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Chapter 1: Static connections


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Calculation methods for flange


connections according to EN1591

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Preliminary notes
Regulation EN1591: “Flanges and their joints – Design rules for gasketed
circular flange connections (07/01/2003)” is the European reference law on the
specific topic.

It is divided into two sections:

• EN 1591-1: Calculation method

• EN 1591-2: Gasket parameters

EN1591 sets leakage rates and mechanical resistance criteria for flanged
connections.
The behavior of the complete flanges-gasket-bolt system is considered both in
assembly and working conditions.
The calculation is based on the elastic analysis of the load/deformation
relationships among every part of the flanged junction, corrected by the
possible plastic behavior of the gasket.

EN 1591 Parameters
• Fluid pressure

• Mechanical resistance of the material of flanges, bolts and gaskets

• Bolt load stress

• Possible dispersion due to the flange assembly process

• Change of gasket stress due to deformation of the components

• Influence of piping tensions

• Effect of axial forces and external bending moments

• Effects of temperature difference between bolts and the flange ring

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2 EN1591 Method
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Procedure comparison

Calculation methods for gasketed


circular flange connections

CALCULATION METHODS

Taylor – Forge Method EN1591–1 Method

The assembly behavior


The admissibility of the during its lifetime is analyzed.
assembly for the calculation The recommended tightening
conditions is determined is defined according to
leakage rate

The assembly is statically The behavior of the complete


determined, but the reactions flanges-bolts-gasket system is
evolution can’t be known considered, and the reactions
evolution can be known

® Repair Advisors a ® division EN1591 Method 3


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Taylor - Forge Method
The force applied by the bolting remains
constant at all steps of service Σ shell
F
P

Σ int. gasket

Σ shell
F
Disegno 1 Disegno 2 F
P The load imposed on the gasket is
the required one to provide seating

gasket
Slide 4 alto a sinistra Slide 4 alto a destra
Ø

Longitudinal hub stress

sH

is
F
ing

Tangential stress
sR

sp. g.ne
sT
Slide 4 alto a destra
Longitudinal hub stress

sH Resisting section

Pic. 1
Radial stress

Tangential stress
sR
sT
Pagina 3 Fig.1

Øint f
Resisting section Radial stress
Allowable stress

Slide 4 basso a sinistra Slide 4 basso a destra

ntial stress
CEN Cons
Pic. 2 F
The admissibility of the
assembly is determined
the bolting remains
of service Σ shell
F
by the flange stress 1.0E-01
Slide
P 4 basso a destra values (Pic. 1), by the bolt QSmin (L0.01)
Gasket Leak (mbar l/ms)

1.0E-02
section (Pic. 2) and by
Σ int. gasket
the gasket pressure value
CEN Constants definition - Leak vs Sg Idealized Graph
1.0E-03
(m;Y) (Pic. 3).
For 3 Loading and unloading cycles
Pic. 3 The evolution of the 1.0E-04
The load imposed on the gasket is
F Q (L0.1) minreaction can’t be known.
the required one to provide seating
1.0E-01
® 1.0E-05
QSmin (L0.01)
sinistra Slide 4 alto a destra ® Repair Advisors a
Qmin (L0.01) ® division
4 EN1591 Method
ar l/ms)

1.0E-02 1.0E-06
® ®
Qmin (L0.001) ®
1.0E-03 1.0E-07
of forces of deformations
SII BII

P Axisymmetric
model

Laws

F
EN1591 Method S

SI BI
B of rheology

Ba
Sa
Balance Balance
of forces of deformations SII BII
Slide 5 alto a sinistra Slide 5 alto a destra
P Axisymmetric
model

tion Allowable stress


Laws
of rheology S B

SI BI

Ba
Sa
Balance Balance Øm
of forces of deformations
SII
P
Bilanciamento
B
delle deformazioni
II

Axisymmetric
model Slide 5 alto a sinistra Ønocci
Deformation balance
tra between
Laws
of rheology
Z
S B

