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CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-1

Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .......... 3 107.1 General ............................................................... 9
107.2 Definitions .......................................................... 9
SECTION 101 - TITLE, PURPOSE AND SCOPE ..... 3
107.3 Inspection Program ........................................... 10
101.1 Title..................................................................... 3 107.4 Structural Inspector........................................... 10
101.2 Purpose ............................................................... 3 107.4.1 Qualifications. ........................................... 10
101.3 Scope .................................................................. 3 107.4.2 Duties and Responsibilities........................ 10
101.4 Alternative Systems ............................................ 3 107.5 Types of Work for Inspection ........................... 10
107.5.1 Concrete. .................................................... 10
SECTION 102 - DEFINITIONS.................................... 3 107.5.2 Bolts Installed in Concrete......................... 10
SECTION 103 - CLASSIFICATION OF BUILDINGS 107.5.3 Special Moment-Resisting Concrete Frames.
.......................................................................................... 4 ................................................................................ 10
107.5.4 Reinforcing Steel and Prestressing Steel
103.1 Nature of Occupancy .......................................... 4 Tendons. ................................................................. 10
SECTION 104 - DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ............. 5 107.5.4.1 General. .................................................. 10
107.5.4.2 General. .................................................. 10
104.1 Strength Requirement ......................................... 5 107.5.5 Structural Welding. .................................... 11
104.2 Serviceability Requirement................................. 5 107.5.5.1 General. .................................................. 11
104.2.1 General......................................................... 5 107.5.5.2 Special Moment-Resisting Steel Frames.11
104.3 Analysis .............................................................. 5 107.5.5.3 Welding of Reinforcing Steel. ................ 11
104.3.1 Stability Against Overturning. ..................... 6 107.5.6 High-strength Bolting. ............................... 11
104.3.2 Self-Straining Forces. .................................. 6 107.5.7 Structural Masonry. ................................... 11
104.3.3 Anchorage. ................................................... 6 107.5.7.1 General. .................................................. 11
104.4 Foundation Investigation .................................... 6 107.5.7.2 General. .................................................. 11
104.5 Design Review .................................................... 6 107.5.8 Reinforced Gypsum Concrete.................... 11
104. 6 Erection of Structural Framing .......................... 6 107.5.9 Insulating Concrete Fill. ............................ 11
SECTION 105 - POSTING AND 107.5.10 Spray-Applied Fire-Resistive Materials. . 12
INSTRUMENTATION .................................................. 7 107.5.11 Piling, Drilled Piers and Caissons............ 12
107.5.12 Shotcrete. ................................................. 12
105.1 Posting of Live Loads ......................................... 7 107.5.13 Special Grading, Excavation and Filling. 12
105.2 Earthquake Recording Instrumentation .............. 7 107.5.14 Special Cases. .......................................... 12
105.2.1 General......................................................... 7 107.5.15 Non-Destructive Testing. ......................... 12
105.2.2 Location. ...................................................... 7 107.6 Approved Fabricators ....................................... 12
105.2.3 Maintenance................................................. 7 107.7 Prefabricated Construction ............................... 12
105.2.4 Instrumentation of Selected Buildings. ........ 7 107.7.1 General. ..................................................... 12
SECTION 106 - SPECIFICATIONS, DRAWINGS 107.7.1.1 Purpose. .................................................. 12
AND CALCULATIONS ................................................ 7 107.7.1.2 Scope. ..................................................... 12
107.7.1.3 Definition................................................ 12
106.1 General................................................................ 7 107.7.2 Tests of Materials. ..................................... 12
106.2 Specifications...................................................... 7 107.7.3 Tests of Assemblies. .................................. 12
106.3 Design Drawings ................................................ 7 107.7.4 Connections. .............................................. 13
106.3.1 General......................................................... 7 107.7.5 Pipes and Conduits. ................................... 13
106.3.2 Required Information................................... 7 107.7.6 Certificate and Inspection. ......................... 13
106.3.2.1 General Information.................................. 7 107.7.6.1 Materials. ................................................ 13
106.3.2.2 Structural Concrete ................................... 8 107.7.6.2 Certificate. .............................................. 13
106.3.2.3 Structural Steel.......................................... 8 107.7.6.3 Certifying Agency. ................................. 13
106.4 Calculations ........................................................ 8 107.7.6.4 Field Erection. ........................................ 13
106.4.1 General......................................................... 8 107.7.6.5 Continuous Inspection. ........................... 13
106.4.2 Basis of Design Summary. ........................... 8 107.8 Non-destructive Testing ................................... 13
106.4.3 Computer Programs. .................................... 8 107.8.1 General. ..................................................... 13
106.4.4 Model Analysis. ........................................... 9 107.8.2 Testing Program. ....................................... 13
106.5 As-built Drawings ........................................... 9 107.8.2.1 General. .................................................. 13
SECTION 107 - STRUCTURAL INSPECTIONS, 107.8.2.2 General. .................................................. 14
TESTS AND STRUCTURAL OBSERVATIONS ....... 9 107.8.2.3 General. .................................................. 14

