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CONFIRMATION OF SUPERVISOR

“I declare that I have read this research report

and in my opinion this was sufficient in terms of

the scope and quality for

the degree of Bachelor of Education in

Teaching English as a Second Language”

Signature : ………………………........................

Supervisor’s name : MR. AHMAD ZULKIPLY BIN MOHD YASSIN

Date : ...........................................................

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DECLARATION OF INTEGRITY

“I hereby declare that this submission is my own words and that, to the best of my
knowlegde and belief, it contains no materials previously published or written by
another person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the
award of another degree or diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning
except where due acknowledgement has been made in the text.”

Signature : ................................

Writer’s name : AHMAD NOR `AINUDDIN BIN AHMAD FUZI

Date : September 2014

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DEDICATION

I dedicated this to

My father Ahmad Fuzi Bin Md Daud

My mother Ainul Jamil Binti Abd Malek

and my family

Thanks for the understanding, encouragement, and advice that has been given over the

years.

My supervisor Ahmad Zulkiply Bin Mohd Yassin

Who has never entertained boredom as to fully provide guidance and advice also share

his knowledge and experience.

My friends,

Thank you for the reminder, information, surely a memory that we have created together

will remain engraved on my mind forever.

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APPRECIATION

Alhamdulillah, thanks are due to Allah S.W.T because with His grace I can

finish this research. I would like to express tons of appreciation to the supervisor of tmy

action research, Mr. Ahmad Zulkiply Bin Mohd Yassin on guidance that has been given

throughout this study. Thanks a lot as he never tire to devote his knowledge to me.

Heartfelt appreciation also goes to my family which has always been very

motivating to me also gives inspiration and words of encouragement to make sure I

make up to this point.

For my fellow TESLians, I am very thankful to be blessed with you as my

friends. I will always remember our difficulties in order to overcome these obstacles.

Nobody can ever replace you and I hope all the good deeds will be rewarded by Him.

Thank you.

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ABSTRACT

This action research was done with the aims to improve teacher’s practice using “Self-
Assessment” method in increasing pupils’ Year 4 performance in the English test
particularly in the field of grammar. A total of 6 pupils consisting of 3 male and three
female pupils have been involved in this study. Initial observation found that the pupils
still making the same mistake despite answering the similar questions. The data was
collected and triangulated through three types of method which are the pre and post-test
instruments, the observation checklist form and the interview questions. The result
obtain from the study showed that the use of self-assessment method in this action
research provide a positive impact and increased pupils’ performance in the grammar
test.

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Table of Contents

CONFIRMATION OF SUPERVISOR ...........................................................................................i


DECLARATION OF INTEGRITY................................................................................................ ii
DEDICATION ............................................................................................................................... iii
APPRECIATION........................................................................................................................... iv
ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................... v
TABLES ...................................................................................................................................... viii
FIGURES ....................................................................................................................................... ix
APPENDICES ................................................................................................................................ x
1.0 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................1
1.1 The background of the study ................................................................................................3
1.2 The Reflection of past teaching experience ..........................................................................6
2.0 THE FOCUS OF RESEARCH .................................................................................................9
2.1 Problem statement.................................................................................................................9
2.2 Preliminary Investigation ................................................................................................... 10
2.3 Analysis of preliminary investigation ................................................................................ 11
2.4 Criteria of selection ............................................................................................................ 11
2.5 Definition of term .............................................................................................................. 12
3.0 OBJECTIVES/ QUESTIONS OF RESEARCH .................................................................... 14
3.1 Research objectives............................................................................................................ 14
3.2 Research questions............................................................................................................. 14
..................................................................................................................................................... 14
4.0 TARGET GROUP/ PARTICIPANTS ................................................................................... 15
5.0 PLAN OF ACTIONS............................................................................................................. 16
5.1 Procedures of actions ......................................................................................................... 17
5.2 Methods of collecting data ................................................................................................. 19
5.2.1 Structured observation ................................................................................................ 20
5.2.2 Pre and post-test .......................................................................................................... 21
5.2.3 Questionnaires ............................................................................................................ 22
6.0 INTERPRETATION OF DATA ........................................................................................... 23

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6.1 Structured observation ....................................................................................................... 23
6.2 Pre and post-tests ............................................................................................................... 25
6.3 Questionnaires ................................................................................................................... 29
7.0 FINDINGS ............................................................................................................................. 32
8.0 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH .................................................................. 34
9.0 REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................... 36
10.0 APPENDICES ..................................................................................................................... 37

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TABLES

Table 1 Table for data interpretation................................................................................ 23

Table 2 Intervention by using self-assessment for Year 4 analysis ................................. 24

Table 3 Levels of pre and post test scores ....................................................................... 25

Table 4 Differences in pupils’ achievement in the personal pronoun pre and post-test .. 27

Table 5 Differences in pupils’ achievement in the possessive pronoun pre and post-test ............28

Table 6 Score percentage ................................................................................................. 29

Table 7 Analysis of the effectiveness of 'self-assessment method' questionnaire ........... 30

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FIGURES

Figure 1 Relationship between grammar, system of sound and written symbol ............... 5

Figure 2 Number of pupils answer correctly in grammar section inYear 4 Harmoni ..... 10

Figure 3 Triangulation between methods......................................................................... 20

Figure 4 Intervention by using self-assessment for Year 4 graph analysis ...................... 24

Figure 5 Year 4 scores in grammar pre-tests ................................................................... 26

Figure 6 Year 4 scores in grammar post-tests .................................................................. 26

Figure 7 Differences in pupils’ achievement in the personal pronoun pre and post-test . 27

Figure 8 Differences in pupils’ achievement in the possessive pronoun pre and post-test ...........28

Figure 9 Analysis of the effectiveness of 'self-assessment method' questionnaire .......... 31

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APPENDICES

APPENDIX A …………………………………………………………………… 37

APPENDIX B …………………………………………………………………… 38

APPENDIX C …………………………………………………………………… 39

APPENDIX D …………………………………………………………………… 41

APPENDIX E …………………………………………………………………… 42

APPENDIX F …………………………………………………………………… 44

APPENDIX G …………………………………………………………………… 46

APPENDIX H …………………………………………………………………… 48

APPENDIX I …………………………………………………………………… 50

APPENDIX J …………………………………………………………………… 51

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

Grammar is very difficult to be acquired if not taught systematically. Years of learning it

in school does not automatically ensure pupils competency level of the target language.

It takes more than finishing a syllabus to instil a proper system of English language

grammar in the primary school curriculum. Thus, even after six years of formal school

English language instruction, there are cases of failures in mastering grammar especially

in writing skills.

