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Technical considerations 33

The power flow through each section of a network is influenced by the

disposition and loading of each node point, and by system losses. Maximum-
demand indicators installed at MV network infeeds provide the minimum
amount of load data required for system analysis. More detailed loading
information of the incoming supply and the outgoing feeders is economically
available through the use of microprocessor units and telemetry.
Sometimes the numbers and ratings of customers' equipment appliances, and
thus their maximum possible demand, are known. However, in order to carry
out power-flow studies on MV and LV networks it is necessary to apply
correction factors to individual loads. This is because summating the maximum
values of all the loads will result in too high a value for the total current flows,
and therefore the overall voltage drop, if the loads do not peak at the same time.
It is therefore necessary to derate each individual load so that the summation of
the individual loads equals the simultaneous maximum demand of the group of
loads. This is achieved by applying a coincidence factor, which is defined as the
ratio of the simultaneous maximum demand of a group of load points to the sum
of the maximum demands of the individual loads. The inverse of the coincidence
factor is termed diversity factor.
If kWh consumption information is available then empirical formulas or load-
curve synthesis can be used to determine demands at network node points. The
derivation of load data, and the use of computers for network studies, are
discussed in Chapters 11 and 14.

3.3.2 Power losses

When the maximum current or real and reactive power flows have been
determined, the series active and reactive power losses in a 3-phase circuit or any
item of equipment. Pi and Qj can be calculated from the following equations:

Pi = 3I2Ri (3.4)

or PP^H^+te]^
< = [?] (3.5)
and Qj = 3 / 2 .
2 r
ai 2
k I X, (3.6)
where Ri and Xi refer to the circuit series resistance and reactance as shown in
Figure 3.2.
Given that the circuit shunt impedance is (Rs +jXs), as indicated in Figure
3.2, the shunt losses can be calculated using the shunt current Is instead of/: