining the patient of Vitiligo in OPD at CRIUM, Hyderabad

61
Some Important Clinical Studies

Vitiligo (Barañ)

Vitiligo (Barañ) is a pigmentary disorder which has no successful treatment in conventional medicine.
Unani classics are replete with the reference of this disease. Based on the references available, the council
conducted exhaustive studies on different aspects of the disease which includes the causative / aetiological
factors, herido-familial aspects, role of diet, etc. The council formulated some new combinations of drugs
for oral use and local application in the treatment of Barañ and conducted preliminary screening at the
Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine (CRIUM), Hyderabad. Preliminary screening of different
formulations revealed prima facie evidences of the efficacy of Unani formulations in arresting the spread
of the patches or appearance of new patches and activating the process of re-pigmentation on the de-
pigmented patches. Further extensive clinical trials were undertaken with a number of formulations. The
CRIUM, Hyderabad has attained international fame for the successful treatment of this disease.

The CRIUM, Hyderabad has registered over 1.23 lakh patients of this disease including those from some
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

foreign countries. The institute has scientifically established the efficacy and safety of various combinations
of oral and local Unani drugs on a total of 45,885 patients of vitiligo. The drugs include coded Unani
drugs UNIM­-001(O)+UNIM-003(L), UNIM­-002 (O)+UNIM­-003 (L), UNIM-004 (O) + UNIM-­005 (L),
UNIM-006 (O) + UNIM-003 (L), UNIM-006 (O)+UNIM-027(L), UNIM­-001(O)+UNIM-027(L), UNIM­
-044+UNIM­-044 (L), UNIM­-045+UNIM­-045(L), UNIM­-046+UNIM­-046(L), UNIM­-047+UNIM­-047(L),
UNIM-040+UNIM-041+UNIM-042. The patients were treated in different treatment groups. As per line
of treatment described in the Unani classics, studies on concotion and purgation (Munzij and Mushil)
therapy were also conducted before starting the oral and local medications in chronic cases. Out of different
formulations evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy, 62-88% therapeutic response was achieved in different
treatment groups. However, two formulations proved more efficacious showing response ranging from
86% to 89% depending upon the chronicity of the disease, part of the body affected, age and temperament
of the patients. In these patients, exacerbation in the size of the patches or appearance of new patches
was also checked. Re-pigmentation in the de-pigmented patches achieved was 71% to 100%. In the group
(UNIM–001 + UNIM–003), 12,211 patients were treated whereas in the group (UNIM-004 + UNIM–005),
24,187 patients were treated. Therapeutic responses are shown in the figures.

62
52.28%

71%-100% REPIGMENTATION 70%-51% REPIGMENTATION


UPTO 50% REPIGMENTATION NO RESPONSE

Therapeutic Response of Coded Unani Drugs Therapeutic Response of Coded Unani Drugs
(UNIM-001+UNIM-003) in cases of Vitiligo (Barañ) (UNIM-004+UNIM-005) in cases of Vitiligo (Barañ)
Sample size : 12211 Sample size : 24187

13.89% 16.74% 12.01%


14.04%
11.09%

13.70%

52.28%
60.25%

71%-100% REPIGMENTATION 70%-51% REPIGMENTATION 71%-100% REPIGMENTATION 70%-51% REPIGMENTATION

UPTO 50% REPIGMENTATION NO RESPONSE UPTO 50% REPIGMENTATION NO RESPONSE

The drugs have been found safe even in long term use. However, in some cases blisters were formed and
12.01% by applying coconut oil or some soothing cream locally. Other treatment groups also
that were controlled

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


14.04%
showed significant therapeutic responses according to the type & colour of patches, the part of the body
affected and temperament of the patients.
13.70%
The council has also conducted studies on the role of diet on the response to treatment in Vitiligo (Barañ).
The diets which produce phlegm (Balgham) and those having sour taste are harmful. The Council published
a monograph
60.25% on Vitiligo (Barañ) in the year 1986. This monograph consisted of studies conducted on
6,000 patients at CRIUM, Hyderabad.
71%-100% REPIGMENTATION
Another monograph on Vitiligo (Barañ) was published containing
70%-51% REPIGMENTATION
studies conducted
UPTO 50% with 11 formulations
REPIGMENTATION NO RESPONSE on a total of 29,740 patients.

Pre-clinical safety evaluation studies have been conducted at the Department of Pharmacology, All India
Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi. The dosage forms of drugs have also been modified in
collaboration with Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi. A collaborative project on Vitiligo
has recently been started with Department of Dermatology, AIIMS, New Delhi. Besides, pilot studies on
some new plant origin drugs on vitiligo were also started in the year 2014 at CRIUM, Hyderabad. Now
studies on Vitiligo have been extended to other Regional Research Institutes of the Council.

63
Before treatment After treatment
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Before treatment After treatment


Efficacy of Unani Drugs in Vitiligo

Eczema (När Färsé)

Eczema (När Färsé) is a common chronic skin disorder and difficult to cure due to its recurring nature.
Unani System of Medicine offers safe and effective treatment for the disorder. The main cause of this
disorder has been attributed to impairment of blood (Fasäd al-Dam) in the Unani classics. The Council
formulated some new combinations of drugs prepared from plants such as Shahtra (Fumaria indica Pugsley),
Chirayta (Swertia chiraita Buch. Ham.), Babchi (Psoralea corylifolia Linn.), Neem (Azadirachta indica A.

64
Partially
Remission (31%)

Therapeutic Response of Coded Unani Drugs Therapeutic Response of Coded Unani Drugs
Complet
Remission(53%)
(UNIM-401+UNIM-402) in cases of Eczema (När Färsé) (UNIM-401+UNIM-403) in cases of Eczema (När Färsé)
Sample size : 3544 Sample size : 1040

No No Response
Response(16%) (18%)
Partially
Remission (31%)
Complete
Remission(60%)

Partially
Remission(22%)

Complet
Remission(53%)

No Response
(6%)
Complet
No Response Remission (21%)
(18%)
Juss.)
Complete
and Halayla (Terminalia chebula Retz.) mixed with some other plants for oral and local use and

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Remission(60%)
subjected them to therapeutic trials in cases of Eczema (När Färsé) at Central Research Institute of Unani
Medicine, Lucknow and Clinical Research Units, Bengaluru,Partially
Bhopal and Burhanpur.
Remission (73%)

The study was conducted on 4,584 patients of Eczema.


Partially
In the treatment group receiving UNIM-401+UNIM-
402, a total number of 3,544 patients completed the study. Out of completed cases, 53% patients showed
Remission(22%)

complete remission, 31% patients partial remission, whereas 16% patients showed no response. In the
treatment group receiving UNIM-401+UNIM-403, a total number of 1,040 patients completed the study.
No Response
Out of completed cases, 60% patients(6%)showed complete remission, 22% patients’ showed partial remission,
Complet
whereas 18% patients showed no response. Relapse was noted in four and six percent cases in group I
Remission (21%)

and group II respectively. The drugs showed significant therapeutic effects in subsiding different clinical
signs and symptoms.

Psoriasis
Partially (Dä’ al-Ñadaf)
Remission (73%)

The cause of Psoriasis (Dä’ al-Ñadaf) in Unani classics is also attributed to impairment of blood (Fasäd al-
Dam). Clinical studies on Psoriasis (Dä’ al-Ñadaf) were conducted on 971 patients of Psoriasis at Clinical
Research Units, Bengaluru and Bhopal. In the treatment group receiving UNIM-401+UNIM-402, out of

65
No Response
(18%)

Complete
Remission(60%)

Therapeutic Response of Coded Unani DrugsPartially Therapeutic Response of Coded Unani Drugs
(UNIM-401+UNIM-402) in cases of Psoriasis (Dä’Remission(22%)
al-Ñadaf) (UNIM-401+UNIM-403) in cases of Psoriasis (Dä’ al-Ñadaf)
Sample size : 364 Sample size : 607

No Response
No Response
(6%) (8%)
Complet
Remission (21%) Complet
Remission (24)%

Partially
Remission (73%)

Complet
Remission(68%)

Poor Response
16.2
Therapeutic Response of Coded Unani Drugs (UNIM-401+UNIM
403 ) in case of Daus Sadaf (Psoriasis)
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Poor Response
(16.2%)
Fair Response Excellent (42.2%)
(16.9%)

Good Response
(24.7%)

Efficacy of Unani drugs in Psoriasis – Pre- and post-treatment

364 patients who completed the study, 73% patients showed complete remission, 21% patients partial
remission, whereas 6% patients showed no response. In the treatment group receiving UNIM-401+UNIM-
403, out of 607 patients who completed the study, 68% patients showed complete remission, 24% patients
showed partial remission, whereas 8% patients showed no response. Relapse was noted in 10% and 11%
patients in group I and group II respectively.

66
Malaria (Ùummä Ijämiya)

Keeping in view the Unani concept and correlating with the presence of malarial parasites in the patients,
the Council conducted a preliminary study at the Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine (RRIUM),
Chennai in collaboration with Central Malaria Laboratory, Chennai. The formulation tried for preliminary
screening was a combination of commonly available plants such as; Afsanteen (Artemisia absinthium Linn.),
Karanjwa (Caesalpinia bonducalla Flem), Naushadar (Amonium chloride), Anardana (Punica granatum Linn.)
mixed with some other ingredients. The drug in the dose of three gram orally daily in three divided doses
showed complete subsidence in the clinical signs and symptoms, and eradication of malarial parasites in
the blood. Later, this study was conducted on a large number of patients at Regional Research Institute
of Unani Medicine (RRIUM) Bhadrak and Clinical Research Unit (CRU) Karimganj – malaria is endemic
in both places. The drug UNIM-152 studied on 600 patients showed 87% therapeutic response in P. vivax
type of malaria. The drug has been found safe and well-tolerated. Pharmacological studies conducted on
the drug have also revealed anti-malarial effect.

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Lymphatic Filariasis (Dä’ al-Fél)

Lymphatic Filariasis (Dä’ al-Fél) is considered a disease caused by disturbance in phlegm (Khilö Balgham).
The council formulated two new combination of drugs prepared from plants such as Biskhapra Safayd
(Trianthema decandra Linn), Filfil Safayd (Piper nigrum Linn.) Gul-i Abbas (Mirabilis jalapa Linn.), Maghz-i
Karanjwa (Caesalpinia bonducalla Flem) mixed with some other plants for oral use and Boora Armani
(Armenian bole), Bisfaij (Polypodium vulgare Linn.) and Glycerin for local application on the edema
and subjected them to clinical trials at Regional Research Institutes, Chennai, Bhadrak and Patna. In
the Unani classics, Munzij and Mushil therapy has been advocated as a line of treatment of this disease.
The council also scientifically validated the therapy in patients with Lymphatic Filariasis attending the
In-Patient Departments (IPDs) at these centres. A combination of an oral drug UNIM-251 and a drug for
local application UNIM­-254 proved highly effective in subsiding the different signs and symptoms and
reducing the edema in 70% of acute cases with duration of the disease less than five years. The study was
conducted on 1,200 cases at these centres. A controlled trial conducted with Diethyl Carbamazine (DEC)
in collaboration with Government General Hospital, Chennai established the efficacy of the drugs. No
recurrence was reported in the treated cases.

67
Infective Hepatitis (Iltihäb al-Kabid)

Unani System of Medicine offers excellent remedies for liver disorders. The Council formulated a number
of new simple combinations of drugs prepared from commonly available plants such as Kasni (Cichorium
intybus Linn), Tesu (Beutea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntz.), Revand Chini (Rheum emodi Wall), Sumbuluttib
(Nardostachys jatamansi DC.), Mako Khushk (Solanum nigrum Linn), Naushadar (Ammonium chloride)
and Shora Qalmi (Potassium nitrate) and subjected them to clinical trials in patients of Infective Hepatitis
(Iltihäb al-Kabid) at CRIUM, Hyderabad. Studies on six coded Unani formulations namely UNIM-105,
UNIM-106, UNIM-108, UNIM-109, UNIM-110 and UNIM-115 were conducted on a total of 2081 patients
in separate groups. Two formulations, UNIM-105 and UNIM-115, showed significant therapeutic effects in
subsiding the clinical signs and symptoms of the disease and normalizing the raised serum bilirubin, serum
alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and SGOT levels within one to four weeks of the treatment. Preclinical safety
evaluation studies conducted at the Department of Biochemistry, K.G. Medical University, Lucknow also
confirmed the hepatoprotective effects of these formulations. Some studies on Infective Hepatitis (Iltihäb
al-Kabid) have also been conducted at Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Chennai.
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Rheumatoid Arthritis (Waja‘ al-Mafäñil)

Rheumatoid Arthritis (Waja‘ al-Mafäñil) is a chronic ailment caused by dominance of phlegm (Khilö
Balgham). Based on the references available and line of treatment advocated in the Unani classics, the
Council formulated some new combinations of drugs prepared from plants such as Suranjan Shirin
(Colchicum autumnale Linn.), Zanjabeel (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), Asgandh (Withania somnifera Dunal),
Turbud Safayd (Operculina turpethum Linn.), Khulanjan (Alpinia galanga Willd.) mixed with some other
plants for oral use and Gul-i Tesu (Butea monosperma Lam.), Gul-i Babuna (Matricaria chamomilla Linn.),
Chhadela (Parmelia perlata Esch.), Majeeth (Rubia cordifolia Linn.), Saad Kufi (Cyperus rotundus Linn.)
mixed with some other drugs for local application. The Council has conducted extensive clinical studies on
Rheumatoid Arthritis (Waja‘ al-Mafäñil) at its research centres namely Central Research Institute of Unani
Medicine (CRIUM), Lucknow; Regional Research Institutes of Unani Medicine (RRIUMs), Chennai, Srinagar,
New Delhi, Bhadrak, Aligarh & Mumbai; and Clinical Research Unit (CRU), Bengaluru. Multicentric trials
undertaken at these centres covering various aspects revealed higher potentiality of Unani drugs in this
disorder.

68
(15%) Prtially
Prtially Remission (43%)
Remission (43%)

Therapeutic Response of Coded Unani Drugs Therapeutic Response of Coded Unani Drugs
(UNIM-301+UNIM-302) in cases of Rheumatoid Arthritis (UNIM-301+UNIM-304) in cases of RheumatoidComplete
Arthritis
(Waja‘ al-Mafäñil) (Waja‘ al-Mafäñil) Remission (42%)
Sample size : 682 Complete Sample size : 319
Remission (42%)
No Response
No Response
(15%)
(18%)
Prtially Partially
Remission (43%) Remission (47%)
No Response
(18%)
Partially
Remission (47%)

Complete Complet
Remission (42%) Remission (35%)

No Response Complet
(18%) The
study conducted on 8,000 cases with three
Remission (35%)
Partially
Therapeutic
Response of Coded Unani Drugs combinations of coded UnaniNodrugsResponseUNIM­-301 +

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Remission (47%)
(UNIM-301+302+304) in cases of Rheumatoid Arthritis (18%)
(Waja‘ al-Mafäñil) UNIM­ -302, UNIM­-301 + UNIM­-304, and UNIM­-
Partially
Remission (43%)
Sample size : 4974 301 + UNIM­-302 + UNIM-304 showed therapeutic
No Response effects in providing complete relief in 42%, 35% and
(18%)
Partially 39% patients respectively. The Council also validated
Remission (43%) Complet
Remission (35%)
the efficacy of Regimen therapy namely Cupping
(Ùijäma) in Rheumatoid Arthritis (Waja‘ Completal-Mafäñil)
Remission (39%)
and Osteoarthritis and achieved significant results.
Scientific validation of Regimen therapy namely
No Response
(18%) Munzij and Mushil therapy was also done in the
Partially
Complet
Remission (43%)
Remission (39%)
patients attending in-patient department. Findings
of the studies revealed significant effect of Munzij
and Mushil therapy followed by the treatment with
oral drug and local application of oil in providing complete relief to the patients in shorter duration as
compared to treatment without Munzij and Mushil regimen.
Complet
Remission (39%)

69
Bronchial Asthma (Zéq al-Nafas)

Bronchial Asthma (Zéq al-Nafas) is a chronic phlegmatic disorder of respiratory system. The Council
developed a new formulation for Bronchial Asthma based on commonly available plants such as Katan
(Linum usitatissimum Linn.), Hulba (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.) and Seer (Allium sativum Linn.)
mixed with some other plants and subjected it to therapeutic trials in cases of Bronchial Asthma (Zéq
al-Nafas) at Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine (RRIUM), Srinagar. The study was conducted
on 2,700 patients. The coded Unani drug UNIM-352 showed significant therapeutic effects in subsiding
signs and symptoms of the disease. The study drug reduced the severity of asthma attacks and kept the
patient away from using inhalers. The controlled clinical trial of this coded drug with standard allopathic
medicine and safety studies were also conducted in collaboration with Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute,
Delhi. The drug was found safe even in long-term use. Based on the studies conducted, patent for the
drug UNIM-352 was awarded to the Council in the year 2010.

Sinusitis (Iltihäb-i Tajäwéf-i Anf)


Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Sinusitis (Iltihäb-i Tajäwéf-i Anf) is a chronic disease caused by dominance of phlegm (Khilö Balgham). Due
to its recurring nature, treatment is elusive and unsatisfactory in other systems of medicine and generally
surgical intervention is required in chronic cases. The Council designed two new formulations for oral
use and a drug for steam inhalation and subjected them to therapeutic trials in radiologically confirmed
cases of Sinusitis (Iltihäb-i Tajäwéf-i Anf) with involvement of frontal, maxillary or both sinuses. The coded
Unani drugs UNIM-051+UNIM-053 and UNIM-052+UNIM-053 prepared from plants such as Ustukhuddus
(Lavandula stoechas Linn.), Irsa (Iris ensata Thumb) and Filfil Siyah (Piper nigrum Linn.) mixed with
some other plants for oral use and Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi Linn.), Pudina (Mentha arvensis Linn)
and Kafoor (Camphor) for steam inhalation were studied in 4,974 patients at Central Research Institute
of Unani Medicine, Hyderabad in two separate groups comprising 2,969 and 2,005 patients respectively.
These two combinations of drugs showed therapeutic response in subsiding different signs and symptoms
of the diseases as well as clearance of the sinuses within six to eight weeks of the treatment in 79% and
61% patients respectively.

70
Completely
Relived (79.0%)
Therapeutic Response of Coded Unani Drugs Therapeutic Response of Coded Unani Drugs
(UNIM-051+UNIM-053) in cases of Sinusitis (UNIM-052+UNIM-053) in cases of Sinusitis
(Iltihäb-i Tajäwéf-i Anf) (Iltihäb-i Tajäwéf-i Anf)
y Relived Sample size : 2969 Sample size : 2005

Not Relived Partially Relived


Partially Relived Partially Relived
(6.0%) (11.0%) Not Relived
(15.0%)
(28.0%)

Completely Completely
Relived (79.0%) Relived (61.0%)

Hyperlipidaemia
Partially Relived
(Farö Tashaùùum al-Dam)
y Relived

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


(11.0%) Not Relived
(28.0%)
Hyperlipidaemia (Farö Tashaùùum al-Dam) is one of the major causes of cardiac disorders. Based on the
information available in the Unani classics, the Council desgined a new formulation prepared from Turanj
(Citrus medica Linn.), Muqil (Commiphora mukul ( Hook. ex Stocks) Engl.) and Abresham (Silk Cocoon)
mixed with some other drugs and subjected it to
Completely clinical study in 98 cases of Hyperlipidaemia (Farö
Therapeutic Response of Coded Unani Drugs
Relived (61.0%)
Tashaùùum al-Dam) at Central Research Institute of
(UNIM-763) in cases of Hyperlipidaemia
(Farö Tashaùùum al-Dam) Unani Medicine, Hyderabad. The drug UNIM-763
Sample size : 98 showed significant therapeutic effects in normalizing
the raised serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride
Nil Response levels within six months of treatment.
(17.3%) Good Response
(44.9%)

Infantile Diarrhoea (Ishäl-i Aöfäl)

Infantile diarrhea (Ishäl-i Aöfäl) is one of the major


Fair response causes of mortality among infants in rural areas. The
(37.8%)
Council formulated a new formulation from drugs

71
and subjected it to therapeutic trials at Regional Research Centre, Silchar and Karimganj (Assam) and
Clinical Research Unit, Bhopal. The drug studied in 350 cases showed significant therapeutic effect in 85
percent of the patients within two to three days of the treatment. Besides, the Council has developed a
Unani Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) from some common plants and mineral drugs. The Unani ORS
has proved quite efficacious in maintaining electrolyte balance in the body.