Lots of times, especially if you are self-editing, it's easy for little grammar

mistakes to slip by ones that are a letter or two off from the word you need, or just plain

usage errors that you are not sure about. These are genuine mistakes no one is actually

going out and writing these on purpose and hopefully your content is largely void of

these so it looks polished.

But how do you prevent those grammar mistakes if you are not even aware that

you are making them? This idea of self-assessment allows pupils to detect or identify

their mistake straight away. It is proven that when the pupils identify their mistake, they

can memorize and avoid doing the same mistake again in the future. The role of the

teacher in this act is to tell the right answer, tell why it is supposed to be so and to

emphasize on the fact of that specific grammar.

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Based on the, Dokumen Standard Kurikulum dan Pentaksiran Bahasa Inggeris

SK Tahun 4, teachers should employ various strategies in teaching grammar so that

learning becomes effective, interesting, fun and relevant. Grammar should be taught in

context as well as explicitly so that pupils learn the rules of grammar and how to apply

these rules in speech and writing. Various activities such as language games, quizzes,

grammar songs and meaningful grammar drills will make the learning of grammar more

accessible and enjoyable. Through these, pupils will understand, grasp and apply

grammatically correct structures in speech and writing.

Also through this new syllabus, it has been allocated one specific day for

grammar module to be implemented in the classroom. This inclusion of the grammar

module emphasises the importance of having pupils develop a sound grasp of the

language structures and grammar of Standard British English, both orally and in writing.

Brown (2007), in his book said, a conventional view of language pedagogy

might consider self-assessment to be an absurd reversal of the teaching and learning

process. After all, how could learners who are still in the process of acquisition,

especially in the early processes, be capable of rendering an accurate assessment of their

own performance? In Malaysia, most of the school neglected of using self-assessment as

a way to assess the pupils. But a closer look at the acquisition of any skill reveals the

importance, if not the necessity, of self-assessment. What successful learner has not

developed the ability to monitor his or her own performance and to use the data gathered

for adjustments and corrections? Successful learners extend the learning process well

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beyond the classroom and the presence of a teacher or a tutor, autonomously mastering

the art of self-assessment.

Research has shown a number of advantages of self-assessment which are speed,

direct involvement of pupils, the encouragement of autonomy and increased motivation

because of self-involvement in the process of learning.

Thus, by referring to these statements, the researcher had conducted an action

research on ‘Self-assessment focusing on upgrading pupils’ performance in grammar

test’.

1.1 The background of the study

Assessment is a very important component in teaching and learning a language. The

rationale of having assessment in the teaching and learning activities partly would be; to

measure pupils’ performance, to get a feedback on teaching strategies, to diagnose area

of weaknesses and to record their progress.

According to Huba, Freed and Freed (as cited in Mihram, 2007), assessment is

the process of gathering and discussing information from multiple and diverse sources in

order to develop a deep understanding of what students know, understand, and can do

with their knowledge as a result of their educational experiences; the process culminates

when assessment results are used to improve subsequent learning.

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As a whole, Palomba and Banta (as cited in Gardiner 2004) had simplify

assessment among pupils where they stated that assessment is the systematic collection,

review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose

of improving pupil’s learning and development. In my opinion, the researcher can

conclude that assessment is a process of collecting information which is conducted to

improve pupils’ development.

Humans encounter self-assessment every day -- from career and retirement

planning, to deciding whether to have dessert or not. But have you considered self-

assessment as human performance improvement tool? Self-assessment occurs when

individuals evaluate their own performance, skills, or attributes. The information is then

used to motivate the person to acknowledge gaps, set goals and achieve them.

Brown (2007) states that self-assessment derives its theoretical justification from

a number of well-established principles of second language acquisition. The principle of

autonomy stands out as one of the primary foundation stones of successful learning. The

ability to set one’s own goals both within and beyond the structure of a classroom

curriculum, to pursue them without the presence of an external prod, and to

independently monitor that pursuit are all keys to success. Developing intrinsic

motivation that comes from a self-propelled desire to excel is at the top of the list of

successful acquisition of any set of skills.

Another important component is grammar. Grammar is the systematic study and

description of a language. Some also derive grammar as a set of rules and examples
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dealing with the syntax and word structures of a language, usually intended as an aid to

the learning of that language. Grammar can be divided into two that are descriptive

grammar and prescriptive grammar. Descriptive grammar refers to the structure of a

language as it's actually used by speakers and writers. Prescriptive grammar refers to the

structure of a language as certain people think it should be used.

According to Greenbaum and Nelson (2009), grammar refers to the set of rules

that allow us to combine words in English into larger units. Another term for grammar in

this sense is syntax. Grammar is the central component of English it mediates between

the system of sounds or of written symbols, on the one hand, and the system of meaning,

on the other.

Figure 1 Relationship between grammar, system of sound and written symbol

Grammar is the backbone of any language taught or learnt. However, based on

my experience during my practicum, pupils are very weak in acquiring the target

language especially in mastering grammar. This study would be exploring on the

relationship of self-assessment and grammar because pupils can independently assess

and identify their errors or mistakes in grammar. This study will be focusing on the

prescriptive grammar.

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1.2 The Reflection of past teaching experience

In the year of 2013, the researcher had undergone a practicum in a rural school in Perlis

namely Sekolah Kebangsaan Kayang. During the practicum, the researcher gave several

task sheets to the pupils as enrichment activities at the end of every lesson. It was normal

to see some pupils making mistakes while attempting to answer the questions given. In

fact, it did not seem strange at all that most of the pupils are making mistakes when

answering the questions. What is expected for the second class pupils in a rural school

learning a new language? To some of the pupils, English is considered as second

language but for some English is considered as the third or foreign language where the

Thai is their first. For the information, the researcher had been given the second class for

that particular practicum.

By the end of the month, the school had conducted a formative test to assess the

pupils’ performance. This was an effort made by the school independently eventhough it

was not instructed by the Office of District Education (PPD). For KSSR based classes,

there should not be any formative test but during that time, all of the classes in the

school were involved. The test took almost a week to be conducted. It comprises of all

major subjects such as Bahasa Melayu, English, Mathematics, Sciences and so on. The

problem arises when the researcher was marking their work on the test paper.

As been mention before, it did not seem strange for pupils to make mistakes

when answering questions. But it did feel odd if the pupils are making the same mistakes

even when answering the similar questions. How can the researcher be so sure? This

statement was based on their performance in grammar section. In this part, if you are
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wrong, you cannot be right. The answer is definitive. Grammar question is not a

subjective question where there can be many answers for the same question. This is how

the problem can be detected. This is because it was very obvious when you are making

mistakes in grammar.

