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INTERNATIONAL Journal of Mechanical

JOURNAL Engineering and Technology (IJMET),
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME

ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)

ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) IJMET
Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), pp. 78-83
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) ©IAEME



1 2 3
Yogananda A, Dr. H. K. Shivanand, Santhosh Kumar S
Research Scholar, Bangalore University, UVCE, Bangalore-01
Associate Professor, University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering (UVCE), Bangalore-01
Assistant Professor, R N Shetty Institute of Technology, Bangalore-98


The objective of present investigation is to study the effect of reinforcements on the

Mechanical properties of E-Glass short fibres and Flyash reinforced Al 8011 hybrid. The alloy of Al
8011 reinforced with E-glass and fly ash particulates are prepared by using graphite die for casting.
The MMC is obtained for different composition of E-glass and flyash particulates (varying E-glass
with constant fly ash and varying flyash with constant E-glass percentage). The test specimens are
prepared as per ASTM standard to conduct tensile and compression tests.

Keywords: E-Glass, Flyash, Stir Casting, Metal Matrix Composite, Al 8011


A composite material is a heterogeneous solid consisting of two or more different materials

that are mechanically or metallurgically bonded together. Composite materials in this regard
represent nothing but a giant step in the ever constant endeavor of optimization in the materials.
Composite material offer flexibility in design i.e., one can make material as per specification of an
optimum design. Now a days the particulate reinforced aluminium matrix composite are gaining
importance because of their low cost with advantages like isotropic properties and the possibility of
secondary processing facilitating fabrication of secondary components. Cast aluminium matrix
particle reinforced composites have higher specific strength, specific modulus and good wear
resistance as compared to unreinforced alloys .While investigating the opportunity of using fly-ash as
reinforcing element in the aluminium melt, R.Q.Guo and P.K.Rohatagi observed that the high
electrical resistivity, low thermal conductivity and low density of fly-ash may be helpful for making

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME

a light weight insulating composites. The particulate composite can be prepared by injecting the
reinforcing particles into liquid matrix through liquid metallurgy route by casting. Casting route is
preferred as it is less expensive and amenable to mass production. Among the entire liquid state
production routes, stir casting is the simplest and cheapest one. The only problem associated with
this process is the non uniform distribution of the particulate due to poor wet ability and gravity
regulated segregation. Gonzalez – Doncel. G., et.al [1] investigated the mechanical behavior and the
changes in the orientation of Al – 4% Cu-0.1% Fe single crystals during tensile deformation at
room temperature. Kato Hiroshi and Cahoon et.al [5] studies the tensile properties of directionally
solidified Al – 4 Wt % Cu alloys with columnar and equiaxed grains. Shyong J.H et.al [6]
reported, the deformation characteristics of aluminium alloy 6061 reinforced with particulate SiC
particulate 3, 10 and 30 micro meter size by varying the SiC vol percentage(0.5, 10 and 20 %) using
experimental numerical methods. They measured tensile strength and stiffness of the composite
subjecting the matrix to dispersoid content. They observed that the tensile strength and stiffness of
the composites were found to increase with the increasing particle content (volume fraction) for heat
treatment provided that it was over a limiting value. Choon Weng wong, Manoj Gupta et.al [8]
studied aluminium based metallic matrices having varying weight fractions of copper(1 wt% Cu and
4.5 wt% Cu) were reinforced with SiC particulates using a partial liquid phase casting technique. The
results of their investigation showed smaller sized and higher weight percent of copper in the matrix.
According to S.P. Divecha, S.G.Fishman & S.D.Karmakar [9] a new class of composites SiC
reinforced aluminum developed exhibited promising improvement in tensile strength (30 – 50%)
over unreinforced alloy. They also illustrated extremely low ductility composite fabrication
from potentially cheap constituents


Aluminium alloy 8011 with copper as the primary alloying element is selected has a base
material for present investigation. Flyash and short E-Glass fibers are selected as a reinforcement
material. The present study is mainly concentrated on effect of reinforcement on composites.

A stir casting consisted of a resistance Muffle furnace and a stirrer assembly, was used to
fabricate the composites. The melting range of Al 8011 alloy is of 700 – 8000C. A known quantity
of Al 8011 ingots were pickled in 10% NaOH solution at room temperature for 10 min. Pickling was
done to remove the surface impurities. The cleaned ingots after drying in air were loaded into the
Graphite crucible of the furnace for melting. The melt was super heated to a temperature of 8000C
and maintained at that temperature. The molten metal was then degassed using Hexo chloro ethane
tablets for about 8min. Then reinforcements are added to molten metal and stirring has been done.
After few minutes of stirring, the liquid metals with reinforcements are poured into the dies to get the
required castings. Finally the casted specimens obtained were machined on a CNC Lathe according
to ASTM standards for Tension and Compression test.