Clinical Validation of Unani Pharmacopoeial Formulations

The Council started the programme of clinical validation of safety and efficacy of Unani Pharmacopoeial
formulations in different disease conditions in the year 2012. Studies on Sharbat-e-Faulad in Sü’ al-Qinya;
Arq-e-Kasni, Arq-e-Mako and Sharbat-e-Bazoori in Waram al-Kabid; Jawarish Amla and Habb-e-Papita in
Kasrat-i Ruöübat Humüzé; Habb-e-Rasaut, Habb-e-Muqil, Majoon Muqil, Marham Saeeda Chob Neem Wala
in Bawäsér Dämiya; Majoon-e-Ushba and Arq Murakkab Musaffi Khoon in Busür-i Jild; Safoof-e-Mughalliz-
e-Mani, Majoon-e-Arad Khurma and Habb-e-Akseer-e-Shifa in Sur‘a al-Inzäl; Majoon-e-Suranjan, Safoof-e-
Suranjan and Roghan Suranjan in Waja‘ al-Mafäñil; Tiryaaq-e-Pechish in Zaùér; Majoon-e-Nisyan in Nisyän;
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Majoon-e-Falasfa and Majoon-e-Masikul Baul in Zu‘f al-Masäna; Majoon-e-Kundur, Jawarish Zarooni and
Arq-e-Badiyan in Zu‘f al-Masäna; Qurs-e-Deedan in Dédän al-Am‘ä’; Jawarish Ood Shireen in Zu‘f al-Ishtihä’;
Sharbat-e-Ejaz in Surfa Yäbis; Itrifal Shahatra, Aab-e-Neem and Marham-e-Kharish Jadeed in Jarab; Jawarish
Kamooni and Arq-e-Badiyan in Sü’ al-Hazm were conducted at different centres of the Council. These drugs
showed significant therapeutic effects in relieving the signs & symptoms of respective diseases. None of
the drug showed any side effects / drug intolerance in the prescribed dosage. So far, studies on 25 drugs
in 15 diseases have been completed. Studies on 53 drugs on 28 diseases are in progress.

Development of Unani Drugs for Common/ Seasonal Ailments

The Council formulated some new combinations comprising single drugs and household condiments for
the treatment of common and seasonal ailments and validated their efficacy in the patients attending the
general and mobile OPDs at its different clinical centres. These formulations have proved very effective
in the management of different common / seasonal ailments. The formulations include Capsule Mubarak
in Pyrexia (Ùummä), Capsule Nazla in Catarrh (Nazla), Qurs Surfa in Cough (Su‘äl), Capsule Tinkar in
Constipation (Qabz), Qurs Bel in Diarrhoea (Ishäl) and Dysentery (Zaùér), Qurs Zahar Mohra and Sufoof-

72
e-Hazim in Dyspepsia (Sü’ al-Hazm), Qurs Haiza in Cholera (Hayza), Capsule Habis in Epistaxis (Ru‘äf),
Capsule Hudar, Qurs Mafasil and Raughan-e-Surkh in Rheumatoid Arthritis (Waja‘al-Mafäsil), Capsule
Siras in Headache (Sudä‘), Qurs Shifa in Bodyache (Waja‘al-‘Azlät) and Pyrexia (Hummä), Habb-e-Taskeen
in Bodyache (Waja‘al-Badan), Arq-e-Ajeeb in Spasmodic pain (Waja‘al-Mi‘da), and Headache (Sudä‘),
Zuroor-e-Qula in Stomatitis (Qulä‘), Capsule Musaffi in Skin infections (Fasäd al-Dam), Qurs Musaffi and
Marham-e-Kharish in Scabies (Jarab), Marham-e-Ral in Boils (Busür-i Jild), Raughan-e-Kamila in Scabies
(Jarab) and Otorrhoea (Sayalän al-Uzn), Qutoor-e-Ramad in Conjunctivitis (Ramad).

Validation of Regimen Therapies

Regimen therapy (‘Iläj bi’l-Tadbér) is one of the most popular methods of treatment practised by Unani
physicians since antiquity. Regimen therapy comprises mostly non-medicinal procedures for preservation
of health and prevention / management of diseases. These include Cupping (Ùijäma), Massage (Dalk),
Leeching (Ta‘léq), Venesection (Fasò), Purgation (Ishäl), Emesis (Qay’), Diuresis (Idrär-i Bawl), Enema
(Ùuqna), Diaphoresis (Ta‘réq), Expectoration (Tanféth), Counter Irritation (Éläm), Sitz Bath (Äbzan), etc.

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Some other regimens are also used for elimination/diversion of morbid material or resolution of the
inflammation, e.g. Turkish bath (Ùammäm), Irrigation (Naöül), Fomentation (Takméd), etc. The Council
validated the beneficial effects of Cupping (Ùijäma) in different musculo-skeletal disorders including

Wet Cupping (Ùijama bi’l-Sharö) Dry Cupping (Ùijama bilä-Sharö)

73
Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Low Back Pain, Frozen Shoulder and Sciatica. Efficacy of Leeching
(Ta‘léq) was also evaluated in Essential Hypertension, Frost Bite, Gangrene, etc., and significant therapeutic
effects of these therapies were observed. Now Regimen therapy OPD is running in all the clinical centres
of the Council.

Collaborations

Besides intra-mural research, the Council also undertakes research in collaboration with reputed scientific
organisations and academic institutions of the country. Some of them are as follows:

• Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) for human resource development; ICMR institutions
including National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis (NIRT), Chennai for clinical study in
Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology (ICPO), Noida for
clinical study in cervical erosion.

• Department of Dermatology & Venereology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS),
New Delhi for clinical studies in Vitiligo and Psoriasis.
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

• Department of Pharmacology, AIIMS, New Delhi for pharmacological and toxicological studies
of Unani formulations

• Department of Pharmacology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi for pre-
clinical and clinical studies in Bronchial Asthma.

• Department of Pharmacology, Lady Harding Medical College, New Delhi for clinical study on
Infective Hepatitis.

• Centre for Liver Diseases, Department of Gastro-enterology, Owaisi Hospital and Research
Centre, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad for clinical studies on Viral Hepatitis,
Duodenal Ulcer and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).

• National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), and National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and
Research (NIPER), Hyderabad for new drug development.

• Department of Biochemistry, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow for toxicological studies
of Unani drugs.

74
• Department of Saidla, Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh for
redesigning of the dosage forms of Unani formulations.

• Department of Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim Universty, Aligarh
for clinical study on Obesity.

Mobile Clinical Research Programme

The mobile clinical research programme is aimed at providing free Unani treatment to the patients in
rural areas, urban slums, schedule caste and schedule tribe pockets. Besides, the aim is to reduce the
disease burden in the society by creating health awareness among them. This programme is covered
under the Government of India’s scheme of Special Component Plan (SCP), now called Scheduled Caste

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Research Officer of RRIUM, Srinagar attending to the pateints at Mobile OPD

75
Sub-Plan (SCSP) for Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP) for Scheduled Tribes (STs). Under
this programme, such urban slums, rural and far-flung areas predominantly inhabited by the weaker
sections and where healthcare facilities are either rare or none at all are covered. Since the possibilities of
coming across cases of common as well as chronic diseases are high in such areas, the researchers of the
Council make door-to-door surveys in these areas mainly to register research cases of different ailments.
The researchers also provide free Unani medical treatment to ailing people at their doorsteps and thus
serve as a potential source of healthcare delivery to the masses. Besides, awareness is also created on
preventive, promotive and curative health aspects through group lectures, organizing health camps and
health exhibitions. This programme runs at 12 centres of the Council. So far, 250 villages/urban slums
having a total population over 30 lakh have been covered, and over 6.0 lakh patients have been treated
since inception of the programme in the year 1986.

Intellectual Property Rights

Based on the clinical studies conducted at different centers of the Council and the results achieved, the
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Council has been able to file 46 provisional patents to the Indian Patent Office. Eight patents have been
granted to the Council so far. These include ZS-5 in Bronchial Asthma (Zéq al-Nafas), Capsule Habis in
Epistaxis (Ru‘äf), Capsule Mubarak in Pyrexia (Hummä), Capsule Nazla in Catarrh (Nazla), Qurs Mafasil
and Capsule Hudar in Arthritis (Waja‘ al-Mafäsil), Qurs Mulaiyyin in Constipation (Qabz) and Capsule
Deedan in Helminthiasis (Dédän al-Am‘ä’). Some of these formulations are being commercially exploited
through National Research Development Corporation (NRDC) and the Council is getting the royalty.

FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH
In order to scientifically establish and interpret the relevance and rationale of various theories and
philosophies of Unani Medicine, the Council took up a project on the fundamentals of Unani Medicine
at CRIUM, Hyderabad. Phased development of the project was undertaken. In the first phase, different
temperaments (Damawé, Balghamé, Ñafräwé and Sawdäwé) were assessed and scientifically validated in
healthy volunteers. Variability in different physiological, pathological and bio-chemical parameters in
healthy subjects of different temperaments was also studied. In the second phase, susceptibility of acquiring
diseases in relation to the temperaments of the patients was studied. A workshop on fundamental research

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Unani Medicine in India — An Overview
Prof. Rais-ur-Rahman, Adviser (Unani), Ministry of AYUSH and Director General, CCRUM delivering his
welcome address at foundation stone laying ceremony of new hospital block and inaugration of upgraded
biomedical laboratory and scholar house at CRIUM, Hyderabad in the presence of Shri Shripad Yesso Naik,
Minister of State (Independent Charge), Ministry of AYUSH, and Shri Charlakola Laxma Reddy, Health Minister
of Telangana.

was also held in 2005 to disseminate and discuss the findings of the studies. In the third phase of the
project, response to the treatment in relation to the temperament of the patients was evaluated scientifically
in the diseases like Vitiligo (Barañ), Infective Hepatitis (Iltihäb al-Kabid), Sinusitis (Iltihäb-i Tajäwéf-i
Anf), Psoriasis (Dä’ al-Ñadaf), Essential Hypertension (Zaghö al-Dam Qawé Läzimé), Hyperlipidaemia (Farö
Tashaùùum al-Dam) and Diabetes Mellitus Type II (Zayäbéöus Sukkaré Qism Säné), etc. A brainstorming
session on fundamental research was also organised in the year 2013. A standardized format for assessment
of temperament was developed. Six other projects correlating the concept of humour and temperament
with genomics are continued.

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PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH
Safety of Unani drugs is of prime concern in the present scenario. The Unani physicians were fully aware
of the toxicity of the single and compound drugs that’s why they developed the process of detoxification
of the toxic drugs. While prescribing such types of drugs, correctives (Muñliùät) were also advised in order
to minimize the side effects. Considering the importance of the issue, the Council started conducting
safety evaluation studies on new investigational drugs under clinical evaluation since the starting of the
programme. The three pharmacological units attached to CRIUM, Hyderabad, RRIUMs, Srinagar and Aligarh
continued to conduct safety evaluation studies. Apart from this, studies on pharmacological actions of single
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Shri Ajit M. Sharan, Secretary, Ministry of AYUSH, Prof Rais-ur-Rahman, Adviser (Unani), Ministry of AYUSH
and Director General, CCRUM with Dr. Seema Akbar, Incharge, RRIUM, Srinagar and other Officers of RRIUM,
Srinagar.

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drugs and compound formulations were conducted. The Council has conducted studies not only at their
pharmacological units, but also in collaboration with other reputed medical institutions and universities,
such as Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, and Vallabhbhai Patel Chest
Institute, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, Department of Biochemistry, K.G. Medical
University, Lucknow, etc. The safety evaluation studies are being conducted on Unani drugs as per AYUSH
/ OECD guidelines. Pharmacological studies on over 130 drugs have been completed so far.

DRUG STANDARDIZATION RESEARCH PROGRAMME


The Drug Standardization Research programme is mainly concerned with evolving standards in order
to ensure identity, quality and purity of single drugs and compound formulations. This activity is being
carried out by the following Institutes/ Units of the Council:

• Drug Standardization Research Institute (DSRI), Ghaziabad

• Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine (CRIUM), Hyderabad

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


• Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine (RRIUM), Chennai

• Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine (RRIUM), Srinagar

• Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine (RRIUM), Aligarh

• Drug Standardization Research Unit (DSRU), Ghaziabad

• Chemical Research Unit (Grant-in-Aid), Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

These laboratories use internationally accepted parameters for standardization and quality control. The
Government of India set up Unani Pharmacopoeia Committee (UPC) to prescribe standards for single drugs
and compound formulations mentioned in Unani Pharmacopoeia of India (UPI) and National Formulary
of Unani Medicine (NFUM) for the use of manufacturers. In 2010, the Government of India established
Pharmacopoeia Commission for Indian Medicine (PCIM) to develop and publish Pharmacopoeial standards
for Unani, Ayurveda and Siddha drugs.

The Council is engaged in developing quality standards of Unani drugs under the technical guidance of
Pharmacopoeia Commission and Unani Pharmacopoeia Committee. So far it has developed and published

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Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

A view of Drug Standardization Research Institute, Ghaziabad

standards for 298 single and 100 compound drugs. The Drug Standardization Research Laboratory at
Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Chennai has been recognized as State Drug Testing
Laboratory (DTL) by the Government of Tamil Nadu. Re-designing of dosage forms of three Unani
pharmacopoeial formulations has also been completed. Shelf-life studies of Unani drugs have also been
initiated in collaboration with Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (IIIM), Jammu.

The Council has published the following drug standards related documents:

• Standardization of Single Drugs of Unani Medicine (five volumes)

• Physicochemical Standards of Unani Formulations (four volumes)

• Chemistry of Medicinal Plants Part-I (52 plants)

• Unani Pharmacopoeia of India Part-I (six volumes containing 298 monographs of single drugs)

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Unani Medicine in India — An Overview
A view of Drug Standardization Research Laboratory, RRIUM, Srinagar

• Unani Pharmacopoeia of India Part-II (two volumes containing 100 monographs of compound
drugs)

• National Formulary of Unani Medicine (six parts containing standards of 1179 formulations)

• Chemical Investigations of Some Unani Medicinal Plants

SURVEY AND CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS


PROGRAMME
The broad objectives of the survey and cultivation of medicinal plants programme are as follows:

• To survey, collect and identify medicinal plants in different forest zones of the country

• To study distribution, availability, ethno-pharmacological uses and threats of medicinal plants

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• To cultivate medicinal plants experimentally and in the field

• To maintain a herbarium and an exhibition of medicinal plants and raw drugs for demonstration
purposes

• To maintain a demonstrable herb garden

• To document folk knowledge on medicinal uses of plants

• To collect samples of genuine drugs from the forest for development of pharmacopoeial
standards

• To develop nursery of medicinal plants for demonstration purpose so as to popularize them


among masses.

This programme is being carried out at the following research centers of the Council:

• Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Hyderabad

• Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Aligarh


Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

• Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Bhadrak

• Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Chennai

• Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar

Ethno-botanical Surveys

The objective of the programme is to study the distribution, availability and threats of extinction of
medicinal plants species and suggest measures for their protection and conservation by setting up farms in
different agro-climatic zones of the country, to maintain a herbarium and museum of medicinal plants and
cataloguing information to develop a database, and to develop herbal garden for cultivation of important
and rare herbs and drugs. The Council has conducted ethno-pharmacological surveys in different remote
forest zones of India, particularly tribal dominated areas, in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu,
Bihar, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand and
Uttar Pradesh. Over 1,02,897 specimens of medicinal plants have been collected in these surveys.

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Za‘farän (Crocus sativus Linn.) Bihé (Cydonia oblonga Mill.)

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Tén (Ficus carica Linn.) Bäbché (Psoralea corylifolia, Linn.)

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Süranjän (Colchicum luteum Baker.) Khubäzé (Malva sylvestris Linn.)
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Folk Claims

Collection of information on ethno-pharmacological uses of plants from tribals and herbal practitioners
is one of the activities of the Council undertaken during medicinal plants surveys in various parts of the
country. As a result, the Council has gathered 12,888 folk claims of medicinal and other uses of locally
available plants. Based on this information, the Council has published several books including (i) Medicinal
Plants of North Arcot District, Tamil Nadu, (ii) Unani Medicinal Plants of Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu,
(iii) Medicinal Plants in Folklores of Bihar & Orissa (iv) Medicinal Plants in Folklores of Orissa Part-II, (v)
Medicinal Plants in Folklores of Odisha Part-III, (vi) Medicinal Plants in Folklores of Kashmir Himalayas,
(vii) Medicinal Plants in Folklores of Northern India (Parts I & II), (viii) Medicinal Plants in Folklores of
Southern India (Parts I & II), (ix) Medicinal Plants of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, (x) Medicinal Plants of Andhra
Pradesh (Parts I & II), (xi) Medicinal Plants of Gwalior Forest Division, (xii) Unani Medicinal Plants of
Siddhartha Nagar Forest Division, Uttar Pradesh, (xiii) Unani Medicinal Plants of Tarai Forests in Kumaon
Region of Uttarakhand, (xiv) Potential Anti-Malarial Herbal Drugs from South-Eastern India (Bihar and Orissa
States) and (xv) Unani Medicinal Plants and their Folklore Claims from Chamarajanagar Wildlife Division
of Karnataka.

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Unani Medicine in India — An Overview
The CCRUM researchers gathering information on medicinal uses of plants

Experimental and Field Scale Cultivation

The Council has taken up field scale and experimental cultivation (agronomical trials) of various plant-drugs
to provide genuine material for pharmacopoeial standards and clinical research. These include Ätriläl (Ammi
majus Linn.), Gulnar Farsi (Punica granatum Linn.) (Abortive variety), Kasni (Cichorium intybus Linn.),
Babchi (Psoralea corylifolia Linn.), Sudab (Ruta graveolens Linn.), Afsanteen (Artemisia absinthium Linn.),
Baboona (Matricaria chamomilla Linn.). Asgandh (Withania somnifera Dunal), Khulanjan (Alpinia galanga
Willd.), Bachh (Acorus calamus Linn.), Gul-i Abbas (Mirabilis jalapa Linn), Konch (Mucuna prurita Hook.),
Mushkdana (Abelmoschus moschatus Medic.), Satawar (Asparagus racemosus Willd.), Badiyan (Foeniculum
vulgare Mill.), Gurmar buti (Gymnema sylvestre R. Br.), Khatmi (Althaea officinalis Linn.), etc.

85
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Shri Ajit M. Sharan, Secretary (AYUSH), Government of India planting a medicinal plant at CRIUM, Hyderabad
on 30 September, 2015 in the presence of Shri Shripad Naik, Union Minister of State for AYUSH (Independant
Charge) and Shri Charlakola Laxma Reddy, Health and Medical Minister of Telangana.

Herbal Garden

Classics of Unani System of Medicine are replete with references to use of medicinal plants. In fact, plants
are the major source of Unani drugs. Unmindful over-exploitation of this important resource has led to
extinction of several species. Availability of genuine raw drug material is very important for the efficacy of

86
the formulation. Besides, there are also some medicinal plants/drugs whose identification is controversial.
Keeping it in view, a herbal garden named as Ibn al-Bayöär has been established at CRIUM, Hyderabad
to cultivate important medicinal plants, particularly those used in Unani Medicine. At the herbal garden,
following activities are being undertaken:

• Plantation of Unani medicinal plants of repute for demonstration purpose

• Development of nursery of certain medicinal plants of repute for their popularization and sale

• Experimental cultivation of some Unani medicinal plants particularly for studying the effects of
fertilizer, doses, spacing, hormonal treatment, etc. on their yield

Nursery of Medicinal Plants

In order to popularize medicinal plants, particularly those used in Unani Medicine, the CCRUM has
embarked upon a vigorous programme of cultivating about 100 species in nurseries at its centres in Aligarh,
Hyderabad, Chennai and Srinagar. Some of the important species being cultivated in this programme include:

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


A view of herb garden of CRIUM, Hyderabad

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Makoh (Solanum nigrum Linn.), Bhangra (Eclipta alba Hussk), Kasni (Cichorium intybus Linn.), Qurtum
(Carthamus tinctorius Linn.), Sheetraj Hindi (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.), Sada Bahaar (Vinca rosea Linn.),
Aasaphala (Saraca asoka Linn.), Gandana (Allium ascalonicum Linn.), Muqil (Commiphora mukul Hook ex
Stocks), Gulnar (Punica granatum Linn.), Maror Phali (Helicteres isora Linn.), Bihé (Cydonia oblonga Mill.),
Réhan (Ocimum sanctum Linn.), Keora (Pandanus tectorius Soland. ex Parkinson.), Waj Turki (Acorus calamus
Linn.), Nankhwah (Trachyspermum ammi Linn.), Qinnab (Cannabis sativa Linn.), Gurmar Buti (Gymnema
sylvestre R.Br.), Hina (Lawsonia inermis Linn.), Khubazi (Malva sylvestris Linn.), Kutki (Picrorhiza kurroa
Royal ex Benth.), Bedanjeer (Ricinus communis Linn.), Khulanjan (Alpinia galanga Willd.), Babchi (Psoralea
corylifolia Linn.), Banafsha (Viola odorata Linn.), Zafran (Crocus sativus Linn.), etc.

LITERARY RESEARCH PROGRAMME

The Literary Research Programme of the Council aims at editing, compilation and translation of manuscripts
and rare books of Unani System of Medicine. Council’s Ùakém Ajmal Khan Institute for Literary &
Historical Research in Unani Medicine has also collected rare Unani classical books and manuscripts
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

from different libraries in India and abroad. Besides reprinting of 72 rare classical books, the Council has
translated and published 56 volumes of 20 classical books. Forty important manuscripts have also been
digitized. A compendium of about 4,028 terms of Unani System of Medicine entitled Standard Unani
Medical Terminology has also been documented under the collaborative programme of Government of
India and World Health Organization (WHO) for Traditional Medicine, and published by the Council.
The Council also published first volume of Standard Unani Treatment Guidelines for Common Diseases
comprising description of 70 diseases. Following important classical books have been translated into Urdu,
and published by the Council:
• Ibn Rushd, Kitäb al-Kulliyät
• Ibn Zuhr, Kitäb al-Taysér
• Ibn Hubal, Kitäb al-Mukhtärät
• Khän MA, Muùéö-i A‘zam, Vol. I, II & III
• Öabaré A, Mu‘älajät Buqräöiyya, Vol. I, II & III
• Räzé M, Kitäb al-Ùäwé (23 Volumes)
• Räzé M, Kitäb al-Fäkhir, Vol. I, (Part I & II)

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Dr. Najma Heptulla, Minister of Minority Affairs inaugurating the National Semiar on Ùakém Ajmal Khan’s
Multidimentional Personality and Enduring Contributions organized by Ùakém Ajmal Khan Institute for Literary

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


& Historical Research in Unani Medicine, New Delhi during 12-13 February, 2016. Other dignitaries on the
dais include Dr. G.N. Qazi, Vice Chancellor, Jamia Hamdard, Prof. Rais-ur-Rahman, Director General, CCRUM,
Dr. Khalid M. Siddiqui, Deputy Director General, CCRUM, Prof. Talat Ahmad, Vice Chancellor, Jamia Millia
Islamia, Prof. Altaf Ahmad Azmi, former Dean, Faculty of Islamic Studies & Humanities and Dr. M. Fazil,
Incharge, HAKILHRUM, New Delhi.

HEALTHCARE SERVICES

General Outpatient Department (GOPD) programme

Research-oriented GOPD programme runs at 19 clinical centres of the Council besides Unani Speciality
Centres at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, Dr. Deen Dyal Upadhyay Hospital and Dr M.A. Ansari Health
Center and AYUSH Wellness Clinic (Unani Wing) at President’s Estate, New Delhi. The patients visiting the
OPD are treated with Unani pharmocopoeial drugs. Over 60 lakh patients, mostly suffering from chronic
ailments, have been treated at different clinical centres of the Council so far. A separate Geriatric OPD for
senior citizens and RCH OPD for females and children also run at different centres of the Councils.

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School Health Programme

School Health Programme is aimed at improving the health and hygiene status of school children through
education and awareness. Under the programme, the Council’s researchers perform weekly visit to the
selected primary and secondary schools, particularly those in rural areas. Besides promoting health
consciousness among students, the Council’s physicians conduct health check-ups of school children and
provide free treatment to those suffering from different diseases. They also deliver lectures on preventive
and promotive aspects of health periodically and distribute health related literature. This programme was
started in the year 1986, and since then about 2.0 lakh school children have benefited from the activity.
The effort of creating awareness resulted in reduction of incidence of diseases such as scabies, worm
infestation, hair lice, boils, conjunctivitis which were common in children. General health and hygiene
status of the children also improved.
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Research Officer of RRIUM, Srinagar delivering lecture on preventive aspects of diseases to school children

90
Co-location of Unani Medical Centres in Allopathic Hospitals
The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in the year 1998 introduced a scheme for co-location of AYUSH
centres in Central Government Allopathic Hospitals in Delhi. The objective of co-locating the AYUSH
Centres in modern hospitals was to study the acceptability of these systems among the patients attending
the allopathic hospitals and to provide the facilities of all systems under one roof so that patients may get
treatment of their choice. A Unani Medicine Centre was started at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia (RML) Hospital
in New Delhi in January 1998. This centre is an extension centre of Regional Research Institute of Unani
Medicine, New Delhi. Apart from General Outpatient Department (GOPD) facilities, the centre provides
services of leading specialists of Unani Medicine for the treatment of some selected disorders like vitiligo,
eczema, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, bronchial asthma, neurological disorders, liver diseases, etc. for
which the Unani System of Medicine offers safe and effective treatment. Another Unani Specialty Clinic
was started in November 2010 at Dr. Deen Dayal Upadhyay (DDU) Hospital, New Delhi. Apart from the
physicians of the council, eminent Unani physicians also provide their services to the patients in these
centers. Over 5.0 lakh patients have been registered at these centres and treated with Unani medicines

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


since starting of these centres. The patients were mostly of chronic ailments switching over from allopathic
system to Unani Medicine or taking Unani Medicine as an adjuvant therapy to combat the side effects of
the allopathic drugs.

Medical Relief Operations


The Council actively participates in medical relief operations whenever there is any natural calamity or
outbreak of an epidemic, and provides medical aid through Unani Medicine. The Council has participated
in different natural calamities such as MIC gas tragedy in Bhopal in 1984, post-cyclone epidemic in Odisha
in 1999, post-earthquake epidemic in Gujarat in 2001 and post-flood epidemic in Srinagar in 2014. The
Council participated in the medical relief operations during the epidemic of Viral Encephalitis at Gorakhpur
and its adjoining areas of Maharajganj (UP). Unani Medicine played an important role in the prevention
and management of jaundice, conjunctivitis, bacillary dysentery, gastro-enteritis, cholera, plague, dengue,
dropsy and chikungunya. The Council at its different centres also organized health camps during the
outbreak of swine flu, dengue fever and chikungunya.

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Integration of Unani Medicine with NPCDCS

Keeping in view the vital role of AYUSH systems of medicine in prevention of non-communicable diseases
(NCDs), the Ministry of AYUSH in collaboration with Directorate General of Health Services has launched
a programme to integrate Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathy with National Programme for Prevention
and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) through its Research
Councils. The major objectives of the programme are prevention and early diagnosis of these diseases;
and to reduce complications and drug dependency through these systems. The CCRUM has initiated
the integration of Unani Medicine with NPCDCS in Lakhimpur Kheri district of Uttar Pradesh. Training
was provided to the selected staff at Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine (CRIUM), Lucknow.
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Shri Shripad Yesso Naik, Hon’ble Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) for AYUSH and Dr. Shiv Pratap
Yadav, Minister of State (Medical and Health), Uttar Pradesh in the inaugural ceremony of Integration of Unani
Medicine in NPCDCS at Lakhimpur Kheri, Uttar Pradesh on 1 June 2016. To Shri Naik’s left are Shri Ajay
Misra ‘Teni’, Member of Parliament, Prof. Rais-ur-Rahman, Director General, CCRUM and Dr. L. Swasticharan,
CMO, Directorate General of Health Services, while on the right of Dr. Yadav are Shri Utkarsh Verma Madhur,
MLA, Lakhimpur, Shri Manvendra Singh, Special Secretary (Health), Government of Uttar Pradesh and Ùakém
Waseem Ahmad, Deputy Director, CRIUM, Lucknow.

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Information, Education & Communication (IEC) materials on the selected diseases under NPCDCS has
also been published for distribution among the patients and their attendants/wards attending Lifestyle/
Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) Unani clinics established at 17 Community Health Centres (CHCs)
and 54 Primary Health Centres (PHCs). The IEC material are also to be distributed at different levels by
organizing awareness and screening camps.

Integration of Unani Medicine in NPCDCS Programme was officially launched by Shri Shripad Yesso
Naik, Hon’ble Minister of State (Independent Charge), Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India on 01
June, 2016 in the presence of Dr. Shiv Pratap Yadav, Minister of State (Medical and Health), Government
of Uttar Pradesh, Mr. Ajay Misra ‘Teni’, Member of Parliament and Mr. Utkarsh Verma Madhur, Member
of Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly, and officers from Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India and
Government of Uttar Pradesh.