When being placed in Sekolah Kebangsaan Kubor Panjang for the next

practicum, the researcher found that the problems were also happening in his class. After

conducting a monthly test for March, the researcher realised that most of the pupils

cannot score on the test. Most of them answer wrongly in the grammar section. One may

say that this reflect on the teacher teaching. The researcher agreed with that. On the

other hand we can also look at the pupils’ confusion to differentiate on how to use

grammar properly. For instance, for singular noun, should we use the verb ‘kick’ or

‘kicks’ instead. This confusion has made the decision making for the pupils becoming

hard. Being pressured by the time, the pupils tend to answer for the sake of answering;

they do not want to leave the test paper blank.

Realising this, the researcher have come up with the idea of conducting a

research to promote their marks in grammar test. The idea also came as the result of

doing some reading on the many examples of thesis available mainly on the net. One

that caught the researcher eyes was a thesis by Khalid Salim Al-Jardani entitled ‘An

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Self-Assessment in Teaching English to Young

Learners’. Based on this, the researcher was more certain to conduct a research about

self-assessment. Eventhough the researcher cannot access the entire component of the

thesis, the researcher can get the gist of the thesis solely on the title.
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Previously, the researcher found that the pupils still attempting the same mistake

they made eventhough the teacher had told them that they are wrong (orally). This is

after the teacher himself or herself marked the pupil’s work. By then, the researcher

realized that pupils were not able to identify their own mistake when the teacher only

giving out answers.

The researcher believed that the pupils’ attention will rise when they found out

that they had made a mistake during the assessment. They will then concentrate on the

mistake and started thinking in the future to avoid making the same mistake again. The

researcher also believed that the self-assessment method will be able to improve

teachers’ practices in the classroom. Other than that, the success of this research will

make the teachers to reconsider using self-assessment method instead of normal

assessment method.

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2.0 THE FOCUS OF RESEARCH

2.1 Problem statement

The researcher was certain that the issue to be controlled here was the making of the

same mistake even when given the similar types of question. For instance, the example

can be seen when the pupils answered the question in the field of grammar. Many were

still making mistake even when they were given the similar questions. The researcher

became more certain on this matter when the researcher himself experienced it. It was

experienced during two of the researcher’s practicum phase where both were done in a

rural school.

After several readings were completed, the researcher has chosen self-assessment

method to be used in attempting the intervention towards the pupils of Year 4 Harmoni.

The self-assessment method was chosen after considering the performance of the pupils

and the improvement that it will give when the pupils understand their mistake. The

researcher believed that the pupils will remember better when they found their mistakes

by themselves.

As the result, the researcher came up with an idea which was to study the

effectiveness of self-assessment method in upgrading the pupils’ performance in

grammar test.

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2.2 Preliminary Investigation

Based on the researcher’s experiences, the researcher have gathered data as a prove of

problem and also as a starting point to conduct the research of ‘self-assessment focusing

on upgrading pupils’ performance in grammar test’ among Year 4 pupils. The researcher

had gathered data on a test conducted in March (see Appendix A). The data collected

were as follows:

30 28

25
25
21
20 19

15
Number of
10 9 pupils

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Question 21 Question 22 Question 23 Question 24 Question 25

Figure 2 Number of pupils answer correctly in grammar section inYear 4 Harmoni

This was the grammar section of the test in March namely E-Pantau Mac Bahasa

Inggeris Tahun 4. The questions and choice of answers are as in Appendix B.The total

number of pupils in the classroom is 28. Based on the graph in Figure 2 above, all of the

pupils manage to answer correctly for question 21. 25 pupils manage to answer correctly

for question 24 which was the second highest for grammar section. The lowest score was

shown for question 23 followed by question 22 and question 25 consecutively. The

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numbers of pupils answer correctly were 9, 19 and 21 respectively. For information,

question 23 and 25 are question on pronoun.

2.3 Analysis of preliminary investigation

Based on Figure 2, it can be seen that the pupils answer poorly on question 23. Question

23 was on pronoun. For the question, only 9 pupils manage to answer correctly. More

than half answered wrong and this shows that the pupils of Year 4 Harmoni were weak

in grammar test especially in pronoun part. This was further amplified by the number of

pupils who manage to score correctly for question 25 where the question also was on

pronoun. Only 75% of the population of Year 4 Harmoni manage to answer correctly.

2.4 Criteria of selection

Self-assessment is one of the types of assessment in teaching and learning activities. In

self-assessment, pupils assess themselves. This can encourage them to take greater

responsibility for their learning. For instance, teacher can encourage them to engage

with assessment criteria and reflection of their own performance. Indirectly, the pupils

will gain insight of their own performance and slowly build the urge to improve their

performance by doing every means necessary.

In selecting the intervention method, the researcher had considered several

criteria of selection. The first one is the governance reliability. The governance

reliability should answer questions like “Can the intervention be done during the

teacher’s time in school?”, “Does the intervention needs more work forces to be

conducted?” and “Is it reasonable to conduct such intervention on primary school’s


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pupils? Based on this criterion, the researcher had chosen self-assessment as intervention

method to be conducted on the pupils of Year 4 Harmoni.

Next, the researcher also selected the intervention method based on the relevance

of the method to the school, the teachers and the pupils. The method should be able to

contribute positive enhancements towards the school, teachers and pupils. This means

that the method can help the school administration in the sense of the improvement of

the pupils’ result, can improve the teachers’ practices in the classroom when being

implemented and able to improve the pupils understanding towards the lesson.

Other than that, the researcher also consider the pupils centred session where the

assessment and the explanation was done targeting on the pupils’ error. The teacher will

focus more on the question when there are many pupils committing mistakes for the

question.

2.5 Definition of term

Assessment

Assessment refers to the process of gathering information using various methods that

assessors use to systematically evaluate, measure, and document the academic readiness,

learning progress, and skill acquisition of students from preschool through college and

adulthood.

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Self-assessment

There are many types of assessments and one of them is self-assessment. Self-

assessment is assessment or evaluation of oneself or one's actions, attitudes, or

performance. Self-assessment is arguably the most powerful means for a tertiary

education organisation to understand and improve its educational performance.

Grammar

Grammar is the whole system and structure of a language or of languages in general,

usually taken as consisting of syntax and morphology (including inflections) and

sometimes also phonology and semantics. Grammar is divided into eight parts of speech

which are noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction and

interjection.

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3.0 OBJECTIVES/ QUESTIONS OF RESEARCH

This research is mainly to examine the extent to which the use of self-assessment

method in improving the pupils’ results in grammar tests.

3.1 Research objectives

1. To improve the result of the pupils of Year 4 Harmoni in grammar test.

2. To collect data of the using of self-assessment in upgrading the pupils’

result in grammar test.

3. To analyse the effect of upgrading the pupils’ result in grammar test by

using self-assessment method.

3.2 Research questions

1. Does having pupils self-assess themselves generate positive washback

effects?

2. Is positive washback perceived by the participants?

3. Does pupils’ self-assessment increase pupils’ self-awareness?

4. Do the pupils see this as a language-learning strategy for learner

autonomy?

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4.0 TARGET GROUP/ PARTICIPANTS

The researcher has conducted the research in a year 4 class. This research has been

conducted on several pupils consisted of boys and girls. The participants were from year

4 Harmoni where this class is the first class in their level. In this classroom, there were

28 pupils overall, 12 of them were boys and the others were girls. 6 of the pupils

consisting of three boys and three girls were selected to be as respondents of the

research.

The reason of selecting the pupils from the first class is that the researcher did

not want the incompetency of the pupils in English language to interfere with the

research. Pupils from the other classes are considered weak in reading especially in

English language.

These participants were from Sekolah Kebangsaan Kubor Panjang one of the

rural schools in Kedah located in the district of Pendang. Most of the pupils around the

area were influenced by the Thai dialect due to the many Siamese descendants. In

comparison from the researcher previous school which is Sekolah Kebangsaan Kayang,

the reseaercher found that the pupils’ cognitive level of this school was much lower than

the pupils in Sekolah Kebangsaan Kayang. To be precise, the researcher can say that the

pupils in Year 3 second class in Sekolah Kebangsaan Kayang are more competent than

Year 4 first class pupils in Sekolah Kebangsaan Kubor Panjang.

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5.0 PLAN OF ACTIONS

Sedikides (2007) suggests that the self-assessment motive will prompt people to seek

information to confirm their uncertain self-concept rather than their certain self-concept

and at the same time people use self-assessment to enhance their certainty of their own

self-knowledge. For my intervention, the researcher will act as the information giver.

Firstly, it is important to distinguish among several different types of self-

assessment and to apply them accordingly. Brown (2007) classifies the categories into

five which are direct assessment of performance, indirect assessment of performance,

metacognitive assessment, assessment of socioaffective factors and student self-

generated tests.

In my research, the researcher would like to emphasis on the direct assessment of

performance. In this category, a pupil should monitor him or herself in written

production and renders some kind of assessment of the performance. The teacher is to

facilitate the pupils and help them answer questions like ‘why their answer is wrong’

and ‘what should be the right answer’.

Today, the availability of media opens up a number of possibilities for teachers

to look for resources. Internet sites offer many quizzes and tests. Teacher may assess a

16
grammar quiz on the internet as one of the source for the test. For this research, the

researcher has conducted my research according to the procedures.

5.1 Procedures of actions

In carrying out the research in to investigate the effectiveness of self-assessment

focusing on upgrading pupils’ performance in grammar test, the researcher followed a

few certain procedures of actions. The procedures of actions that had been carried out

were as follows:

Week one

Selection of participants

 6 pupils from year 4 were chosen as the respondents in the research.


 The high achievers were selected to avoid the incompetency to read giving effect
to the research.
 The participants were named as Respondent M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 and M6

Week two

Personal pronoun pre-test

 Pupils were given the pre-test of personal pronoun (see Appendix C).
 The test which consisted of fifteen questions was in the form of multiple-choice
question (MCQ).
 Pupils were asked to circle the right answer on the test paper.

Self-assessment session (recommended intervention) and filling of observation form

 Self-assessment session was conducted to improve the pupils’ achievement.


 The researcher distributed red pen for each of the pupils. They were asked to
assess their answer while the researcher read the questions and answer.

17
 After each of the questions, the researcher stopped and explained on why the
answer should be as it was.
 After the intervention was done, the researcher filled the researcher observation
form (see Appendix D)

Personal pronoun post-test

 To acquire information and data on how well the participants had done after
being carried out recommended intervention.
 The personal pronoun post-test (see Appendix E) were designed exactly the same
as pre-test but with different questions so that the comparison of the results of
pre-test and post-test can be analysed easily and clearly.

Data analysis of personal pronoun tests

To analyse and interpret findings of collected data from the pre and post-test

Week three

Possessive pronoun pre-test

 Pupils were given the pre-test of possessive pronoun (see Appendix F).
 The test which consisted of fifteen questions was in the form of multiple-choice
question (MCQ).
 Pupils were asked to circle the right answer on the test paper.

Self-assessment session (recommended intervention) and filling of observation form

 Self-assessment session was conducted to improve the pupils’ achievement.


 The researcher distributed red pen for each of the pupils. They were asked to
assess their answer while the researcher read the questions and answer.
 After each of the questions, the researcher stopped and explained on why the
answer should be as it was.
 After the intervention was done, the researcher filled the researcher observation
form.

Possessive pronoun post-test

 To acquire information and data on how well the participants had done after
being carried out recommended intervention.

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 The possessive pronoun post-test (see Appendix G) were designed exactly the
same as pre-test but with different questions so that the comparison of the results
of pre-test and post-test can be analysed easily and clearly.

Data analysis of possessive pronoun tests

To analyse and interpret findings of collected data from the pre and post-test

Week four

Final test

 To acquire information and data on how well the participants had done without
being carried out recommended intervention and after a week.
 The post-test were designed exactly the same as pre-test but with different
questions so that the comparison of the results of pre-test and post-test can be
analysed easily and clearly.
 The test consisted of 30 questions comprised of personal and possessive pronoun
questions.

Questionnaires

 To find out information/opinion/view of respondents self-assessment.


 To collect information about opinion/view of respondents after recommended
intervention been carried out.

Data analysis of questionnaires

 To analyse and interpret findings collected from the collecting data process to
test the effectiveness of the recommended intervention.

Report writing

 Writing a full report of all the details of the research as well as reporting about
the findings of the research.

5.2 Methods of collecting data

I've been doing triangulation to collect data related to the study of this action research.

According to the research guidelines of Division of Teacher Education (as cited in Nik
19
Najmiah, 2011), triangulation can be divided into several types such as time

triangulation, method and research triangulation. To collect data for this action research,

the researcher have used the method triangulation or in other words, the triangulation of

methods. Triangulation of methods refers to the process of gathering different types of

data from the same research subjects.

