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THEME 1 : ICT

LOGICAL CONNECTORS
Guidelines
Logical connectors are used to link ideas or sentences. To improve on your essay, you need to use
logical connectors where appropriate. Some examples of logical connectors are as follows:

Logical Connectors Function Examples


because, since, as To show reason  They could not go out because
it rained heavily.
 Since he woke up late, he
missed the bus.
 As she is busy preparing for
her examination, she has no
time to read her e-mails.
for, so that, in order to To show purpose  She wants to save some money
for her future.
 Tang is studying hard so that he
can pass the examination with
flying colours.
 He worked day and night in
order to raise money for his
father’s operation.
as a result, consequently, To show cause and  The rain fell heavily for three
therefore effect days. As a result, the village was
flooded.
 John did not have enough sleep
for a week. Consequently, he
fell sick.
 He broke the glass in the shop.
Therefore, he had to pay for it.
but, although, even though, To show contrast  He tried his best but could not
however achieve his target.
 Although he has the
qualification, he still cannot get
a job.
 She is very generous even
though she is not rich.
if, unless, as long as To express  If you go to the market, please
condition buy me a packet of noodles.
 Chong is not going to Penang
unless the weather is fine.
 As long as you make sales, you
can continue working here.

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in addition, furthermore, To add new  They put up the lights. In
besides information addition, they changed the
curtains.
 I have never been to Kelinga.
Furthermore, I do not know
where it is.

Exercise 1
Fill in the blanks with suitable logical connectors. You may use some of them more than once.
therefore, for, since, as, because, in order to, as a result, so, consequently, so that

1. We must save some money _________ our future.


2. You must study hard _________________ the examination is on Monday.
3. ____________ it was a sunny day, I decided to go strolling along the beach.
4. Alan is afraid of the dark ___________ he leaves the light on all night.
5. He switched on the fan ___________ it was hot but his brother switched it off.
6. Izan lost the keys to his house. __________________, he could not get in.
7. She reads a lot of story books. _________________ her English has improved.
8. ________________________ be successful, one must be determined and disciplined.
9. _______________ our favourite restaurant was closed, we had to go somewhere else for
dinner.
10. Speak loudly ___________________ I can hear you.

Exercise 2
Join the sentences using the logical connectors given.

1. Jane continued to work. She was tired. (even though)


_________________________________________________________________________
2. I could not take part in the football match. I had sprained my ankle. (because)
_________________________________________________________________________
3. Mak Minah still plants her own vegetables. She is already 65 years old. (although)
_________________________________________________________________________
4. He jogs every morning in the park. He is not busy. (if)
_________________________________________________________________________
5. The cleaner mops the floor every day. She keeps it clean. (in order to)
_________________________________________________________________________

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Exercise 3
Complete the story with the logical connectors given.

because, since, but, if, therefore

One morning, I woke up late. 1__________, I decided to take the shorter route to work. As I
was driving down the road, I saw two men in a van. They looked suspicious 2______________ they
parked their car in front of Encik Raihan’s house. I knew that Encik Raihan and his wife were away in
Mecca on a pilgrimage.
I immediately called the police who came after a few minutes. Apparently, three
other men were already inside the house. 3_________________ four patrol cars and fifteen armed
policemen had surrounded the house, they could not escape. One of them tried to flee through the
back door 4________ was caught by one of the policemen. 5________ I had been early to work, the
burglars would have stolen from many houses too.

ARTICLE
Guidelines
1. Read the question/instruction carefully.
2. Organise the given points in paragraphs.
3. Give your article a suitable title.
4. Use simple and formal language.
5. Use all the points/notes given. Expand on them and give relevant examples or reasons.
6. End your article appropriately.
7. Once you have finished writing, check for grammatical and spelling mistakes.

Formats for an article


Format 1 Format 2

Title Title
by : (Name of writer ) (Introduction)__________________
(Introduction)_________________ ________________________________
_______________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________
(Body/content points)____________
(Body/Content points)__________ ________________________________
_______________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________
(Body/ content points)___________
(Body/content points)__________ ________________________________
_______________________________ ________________________________
_______________________________
(Conclusion) ___________________
(Conclusion) __________________ ________________________________
_______________________________
Written by,
(Name of writer)

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Task 1
Rewrite the following sentences in the correct order according to either format 1 or format 2.

 Apart from e-mail, we can also keep in touch and make new friends through chatrooms.
Chatrooms enable us to communicate in real time and receive responses almost instantly.
Those with webcams will even be able to see each other.
 The Benefits of the Information Highway
 Now, I’m sure many of you surf the Internet, be it for information of for entertainment. I,
myself, find it most convenient to keep in touch with friends and relatives through e-mails.
Furthermore, it saves costs. I do not have to waste time queueing up at the post office to
buy stamps.
 We can also carry out e-learning through the Internet. Our teachers can set us tasks and we
can work online, allowing them to monitor our progress. At the same time, we can engage
in forums among ourselves. In this way, we can exchange ideas, learn from each other and
more importantly, develop to become independent learners.
 The Information Highway offers us a lot of benefits. What is the Information Highway? Of
course, it is not one that is choked with cars zooming by. It is just another name for the
Internet.
 by : Amir b. Hassan
 In conclusion, the Information Highway has made our work and lives easier. It has become
an indispensable part of our life. As such, we cannot deny the fact that the Information
Highway has indeed benefitted us in many ways.

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Task 2
As the Chairperson of the Computer Club in your school, you have been asked to write an article on
“The advantages and disadvantages of the Internet.” Write your article using the notes given
below.

Advantages Disadvantages
 convenient  information can be misleading
 provides valuable information  exposed to inappropriate websites
 makes learning fun  making friends through the
 enhances students’ learning interests Internet can be dangerous
 chat with friends  addictive
 send and receive e-mails  affect health
 personal information used for
potential crime

When writing your article, you should remember to:


 give a suitable title
 give your name as the writer
 use all the information given
 provide an ending

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Exercise 1
Rearrange the sentences given below to form a paragraph.
 The truth is that, the Internet has its advantages and disadvantages.
 Nowadays, people all over the world are using the Internet for a variety of purposes.
 Some people praise it for the many benefits it brings while others argue that it is a
harmful tool.

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

 The Internet makes learning fun as students learn information that is presented in
ways that school textbooks cannot match.
 One of the advantages of the Internet is that it is very convenient for us to search for
information.
 In fact, it provides valuable information on various subjects.
 The information is easily available with just the click of a mouse.
 The colourful audio-visual aids attract the attention of students, especially young
children.
 Moreover, it enables us to chat with our friends.
 The Internet also enhances the students’ learning interests as it encourages their
interaction with the subject matter.
 In addition, we can also send as well as receive e-mails from people all over the
world.
 Apart from that, it enables us to chat with our friends.

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 However, the Internet also has its disadvantages.


 Some of the information is misleading.
 Another disadvantage is children can be exposed to inappropriate websites without
adult supervision.
 This is because the information available may not be the truth.
 There are many stories of young girls who have been cheated by people they got to
know through the Internet.
 Furthermore, students can get addictive to the Internet.
 Moreover, personal information such as address and telephone number can also be
used by a professional identity thief for a potential crime.
 Making friends through the Internet can be dangerous especially to children and
young girls.
 This is because they spend many hours on the Internet.
 If this continues, it will certainly affect their health.

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 It is therefore the responsibility of the parents and teachers to monitor the activities
of their children or students.
 In conclusion, although the Internet has its disadvantages, the fact remains that the
Internet is here to stay.

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Exercise 2
Now, write out the article using the correct format.

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Task 3
Your school has just bought new computers for the Computer Room. As the Chairperson of the
Computer Club, you have been asked to write an article about the advantages of using computers.
You made the following notes:

 make jobs easy


 make assignments attractive
 information can be stored easily
 can play computer games
 Internet facilities
 can get latest news from all over the world

When writing your article, you should remember to:

 give a suitable title


 give your name as the writer
 use all the information given
 elaborate on all the points given
 provide an ending

Exercise 1
Elaborate on the points given.

Content points Elaboration


1. make jobs easy

2. make assignments attractive and


interesting

3. can store information easily

4. can play computer games

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5. Internet facilities

6. can get the latest news from all over the


world

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences below using the information above.

1. Computers ______________________________________________________________________
2. They also help to make ____________________________________________________________
3. We can store ____________________________________________________________________
4. In addition, we can play ___________________________________________________________
5. Computers also provide access to ___________________________________________________
6. If we are connected to the Internet, we can get ________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 3
Complete the paragraphs below. Use the sentences above to help you and then, continue with the
elaboration.

1. Computers __________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
2. They also help to make ________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
3. We can store ________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
4. In addition, we can play _______________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

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5. Computers also provide access to _______________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
6. If we are connected to the Internet, we can get ____________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 4
Write the above article using Format 1 or Format 2.

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THEME 2 : ENVIRONMENT

REPORT
Task 1 – Requirements of a report

Exercise 1: Read the question below and complete the report with the notes given.

SAMPLE PAST YEAR QUESTION – REPORT (SPM 2009)


Many of your schoolmates are not interested in sports. You have carried out a survey on the
reasons for their lack of interest. Based on your findings, write a report to the Principal regarding
the matter. In your report, give reasons for the lack of interest in sports and provide suggestions to
overcome the problems.

Use the following notes to write your report.

REASONS

Students Parents Facilities


 attitude  emphasis on academic  insufficient sports
 lack of time performance equipment
 tuition classes  poor condition – field,
courts

SUGGESTIONS

Stress importance of Organise more


Improve facilities
sports competitions

Offer attractive
Dialogue with parents Employ qualified trainers
prizes

When writing the report, you must;


 address your report to the Principal
 provide a title
 include your name
 use all the notes given

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To : The Principal of SMK Datuk Haji Ahmad Badawi F1
From : Marlinawati, President of Sports Club F3
Title : A report on reasons for the lack of interest in sports among students F2