Swasthya Rakshan Programme

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


To accomplish the vision of a ‘Clean India’, the Government of India launched “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan” on
02 October, 2014. On the lines of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Mission), the Ministry of AYUSH
has initiated Swasthya Rakshan Programme (SRP) through its national institutes and research councils to
protect and promote health by adopting at least five villages for identifying, preventing and treating the
diseases related to poor hygiene and sanitation.

The main objective of the programme is to initiate Swasthya Rakshan Mobile OPDs for providing AYUSH
treatment and organizing camps for screening and early diagnosis of diseases in rural areas. It also aims
to create health awareness through health education and distribution of IEC material in local languages
for better outreach and compliance. The programme has been initiated by the CCRUM through its 12
institutes/centre: Central Research Institutes of Unani Medicine (CRIUMs), Hyderabad, Lucknow; Regional
Research Institutes of Unani Medicine (RRIUMs), Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Srinagar, Patna, Aligarh,
Bhadrak; and Regional Research Centres (RRCs), Allahabad and Silchar. Five villages predominently having
scheduled caste/scheduled tribe/other backward class population nearer to each institute/centre have been
identified for undertaking the programme. Community awareness programme on sanitation and nutrition
is organized under the programme for educating the villagers on strategies for prevention of disease and
improving health.

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COLLECTION AND DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION

Information, Education and Communication (IEC)


The Council has a Library & Information Centre at its headquarters, New Delhi. The library also subscribes
print and online journals for the benefit of researchers of the Council and other information seekers. The
library provides quality knowledge services to support research and development programmes of the Council.
In addition to routine information services, the library also provides following special services to the
users:

• Daily Medical News Alert Service

• Current Contents of Journals (quarterly)

• Resource Sharing & Networking with different databases and networks.

In order to gather the scattered literature on Unani Medicine and allied sciences and make available at
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

one place the recent advances in these disciplines, the Library has a collection of over 16,657 books on
Unani Medicine and allied sciences for reference. Besides, there are 44 rare Unani manuscripts, 490 M.D.
theses, photocopies of 190 rare books and manuscripts, 19 microfilms of rare Unani books and 562 bound
volumes of journals. Also there are 30 slides, 12 Audio & Video cassettes, 267 CDs and 21 e-Books. The
Library offers lending services (books, Journals and other reading material including CDs), interlibrary loan
facility, reference services, special subject bibliographies, current awareness services, Internet search facility
alongwith reprography and spiral binding services. The council has WHO global subscription since 1996.
Earlier the Library and Information Centre’s catalogue was searchable with DELNET (Developing Library
Network). Recently the National Informatics Centre (NIC) has uploaded on its cloud the data (bibliographic
description of books) of Library & Information Centre and nine other libraries of the institutes of CCRUM.
Now the information seeker can access the data globally at eg4.nic.in/AYUSH/OPAC.

Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL)


The project Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) was initiated in the year 2001 in collaboration
between Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and Council of Scientific and

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Industrial Research (CSIR), Ministry of Science and Technology with the objectives to safeguard the
sovereignty of traditional knowledge and to protect it from being misappropriated in the form of patents
on non-original innovations. This collaborative project involves documentation of the traditional knowledge
available in public domain in the form of existing literature related to Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Yoga
in digitized format in five international languages – English, German, French, Japanese and Spanish. These
multi-linguistic data have been made accessible to the international patent offices under non-disclosure
agreement to examine patent applications based on traditional medical knowledge. The Central Council
for Research in Unani Medicine was entrusted to coordinate the development of TKDL for Unani System
of Medicine by the Department of AYUSH. Activities under TKDL for Unani system were initiated in June,
2004. Under this project, 1,75,150 Unani drugs based on plants, minerals, and animal resources have been
transcribed in a digital database in patent-compatible format using internationally accepted Traditional
Knowledge Resource Classification (TKRC).

Database of Academic Research

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


The CCRUM has developed a database of academic research conducted in various disciplines at different
postgraduate institutions of Unani Medicine and published a compendium of postgraduate theses in
Mu‘älajät (Medicine) awarded by Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. The
Council has also published three documents entitled “Contemporary Research in Traditional Drugs and
Medicine” Part-I Abstracts (1980-2009), Contemporary Research in Traditional Drugs and Medicine” Part-II
Abstracts (1980-2010) and “Contemporary Research in Traditional Drugs and Medicine” Part-III Abstracts
(1980-2009) based on the published research work.

Seminars/ Workshops/ Conferences

With a view to disseminate the research outcomes and to interact with the scientific community, the
CCRUM has so far organized two international seminars, 30 national seminars, 32 workshops, and
brain storming sessions on different subjects. These seminars / workshop were attended by researchers,
academicians, research scholars, under-graduate students of Unani colleges and practitioners of AYUSH
systems of medicine and allied sciences.

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Research Publications
Researchers of the CCRUM participates in international and national conferences held in the country and
abroad. So far 1,800 research papers based on the studies conducted in different centers of the council
have been presented in such events. Besides, over 400 research papers have been published in the reputed
national and international scientific journals.

Health Fairs / Exhibitions


The council participates in health fairs, exhibitions, Magh Mela and Arogya Fairs organized by the
government and non-governmental organizations in different parts of the country and abroad. At these
events, expositions on Unani System of Medicine are made. Moreover, the physicians of the Council also
provide treatment and counseling facilities to the visitors. The Council has so far participated in 360 such
events.

Magh Mela is an important Hindu ritual held on the bank of Ganga, Jamuna and Saraswati every year. The
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Mela begins every year on 14-15 January and ends in the month of March. Councils’ Regional Research
Centre, Allahabad organizes health camps-cum-exhibitions on the bank of Ganga River to provide free
healthcare facilities to the Sadhus, Saints, Mahatmas and Devotees coming every year for holy dip in the
Ganges since 2000. Objectives of the health camp in Magh-Mela are as follows:

• To promote preventive and curative healthcare in general diseases related to digestive, respiratory,
uro-genital and locomotor systems, reproductive child health (RCH), skin diseases and geriatric
care
• To popularize Unani Medicine among the people at grass root level
• To provide free health check-ups and consultancy to the RCH, skin care, geriatric and general
diseases
• To provide free Unani treatment for various conditions related to skin, geriatrics, reproductive
and child health
• To spread health education and arrange guest lectures to the visitors of health fairs
• To distribution literature on health preservation through Unani Medicine and prevention &
control of swine flu, chickungunya, dengue fever and viral fever
• To provide referral services

96
• Prevention of mortality with particular reference to high risk group
• Reduction of morbidity
• Control on outbreak/ epidemic during the Magh Mela

In the Magh Mela, a total number of 2,33,933 patients were treated during the past years. Diarrhoea, cold
and cough, indigestion, fever, joint pain, skin diseases, bronchial asthma, general weakness, hypertension,
motion sickness, etc were some of the most common diseases treated with Unani classical/ pharmacopoeial
medicines during the Mela.

Participation in Intensified Pulse Polio Immunization (IPPI) Programme


The Council actively participates in Intensified Pulse Polio Immunization (IPPI) Programme through its
different centres and organises a number of group meetings and health lectures to propagate the IPPI

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Staff of RRIUM, Chennai organizing IPPI Programme at Institute premises

97
programme among the masses for Polio eradication. This programme is carried out through 18 clinical
centres under the Council.

Publication

To disseminate research information to the scientific community and to popularize Unani System of Medicine
among the masses, the Council publishes research monographs, technical reports, brochures, booklets,
leaflets, compendium, journals and newsletters. The Council has published Standard Unani Medical
Terminology, Standard Unani Treatment Guidelines for Common Diseases in English and A Handbook
of Common Remedies in Unani System of Medicine in 11 Indian languages for the benefit of the masses.
Some other publications of the Council on medicinal plants, success stories, etc have also been translated
into Hindi, Arabic, Persian, Russian, Uzbek and Indian regional languages. Besides, the Council publishes
a bi-monthly CCRUM Newsletter, two quarterly research journals - Hippocratic Journal of Unani Medicine
and Jahän-i Öibb (Urdu) regularly.
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Production of Audio and Video Cassettes

To take the message of Unani Medicine to the masses through audio and video means more effectively,
the Council has produced eight video films / documentaries on healthy alternatives, vitiligo, leeching,
rheumatoid arthritis and health promoting Unani medicinal plants. It has also produced 28 audio cassettes
on Unani medicinal plants in Hindi, English and other regional languages.

98
Education and
Healthcare
Unani System of Medicine is quite popular among the masses. The
practitioners of Unani Medicine, scattered all over the country, form an
integral part of national healthcare delivery structure. Registration of Unani
practitioners is maintained by the State Boards of Indian Medicine. The

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Central Register is maintained by the Central Council of Indian Medicine
(CCIM), New Delhi and registration of the practitioners is renewed at
specific intervals for updation. At present, there are 48,213 registered Unani
practitioners under the Central and State boards in the country.

99
State–wise Registered Unani Practitioners

S.No. States/ UTs No. of Unani Practitioners


1. Andhra Pradesh 388
2. Bihar 7058
3. Chhattisgarh 139
4. Delhi 1818
5. Gujarat 313
6. Haryana 260
7. Himachal Pradesh 0
8. Jammu & Kashmir 2371
9. Jharkhand 21
10. Karnataka 1727
11. Kerala 93
12. Madhya Pradesh 1575
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

13. Maharashtra 6272


14. Manipur 0
15. Odisha 25
16. Punjab 30
17. Rajasthan 920
18. Tamil Nadu 1159
19. Telangana 4554
20. Uttar Pradesh 14223
21. Uttarakhand 115
22. West Bengal 5152
Total 48213

100
Hospitals/Dispensaries
Presently, 25 States/Union Territories in the country have Unani hospitals / dispensaries. There are 265
Unani hospitals with a total bed-strength of 3,623 and 1,491 Unani dispensaries in the country.

S.No. States/ UTs Hospital Bed Dispensary


1. Andhra Pradesh   2 20 75
2. Arunachal Pardesh 0 0 1
3. Assam   0 0 1
4. Bihar   1 200 449
5. Chhattisgarh   1 60 26
6. Chandigarh 0 0 1
7. Delhi   1 240 19
8. Haryana   1 10 19
9. Himachal Pradesh   0 0 3

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


10. Jammu & Kashmir   1 50 177
11. Jharkhand   0 0 54
12. Karnataka   19 512 50
13. Kerala   0 0 12
14. Madhya Pradesh   0 0 64
15. Maharashtra   6 690 25
16. Manipur 2 10 15
17. Odisha   0 0 9
18. Punjab   0 0 35
19. Rajasthan   11 25 120
20. Tamil Nadu   1 100 63
21. Telangana 3 190 188
22. Uttar Pradesh   204 1007 49
23. Uttarakhand 2 8 3
24. West Bengal   1 60 3
25. Andaman & Nicobar   1 30 0
26. C.G.H.S. Unani Dispensary   8 411 30
Total 265 3623 1491

101
Education
Presently, the country has adequately growing infrastructure of academic
institutions of Unani System of Medicine. The education and training facilities
in Unani System of Medicine are presently being monitored by the Central
Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM), which is a statutory body set up by an
Act of Parliament known as Indian Medicine Central Council (IMCC) Act,
1970. One of the objectives of the CCIM is to prescribe minimum educational
standards in Indian systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani
besides advising the Central Government on matters relating to recognition
(including withdrawal) of medical qualifications in the second schedule of the
Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970. The undergraduate course in Unani
Medicine leading to award of Kämil-i Öibb-o-Jaräùat (Bachelor of Unani Medicine
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

and Surgery) is being governed by the Indian Medicine Central Council (IMCC)
Amendment Regulations, 1995. Postgraduate courses leading to award of Mähir-i
Öibb (Doctor of Medicine) and Mähir-i Jaräùat (Master of Surgery) are being
governed by Indian Medicine Central Council Postgraduate Unani Education
Regulations, 2007. The set-up for Unani Medicine in the CCIM comprises a Vice-
President from Unani Medicine elected by the members of the CCIM. There is
a Unani Education Committee headed by Chairman Education Committee that
looks into the matters related to standards, syllabus, courses and infrastructures
of Unani colleges and makes suggestions / recommendations. The Vice-President
(Unani) also nominates members of the CCIM to visit colleges for on-the-spot
assessment of infrastructures and facilities, and make recommendations for
continuation / withdrawal of permission for the next session under section 13C of
IMCC Act. They also make recommendations to the Government for opening new
colleges of higher courses/increase the number of seats under Section 13A.

102
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview
A view of Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

At present, there are 46 recognized institutions of Unani Medicine in the country. Out of them, 34 offer
undergraduate (UG) courses only, 11 colleges offer UG as well as postgraduate (PG) courses and one –
National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM) functioning at Bengaluru – offers only PG courses. These
are either Government institutions or set up by voluntary organizations, and they are affiliated to different
Central / State universities. The curriculum prescribed by the Central Council of Indian Medicine is followed
by these institutions. These 46 institutions have admission capacity of 2,131 UG and 178 PG students
every year. Postgraduate course is available in ten subjects. Besides postgraduation, Ph.D. in Mu‘älajät
and ‘Ilm al-Adwiya is available at NIUM, Bangaluru and Government Nizamia Tibbi College, Hyderabad.
Details of postgraduate educational institutions are as follows:

103
Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (Uttar Pradesh): The college has post-
graduation in six subjects – ‘Ilm al-Adwiya, Mu‘älajät, ‘Ilm al-Qibäla wa Amräò-i Niswän, Taùaffuzé wa Samäjé
Öibb, ‘Ilm al-Jaräùa and Kulliyät.

Ayurvedic & Unani Tibbia College, Delhi: The college offers post-graduation in four subjects – Mu‘älajät,
‘Ilm al-Ñaydala, Manäfi‘ al-A‘òä’ and Amräò-i Niswän wa Qibäla.

Government Nizamia Tibbi College, Hyderabad (Telangana): The college has post-graduation in five
subjects - Mu‘älajät, ‘Ilm al-Adwiya, ‘Ilm al-Qibäla wa Amräò-i Niswän, Taùaffuzé wa Samäjé Öibb, and
Kulliyät Umür Öabé‘iyya.
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

A view of Ayurvedic & Unani Tibbia College, Delhi

104
Faculty of Medicine (Unani), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi: The faculty has post-graduation in three
subjects – Mu‘älajät, ‘Ilm al-Adwiya and Taùaffuzé wa Samäjé Öibb.

Zuleikhabai Valy Md. Unani Medical College & Hospital, Pune (Maharashtra): The college has post-
graduation in three subjects – Taùaffuzé wa Samäjé Öibb, Mu‘älajät and ‘Ilm al-Jaräùa.

Mohammadia Tibbia College & Assayer Hospital, Malegaon (Maharashtra): The college has post-
graduation in two subjects – ‘Ilm al-Adwiya and ‘Ilm al-Qibäla wa Amräò-i Niswän.

Jamia Tibbiya Deoband, Deoband (Uttar Pradesh): The college offers post-graduation in Mu‘älajät.

Deoband Unani Medical College, Deoband (Uttar Pradesh): The college offers post-graduation in four
subjects – Manäfi‘ al-A‘òa’, Mu‘älajät, Amräò-i Niswän wa Qibäla and ‘Ilm al-Jaräùa.

Allama Iqbal Unani Medical College, Muzaffarnagar (Uttar Pradesh): The college offers post-graduation
in two subjects – Taùaffuzé wa Samäjé Öibb and Kulliyät Umür Öabé‘iyya.

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Aligarh Unani & Ayurvedic Medical College & ACN Hospital, Aligarh (Uttar Pradesh): The college
offers post-graduation in two subjects – Mu‘älajät and Kulliyät Umür Öabé‘iyya.

Luqman Unani Medical College & Hospital, Bijapur (Karnataka): The college offers post-graduation in
two subjects – Mu‘älajät and Amräò-i Niswän wa Qibäla.

105
STATE-WISE
LIST OF COLLEGES

Andhra Pradesh
Dr. Abdul Haq Unani Medical Bihar
College & Hospital Government Tibbia College
40/23, Park Road Kadam Kuan
Kurnool - 518 001 Patna - 800 003

Bihar
Zulfequar Haider Unani
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Medical College & Hospital


P.B. No. 12, Nawalpur
Siwan - 841 226

Bihar Chhatisgarh
Salfia Unani Medical Mohsin-e-Millat Unani
College & Hospital Medical College
Vill. & P.O. Laheriasarai Mahboobiya Chowk
Darbhanga - 846 001 Baijnath-Para
Raipur - 492 001
Bihar
Nizamia Unani Medical
College & Hospital
Vill. Dumri, P.O. Rasalpur
Via Buniyad Ganj
Gaya - 823 002

106
STATE-WISE
LIST OF COLLEGES

Delhi
Faculty of Medicine (U)
Jamia Hamdard
Hamdard Nagar
New Delhi - 110 062

Delhi Jammu & Kashmir


Institute of Asian Medical
Ayurvedic & Unani Tibbia College
Sciences
Karol Bagh
Habbak Crossing, Zakura
New Delhi - 110 005
Srinagar - 190 006

Jammu & Kashmir


Kashmir Tibbia College

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Hospital & Research Centre
Saida Kadal
Srinagar - 190 003

Karnataka Karnataka
National Institute of Luqman Unani Medical
Unani Medicine College & Hospital
Kottigepalya BL Karadi Campus,
Magadi Main Road 12, Naubag,
Bengaluru - 560 091 Bijapur - 586 101

Karnataka
Government Unani Medical
College
Siddaiah Puranik Road
Basaveshvar Nagar
Bengaluru - 560 079

107
STATE-WISE
LIST OF COLLEGES

Karnataka
Tipu Sultan Unani Medical
College & Hospital
Post Box No. 99
Millat Nagar, Ring Road
Gulbarga - 585 104
Karnataka
H.M.S. Unani Medical Kerala
College & Hospital Markaz Unani Medical
Sadashiv Nagar, Second Stage College & Hospital
Ring Road, P.O. Maralur Puthuppadi
Tumkur - 572 105 Kozhikode - 673 571

Madhya Pradesh
Saifia Hamidia Unani Tibbia
College & Hospital
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Near Ganapati Naka


Khandwa Road
Burhanpur - 450 331
Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh
Al-Farooque Unani Ùakém Abdul Hameed Unani
Tibbia College Medical College
1, Dargah Main Road 3, Idgah Road
Khajrana Dewas - 455 001
Indore - 452 016
Madhya Pradesh
Ùakém Syed Ziaul Hassan
Government Unani Medical
College & Hospital
Kolar, Nehru Nagar By-pass
Bhopal - 462 001

108
STATE-WISE
LIST OF COLLEGES
Maharashtra
Anjuman-i-Islam’s
Dr. M. Ishaq Jamkhanawala
Tibbia Unani Medical College
& Haji Abdul Razak Kalsekar
Tibbia Hospital
60, Yari Road, Versova
Andheri (W)
Maharashtra
Mumbai - 400 061 Maharashtra
Mohammadia Tibbia College
& Assayer Hospital Ahmed Gharib Unani
P.B. No. 128, Mansoora Medical College
Malegaon Akkalkuwa
Distt. Nasik - 423 203 Nandurbar - 425 415
Maharashtra
Zuleikhabai Valy Mohammad
Unani Medical College &
Hospital

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


KB Hidayathulla Road
New Modikhana Camp
Azam Campus
Maharashtra Pune - 411 001 Rajasthan
Rajputana Unani Medical
Iqra Unani Medical College,
College, Hospital &
Hospital & Research Centre
Research Centre
G.No. 25/2, Iqra Nagar
Moh. Kho-Nagoriyan
Shirsoli Road, Mohdi Shivar
Jagatpura Road
Jalgaon - 425 135
Jaipur - 302 002
Maharashtra
Yunus Fazlani Medical College
& Al-Fazlani Unani Hospital
Kunjkheda, Post Box No. 03
Tah. Kannad
Aurangabad - 431 103