Questionnaires

Observation Test
(observation form) (Pre and post-tests)

Figure 3 Triangulation between methods

5.2.1 Structured observation

The first method that the researcher have done to collect the data of this study was the

observation. Observations can be used to observe the behaviour of the respondent based

on variable or areas identified (Nik Najmiah, 2011). In the implementation of this

research, the researcher has used structured observation because it was easier and

systematic. The researcher has identified the aspects that the researcher wanted to

20
observe during this session. The researcher have prepared an observation form that

consists of ten observation item which use the scale rating from 1 to 5 for each item

before the session (see Appendix D).

The observation process was carried out while the researcher was conducting the

session. The researcher has filled this observation form immediately after the session

was over. This was to ensure that the researcher can make an accurate assessment and

provide the exact scale to the aspects of the observations that have been set before the

session.

5.2.2 Pre and post-test

The second method that the researcher has used to collect the data was the test. Test is a

method used to collect data to assess and track student comprehension of a lesson that

has been taught according to Ministry of Education (2008) in the manual of action

research. The researcher has done pre and post-tests to compare the performance of Year

4 pupils before and after the sessions were carried out.

Each set of pre and post-test consists of 15 questions with a total score of 20 (20

questions). Questions in pre and post tests were constructed in similar format which is

the multiple choice question. The pre and post tests were conducted in two session in

which each session tests the pupils of different types of pronoun that is the personal and

possessive pronoun. The final test (see Appendix H) consists of 30 questions that

combined the personal pronoun and the possessive pronoun questions. The final test was

constructed so that the researcher can collect the pupils’ performance based on their
21
score. The pupils were given 15 minutes to answer the questions for the first and second

session. For the last session, the pupils were given 30 minutes to answer all the

questions.

5.2.3 Questionnaires

The third method that the researcher has implemented to collect data was a

questionnaire (see Appendix I). The questionnaire is one of the data collection tools that

is often used in research (Chow & Jaizah, 2011). The questionnaire is a structured

interview conducted in writing. Respondents only need to give a brief reply, or select

one option from the answers that were provided. Questionnaire which the researcher has

prepared includes ten items and assessed using Likert scale. Likert scale with the

statement that has some degree of consensus that is 1 to 5 representing ‘strongly

disagree, disagree', 'not sure', 'agree' and 'strongly agree' (Ministry of Education, 2008).

Among the advantages of the implementation of the questionnaire is that it is

faster and easier to be conducted. In addition, respondents were free to answer in their

time and at their own pace. The researcher had circulated a questionnaire to the

participants after the researcher completed the final test.

22
6.0 INTERPRETATION OF DATA

The researcher has used three instruments to collect the data for this research. The

instruments are the structured observation, pre and post-tests and also the questionnaire.

To assess the finding of the observation and questionnaire, the researcher had set four

levels that will interpret the data to be weak, low, average and high like that had been

used by several researchers before.

Min score Interpretation


1.0 – 1.99 Weak
2.0 – 2.99 Low
3.0 – 3.99 Average
4.0 – 4.99 High
Table 1 Table for data interpretation

6.1 Structured observation

The researcher has carried out observations of two intervention sessions using the

method of self-assessment. The researcher have filled in a structured observation form

immediately after each session to ensure that the researcher can make an assessment and

provide the exact scale aspects of the observations which the researcher has established

in the form of observation. The following is the result of observations made:

23
No. Item 1 2 3 4 5 Min
1 Pupils fully respond and cooperate well. √√ 5.00
2 Classroom control is in good condition. √ √ 4.50
3 The technique used is suitable to the pupils. √ √ 4.50
4 Pupils give full attention during the session. √ √ 4.50
5 Pupils participate actively. √ √ 4.50
6 Pupils look energetic and motivated. √ √ 4.50
7 Classroom environment is cheerful and fun. √√ 4.00
8 Pupils are excited to answer the post test. √ √ 4.50
9 Pupils can identify the noun in the questions. √ √ 4.50
10 Pupils can answer question regarding pronoun √ √ 4.00
orally in the classroom.
Average Min 4.45
Table 2 Intervention by using self-assessment for Year 4 analysis

10

6
Session 2
4
Session 1
2

Figure 4 Intervention by using self-assessment for Year 4 graph analysis

Based on Table 1 and graph 1, item 1 got the highest min which is 5.0. The

researcher assessed ‘the pupils fully respond and cooperate well’ with the scale of 5

because at that particular session, the researcher was very satisfied with their

cooperation. Based on Graph 1, the slightly decrease of points can be seen for the item

two which is ‘classroom control is in good condition’. This may be due to the fact that

24
the pupils were very excited, enjoy and became more active in the classroom. This can

be proven through the increased of points for the items 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 and 10. For the

item 7 which is ‘classroom environment is cheerful and fun’, the points remain

unchanged which posted a 4 on the scale. The researcher believed that the classroom

environment was not fun and enjoyable due to the fact that the researcher used cliché

chalk and talk technique of teaching.

6.2 Pre and post-tests

Sets of pre and post-test consist of 15 questions and resulted in a total of 30 test scores.

Test scores are divided into four stages, which are excellent (24-30), good (23-17),

average (16-9) and poor (0-8).

Score Level
24-30 Excellent
17-23 Good
09-16 Average
0-8 Poor
Table 3 Levels of pre and post test scores

Pre tests

Pre-tests were conducted on the six participants in Year 4 before the intervention

sessions were performed. The pre-tests were conducted twice with different field of

grammar. The first one was on personal pronouns and the second one was on possessive

pronoun. The following were the scores of the pupils in the grammar pre-tests:

25
30

25

20

15
Personal
Pronoun
10 Possessive
Pronoun
5

0
1 2 3 4 5 6

Figure 5 Year 4 scores in grammar pre-tests

Post tests

The researcher have conducted post-tests after the self-assessment session have been

implemented to the pupils of Year 4. The post-tests were also conducted twice similar to

the pre-tests. The following were the scores of the pupils in the grammar post-tests:

31

29

27 Personal
Pronoun
25 Possessive
Pronoun
23
1 2 3 4 5 6

Figure 6 Year 4 scores in grammar post-tests

26
Based on Figure 6, all of the participants manage to gain full mark except for one

participant who only managed to score 28 marks in post-test for possessive pronoun.

Comparison of pre and post-tests scores

The researcher has obtained pre and post-tests results for pupils in Year 4 (see Appendix

J). The researcher have analysed the total score, the mean scores and the percentage of

pre and post-tests scores to see any increase in scores in grammar test after running the

self-assessment method. The following were the variances and analysis of pre and post-

tests scores for Year 4 pupils:

Number of pupils
Score Pre-test Post-test
Excellent (24-30) 2 6
Good (17-23) 4 0
Average (09-16) 0 0
Poor (0-8) 0 0
Table 4 Differences in pupils’ achievement in the personal pronoun pre and post-test

7
6
5
4
Pre-test
3
Post-test
2
1
0
Excellent (24-30) Good (17-23) Average (09-16) Poor (0-8)

Figure 7 Differences in pupils’ achievement in the personal pronoun pre and post-test

27
Based on the figure and table above, there were significant development of the

respondents’ scores. Pre-test scores showed that only two respondents who achieved the

best performance in the range of 24 to 30 post-test scores showed that all respondents

were able to obtain the best performance in the same range. More than half of the

respondents were able to improve the performance and shows a positive development.