The Sports Club of SMK Datuk Haji Ahmad Badawi had recently conducted a survey among 150
students of this school. The purpose of the survey is to identify the reasons for the lack of interest
in sports among students in this school. The results of the survey show that there are three main
reasons for the lack of interest shown.
The first reason is the (1)________________ towards sports. They do not think participating in C1
sports is important. They stated that sports are merely extra-curricular activities which they are
required to take. Some students also said that they (2)__________________ to take part in C2
sports. Most of them are busy after school with club or society meetings or tuition classes.
The second reason lies with the parents. The students surveyed said that their parents place
(3)_______________________________. Their parents also do not encourage them to participate C3
in sports because they want them to concentrate on their studies. Any free time they have is filled
with (4)_______________________ or extra classes. C4
The third reason the students gave is related to sports facilities and equipment. First, there is
(5) ___________________________ for everyone. Students have to take turns to use the racquets C5
or hockey sticks which waste a lot of their time. Many get bored waiting while some lose interest
and eventually do not attend practice at all. Second, students stated that the
(6)______________________________. They could not practise well or enjoy themselves. C6
The problems identified through the survey can be overcome with the following suggestions.
First, teachers could (7)______________________________ to their students such as keeping the C7
mind and body fit and healthy and learning the essential values such as teamwork. Teachers could
also hold (8)_________________________ to help them understand the importance of sports in C8
helping to create well-rounded students.
Second, the school should allocate more funds to help (9)_______________________ and buy C9
more equipment so everyone can have the opportunity to participate. It will also be a good idea
to (10)_______________________ or coaches to help students learn and enjoy each game better. C10
Third, the school could (11)_________________________ to get students interested in C11
participating in sports. Competitions are always fun so this would be a good way to encourage
students to be interested in sports. In addition, the school could also (12)____________________ C12
to encourage participation and reward students for their performance.
The suggestions will help to create interest and encourage students’ participation in sports.

Reported by, F -3
Marlina C-12
(MARLINAWATI) L -19
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Adapted from Said’s SPM Module 2013

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NOTE: FORMAT OF A REPORT

(A) or (B)

To : F1 To : F1
From : F2 Title : F2
Title : F3

(Paragraphs) (Paragraphs)

REPORT Name of writer* F3

* Signature – Reported by / Written by / Prepared by

The Title; e.g. 'A Report on ....'


'An Investigation into...'
'An Analysis of ...'
'A Comparison of ... and ...'

Use of suitable tenses - Simple Past and Past Perfect


NOTE : We use Simple Past if we give past events in the order in which they occurred. However,
when we look back from a certain time in the past to tell what had happened before, we use Past
Perfect.

Simple Past Past Perfect


some time in the past before/up to a certain time in the past

Example: Example:
Jane got up at seven. She opened her Before her sixth birthday, Jane had never
birthday presents and then the whole been to the zoo.
family went to the zoo.

Signal Words

Simple Past Past Perfect


 already
 first  up to then
 then  before that day
 after*

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*Note: "After" is only used as a signal word for Past Perfect if it is followed by a subject + verb,
meaning that one action had been completed before another action began (the new action is in
Simple Past).

Example:
After the family had had breakfast, they went to the zoo.

However, if "after" is followed by object + subject + verb, the verb belongs to the new action and is
therefore in Simple Past.

Example:
After her visit to the zoo, Jane was exhausted.

Exercise 2: Write down the correct form (pronoun + verb).


Simple Past Past Perfect
I / go
he / drive
they / put
you / feel
she / stop

Exercise 3: Put the verbs into the correct tense (simple past or past perfect).

1. Our survey (reveal) ____________ that several public recreational places (be) _______ poorly-
maintained.
2. We (gather) ___________ at the park entrance early in the morning.
3. The gardeners (help) __________ to dig flower beds.
4. We (empty) ____________ the waste bins and (pick) ________ up garbage that (have) _______
been (strew) _____________ carelessly all over the park.
5. In times when there (be) __________ haze, open burning (worsen) ____________ the situation.

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Use of suitable tenses - Simple Past and Present Perfect

Simple Past Present Perfect


certain time in the past just / already / not yet

Example: Example:
I phoned Mary 2 minutes ago. I have just phoned Mary.
whether / how often till now
certain event in the past
Example:
Example:
Have you ever been to Canada? / I
He went to Canada last summer.
have been to Canada twice.

Signal Words

Simple Past Present Perfect Simple


 just
 already
 yesterday
 up to now
 ... ago
 until now / till now
 in 1990
 ever
 the other day
 (not) yet
 last ...
 so far
 lately / recently

Exercise 4: Put the verbs into the correct tense (simple past or present perfect simple).
1. A: I (see / not) _____________ you for a long time. Where (you / be) _____________ ?
2. B: I (just / come) _______________back from Canada.
3. A: Oh really? What (you / do) _______________in Canada?
4. B: I (take) ______________ a nature tour.
5. A: Wow! (you / see) _______________many wild animals there?
6. B: Of course. I (watch) ___________bears, wolves and whales in the wild. That (be)
____________ so interesting. (you /ever/ spend ) _______________a holiday in Canada?
7. A: Yes, I (travel) _____________around Canada twice so far.
8. B: When (you / go) ____________ there?
9. A: The first time I (go) ___________ there (be) __________in 1997 and the second time in
2004.
10. B: (you / enjoy) _______________ it?
11. A: I absolutely (love) ___________ it, especially the west coast.
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Use of passive voice

Note : In the passive voice, the verb takes an object.

Examples:

Our class was given the task of cleaning up the neglected Taman Cahaya.
Parents were encouraged to take part in the activity.
The garbage was strewn everywhere.

These sentences are in passive voice. The Passive voice is used in English
(a) To stress the action done rather than the doer of the action
(b) If the doer is unknown

Exercise 5: Change the following sentences into the passive form.