Sa
SI BI
SII BII

Ba

Disegno 1
s
Disegno 2
Pic. 1
S B

Slide 5 alto a sinistra


SI
AxialBdeformations I
Axial deformations
Slide 5 alto a destra Bilanciamento delle deformazioni
at the gasket place Øext g.ne of the bolts
Ba

tra
Øint g.ne
Slide 5 alto a sinistra Slide 5 alto a destra
Longitudinal hub stress

sH
Z
Øesterno
Z
Slide 5 basso a sinistra Slide 5 basso
Ømedio a destra
Øesterno
Tangential stress
sR
Bilanciamento delle deformazioni
sp. g.ne

sT Ømedio

The bolts are treated


Bilanciamento in section
delle deformazioni
Ønocciolo Ønocciolo
tra
tra Z Axial deformations
at the gasket place
Z Axial deformations
of the bolts
Radial stress

Torsion phenomenon at tightening


agina 3 Fig.1 Pic. 2 is considered
Axial deformations Axial deformations
at the gasket place of the bolts

Øint flangia

Axial deformations Axial deformations Slide 5 basso a sinistra


Disegno 2 at the gasket place
Slide 5 basso a sinistra
of the Øext
bolts flangia
Slide 5 basso a destra

Øext g.ne
CEN Constants definition - Leak vs Sg Idealized Graph
Øint g.ne For 3 Loading and unloading cycles

Qmin (L0.1)
Slide 5 basso a sinistra
1.0E-01 Slide 5 basso a destra
QSmin (L0.01)
Qmin (L0.01)
The behavior of the
Gasket Leak (mbar l/ms)

assembly is determined
1.0E-02

Qmin (L0.001)
sp. g.ne

by the leak-tightness
1.0E-03

Qmin (L0.0001)

values, based on the


1.0E-04

Qmin (L0.00001)

deformation of the flange


1.0E-05
QSmin (L0.000001)
Qmin (L0.000001)

during its lifetime (Pic. 1),


1.0E-06

Øint flangia 1.0E-07


1000 Sg1 10000 Sg2 Sg3 100000
of bolts (Pic. 2) and the
Øext flangia Gasket Stress (psi)
deformations of the gasket
Pic. 3
CEN Constants definition - Leak vs Sg Idealized Graph in both tightening and
For 3 Loading and unloading cycles

Qmin (L0.1)
Pagina 4 Fig.3 operative conditions (Qmin
1.0E-01

QSmin (L0.01)
Qmin (L0.01) (L), Qmax, QA, EG) (Pic. 3)
Gasket Leak (mbar l/ms)

1.0E-02

® Qmin (L0.001)
1.0E-03

® Repair Advisors a ® division


1.0E-04
Qmin (L0.0001)
EN1591 Method 5
1.0E-05
® Qmin (L0.00001) ®
QSmin (L0.000001)

1.0E-06
Qmin (L0.000001)
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EN1591 Method
Calculation example

Due to the large number of parameters to consider, the mathematical


calculation procedure is extremely complicated and difficult.

Thanks to a 20-year experience in the field, to a constant follow-up on


regulations, and to®the cooperation with the major companies and agencies of
the industry, ® has developed a software aimed at analyzing at once
all the necessary parameters
® according to EN1591.

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6 EN1591 Method
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Flanged connections control check
Condition Source Description
ok Flange 1 (bF = 50,16 / eF = 18,20) ok = 2,76 >= 0,2
ok Flange 1 (bF = 50,16 / eF = 18,20) = 2,76 <= 5,0
ok Flange 1 cos(φS) = 0,87 >= 1/(1+0,01*ds/es) = 0,66
ok Flange 2 (bF = 50,16 / eF = 18,20) = 2,76 >= 0,2
ok Flange 2 (bF = 50,16 / eF = 18,20) = 2,76 <= 5,0
ok Flange 2 cos(φS) = 0,87 >= 1/(1+0,01*ds/es) = 0,66
ok assembly condition / Bolts FB0min = 267.026,00 >= FB0req = 35.221,80
ok assembly condition / Bolts FB0req = 35.221,80 <= FB0max = 433.786,00
ok assembly condition / Gasket ΦG = 0,05 <= 1
wrong assembly condition / Bolts ΦB = 2,25 <= 1.0
ok assembly condition / Bolts FB0nom = 359.671,00 >= FB0req / (1 - ε)
ok assembly condition / Joint FG0req = 35.221,80 >= FG0min = 35.221,80
ok assembly condition / Flange 1 Ψmax = 0,09 < -1 or Ψmin = -0,09 > 1
ok assembly condition / Flange 2 Ψmax = 0,09 < -1 or Ψmin = -0,09 > 1
ok assembly condition / Flange 1 cM = 1,15 < 0
ok assembly condition / Flange 2 cM = 1,15 < 0
wrong assembly condition / Flange 1 eF = 18,20 >= eFminA1 = 23,06
wrong assembly condition / Flange 2 eF = 18,20 >= eFminA1 = 23,06
ok assembly condition / Flange 1 ΦF = 0,88 <= Φmax = 1,00