Number of pupils
Score Pre-test Post-test
Excellent (24-30) 2 6
Good (17-23) 2 0
Average (09-16) 2 0
Poor (0-8) 0 0
Table 5 Differences in pupils’ achievement in the possessive pronoun pre and post-test

7
6
5
4
Pre-test
3
2
Post-test
1
0
Excellent (24-30) Good (17-23) Average (09-16) Poor (0-8)

Figure 8 Differences in pupils’ achievement in the possessive pronoun pre and post-test

There were also significant developments of the respondents’ scores based on the

table and figure above. For the possessive pronoun test, it is shown that the data was

almost similar to the data of personal pronoun test. The only different can be seen during

pre-test where 2 of the respondents scored average which is in the range of 9 to 16.

Another two respondents scored good and the others scored excellent. Pre-test scores

28
showed that only two respondents who achieved the best performance in the range of 24

to 30 post-test scores showed that all respondents were able to obtain the best

performance in the same range. More than half of the respondents were able to improve

the performance.

Pre-test Post-test Difference(s)


Total score 252 358 106
Mean score 42 59.67 17.67
Score percentage (%) 70 99.45 29.45
Table 6 Score percentage

Table and graph on the previous page show the number, mean and percentage

difference of scores obtained from grammar pre and post tests for Year 4 pupils. The

number of pre-test score was 252 and the number of post-test score is 358. Post test

scores showed an increase of 106 or 29.45% compared the pre-test. Post-test mean score

increased to 59.67, compared to 42 in the pre-test and showed a difference of 17.67. The

percentage of test scores for pre-test was 70% compared to 99.45% for the post-test. The

post test score higher than pre-test showed a positive development of using the self-

assessment method among Year 4 pupils.

6.3 Questionnaires

The questionnaires have been distributed to Year 4 pupils at after the performance test to

study the effectiveness of ‘self-assessment method’. The data of the study using

questionnaires were reported in the form of descriptive reports using min. To evaluate

29
these findings, the researcher has put four levels that will interpret the data to be weak,

low, average and high like that had been tabulate in Table 1.

Based on this level conditioning, the researcher was able to identify the

effectiveness of the ‘self-assessment method’ towards the pupils of Year 4. The

researcher was also able to evaluate the acceptance and feelings of the pupils of Year 4

when the teaching and learning was done using ‘self-assessment method’. The findings

of the effectiveness of using ‘self-assessment method’ are as follows:

No. Question/Item 1 2 3 4 5 Mean


1 I am feeling very happy to learn grammar using 0 0 0 4 2 4.33
the self-assessment method.
2 I understand grammar better by using self- 0 0 0 0 6 5
assessment method.
3 Self-assessment makes me understand lesson 0 0 0 0 6 5
faster and easier.
4 I prefer self-assessment more than normal 0 0 0 0 6 5
assessment
5 Without self-assessment method, I find it is hard 0 0 0 2 4 4.67
to know why I am wrong.
6 I think I am able to correctly answer questions 0 0 0 3 3 4.5
regarding pronouns after this.
7 I prefer to assess my answer paper rather than my 0 0 0 0 6 5
friends’ answer papers.
8 I think I can save up time in grammar section 0 0 0 2 4 4.67
when answering test in the future.

Total mean 4.77


Table 7 Analysis of the effectiveness of 'self-assessment method' questionnaire

30
5.2
5 5 5 5
5
4.77
4.8
4.67 4.67
4.6 4.5

4.4 4.33 Mean


4.2

3.8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Total
mean

Figure 9 Analysis of the effectiveness of 'self-assessment method' questionnaire

Based on Table 7 and Figure 9, item 2, 3, 4 and 7 showed the perfect scores with

the mean of 5.00 which is the highest. The other items scored more than 4.00 for the

mean. This is considered to be high if compare to 5.00, the highest mean possible to be

attained. Based on these results, it showed that the pupils were fairly happy, attracted

and prefer this method of assessment compare to the normal one. No item has recorded

mean lower than 4.00.

31
7.0 FINDINGS

The researcher has gathered the research data using three instruments which are the

observation, questionnaire and test (pre and post-tests). The result of the observations

showed the effectiveness of using self-assessment method in improving the pupils result

in grammar test where the data indicated that the pupils’ mean was 4.45. The pupils of

Year 4 gave respond and attention during the conduction of the intervention. The pupils

of Year 4 Harmoni were very excited, active and enjoy during the intervention session

because they understand and able to identify the noun in the questions. As the result, the

pupils were able to answer grammar questions easily.

The findings of the grammar pre and post-tests analysis showed the improvement

of Year 4 Harmoni pupils by 29.45%. This proved that the pupils’ result in grammar test

can be improved with the help of self-assessment. On the other hand, self-assessment

method was shown suitable to be used based on the analysis of questionnaire performed

by Year 4 Harmoni pupils with the total mean of 4.77 where 5.00 is the highest mean.

These observation findings were supported by the questionnaire findings that

have been filled by the Year 4 Harmoni. The findings of the observation and

questionnaire showed that they did not deviate from each other. This has proved that the

self-assessment method can be used to improve the teachers practice in the classroom,

32
can help teachers to control the classroom other than to motivate the pupils in the

classroom.

It is clear from the data that there were changes in the pupils’ result in grammar

test. In particular, over the period of the study, learners completed the test in less time

compare to the time required by the test. This can be seen when the researcher

conducted the final test with the pupils.

The findings of this study suggest that self-assessment can make an important

contribution both in developing pupil’s awareness of their own learning as well as in

their result in grammar test. The teacher’s role in supporting the pupils is central. As the

conclusion, this action research of ‘Self-assessment focusing on upgrading pupils’

performance in grammar test’ was a success.

33
8.0 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

While the findings of this research showed positive grades in improving the pupils’

result in grammar test, many efforts can be taken to improve the validity of this result.

There are a few recommendations that should be taken into consideration by teachers

and syllabus designers to improve the pupils result in grammar test as the research was

done in a small scale.

First, future researcher can consider on taking more pupils as respondents. This

can improve the accuracy of the data gathered where the data would be more precise.