1. They dug a well.

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. She found mosquitoes everywhere.

_________________________________________________________________________________

3. The gardener beautified the park with new plants.

_________________________________________________________________________________

4. The flood ruined and even washed away the fences.

_________________________________________________________________________________

5. Mud and rubbish being dumped into the drains clog them.

_________________________________________________________________________________

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Task 2 – A Clean-up Campaign
Your school has organised a Clean-up Campaign at the parks nearby the school. Before the event, a
survey was carried out to determine the places that need cleaning up. After the event, you have
been asked to write a report to the Advisor of the School Environment Club on the activities carried
out by your class.

Use the notes given below to write your report.

Tasks
 clean neglected park
 survey
 parents and students take part
Preparation
 well-equipped
 lorries hired
 recycling centres
 divided into
 pick up garbage
 beautify park
 seedlings and young shrubs
Hope
 enjoy results of hard work
 proper maintenance

When writing the report, you must;


 address your report to the Principal
 provide a title
 include your name
 use all the notes given

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Exercise 5: Write out the sentences using the notes given.
1. Our class – given the task – cleaning up – neglected Taman Naluri
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
2. – survey – revealed – several public recreational places – poorly-maintained
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
3. Besides – students – parents – encouraged – take part – activity
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
4. – had to be – properly equipped – gloves, hats, spades, gardening shears, brooms
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
5. – hired lorries – transport refuse – dump sites
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_________________________________________________________________________________
6. – lorries – waste materials – brought – recycling centres – bring plants and soil - park
_________________________________________________________________________________
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7. – divided into groups – parent – acting – leader – each group
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8. – picked up – rubbish – strewn all over – compound
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9. – two hours - beautifying park – new plants
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10. – 6.00 p.m. - work finished – scheduled
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

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11. – look – forward – visiting - enjoying – fruits of our labour
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_________________________________________________________________________________
12. – park – properly – lovingly – maintained
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

Task 1: Complete the report based on the question given.

To : ___________________________________
From : ___________________________
Title : A report on __________________________________

On the 24th April, our school carried out a project called ‘_______________________’. Our
class, Form 5 Cemerlang, was given the task of _________________________________________.
Our ____________had revealed that several public recreational places _________________.
While land has been developed for apartment buildings, houses and shopping complexes, parks are
still in a sorry state.
Besides the ____________, ___________________________________ to take part in the
activity which was held on a weekend. We had to be ________________________ with gloves,
hats, spades, gardening shears and brooms. We hired ______________________________ to
transport refuse to the dump sites. These lorries also carried waste materials to be brought to
____________________ as well as to bring plants and soil to the park. The school even borrowed
two lawn movers and several ladders from the Municipal Council.
As early as 8.00 o’clock in the morning, we gathered at the park entrance. From the start,
_________________________________ with a parent acting as the leader of each group. In the
cool, fresh air, we bustled around, weeding, cutting and sweeping. Activity was intense and very
soon, the black plastic bags were filled with twigs, branches and grass. We also emptied the waste
bins and ___________________________that had been strewn carelessly all over the compound.

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At 6.00 p.m., work finished as scheduled. The last two hours was devoted to
_________________________ with new plants. The regular gardeners for the park helped us
improve the soil and dig flower beds. It was indeed a pleasant task to ________________________.
We can now look forward to visiting the park and enjoying ________________________.
We hope the park will be _________________________________ from now on.

THEME 3 : SOCIAL ISSUES

FORMAL LETTER
Common Types of Formal Letter
Letter of job application
Letter of complaint
Letter of inquiry
Letter of request
Common phrases in formal letter writing
I am writing to…
I would like to…
I would like to make/lodge a complaint…
I would like to complain about…
I would like draw your attention to…
I would be pleased if…
I would appreciate it if…
I hope you would take immediate action…
I hope you give my suggestions due consideration

Exercise 1
Write out the sentences with the phrases given.
1. rubbish not collected – attract flies – rats (I would like to complain)
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________

2. rubbish – terrible stench – vomit (I am writing to)


____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________

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3. drains – clogged – overflow when it rains (I would like to draw your attention to)
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________

4. plastic bags – food containers – breeding grounds for mosquitoes (I want to lodge a complaint)
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________

5. more rubbish truck – collect rubbish every two days (I would appreciate it if)
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________

FORMAT
F1 Sender’s Address __________
__________
____________________________________
F2 Recipient’s Address __________
__________
F3 Date __________ 31 Mac 2014

F4 Salutation Dear Sir,


F5 Title/Reference ________________________

I am writing to……

2. ……….

3. ……….

F6 Closing and Signature Yours faithfully,


Mimi
(Mimi bt Adnan)

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A LETTER OF COMPLAINT
You have noticed that there is a lot of social problems in school. There is a lack of discipline among
the students.
Write a letter of complaint to the Principal based on the notes you have made.

 Bullying
- Lack of care
 Vandalism
- Destroy school property
 Truancy
- Feel bored
 Smoking
- Peer pressure
 Fighting
- Influence from outsiders
 Drop out of school
- Poor academic performance

When writing the letter, you should remember to:


 lay out the letter correctly (addresses, date, salutation, title, closing)
 use all the notes given

Notes:
For your letter, you will receive up to 15 marks for the format and content points, and up to 20
marks for the quality of your writing

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SAMPLE LETTER 1:
Complete the following sample letter by filling in the blanks with suitable words.