Calculation report
Excerpt of a calculation report
Name Value Unit Description
cS+’’ 0,79 -- (π/4)*(sqrt(1-0.75*(0.5*δQ+δR^2))+jS*(0.5*δR-0.75*δQ))
cS-’’ 0,79 -- (π/4)*(sqrt(1-0.75*(0.5*δQ+δR^2))-jS*(0.5*δR-0.75*δQ))
hG0’ 12,04 -- (d3e-dGe)/2
hG0’’ 12,04 -- (d3e-dGe)/2
ΘFmaxE1’ 0,01 deg (ZF/EF)*{FG*hG+FQ*(hH-hP+hQ)+FR*(hH+hR)}
ΘFmaxE1’’ 0,01 deg (ZF/EF)*{FG*hG+FQ*(hH-hP+hQ)+FR*(hH+hR)}
ΘFminE1’ 0,01 deg (ZF/EF)*{FG*hG+FQ*(hH-hP+hQ)+FR*(hH+hR)}
ΘFminE1’’ 0,01 deg (ZF/EF)*{FG*hG+FQ*(hH-hP+hQ)+FR*(hH+hR)}
FB0req 35,22 kN (53) = FG0req+FR0
Mtnom 221,21 Nm (D.1) = kB*FB0nom/nB
MtBnom 113,23 Nm (D.8) = Mt.Bnom*(1+ε)
MtBmax 136,56 Nm Mt.Bnom*(1+ε)
eFminA1’ 23,06 mm pB*(((EGm*bGe)/(Ef*eG))*(pB/bF)*Sqrt(1-(ΦG0A1*bGt/bGe)^2)/10)^1/3
eFminA1’’ 23,06 mm pB*(((EGm*bGe)/(Ef*eG))*(pB/bF)*Sqrt(1-(ΦG0A1*bGt/bGe)^2)/10)^1/3
ΦF’ 0,88 -- |FG*hG+FQ*(hH-hP)+FR*hH|/WF =
ΦF’’ 0,88 -- |FG*hG+FQ*(hH-hP)+FR*hH|/WF =
jM’ 1 -- sign{FG*hG+FQ*(hH-hP)+FR*hH}
jM’’ 1 -- sign{FG*hG+FQ*(hH-hP)+FR*hH}
kM’ 1 -- --
kM’’ 1 -- --
Ψopt’ 1 -- jM*(2*(eP/eF)-1)
Ψopt’’ 1 -- jM*(2*(eP/eF)-1)
Ψ0’ 0 -- ((fE*dE*eD*cos(φS))/(fF*2*bF*eF))*{(0.5*δQ+δR)+tan(φS)-δQ*2*(eP/dE)}
Ψ0’’ 0 -- ((fE*dE*eD*cos(φS))/(fF*2*bF*eF))*{(0.5*δQ+δR)+tan(φS)-δQ*2*(eP/dE)}
Ψmax’ 0,09 -- Ψmax=((fE*dE*eD*cos(φS))/(fF*2*bF*eF)) *{(0.5*δQ+δR)+tan(S)-φQ*2*(eP/dE)+1*1*sqrt((eD*cM*cS*(1+1*1))/(dE*cos[3](δS))
Ψmax’’ 0,09 -- Ψmax=((fE*dE*eD*cos(φS))/(fF*2*bF*eF)) *{(0.5*δQ+δR)+tan(S)-φQ*2*(eP/dE)+1*1*sqrt((eD*cM*cS*(1+1*1))/(dE*cos[3](δS))
Ψmin’ -0,09 -- Ψ*min=((fE*dE*eD*cos(φS))/(fF*2*bF*eF))*{(0.5*δQ+δR)+tan(φS)-Q*2*(eP/dE)-1*1*sqrt((eD*cM*cS*(1-1*-1))/(dE*cos[3](δS)))
Ψmin’’ -0,09 -- Ψ*min=((fE*dE*eD*cos(φS))/(fF*2*bF*eF))*{(0.5*δQ+δR)+tan(φS)-Q*2*(eP/dE)-1*1*sqrt((eD*cM*cS*(1-1*-1))/(dE*cos[3](δS)))
ΨZ’ 0,09 -- --
ΨZ’’ 0,09 -- --
WF’ 5959,11 Nm (π/4)*{fF*2*bF*eF^2*(1+2*Ψopt*Ψz-Ψz^2)+fE*dE*eD^2*cM*jM*kM)
WF’’ 5959,11 Nm (π/4)*{fF*2*bF*eF^2*(1+2*Ψopt*Ψz-Ψz^2)+fE*dE*eD^2*cM*jM*kM)
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® Repair Advisors a ® division EN1591 Method 7