The researcher needs to collect more data to obtain reliable data. The more data you

have, it may lead to more accurate your information. According to A Technical Guide

for State and Local Governments, the analyst should review the survey instrument for

possible bias, the sample selection method, the size of the sample, the degree of training

given to the surveyors and the methods used to analyse responses.

Secondly, future researcher can also consider including teaching aids when

giving explanation during the self-assessment session. During the session, the researcher

should already know on what topic the test is on. If possible, the researcher can prepare

teaching aids earlier to explain on the topic. Using teaching aids can make the lesson to

be more meaningful and further will help the pupils to retain the information.

34
Finally, future research can also be done on different area of grammar such as on

verb, adverb, adjective and so on. The researcher can also consider on doing research by

using different types of test such as cloze test, subjective test and many more. Try to find

whether self-assessment method is effective if tried on different area of grammar. The

future researcher can also find whether different types of data collection methods

produce different findings.

35
9.0 REFERENCES

Boud, D. Enhancing Learning Through Self-Assessment. (1995). London. Routledge


Falmer.

Brown, H. D. (2007). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language


pedagogy. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education.

Brown, J. D., & Hudson, T. (2004). Criterion-referenced language testing. Cambridge,


UK: Cambridge University Press.

Gardiner, L. F. (2004). Assessment Essentials: Planning, Implementing, and Improving


Assessment in Higher Education (review). The Journal of Higher Education, 73
(2). 302-305. Retrieved from
http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/jhe/summary/v073/73.2.gardiner.html

Greenbaum, S., & Nelson, G. (2009). An Introduction to English grammar. Harlow:


Longman.

Huba, M. E. and Freed, J. E. (2000). Learner-Centered Assessment on College


Campuses -- Shifting the Focus from Teaching to Learning. Boston: Allyn and
Bacon.

Malaysia. Kementerian Pelajaran. Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum. (2011). Dokumen


Standard Kurikulum dan Pentaksiran Bahasa Inggeris SK Tahun 4. Putrajaya:
Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.

Mihram, D. (2007). Assessment Tools for Your Course. Journal of excellence in


teaching. Retrieved from http://www2.acs.ncsu.edu/UPA/assmt/resource.htm

Nik Najmiah Nik Lah. (2011). Meningkatkan kemahiran mengingat perkara-perkara


sunat ab’ad dalam kalangan murid tahun 5 Mulia. Review of Educational
Research, 6, 22-25.

Sedikides, C., & Strube, M.J. (2007). Self-evaluation: To thine own self be good, to
thine own self be sure, to thine own self be true, and to thine own self be better.
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 29, 209-269.

What is self-assessment?. (n.d.). Retrieved September 19, 2014 from


http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/providers-partners/self-assessment/what-is-self-
assessment/

36
10.0 APPENDICES

APPENDIX A

37
APPENDIX B

38
APPENDIX C

PERSONAL PRONOUN PRE-TEST

Name:_________________________________________________________

Circle the right answer.

1. My cousin and her friend were at the mall. _____ were at the mall.

A He B They C She D It

2. Hadi is a little sick._____ is a little sick.

A He B They C She D It

3. Does your aunt know what happened? Does _____ know what happened?

A He B They C She D It

4. The door is locked. ______ is locked.

A He B They C She D It

5. My friend Linda and I are going on a trip. ______ are going on a trip.

A You B She C It D We

6. Am I a good student? Yes, ______ are a good student.

A They B You C He D It

7. My cats are hungry. _____ are hungry.

A They B You C He D It

8. Mr. Anuar is a good teacher. ______ is a good teacher.

A They B You C He D It

9. Is Arabic difficult language. Yes, ______ is a difficult language.

A They B You C He D It

10. My brother and I live together. ______ live together.

A You B We C It D He

11. Today Kamal didn't bring ___ book to school. I think he left it at home.
39
A he B his C him D himself

12. It's my mother's birthday next week. I am going to buy ______ a present.

A she B hers C her D herself

13. I live in a house with two friends; Man and Amran. ______ eat dinner together every
day.

A We B Us C Our D Ours

14. When I buy new clothes, I always look at _________ in a mirror.

A me B my C mine D myself

15. If you win the game, I am going to give ___ a bar of chocolate.

A you B your C yours D yourself

40
APPENDIX D

RESEARCHER OBSERVATION FORM

Date: _______________

Tick (/) according the appropriate scale

Scale
1 Strongly disagree
2 Disagree
3 Less agree
4 Agree
5 Strongly agree

No. Item 1 2 3 4 5

1 Pupils fully respond and cooperate well.

2 Classroom control is in good condition.

3 The technique used is suitable to the pupils.

4 Pupils give full attention during the session.

5 Pupils participate actively.

6 Pupils look energetic and motivated.

7 Classroom environment is cheerful and fun.

8 Pupils are excited to answer the post test.

9 Pupils can identify the noun in the questions.

10 Pupils can answer question regarding pronoun orally in

the classroom.

41
APPENDIX E

PERSONAL PRONOUN POST-TEST

Name:_____________________________________

Circle the correct answer.

1. My uncle lives in Kuala Lumpur. _____ lives in Kuala Lumpur.

A She B He C We D They

2. My friends aren't coming. _____ aren't coming.

A She B He C We D They

3. Mrs. Sakinah is studying English. _____ is studying English.

A She B He C We D They

4. You and I have to talk about the test. _______ have to talk about the test.

A She B He C We D They

5. Question : Can you help me?

Answer : Yes, _______ can help you.

A We B They CI D It

6. The tree is going to fall. _______ is going to fall.

A We B They CI D It

7. Aida and Mirrah had an argument. _______ had an argument.

A We B They CI D It

8. Faudhil and I are the same age. _______ are the same age.

A We B They CI D It

9. My passport is in my bag. _______ is in my bag.

A She B We C He D It

10. My cousin Sayutie just graduated from high school. _______ just graduated from high
school.
42
A She B We C He D It

11. Shandra and Seri never speak _____ language in English classes. They always speak
English.

A they B they's C their D them

12. My neighbour's cat cannot walk very well. I think it hurt one of ___ legs.

A it B its C it's D itself

13. I sometimes go with Najib and Easa to the shop. Then we buy ___ lunch together.

A we's B us C our D ours

14. Maybe Riduan bought this newspaper today. I think the newspaper is ___ .

A he's B him C his D himself

15. My notebook is green and white. That notebook is blue. It isn't ____ . Maybe it's Aina.

A me B me's C my D mine

43
APPENDIX F

POSSESSIVE PRONOUN PRE-TEST

Name : ___________________________________________________

Circle the correct answer for each sentence:

1. That book belongs to them. That book is _______.

A his B mine C ours D theirs

2. That pen belongs to me. That pen is _________.

A his B mine C ours D theirs

3. This dog belongs to us. This dog is __________.

A his B mine C ours D theirs

4. This car belongs to him. This car is _________.

A his B mine C ours D theirs

5. This house belongs to me and my brother. This house is _________.

A yours B ours C his D theirs

6. That motorcycle belongs to that man. That motorcycle is ________.

A yours B ours C his D theirs

7. These books belong to those students. These books are __________.

A yours B ours C his D theirs

8. This hat belongs to you. This hat is ________.

A yours B ours C his D theirs

9. This cat belongs to my aunt. This cat is _________.

A yours B hers C his D theirs

10. This ball belongs to those boys. This ball is __________.

A yours B ours C his D theirs

11. That book belongs to those kids. That book is _________.

44
A yours B hers C his D theirs

12. This bicycle belongs to my neighbour Azwan. This bicycle is __________.

A yours B hers C his D theirs

13. This scarf belongs to my aunt Farrah. This scarf is ________.

A yours B hers C his D theirs

14. This toy belongs to you. This toy is ___________.

A yours B hers C his D theirs

15. This room belongs to me and my cousin. This room is ________.

A yours B hers C ours D theirs

45
APPENDIX G

POSSESSIVE PRONOUN POST-TEST

Name: ______________________________________

Circle the correct answer.

1. These mittens belong to my mother. These mittens are ________.

A yours B hers C ours D theirs

2. Those cookies belong to my sister's friends. Those cookies are ________.

A yours B hers C ours D theirs

3. These suitcases belong to you and your wife. These suitcases are ________.

A yours B hers C ours D theirs

4. That pillow belongs to me. That pillow is ________.

A yours B mine C ours D theirs

5. That lamp belongs to my aunt and uncle. That lamp is __________.

A yours B hers C ours D theirs

Is this bicycle ____6____? Yes, it is ____7_____.

6. A yours B mine C ours D theirs

7. A yours B mine C ours D theirs

8. Suzie and I have a postcard. It is _______ postcard.

A your B her C our D their

9. You have a cat. It is _______ cat.

A your B her C our D their

10. These are not my colour pencils. Are these ________?

A yours B hers C ours D theirs

11. I talked to Ali yesterday. I think this is _______ ruler.

A your B his C our D their

My grammar book is different from your grammar book. ____12____ has 278 pages, but
____13____ has only 275.

46
12. A yours B hers C ours D theirs

13. A his B hers C ours D mine

14. This bird has broken ________ wing.

A its B her C our D his

15. Mariam, is this your bike? No, ________ bike is behind the house.

A their B her C my D his

47
APPENDIX H

FINAL TEST

Name:__________________________________________________

Circle the correct answer for each sentence.

We gave them ____1___ telephone number, and they gave us ____2____.


1. A theirs B our C their D mine
2. A theirs B our C their D mine

3. Who is that woman? Why are you looking at ________?


A me B him C her D them

4. You cannot have any chocolate! These belong to me! It's all _______.
A theirs B him C hers D mine

5. I am talking to you. Please listen to ________.


A me B him C her D them

6. Do you know where _______ hat is? I can't find it.


A his B my C her D their

7. These photos are nice. Do you want to look at _______?


A me B him C them D it

8. Yesterday Halina and ______ new boyfriend visited us. He's nice.
A my B their C his D her

9. I like that camera. I am going to buy ______.


A her B them C his D it

10. How many people are there in ____ family?


A his B your C her D their

11. We are going to the disco. Do you want to come with ______?
A us B him C her D me

12. This is a photo of ______ house. Do you like it?


A mine B theirs C my D hers

13. I don't like snakes. I'm afraid of _______?


A me B it C them D him

14. Last year we had a holiday with Uncle Salleh and Aunt Laili and _____ children.

48
A their B my C his D her
15. Where is she? I want to talk to ______.
A my B their C his D her

16. When I was seven I had an accident and broke _____ leg. It was terrible.
A their B my C her D his

17. I don't know this boy. Do you know _____?


A it B them C her D him

18. I think Izzue Iskandar is a great actor, and I like ______ new film.
A her B them C his D its

19. Alan never drinks milk. He doesn't like ____.


A her B it C him D them

20. Finish ____ lunch before you play football.


A your B my C her D their

21. Where are the children? Have you seen _______.


A it B them C her D him

22. The teacher gave the pupils _____ homework.


A her B my C their D his

23. I cannot find my pencil. Can you give one to _______.


A him B it C them D me

24. That is not your coffee. It is ________.


A mine B theirs C my D hers

I want those books. Please give ___25___ to ___26___.


25. A it B her C them D him
26. A him B me C them D her

___27____ pencil is broken. Can I borrow ____28____?


27. A His B My C Her D Their
28. A you B mine C yours D her

Mr Zaidi wants to read the newspaper. Please give ___29___ to ___30___.


29. A it B them C her D him
30. A him B them C me D her

49
APPENDIX I

Self-assessment questionnaires

“Self-assessment to improve the pupils’ performance in grammar test”

Date : _____________

Venue : Sekolah Kebangsaan Kubor Panjang

Gender : Please Male tick (√)


Female

In order to help the researcher to improve the performance of an action research


project, the respondents are asked to evaluate projects that have been followed by
marking (√) in the appropriate column according to the scale below.

Assessment scale:

1 Strongly disagree
2 Disagree
3 Not sure
4 Agree
5 Strongly agree

No. Question/Item 1 2 3 4 5
1 I am feeling very happy to learn grammar using the
self-assessment method.
2 I understand grammar better by using self-assessment
method.
3 Self-assessment makes me understand lesson faster
and easier.
4 I prefer self-assessment more than normal assessment.
5 Without self-assessment method, I find it is hard to
know why I am wrong.
6 I think I am able to correctly answer questions
regarding pronouns after this.
7 I prefer to assess my answer paper rather than my
friends’ answer papers.
8 I think I can save up time in grammar section when
answering test in the future.

50
APPENDIX J

Comparison of scores of pre- tests, post- tests and improvement of scores

individually.

Respondent Pre-test Pre-test Post- Post- Marks Improvement

1 2 test 1 test 2 improvement percentage

(Pre1) (Pre2) (Post1) (Post2) (Post1+Post2- (%)

Pre1-Pre2)

M1 26 24 30 30 10 16.67

M2 20 22 30 30 18 30.00

M3 18 16 30 28 24 40.00

M4 26 24 30 30 10 16.67

M5 22 18 30 30 20 33.33

M6 20 16 30 30 24 40.00

Mean 22 20 30 29.67 17.67 29.45

51