Azlina bt. Abdullah,


25, Jalan Ciku,
Taman Indah,
40000 Bukit Lanchang,
Pulau Pinang.

En. Mazlan b. Yusof,


SMK Taman Indah,
40000 Bukit Lanchang 20 March 2014

Dear Sir,
Social Problems in the School
I would like to forward a complaint regarding the social problems in our school. These problems
caused by some students are disrupting the classes and students are unable to concentrate on their
lessons.

2. One of the problems affecting our school is ________________________. The younger


students are scared to go to the canteen because there is a group of students asking for money
from them. These troubled students are from broken homes and they________________________
from their parents. Another problem is _________________________. They seem to enjoy
_______________________________________ and drawing on the toilet walls.

3. The next problem is ______________________. Students, who play truant,


___________________________ studying in class and so will make noise and disturb others. When
they are scolded by the teacher, they will skip the class and loiter around the school.
___________________ is also a problem in school. The boys will smoke in the toilets and behind
the gardener’s shed. Some of the younger students said that they got into smoking because of
_________________________.

25
4. Besides, students from different classes are _____________________. They are fighting
because they are from different groups. The ____________________________ plays an important
role in instigating fights among students. Finally, these students will
_________________________________________. With their bad attendance in school, they will
have _____________________________________.

I hope that the school administrators will rectify these problems so that it will be a good place to
study. Thank you.

Yours faithfully,

_____________________________
(Azlina bt. Abdullah)

MODEL SPM QUESTION


You have noticed that the teenagers nowadays are involved in a lot of social problems. Write a
letter of complaint to the newspaper about the problems and provide suggestions to overcome the
problems based on the notes you have made.

 Drug abuse
 Illegal racing
 Vandalism
 Gangterism
 Teenage pregnancy
 Juvenile delinquent

When writing the letter, you should remember to:


 lay out the letter correctly (addresses, date, salutation, title, closing)
 provide suggestions on how to solve each of the problems
 use all the notes given
26
Ng Su Hang,
17, Jalan Bersih,
Taman Indah,
50000 Bandar Baru,
Pulau Pinang.

The Editor,
The Sunshine Post,
Pulau Pinang. 15 April 2014

Dear Sir,
Social Problems Among Teenagers

I would like to forward a complaint regarding the social problems faced by the teenagers nowadays.
It is quite common to see teenagers hanging around the shopping mall even during school hours.
This is especially true in the city.

2. There are many causes for this problem. Firstly, _______________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
Secondly, _________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
Moreover, ________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

3. Besides, _______________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

27
Other than that, ___________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
To make matter worse, the teenagers are becoming ______________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

4. To solve the problem, I would like to make some suggestions. We can _____________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
We also recommend that ____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

5. Furthermore, we can also _________________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
Last but not least, please organise _____________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

Yours faithfully,

(Ng Su Hang)

28
THEME 4 : FRIENDSHIP

Question 1 Directed Writing

Your sister is studying in a boarding school. She asked your advice on how to choose a
good friend.

Write a letter to advise her using the notes given :

The Qualities of a Good Friend

 understands you
 share feelings
 trustworthy
 good at keeping secrets
 helpful
 celebrate victorious moments
 shares sorrows
 remembers birthday
 dependable
 positive
 sincere
 have the same interests

When writing the letter, you should remember to :

- lay out the letter correctly ( address, greeting, closure)


- use all the notes given
- remember that your letter is to your sister

Note:
For your letter, you will receive up to 15 marks for the format, content points, and up to
20 marks for the quality of your writing.

29
Exercise 1

1. Read the letter below and label its parts correctly.

Date Salutation Sender’s Address


Complimentary Close Signature

86A, Lorong Hijau,


70000 Pandan Jaya,
Kuala Lumpur.

3rd May 2013

Dear Azlan,

Thank you for a wonderful stay - I really enjoyed being with you and your family and being in
the village. It was so peaceful compared to the hustle and bustle of the city life here in Kuala
Lumpur.
This has to be a short note, as I’ve just started the mid-year examination but I’d love to hear
news about you and the rest of the family -it’ll be a pleasant break from studying! When do you
plan to come visit me and my family? My parents say any time after I finish my exams is okay, so
I’m looking forward to that!
But for now, I’ve got to go back to those books!

Regards,
John

30
Exercise 2

Fill in the blanks with the suitable linkers to complete the short passage. Use the linkers given in the
box below:
In conclusion First of all In addition
Secondly Furthermore Moreover
Nevertheless Hence
Thus Consequently

Qualities of a Good Friend

The definition of a friend and friendship varies with each individual. I rather have an
idealistic view on the qualities of a good friend. _______________(1) , a good friend is someone
who understands me , accepts me for what I am and at the same time inspires me to do the
best. _________________(2), a true friend should not give up on me. __________________(3,)
she should always forgive my mistakes. ________________(4), never judge by my actions but
by the intention of my actions. Once, I was burdened with work and family commitments that I
seek the comforting words of a friend. I am glad to have a friend who urges me to pick up the
pieces and move on. _________________(5), a good friend is always there to lend a helping
hand or to lend me a shoulder to cry on. _______________(6), a friend should also be
trustworthy and loyal.________________(7), she would never betray my confidence towards
her. _________________(8), true friendship is indeed demanding. __________________(9), I
should never expect such virtues in a friend unless I am willing to offer these virtues in return.
__________________(10), one must be a friend to have a friend.

Modals
 Modals are known as helping verbs.
 They are always followed by other verbs because they cannot stand on their own.

MODALS USAGE EXAMPLES


shall/should To show obligation, duty or to give We should go to the hospital.
suggestion

must To express obligation or necessity You must finish the homework by


tomorrow.
can/could To express ability to do something Razak could not complete the task on time.
will/would To express a command that is You will clear the table after using it.
expected to be obeyed
may/might To show possibility I may take part in the competition.
ought to To show obligation or to give Jack ought to go to bed early so that he will
suggestion be fresh tomorrow.
need to To express necessity I need to do more exercise.

31
Exercise 3

Note Expansion
Expand the notes using the modals given into correct sentences.

The Qualities of a Good Friend

Example :
1. should - understand you
Answer: A good friend should be able to understand you.

2. can - share - feelings


________________________________________________________________________
3. must - someone - trustworthy
________________________________________________________________________
4. true - will - cheer up - down
________________________________________________________________________
5. must - good - keeping secrets
________________________________________________________________________
6. may -help- in studies
________________________________________________________________________
7. need to - find - helpful
________________________________________________________________________
8. should - lend a helping hand - difficulties
________________________________________________________________________
9. ought to - find - friend - dependable
________________________________________________________________________
10. friend - positive qualities -can - build - long-lasting - friendship
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

32
Exercise 4

Read the instructions in Question 1. Fill in the gaps with appropriate phrases to complete the
informal letter based on the “clues” given below.

F = Format of the informal letter


C = Contents given in Question 1
L = Linkers

__________________________,
(F1)__________________________
__________________________.

_______________________(F2)

__________________________(F3),

Hello there, I’m really glad that you are getting used to the hostel life. Well done Sis! How are
you doing? I hope that you still have your smile on since it has been almost three weeks that we left
you in Nilai.
Everyone’s fine here. Mum and Dad have just returned from a short trip to Kota Bharu where
our grandparents live. Grandpa is recovering from his illness so don’t worry. Sheena is studying
hard for her coming exams and she has been burning the midnight oil in order to follow your
footsteps. I guess you are her inspiration now. Shafiq will be starting work in Bank Putera next
month. And Adi? Well, he’s as mischievous as ever. As for me, nothing much, still waiting for the
entrance to the university. Do wish me the best. Sis!
By the way, about your request on the tips to find a good friend, I’ve actually done some
reflections of my school life and to fulfill your request I’ll tell you the secret of finding a good friend
even though sometimes it could be a little tricky.
__________________(L1), a good friend should be someone who ____________________(C1)
well. ________________(L2), when you are moody or sad. A good friend would be able to identify
these emotions and give appropriate responses to those situations. A true friend will cheer you up
when you are down. __________________(L3), you can always ________________________(C2)
with someone that you trust. A _______________(C3) friend is as precious as a diamond.
____________________(L4), your good friend must be
__________________________________________(C4).
____________________(L5), you need to find someone who is _______________ (C5) as your
friend. She may help you in your studies especially in your weak subjects.
_____________________(L6), good friends are willing to help each other to excel in studies and to
be a better person. ___________________(L7), a good friend also ____________________(C6).
____________________(L8), when you score the highest in your class, she should be happy for you
and celebrate your successful achievement. __________(L9), she also

33
_____________________________ (C7) as well. She should lend a shoulder for you to cry on like
the saying “A friend in need is a friend indeed”. Good friends should help each other when one is
facing with difficulties.
________________________(L10), a good friend remembers the birth date of her friends. She
must wish you “Happy Birthday” on your birthday and vice versa. This is a sign of closeness.
____________________(L11), it’s not necessary for her to buy you a gift for your birthday. It’s
enough that she ___________________________(C8). If she holds a birthday party for you that will
be a bonus! _____________________(L12), always find a friend that is _________________(C9) . If
you can count on your friend in good health or in sickness consider that you’re lucky. The most
important quality in a good friend is to find someone who has ________________(C10) qualities
like being _______________(C11) and responsible. Those are essential qualities that can build a
strong and long-lasting friendship.
_____________________(L13), your friendship could be better if your good friend
_______________________________________(C12) as you. This will enable the two of you to
communicate more effectively. ___________________(L14),you can share your views and learn
more by sharing your ideas.
I think I’ve explained in detail on how to choose a good friend. I need to remind you that in a
good friendship, a person does not only take but also give. I hope my tips will enlighten you in
finding your own circle of good friends. Anyway Sis...I think you would not face any problem in
finding them. You’re such a sweet person. I think you will have lots of friends.
Alright Mona, I have to end the letter now. I need to help Mum with dinner. I’m eager to hear
the latest news from you. Do reply and say Hi to all your dorm mates. Mum, Dad and the rest of our
siblings send you their warmest hugs and kisses. We really missed you a lot. Take care of yourself.
Bye-bye.

_________________(F4),

_________________(F5)

34
Exercise 5

Read the informal letter and replace the underlined words and phrases using your own words.

No. 57 Lim Khoon Huat Road,


Georgetown, 10460
Penang.

1 April 2014

Dearest Mona,

Hello there, I’m really glad that you are getting used to the hostel life. Well done Sis! How are
you doing? I hope that you still have your smile on since it has been almost three weeks that we left
you in Nilai.
Everyone’s fine here. Mum and Dad have just returned from a short trip to Kota Bharu where
our grandparents live. Grandpa is recovering from his illness so don’t worry. Sheena is studying
hard for her coming exams and she has been burning the midnight oil in order to follow your
footsteps. I guess you are her inspiration now. Shafiq will be starting work in Bank Putera next
month. And Adi? Well, he’s as mischievous as ever. As for me, nothing much, still waiting for the
entrance to the university. Do wish me the best. Sis!
By the way, about your request on the tips to find a good friend, I’ve actually done some
flashbacks of my school life and to grant your wish I’ll tell you the secret of finding a good friend
even though sometimes it could be a little tricky.
First of all, a good friend should be someone who understands you well. For instance, when
you are moody or sad. A good friend would be able to identify these emotions and give appropriate
responses to those situations. A true friend will cheer you up when you are down. Thus, you can
always share your feelings with someone that you trust. A trustworthy friend is as precious as a
diamond. Hence, your good friend must be good at keeping secrets.
Besides that, you need to find someone who is helpful as your friend. She may help you in your
studies especially in your weak subjects. In other words, good friends are willing to help each other
to excel in studies and to be a better person. Moreover, a good friend also shares your victorious
moments. For example, when you score the highest in your class, she should be happy for you and
celebrate your successful achievement. Nevertheless, she also shares your sorrows . She should
lend a shoulder for you to cry on like the saying “ A friend in need is a friend indeed”. Good friends
should help each other when one is facing with difficulties.
Next, a good friend remembers the birth date of her friends. She must wish you “Happy
Birthday” on your birthday and vice versa. This is a sign of closeness. However, it’s not necessary for
her to buy you a gift for your birthday. It’s enough that she remembers your birthday. If she holds a
birthday party for you that will be a bonus! Furthermore, always find a friend that is dependable . If
you can count on your friend in good health or in sickness consider that you’re lucky. The most
important quality in a good friend is to find someone who has positive qualities like being sincere
and responsible. Those are essential qualities that can build a strong and long-lasting friendship.
In addition, your friendship could be better if your good friend shares the same interests as
you. This will enable the two of you to communicate more effectively. Consequently, you can share
your views and learn more by sharing your ideas.

35
I think I’ve explained in detail on how to choose a good friend. I need to remind you that in a
good friendship a person does not only take but also give. I hope my tips will enlighten you in
finding your own circle of good friends. Anyway Sis...I think you would not face any problem in
finding them. You’re such a sweet person. I think you will have lots of friends.
Alright Mona, I have to end the letter now. I need to help Mum with dinner. I’m eager to hear
the latest news from you. Do reply and say Hi to all your dorm mates. Mum, Dad and the rest of our
siblings send you their warmest hugs and kisses. We really missed you a lot. Take care of yourself.
Bye-bye.

Your loving sister,


Sheila

THEME 5 : HEALTH
A TALK
World Health Day is celebrated in your college every year. You are the president of the Health
Society in your college. You have noticed that students in your college have unhealthy habits. You
have discussed this problem with your society’s advisor and have decided to give a talk to the
college students on how students can improve their health.
Write your talk based on the notes below.
 Reduce unhealthy food
- intake of food high in fat
- sugar and salt
- junk food

 Lead a healthy lifestyle


- do not smoke
- drugs
- manage stress

 Exercise regularly
- body burns more calories
- 3 times a week
- various types of exercises

 Practice a healthy diet


- (Give three relevant examples)

When writing your talk, you should remember to:


 greet your audience
 mention the purpose of talk
 include all the notes given
 give three relevant examples for Practice a healthy diet
 end your talk appropriately

36
Task 1: Answer the following questions based on the rubric below.
World Health Day is celebrated in your college every year. You are the president of the Health
Society in your college. You have noticed that students in your college have unhealthy habits. You
have discussed this problem with your society’s advisor and have decided to give a talk to the
college students on how students can improve their health.
1. Who are you?
_______________________________________________________________________
2. Who is your audience? / Who are you speaking to?
_______________________________________________________________________
3. Who asked you to speak?
_______________________________________________________________________
4. What must you do?
_______________________________________________________________________
5. What is the purpose?
_______________________________________________________________________

Task 2: Based on the question on a talk, answer the following questions on the format.
World Health Day is celebrated in your college every year. You are the president of the Health
Society in your college. You have noticed that students in your college have unhealthy habits. You
have discussed this problem with your society’s advisor and have decided to give a talk to the
college students on how students can improve their health.

1. Do you need to write a title?


A. Yes B. No
2. Choose the best greeting for this talk.
A. Good morning to the principal, teachers and members of the Health Society.
B. Good morning to the members of the Health Society and friends
C. Good morning to the principal, advisor and members of the Health Society.
D. Good morning to the Health Society teachers and members
3. The purpose of the talk is
A. for World Health Day
B. for the members of the Health Society
C. on how students health is improving
D. on how students can improve their health

37
4. Which statement could be used to end the talk?
A. I am honoured to be given this opportunity to give a talk. Thank you.
B. I am the President of the Health Society. Thank you.
C. I hope you will follow my suggestions to improve your health. Thank you.
D. I would like share with you some of the ways how students can improve their health.
Thank you.