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EN1591 Method

Resistance criteria

GASKET Limitation of the compression

BOLTS Limitation of the traction

FLANGES Limitation of the rotation

SEATiNG CRiTERiA

LEAK-TiGhTNESS CRiTERiA } Lower tightening limit

}
BOLT STRENGTh CRiTERiA

GASKET STRENGTh CRiTERiA Upper tightening limit

FLANGE STRENGTh CRiTERiA

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8 EN1591 Method
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EN1591 Method

Tightening recommendation

Lower tightening limit Upper tightening limit

[ ]
}
Bolt tightening

Tightening device scatter

® Repair Advisors a ® division EN1591 Method 9


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® EN1591 Method
® EN1591
THE ASSEMBLY BEHAvIoR DuRING ITS LIFETIME IS ANALYZED.
THE RECoMMENDED TIGHTENING IS DEFINED ACCoRDING To LEAkAGE RATE

EN1591-1 EN1591-2
DESIGN RuLES FoR GASkETED CIRCuLAR GASkET PARAMETERS
FLANGE CoNNECTIoNS

ANALYSIS oF THE FLANGE CouPLING

DEFINITIoN oF A LEAkAGE RATE

MECHANICAL CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL


FEATuRES PHYSICAL FEATuRES FEATuRES
FLANGE GASKET BOLTS

ANALYSIS oF THE FLANGED CoNNECTIoN’S uSE FEATuRES


(FLuIDS, TEMPERATuRE, PRESSuRE)

DATA PRoCESSING THRouGH CALCuLATIoN SoFTWARE

EvALuATIoN oF THE INTERNAL FoRCES


EvALuATIoN oF BoLTS’ INITIAL RESuLTING FRoM THE BoLT’S INITIAL
MINIMuM LoAD CAPACITY MINIMuM LoAD vALuE AND ANY oTHER
LoAD CoNDITIoN (FuNCTIoN TEST)

DATA ouTPuT FRoM SoFTWARE

CHECk oF THE FLANGED CoNNECTIoN AND CouPLING


BASED oN THE DETERMINED LEAkAGE RATE

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10 EN1591 Method
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Advantages of the ® calculation


method according to EN1591
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The method stated so far evaluates the degree of fugitive emissions per
®
pollutant based on the fixed leakage rate (L).
The ® monitoring plan avails itself of the calculation outputs coming
from EN1591.

This calculation method represents a valid alternative option, where possible, to


other means of plant validation, such as:

• Specific tests

• EN1591 standard procedure

• usage of normalized flanged couplings

® Repair Advisors a ® division EN1591 Method 11


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