109
STATE-WISE
LIST OF COLLEGES

Rajasthan
Rajasthan Unani Medical
College & Hospital
Jagdamba Colony
Paladi Meena
Agra Road
Tamil Nadu Jaipur - 302 002
Government Unani
Medical College Telangana
Arignar Anna Government Al-Arif Unani Medical College
Hospital of Indian 18-13-132/41, Bandlaguda
Medicine Campus Hyderabad - 500 005
Arumbakkam
Chennai - 600 106
Telangana
Government Nizamia
Tibbi College
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Charminar
Hyderabad - 500 002

Uttar Pradesh
State Takmil-ut-Tib Uttar Pradesh
College & Hospital State Unani Medical College
Hkm. Abdul Aziz Road Himmatganj
Jhawai Tola Allahabad - 211 003
Lucknow - 226 003

Uttar Pradesh
Dr. Abdul Ali Tibbiya
College & Hospital
Katauli, Malihabad
Lucknow - 227 111

110
STATE-WISE
LIST OF COLLEGES

Uttar Pradesh
Jamia Tibbia Deoband
G.T. Road, Deoband
Saharanpur - 247 554
Uttar Pradesh
Deoband Unani Medical Uttar Pradesh
College, Hospital & Allama Iqbal Unani
Research Centre Medical College
Naya Bans Near Roorkee Chungi
Near Talheri Chungi G.T. Road
Deoband Muzaffarnagar - 251 001
Saharanpur - 247 554
Uttar Pradesh
Ibn-e-Sina Tibbia
College & Hospital

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Beenapara, Via Sarai Meer
Azamgarh - 276 305

Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh


Aligarh Unani Medical Sham-e-Ghausia Minority
College & A.C.N. Hospital Unani Medical College &
Gulmarg Complex Hospital
Purani Chungi Saheri, Via- Nandganj
Anoop Shahar Road Ghazipur - 233 001
Aligarh - 202 002
Uttar Pradesh
Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College
Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh - 202 002

111
STATE-WISE
LIST OF COLLEGES

Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh


Eram Unani Medical
Ghausia Unani Medical
College & Hospital
College & Hospital,
Kursi Road, Gudamba
Kanashmiripur, Deomai
Lucknow - 226 022
Fatehpur - 212 657

Uttar Pradesh
Ùakém Rais Unani Medical
College & Hospital
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Sambhal
Moradabad - 244 302

Uttrakhand West Bengal


Uttaranchal Unani Calcutta Unani Medical
Medical College College & Hospital
Mustafaabad, Dhanpura 8/1, Abdul Halim Lane
Haridwar - 249 405 Kolkata - 700 016

112
A view of Government Nizamia Tibbi College, Hyderabad

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


A view of Faculty of Medicine (Unani), Jamia Hamdard, Delhi

113
State-wise Unani Institutions

States Undergraduate Undergraduate (BUMS) as well National Institute


(BUMS) as Postgraduate (MD/MS) (MD/PhD)

Andhra Pradesh   1  

Bihar   4    

Chhattisgarh   1    

Delhi   0 2  

Jammu & Kashmir   2    

Karnataka   3 1 1

Kerala 1
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Madhya Pradesh   4    

Maharashtra   4 2  

Rajasthan   2    

Tamil Nadu 1    

Telangana 1 1  

Uttar Pradesh   8 5  

Uttarakhand 1

West Bengal   1    

Total 34 11 1

114
National Institute of
Unani Medicine
National Institute of Unani Medicine (NIUM), Bengaluru is an autonomous
organization under the Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India functioning
since the year 2004. This institute has been developed as a model institute of
postgraduate teaching, training and research in Unani System of Medicine. The
institute offers postgraduate courses in eight disciplines: Mu‘älajät (Medicine),
‘Ilm al-Adwiya (Pharmacology), Taùaffuzé wa Samäjé Öibb (Preventive and Social
Medicine), ‘Ilm al-Qibäla wa Amräò-i Niswän (Obstetrics & Gynaecology), ‘Ilm
al-Ñaydala (Pharmacy), Kulliyät (Basic Principles), ‘Iläj bi’l-Tadbér (Regimen
therapy) and ‘Ilm al-Jaräùa (Surgery). The Institute has the credit to start

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


Ph.D. course in Unani Medicine from the session 2014-15 for the first time
in the country. The campus has an academic block, hospital building, library,
pharmacy, administrative block, herbal garden, animal house, guest house, indoor
games hall, hostels, residential blocks and several other units. The library has
13,578 books on Unani Medicine and facility to search more than 248 online
and 11 offline journals. A total of 185 dissertations on preclinical, clinical and
epidemiological studies have been submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University of
Health Sciences, Karnataka.

The hospital has an OPD wing and 180-bed IPD with separate wards for male
and female patients. Clinical services are provided to the patients through
general and speciality OPDs for skin diseases, gastro-intestinal, hepato-billiary,
neurological and psychiatric disorders and geriatric care.

115
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

A view of National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bengaluru

The Regimen Therapy (‘Iläj bi’l-Tadbér) Centre of the hospital has Massage, Cupping, Leeching and Ùammäm
Units. Neuro-rehabilitation Centre caters to the needs of the patients suffering from neurological disorders,
e.g. stroke, myopathy, epilepsy, motor-neuron disease, parkinsonism, hemiplegia and paraplegia. Though
the hospital provides Unani treatment, it is also well-equipped with diagnostic laboratories of Pathology,
Biochemistry, Radiology and Ultrasonography. The hospital also provides healthcare facilities to socio-
economically weaker groups at their door steps by regularly organising health camps.

The institute regularly organizes various academic events like continuing medical education (CME)
programme, workshops, seminars and extension lectures. Faculty members are deputed to various training
programmes to update their technical and professional skills. The institute also has collaborations with
premier scientific institutions like National Institute of Mental Health and Neuroscience (NIMHANS) and
Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru for capacity building of academicians, researchers, medical
officers and practitioners.

116
All India Institute of
Unani Medicine (AIIUM)
In order to further develop and promote Unani Medicine, the Government of India is going
to establish an All India Institute of Unani Medicine (AIIUM). The Government has already
alloted 10 acres of land at Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh for this purpose. The institute would
mainly aim to promote Unani System of Medicine at national and international level by
providing tertiary healthcare. Besides setting up benchmarks for postgraduate and doctoral
education in Unani System of Medicine, the institute will promote collaborative research
with various scientific institutions at national and international level. Once established,
the institute would strive to attain the following objectives.

Objectives

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


• To provide high quality postgraduate and doctoral education (M.D./Ph.D.) in
Unani Medicine
• To undertake interdisciplinary research primarily focused on validation of
fundamental principles of Unani Medicine using modern scientific tools
• Standardization and quality control of Unani single and compound drugs
• Drug development for new and emerging diseases of national priority
• To establish a state-of-the-art tertiary care hospital with facilities for clinical
research
• To promote Unani Medicine at national and international level
• To create standards for education and research at its highest level that can serve
as a model for other institutes.
• To bring a synergy between ancient wisdom of Unani Medicine and advantages
of modern diagnostics, technology and management
• To promote collaborative research with various renowned scientific institutions
at national and international level.
• To function as a model center of Unani Medicine for international
collaboration 117
Licensed
Unani Pharmacies
There are 505 Unani drug manufacturing units (licensed pharmacies) in different
states/UTs of the country. Besides, Indian Medicines Pharmaceutical Corporation
Limited (IMPCL), Mohan, Dist. Almora, (Uttarakhand) – A Government of India
Enterprise – is one of the major manufactures of Unani drugs, which caters to the
needs of the central & state government dispensaries, autonomous organisations
including Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM) and Central
Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS). Unani licensed pharmacies
exist in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka,
Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh,
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

Uttarakahnd and West Bengal. Maximum number of Unani Pharmacies, viz. 281
are in Uttar Pradesh followed by 115 in Telangana, 30 in Bihar, 19 in Delhi, 16
in Andhra Pradesh, 13 in Maharashtra and 11 in Tamil Nadu.

118
Important Websites

www.ccrum.net Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine,


New Delhi, India
www.ayushportal.nic.in AYUSH Research Portal
www.ayush.gov.in Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India
www.mohfw.nic.in Ministry of Health & Family Welfare,
Government of India
www.nium.in National Institute of Unani Medicine,
Bengaluru, India
www.ccimindia.org Central Council for Indian Medicine,
New Delhi, India

Unani Medicine in India — An Overview


www.nmpb.nic.in National Medicinal Plants Board,
New Delhi, India
www.mohfw.nic.in/showfile.php?lid=2325 National Health Policy 2002
www.nrhm.gov.in National Rural Health Mission (NRHM),
Ministry of Health & Family Welfare,
Government of India
www.plimism.nic.in Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicine
www.ayush.gov.in/about-the-ministry/national- National Policy on AYUSH
policy-ayush
www.iiim.res.in Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu
(Council of Scientific and Industrial Research,
Govt. of India)
www.pharmacy.olemiss.edu/ncnpr/ National Centre for Natural Products Research,
the University of Mississippi

119
www.ravdelhi.nic.in Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth (National
Academy of Ayurveda), New Delhi, India
www.amu.ac.in/deansoffaculty. Faculty of Unani Medicine, Aligarh Muslim
jsp?lid=80108lid=00 University, Aligarh
www.du.ac.in/du/index.php?page=ayurvedic- A&U Tibbia College, Karol Bagh, New Delhi
unani-tibbia-college
www.jamiahamdard.edu/faculty-of-medicine/ Faculty of Medicine (U), Jamia Hamdard,
New Delhi
Unani Medicine in India — An Overview

120
CENTRAL COUNCIL FOR RESEARCH IN UNANI MEDICINE
Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani,
Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Government of India
61 - 65, Institutional Area, Janakpuri, New Delhi – 110 058
Telephone: +91-11-28521981, 28520501, 28525831/52/62/83/97
Fax: +91-11-28522965 • Email: unanimedicine@gmail.com • Website: www.ccrum.net