Task 3: Complete the talk below with suitable linkers. Select the linkers from the list below.

For example Other than that In addition to Secondly


Apart from Besides Thirdly Moreover Firstly Finally

Good morning Madam Jeslin, our principal, advisor and members of the Health Society. I am
honoured to be given the opportunity to give a talk on how students can improve their health in
conjunction with World Health Day. As the President of the society, I would like share with you
some of the ways how students can improve their health.
(1)____________, students should avoid eating unhealthy food. You should reduce
consuming food high in fat. Many students like to each fast food such as burgers, fries and fried
chicken which contains a lot of fat. These types of food are not good for your health. You should
also cut down sugar and salt in the food that you eat. Eating food with too much sugar can lead to
illness such as diabetes and too much salt in food can result in high blood pressure and kidney
problems. (2)_______________these types of unhealthy food, I know that many students love to
eat junk food. (3)______________, junk food like sweets, jelly beans and chocolates contain a lot
sugar. Please avoid junk food as it is bad for health
(4)____________, we must lead a healthy lifestyle. Please do not smoke. Smoking will cause
a lot of health problems. You must also never use drugs. Someone may ask you to try drugs just for
fun or to reduce stress but once you do you will be an addict forever. So, please stay away from
drugs. You must learn to manage stress. Students face stress in school and at home.
(5)_____________homework and assignments, students have co-curricular activities. Some parents
also pressure their children to do well in their studies. Listen to music, talk to friends or watch a
movie if you feel stressed.

38
(6)___________, exercising regularly is very important for good health. When you exercise
your body will burn more calories. (7)__________________, you should exercise at least three
times a week. You can do various types of exercises. For example, you can go jogging, hiking,
swimming or aerobics.
(8)_____________, practice a healthy diet. You should drink eights glasses of water.
(9)_____________drinking enough water, you must eat more fruits and vegetables.
(10)_____________, to supplement your diet, you should take vitamins for a healthy body.
I would like to end my talk by reminding you that improving your health is very important
for everyone including students. As the saying goes, health is wealth. In order to be successful,
good health is needed. Thank you for your time. I hope you will follow my suggestions to improve
your health. Thank you.

Task 4: Read the sample essay. Copy the sentences from the sample essay for each point given in
the box.
Good morning Madam Jeslin, our principal, advisor and members of the Health Society. I am
honoured to be given the opportunity to give a talk on how students can improve their health in
conjunction with World Health Day. As the President of the society, I would like share with you
some of the ways on how students can improve their health.
Firstly, students should avoid eating unhealthy food. You should reduce consuming food
high in fat. Many students like to each fast food such as burgers, fries and fried chicken which
contains a lot of fat. These types of food are not good for your health. You should also cut down
sugar and salt in the food that you eat. Eating too much food with sugar can lead to illness such as
diabetes and too much salt in food can result in high blood pressure and kidney problems. In
addition to these types of unhealthy food, I know that many students love to eat junk food. For
example, junk food like sweets, jelly beans and chocolates contain a lot of sugar. Please avoid junk
food as it is bad for health.
Secondly, we must lead a healthy lifestyle. Please do not smoke. Smoking will cause a lot of
health problems. You must also never use drugs. Someone may ask you to try drugs just for fun or
to reduce stress but once you do, you will be an addict forever. So, please stay away from drugs.
You must learn to manage stress. Students face stress in school and at home. Besides homework
and assignments, students have co-curricular activities. Some parents also pressure their children
to do well in their studies. Listen to music, talk to friends or watch a movie if you feel stressed.

39
Thirdly, exercising regularly is very important for good health. When you exercise, your
body will burn more calories. Exercise will prevent obesity. Other than that, you should exercise at
least three times a week. You can do various types of exercises. For example, you can go jogging,
hiking, swimming or aerobics.
Finally, practice a healthy diet. You should drink eight glasses of water. You will not feel
tired easily if your body has enough water. Apart from drinking enough water, you must eat more
fruits and vegetables. You can eat both local and imported fruits. Please eat lots of leafy
vegetables. Moreover, to supplement your diet you can take vitamins for a healthy body.
I would like to end my talk by reminding you that improving your health is very important
for everyone including students. As the saying goes, health is wealth. In order to be successful,
good health is needed. Thank you for your time. I hope you will follow my suggestions to improve
your health. Thank you.

Point Sentence
1. Reduce unhealthy food

- intake of food high in fat


- sugar and salt
- junk food

2. Lead a healthy lifestyle

- do not smoke
- drugs
- manage stress

40
3. Exercise regularly

- body burns more calories


- 3 times a week
- various types of exercises

- Practice a healthy diet


- (Give three relevant examples)

Task 5: Based on the sample talk provide:


1. examples of food with high fat.
________________________________________________________________________

2. examples for junk food.


_______________________________________________________________________

3. the consequence of eating too much food that contains a lot of sugar.
_______________________________________________________________________

4. the consequence of eating food that is high in salt.


_______________________________________________________________________

41
5. the causes that lead to stress for students.
_______________________________________________________________________

6. suggestions on how to reduce stress.


_______________________________________________________________________

7. benefits of exercising.
_______________________________________________________________________

42