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Annadatha Ananta Hrushikesh, 14021A2633,
IVth B. Tech Petroleum Engineering, JNTU Kakinada.
under the guidance of
Prof. K. V. Rao

Abstract Well logging, also known

as borehole logging is the practice of
Well Logging is rightly referred to making a detailed record (a well log)
as the 'Eye to the Reservoir', as it of the geologic formations
parametrically visualizes the penetrated by a borehole. The log
downhole reservoir, which is may be based either on visual
invisible to the naked eye. Logs inspection of samples brought to the
responses generated from Wireline surface (geological logs) or on
Logging, after performing certain physical measurements made by
corrections and manipulations, instruments lowered into the
generate various Reservoir hole(geophysical logs). Some types
Parameters based on the type of log of geophysical well logs can be done
used. Reservoir Parameters are key during any phase of a well's history:
parameters, which are used in drilling, completing, producing, or
varoius fields like Reserve abandoning. Well logging is
Estimation, Reserve Forecasting, performed in boreholes drilled for
Perforation Interval, Pressure the oil and
Decline Analysis, etc. In this paper, gas, groundwater, mineral and geoth
I would like to estimate various ermal exploration, as well as part of
Reservoir Parameters from Well Log environmental
Data and establish Crossplots among and geotechnical studies.
different Porsoity Logs of Density,
Neutron and Sonic. Literature Review on Well
Definition of Well Logging
Prevalence of Logging

Conrad and Marcel Schlumberger, prospecting for metal ore deposits,

who founded Schlumberger and the brothers adapted that surface
Limited in 1926, are considered the technique to subsurface applications.
inventors of electric well logging. On September 5, 1927, a crew
Conrad developed the Schlumberger working for Schlumberger lowered
array, which was a technique for an electric sonde or tool down a well
in Pechelbronn, Alsace, France borehole mud at the boundaries
creating the first well log. In modern of permeable beds. By
terms, the first log was a resistivity simultaneously recording SP and
log that could be described as 3.5- resistivity, loggers could distinguish
meter upside-down lateral log. between permeable oil-bearing beds
and impermeable nonproducing
In 1931, Henri George Doll and G.
Dechatre, working for
Schlumberger, discovered that In 1940, Schlumberger invented
the galvanometer wiggled even the spontaneous potential dipmeter;
when no current was being passed this instrument allowed the
through the logging cables down in calculation of the dip and direction
the well. This led to the discovery of of the dip of a layer. The basic
the spontaneous potential (SP) dipmeter was later enhanced by the
which was as important as the ability resistivity dipmeter (1947) and the
to measure resistivity. The SP effect continuous resistivity dipmeter
was produced naturally by the (1952).

Types of Logging  Casing collar locator

 Casing inspection logs

 Resistivity and spontaneous (SP)  Borehole imaging

logging:  Borehole gravimetry

 Electrode resistivity devices  Downhole magnetic surveys

 Induction logging  Production logging:

 Micro resistivity logs  Temperature logging

 Spontaneous (SP) log  Radioactive tracer logging

 Acoustic logging:  Noise logging

 Cement bond logs  Fluid capacitance logging

 Nuclear logging:  Focused gamma ray density

 Gamma ray logs logging

 Spectral gamma ray logs  Unfocused gamma ray

 Density logging density logging

 Neutron porosity logs  Diverting spinner flowmeter

 Pulsed neutron lifetime logs  Continuous and fullbore

 Carbon oxygen logs spinner flowmeters

 Geochemical logs
 Nuclear magnetic resonance
(NMR) logging Reservoir Parameters
 Mud logging estimated from Well Log Data
 Sonic logging
 Specialty logs: 1. Shale volume (Vsh)
 Openhole caliper logs
2. Water saturation (Sw) 5. Elasticity (σ, AI, SI, etc.)
3. Porosity (φ) 6. Reflectivity coefficient (R)
4. Permeability (k) 7. Special Data
characteristics: Petroleum
Estimating Reservoir Transactions of AIME 146, Water
Parameters: Saturation is determined by utilizing
local Restivity log data, which is
1. Lithology is obtained from corrected for borehole effects.
Gamma Ray Logs and SP Logs. 2. Porosity Crossplots for
2. Shale Volume is determined from Compensated Neutron Logs, Bulk
Gamma Ray responses of the Density Logs and Sonic Logs were
stratum, with respect to clean Sand developed by Alberty, M.W., 1994,
and clean Shale. Development Geology Refernce
3. Porosity is determined from Manual, AAPG Methods in
various log sources like Neutron, Exploration Series 10.
Sonic, Density, etc. 3. In Pickett, G., R., 1973, Pattern
4. Saturation is determined from recognition as a means of formation
Archie's Equation, by considering evaluation: The Log Analyst, vol.
the corresponding values of 14, no. 4, Plots for Visually Imaging
Cementation and Saturation and Comparing Water Saturations of
Exponents. different parts of a reservoir in one
5. Permeability can be derived or many wells were constructed.
Qualitatively from Modular 4. Correlations for determining
Formation Tester, Emperically from Permeability from other log
other log responses and responses.
Quantitatively by Flowing and Shut-
In Afterflow Tests. Method Of Action
6. Elasticity and other physical
properties are derived from Acoustic Reference Data
I intend to use the Well Log
data of Kaldarholt KH-34
Previous Estimation Geothermal Field, Iceland to
Techniques determine the reservoir
1. In Archie, G. E., 1942, The
electrical resistivity log as an aid in Procedure
determining some reservoir
I intend to first derive the reservoir
parameters in the routine manner References
from Logs.

1. Lithology is obtained from  Fundamentals of Well Log

Gamma Ray Logs and SP Logs. Interpretation: The
2. Determine Shale Volume from Acquisition of Data,
Gamma Ray responses of the ObertoSerra, Elsevier, 1984.
 Well Logging for Earth
stratum, with respect to clean Sand
Scientists, Darwin V. Ellis,
and clean Shale. Julian M. Singer, Springer,
3. Determine Porosity from various 2007.
log sources like Neutron, Sonic,  Muammar, R. (2014).
Density, etc. Application of Fluid
4. Determine Saturation from Mechanics to Determine Oil
Archie's Equation, by considering and Gas Reservoir’s
the corresponding values of PetrophysicalProperties By
Using Well Log Data.
Cementation and Saturation
 Balan, B., Mohaghegh, S., &
Ameri, S. (1995). State-of-
5. Determine Permeability the-art in permeability
Emperically from other log determination from well log
responses. data: part 1-A comparative
6.Determine Elasticity and other study, model development.
physical properties from Acoustic paper SPE, 30978, 17-21.
 Archie, G. E., 1942, The
electrical resistivity log as an
7. Construct Cross Plots of Porosity
Logs and tally the results with aid in determining some
existing Crossplots using Sigma reservoir characteristics:
Plot. Petroleum Transactions of
8. Construct Crossplots of Depth and AIME 146.
 Alberty, M.W., 1994,
Acoustic Impedance using Sigma
Plot and determine the equation Development Geology
which best fits the curve(Curve Refernce Manual, AAPG
Fitting). Methods in Exploration Series
9. Construct Crossplots of Velocity 10.
Ratio vs Acoustic Impedance and  Pickett, G., R., 1973, Pattern

determine the directions of recognition as a means of

increasing Shaliness, Pore Pressure, formation evaluation: The
Porosity and Hydrocarbon Content. Log Analyst, vol. 14, no. 4