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Architecture

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Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to:


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• Describe the MySQL client/server model


• Describe communication protocols
• Explain how the server supports storage engines
• Explain the basics of how MySQL uses memory and disk
space
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MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 2


MySQL Architecture

MySQL client/server model


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Database
PHP

mysqld TCP/IP
MySQL Server Process
a ble
TCP/IP Socket
Linux
f e r
ans
(localhost) TCP/IP
n - t r
mysql PHP
a no ODBC
Client
Process
Client
Process h a s
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c o i d e
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(installationlichas the following required architectural components: the MySQL server,
A MySQLt a
niprograms, and MySQL non-client programs. A central program acts as a server, and the
i Y u
client

Ism
client programs connect to the server to make data requests.
MySQL client/server communication is not limited to environments where all computers run
the same operating system.
• Client programs can connect to the server running on the same host or on a different
host.
• Client/server communication can occur in environments where computers run different
operating systems.
Note: Any information in this course that does not apply to all operating systems is identified
as platform-specific. Information that works for Linux generally applies for all UNIX-like
operating systems.

MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 3


Client Programs

• Connect to the MySQL server to retrieve, modify, add, or


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remove data.
• Use these client programs to perform the following actions:
– mysql: Issue queries and view results.
– mysqladmin: Administer the server.
– mysqlcheck: Check the integrity of database tables. le
– mysqldump: Create logical backups. r a b
n s fe
– mysqlimport: Import text data files. - t r a
– n on
mysqlshow: Show database, table, and column information.
s a
– mysqlslap: Emulate client load. h a )
o m d e ฺ
• Use MySQL Workbench for database c
aฺ tmanagement. u i
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a (
Theseitprograms areliexecuted from the prompt of a command interpreter:
u nshell> mysql [options]
i Y
Ism The mysql client program is commonly known as the command-line interface (CLI).
For more information about client programs, see the MySQL Reference Manual:
http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/programs-client.html.
MySQL Workbench is a GUI tool that enables you to:
• Model a database
• Perform database queries
• Perform administration tasks

MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 4


Administrative and Utility Programs

• Access data files directly without using a client to connect


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to the server.
• Use non-client programs.
– innochecksum: Check an InnoDB tablespace file offline.
– mysqldumpslow: Summarize the slow query log files.
– mysqlbinlog: Display the binary log files. le
r a b
• Some of the programs have requirements that must be ns f e
met prior to running: - t r a
n no
– Shut down the server. s a
– Back up your current tables. ) h a
o m d e ฺ
• Review program requirements prior c i
aฺ tot implementation.
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Theseitprograms arelialso executed from the prompt of a command interpreter.
u n
i Y
mysqldumpslow is a Perl script.
Ism There are many more programs available. To avoid loss or corruption of data, some of the
programs require that you shut down the server and/or make a back up of your current tables
prior to execution.
For more information about administrative and utility programs, see the MySQL Reference
Manual: http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/programs-admin-utils.html.

MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 5


MySQL Server

• Is the database server program called mysqld


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• Is not the same as a “host”


• Is a single process and is multithreaded
• Manages access to databases on disk and in memory
• Supports simultaneous client connections
• Supports multiple storage engines
r a ble
• Supports both transactional and nontransactional tablesansf
e
n - tr
• Uses memory in the form of: no
– Caching s a
)h ฺ a
– Buffering
co uidem
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Note the
t a (is
difference lic
between a server and a host:
n i
i Yu• Server: A software program (mysqld) with a version number and a list of features
Ism • Host: The physical machine on which the server program runs, which includes the
following:
- Its hardware configuration
- The operating system running on the machine
- Its network addresses
Multiple mysqld instances can run simultaneously on one host.
The configuration of the MySQL server evolves from one product version to the next. Always
consult the product documentation for the most up-to-date configuration information.
For more information about the MySQL server, see the MySQL Reference Manual:
http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/programs-server.html.

MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 6


Server Process

Application Application Application


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Connection layer

a ble
r
mysqld

SQL layer
sf e
- t r an
n no
Storage layer a
h a s
m ) ฺ
Disk Memory c o d e
Network
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( (serverliprogram)
n i t a
The mysqld process can be sliced into the following three layers:

i Yu• Connection layer: Handles connections. This layer exists on all server software
Ism (Web/mail/LDAP server).
• SQL layer: Processes SQL queries that are sent by connected applications
• Storage layer: Handles data storage. Data can be stored in different formats and
structures on different physical media.

MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 7


Connection Layer

Application Application Application


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Connection layer
• Communication protocols
• Threads
• Authentication
a ble
e r
mysqld

s f
- t r an
SQL layer
n no
s a
) h a
Storage layeraฺc o m i d eฺ
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( layerlicaccepts connections from applications over several communication
ni t a
The connection

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protocols:

Ism • TCP/IP
• UNIX sockets
• Shared memory
• Named pipes
TCP/IP works across the network. The other protocols listed above support only local
connections when the client and server are running on the same machine. This layer
maintains one thread per connection. This thread handles query execution. Before a
connection can begin sending SQL queries, the connection is authenticated by verification of
username + password + client host.
MySQL uses DNS (Domain Naming System) to resolve the names of hosts that connect using
TCP/IP protocol, storing them in a host cache. For large networks that exhibit performance
problems during name resolution, disable DNS with the --skip-name-resolve option, or
increase the value of the --host-cache-size option.

MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 8


Communication Protocols
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Protocol Types of Connections Supported Operating


Systems
TCP/IP Local, remote All

UNIX socket file Local only UNIX only

Shared memory Local only Windows only


a ble
f e r
Named pipes Local only Windows only
ans
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• Protocols are implemented in the client libraries a no
and
drivers. h a s
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• The speed of a connection protocol c o
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( (Transmission
n t a
• iTCP/IP Control Protocol/Internet Protocol): The suite of

i Yu communication protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet. In the Linux operating
Ism
system, TCP/IP is built-in and is used by the Internet, making it the standard for
transmitting data over networks. This is the best connection type for Windows.
• UNIX socket: A form of inter-process communication used to form one end of a
bidirectional communication link between processes on the same machine. A socket
requires a physical file on the local system. This is the best connection type for Linux.
• Shared memory: An efficient means of passing data between programs. One program
creates a memory portion that other processes (if permitted) can access. This Windows
explicit “passive” mode works only within a single (Windows) machine. Shared memory
is disabled by default. To enable shared-memory connections, you must start the server
with the --shared-memory option.
• Named pipes: The use of named pipes is biased toward client/server communication,
where they work much like sockets. Named pipes support read/write operations, along
with an explicit “passive” mode for server applications. This protocol works only within a
single (Windows) machine. Named pipes are disabled by default. To enable named-pipe
connections, you must start the server with the --enable-named-pipe option.

MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 9


SQL Layer

Application Application Application


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Connection layer

SQL layer a ble


e r
mysqld

• Parser • Query execution


s f
• Authorization • Query cache
- t r an
• Optimizer • Query logging n no
s a
) h a
Storage layeraฺc o m i d eฺ
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a (
After aitconnection isliestablished, the following processes are handled by the MySQL server:
u n
i Y • Authorization and parser: The parser validates the correct syntax, and then
Ism authorization verifies that the connected user is allowed to run a particular query.
• Optimizer: Creates the execution plan for each query, which is a step-by-step
instruction set on how to execute the query in the most optimal way. Determining which
indexes are to be used, and in which order to process the tables, is the most important
part of this step.
• Query execution: Fulfills the execution plan for each query
• Query cache: Optionally configurable query cache that can be used to memorize (and
immediately return) executed queries and results
• Query logging: Can be enabled to track executed queries
Note: The diagram in the slide shows how the MySQL server processes SQL statements.

MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 10


SQL Statement Processing
SQL layer Start
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Check cache Yes No


SELECT? Parse query
query

Optimize
query
FOUND?
No
a ble
f e r
Execute ans
Yes
query n - t r
a no
h a s
m ) Updateฺ cache
ฺ c o e
idquery
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a (is areliprocessed
SQL statements
t
c in the order and relationship described in the slide.
n i
i Yu
Ism

MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 11


Storage Layer

Application Application Application


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Connection layer

SQL layer a ble


r
mysqld

s f e
- t r an
Storage layer n no
s a
Disk Memory
) a
Network
h
• InnoDB • MEMORY
o • NDB
m d e ฺ
• MyISAM c
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( you can licuse different types of storage called “storage engines.” Data can be
t a
With MySQL,
ni on disk, memory, and network. Each table in a database can use any of the available
Y u
stored
i storage engines. Disk storage is cheap and persistent, whereas memory is much faster.
Ism InnoDB is the default storage engine. It provides transactions, full-text indexing, and foreign
key constraints, and is thus useful for a wide mix of queries. It is multipurpose and supports
read-intensive, read/write, and transactional workloads.
Other storage engines include:
• MyISAM: Useful for mostly read and little update of data
• MEMORY: Stores all data in memory
• NDB: Used by MySQL Cluster to provide redundant scalable topology for highly
available data
Note: Storage engines extend beyond just the storage layer, and consist of more than just
storage. They also include other structures and implementation mechanisms.

MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 12


Storage Engine: Overview

Storage engines are server components that act as handlers


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for different table types.


• Storage engines are used to:
– Store data
– Retrieve data
– Find data through an index le
r a b
• Two-tier processing s f e
– Upper tier includes SQL parser and optimizer. - t r an
no n
– Lower tier consists of a set of storage engines. a
a s
• SQL tier is not dependent on the storage) h
engine:
c o m ideฺ
– The engine does not affect SQL aprocessing.
h ฺ Gu
– There are some exceptions. i r t
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( i s licfrom tables or changes data in tables by sending requests to the server
A client
t a
retrieves data
niform of SQL statements. The server executes each statement by using the two-tier
inu
the
i Y
Ism
processing model.
Clients normally do not need to be concerned about which engines are involved in processing
SQL statements. Clients can access and manipulate tables by using statements that are the
same no matter which engine manages them. Exceptions to this engine-independence of
SQL statements include the following:
• CREATE TABLE has an ENGINE option that specifies which storage engine to use on a
per-table basis.
• ALTER TABLE has an ENGINE option that enables the conversion of a table to use a
different storage engine.
• Some index types are available only for particular storage engines. For example, only
the InnoDB and MyISAM engines support full-text indexes.
• COMMIT and ROLLBACK operations affect only tables that are managed by transactional
storage engines such as InnoDB and NDB.

MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 13


Features Dependent on Storage Engine

• Storage medium
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• Transactional capabilities
• Locking
• Backup and recovery
• Optimization
• Special features a ble
f e r
– Full-text search
ans
– Referential integrity n - t r
a no
– Spatial data handling s
) h a
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c
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i s lic are dependent on the storage engine:
( properties
ni t a
The following

i Y u
• Storage medium: A table storage engine can store data on disk, in memory, or over a
Ism network.
• Transactional capabilities: Some storage engines support full ACID transactional
capability, while others may have no transactional support.
Note: ACID is discussed in the lesson titled “Transactions and Locking.”
• Locking: Storage engines may use different locking granularity (such as table-level or
row-level locks) and mechanisms to provide consistency with concurrent transactions.
• Backup and recovery: May be affected by how the storage engine stores and operates
the data
• Optimization: Different indexing implementations may affect optimization. Storage
engines use internal caches, buffers, and memory in different ways to optimize
performance.
• Special features: Certain engine types have features that provide full-text search,
referential integrity, and the ability to handle spatial data.
The optimizer may need to make different choices depending on the storage engine, but this
is all handled through a standardized interface (API) that each storage engine supports.
Note: More information about storage engines and related concepts is provided later in this
course.
MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 14
How MySQL Uses Disk Space
Disk Space
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Data Directory
Server Log Files Program
Status Files Executable
Files
InnoDB Log Files
InnoDB System Tablespace le
r a b
Database Directory s f e
(per database)
- t r an
o n
Data and Index Files
an
Program
s
Format Files (.frm) haFiles
)Log
c o m ideฺ
Triggers
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( are storedlic under server installation directories, along with the data directory.
Program
i t a
nprogram
files
Y u
The executable and log files are created by the execution of the various client,
i administrative, and utility programs. The primary use of disk space is the data directory.
Ism • Server log files and status files contain information about statements that the server
processes. Logs are used for troubleshooting, monitoring, replication, and recovery.
• InnoDB log files for all databases reside at the data directory level.
• InnoDB System Tablespace contains the data dictionary, undo log, and buffers.
• Each database has a single directory under the data directory, regardless of what types
of tables are created in the database. The database directories store the following:
- Data files: Storage engine–specific data files. These files can also include
metadata or index information, depending on the storage engine used.
- Format files (.frm): Contain a description of each table and/or view structure,
located in the corresponding database directory
- Triggers: Named database objects that are associated with a table and are
activated when a particular event occurs for the table
• The location of the data directory depends on the configuration, operating system,
installation package, and distribution. A typical location is /var/lib/mysql.

MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 15


• MySQL stores the system database (mysql) on disk. mysql contains information such
as users, privileges, plugins, help lists, events, time-zone implementations, and stored
routines.
Note: More detailed information about the installation directories is provided in later lessons.
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MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 16


How MySQL Uses Memory

• Global
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– Allocated once
– Shared by the server process and its threads
• Session
– Allocated for each thread
– Dynamically allocated and deallocated le
r a b
– Used for handling query results
s f e
– Buffer sizes per session - t r an
n no
s a
) h a
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c
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( i s lic be divided into the following two categories:
Memory
ni t aallocation can

i Y u
• Global (per-instance memory): Allocated once when the server starts and freed when
Ism the server shuts down. This memory is shared across all sessions.
When all the physical memory has been used up, the operating system starts swapping.
This has an adverse effect on MySQL server performance and can cause the server to
crash.
• Session (per-session memory): Dynamically allocated per session (sometimes
referred to as thread). This memory can be freed when the session ends or is no longer
needed.
This memory is mostly used for handling query results. The sizes of the buffers used are
per connection. For instance, a read_buffer of 10 MB with 100 connections means
that there could be a total of 100*10 MB used for all read buffers simultaneously.

MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 17


Memory Structures

Server allocates memory in three different categories:


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• Query cache
Server/Shared
• Thread cache

a ble
Storage Engine/ • Log buffer f e r
ans
Shared • Buffer pool
n - t r
a no
h a s
• Sort buffer om
) ฺ
c i d e
Connection/
Session
• Read buffer
r t h aฺ t Gu
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• Temporary
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i s c
(allocateslimemory
n i t a
The server for many kinds of data as it runs.

i Yu• Thread cache: Threads are used in MySQL (and other programs) to split the execution
Ism of the application into two or more simultaneous running tasks. An individual thread is
created for each client that connects to the MySQL server to handle that connection.
• Buffers and caches: Buffers and caches provide a data management subsystem and
support fast-access items such as grant table buffers, storage engine buffers such as
InnoDB’s log buffers, and table open caches that hold descriptors for open tables. A
query cache is also used to speed up the processing of queries that are issued
repeatedly.
If you use the MEMORY storage engine, MySQL uses the main memory as principal data
store. Other storage engines may also use main memory for data storage, but MEMORY is
unique for being designed not to store data on disk.

MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 18


Connection/Session
• Internal temporary tables: In some cases of query execution, MySQL creates a
temporary table to resolve the query. The temporary table can be created in memory or
on disk depending on its size or contents or on the query syntax.
• Client-specific buffers: Are specifically designed to support the individual clients that
are connected. Examples of the buffers include:
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- Communications buffer for exchanging information


- Table read buffers (including buffers that support joins)
- Sort operations

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MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 19


MySQL Plugin Interface

• Daemon plugins, run by the server


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• Plugin API allows loading and unloading of server


components.
– Supports dynamic loading, without restarting server
– Supports full-text parser
– Supports different authentication methods le
– Supports storage engines installed as plugins r a b
s f e
– Supports INFORMATION_SCHEMA plugins - t r an
o n
s
• an
Requires the PLUGINS table in the mysql database

m ideฺ
• ) ha
MySQL supports both client and server plugins.
c o
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m ฺ
i ens
i s c supports:
(the pluginliAPI
ni t a
Currently,

i Y u
• Full-text parser plugins that can be used to replace or augment the built-in full-text
Ism parser. For example, a plugin can parse text into words by using rules that differ from
those used by the built-in parser. This is useful to parse text with characteristics different
from those expected by the built-in parser.
• Storage engines that provide low-level storage, retrieval, and data indexing to the server
• Information schema plugins. An information schema plugin appears as a table in the
MySQL INFORMATION_SCHEMA database. The INFORMATION_SCHEMA database is
discussed later in more detail.
• A Daemon plugin starts a background process that runs within the server (for example,
to perform heartbeat processing at regular intervals).
The plugin interface requires the PLUGINS table in the mysql database. This table is created
as part of the MySQL installation process.

MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 20


Summary

In this lesson, you should have learned how to:


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• Describe the MySQL client/server model


• Understand communication protocols
• Understand how the server supports storage engines
• Explain the basics of how MySQL uses memory and disk
space
a ble
f e r
ans
n - t r
o
s an
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i ens
i s lic
nit a(
i Y u
Ism

MySQL for Database Administrators 2 - 21


Practice 2-1 Overview:
Quiz
In this quiz, you answer questions about the MySQL
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architecture.

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f e r
ans
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s an
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i s
( Guide,liseec the practice for this lesson.
n t a
In theiActivity

i Y u
Ism

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