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME

Fig. 1: Adding Reinforcent Materials

Fig. 2: Stirring after Adding Reinforcements


Tension Test
While subjecting a prepared of specimen of specified shape and size to a gradually increasing
uni-axial load (force) until failure occurs, simultaneous observations are made on the elongation of
the specimen. The operation is accomplished by gripping opposite ends of the work piece and pulling
it, which results in elongation of test specimen in a direction parallel to the applied load. The
ultimate tensile strength tests were done in accordance with ASTM E8-82 standards. The tensile
specimens of diameter 10mm and gauge length 60mm were machined from the cast specimens with
the gauge length of the specimens parallel to the longitudinal axis of the casting.

Compression Test
Specimens were machined according to ASTM [E9] standards. Diameter=20mm and
length=20mm and test was conducted on the computerized UTM. It can be seen that the compressive
strength of the hybrid composites increases monotonically as the reinforcement contents are
increased. Earlier researchers observed similar results, when they conducted tests on whiskers
reinforced composites.

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME


a. Tensile Test Results

Peak Average Average Tensile Average
% of
Specimen Load in Peak Load % of strength Tensile strength
KN in KN elongation In MPa In MPa
T1 8.20 7.02 107.38
C1 7.25 6.29 94.67
T2 6.30 5.56 81.67
T1 8.50 8.08 111.31
C2 8.65 8.05 113.04
T2 8.80 8.02 114.77
T1 9.20 11.26 121.95
C3 8.8 9.42 118.04
T2 8.40 7.62 114.13
T1 9.2 8.24 117.16
C4 9.4 9.24 120.06
T2 9.6 10.24 122.96
T1 9.4 9.70 120.26
C5 9.65 9.92 123.26
T2 9.9 10.15 126.27
T1 10.62 7.22 135.32
C6 10.51 8.56 133.39
T2 10.41 9.90 132.67
T1 10.43 8.08 132.86
C7 10.64 9.44 135.54
T2 10.85 10.80 138.23
T1 10.16 9.66 129.43
C8 10.08 8.45 128.37
T2 10.00 7.24 127.32
T1 9.47 9.14 120.67
C9 9.28 8.85 118.22
T2 9.09 8.56 115.78
T1 9.10 11.84 113.12
C10 7.47 8.3 93.67
T2 5.85 4.76 74.23
Table 1: Tensile Test Results

Fig. 3: Comparative Bar Chart of Tensile Strength with Al 8011

It is clear that ultimate tensile strength increases with increase in percentage composition of
constituent material with Aluminium 8011. The increase in ultimate tensile strength is due to the
addition of E-glass fiber which gives strength to the matrix alloy there by enhanced resistance to
tensile stresses, there is a reduction in the inter-spatial distance between the particles this leads to
restriction to plastic flow due to the random distribution of the particulate in the matrix.

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME

b. Compression Test Results

Peak Load Average Average Compression
Specimen Strength In
In KN Peak Load In KN Strength In Mpa
T1 100.080 759.83
C1 102.51 814.41
T2 104.940 796.73
T1 108.060 807.89
C2 130.71 977.23
T2 153.360 1146.57
T1 117.660 885.08
C3 153.48 1004.53
T2 189.300 1123.99
T1 44.460 332.40
C4 47.37 354.15
T2 50.280 375.91
T1 51.900 392.82
C5 76.02 575.38
T2 100.140 757.95
T1 116.280 881.47
C6 111.45 844.85
T2 106.620 808.24
T1 41.400 318.73
C7 62.7 475.30
T2 84.00 631.88
T1 121.080 915.03
C8 99.69 753.38
T2 78.300 591.73
T1 103.860 774.12
C9 106.65 793.05
T2 109.440 811.98
C10 T1 102.720 100.56 771.51
T2 98.400 740.20 755.85
Table 2: Compressive Strength Results

Fig. 4: Comparative Bar Chart of Compression Strength

From the above results, It is seen that the compressive strength of the Al 8011 based hybrid
composites increases monotonically as reinforcement contents are increased. The increase in
compressive strength is mainly due to the decrease in the inter-particle spacing between the
particulates since fly ash powder and E-glass fiber are much harder than Al8011 alloy. The presence
of E-glass fiber and fly ash resists deforming stresses and thus enhancing the compressive strength
of the composite material.

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME


o New MMC’s can be synthesized by liquid metallurgy technique successfully with enhanced
properties using low cost E glass and Fly ash particulate reinforcement.
o Stir and permanent mould castings can be obtained with microscopically uniform distribution
of particles.
o The tensile strength of the hybrid composite material increases monotonically up to 8% of fly
ash. The increase in tensile strength may be due to the addition of e-glass fiber acting as
barriers to dislocations in the microstructure.
o The results obtained from the tensile and compression test of the ascast specimens showed
that as the E-glass and Flyash content in the composite is increase, the tensile and
compression strength of the hybrid composite materials increases monotonically by
significant amounts. On the addition of E-Glass and flyash there was an increase in strength
because E-Glass and Flyash gives higher strength when compared with base alloy Al 8011.

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