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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107.8.3 Others. .......................................................14


107.9 Structural Observation ......................................14
107.9.1 General. ......................................................14
107.9.2 Structural Observer. ...................................14
107.9.3 Construction Stages for Observations. .......14
SECTION 108 – EXISTING STRUCTURES ............14
108.1 General ..............................................................14
108.2 Maintenance .....................................................14
108.3 Additions, Alterations or Repairs ......................14
108.3.1 General. ......................................................14
108.3.2 When Allowed by the Building Official. ...14
108.3.3 Nonstructural..............................................15
108.3.4 Historic Buildings. .....................................15
108.4 Change in Use ...................................................15
SECTION 109 - GRADING AND EARTHWORK .15
109.1 General ..............................................................15
109.1.1 Scope. .........................................................15
109.2 Definitions.........................................................15
109.3 Permits Required ..............................................16
109.3.1 Permits Required. .......................................16
109.3.2 Exempted Work. ........................................16
109.4 Hazards .............................................................17
109.5 Grading Permit Requirements ...........................17
109.5.1 General. ......................................................17
109.5.2 Grading Designation. .................................17
109.5.3 Engineered Grading Requirements. ...........17
109.5.4 Geotechnical Engineering Report. .............18
109.5.5 Engineering Geology Report......................18
109.5.6 Regular Grading Requirements. .................18
109.6 Grading Inspection ............................................18
109.6.1 General. ......................................................18
109.6.2 Civil Engineer. ...........................................18
109.6.3 Geotechnical Engineer. ..............................18
109.6.4 Engineering Geologist................................18
109.6.5 Permittee. ...................................................19
109.6.6 Building Official. .......................................19
109.6.7 Notification of Noncompliance. .................19
109.6.8 Transfer of Responsibility. .........................19
109.7 Completion of Work .........................................19
109.7.1 Final Reports. .............................................19
109.7.2 Notification of Completion. .......................19

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-3

CHAPTER 1 – GENERAL and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall


be applicable. Wherever in this code reference is made to
REQUIREMENTS an appendix, the provisions in the appendix shall not
apply unless specifically adopted.
SECTION 101 - TITLE, PURPOSE
101.4 Alternative Systems
AND SCOPE
The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the
use of any material, alternate design or method of
101.1 Title construction not specifically prescribed by this code,
These regulations shall be known as the National provided any alternate has been permitted and its use
Structural Code of the Philippines 6th Edition 2010, authorized by the building official.
may be cited as such and will be referred to herein as “this
code." Sponsors of any system of design or construction within
the scope of this code, the adequacy of which had been
shown by successful use and by analysis and test, but
101.2 Purpose which does not conform to or is not covered by this code,
The purpose of this code is to provide minimum load shall have the right to present the data on which their
requirements for the design of buildings and other design is based to the building official or to a board of
structures and minimum standards and guidelines to examiners appointed by the building official. This board
safeguard life or limb, property and public welfare by shall be composed of competent structural engineers and
regulating and controlling the design, construction, shall have authority to investigate the data so submitted,
quality of materials pertaining to the structural aspects of to require tests, and to formulate rules governing design
all buildings and structures within this jurisdiction. and construction of such systems to meet the intent of this
code. These rules, when approved and promulgated by
the building official, shall be of the same force and effect
101.3 Scope
as the provisions of this code.
The provisions of this code shall apply to the
construction, alteration, moving, demolition, repair,
maintenance and use of any building or structure within SECTION 102 - DEFINITIONS
this jurisdiction, except transmission towers and poles,
hydraulic flood control structures, and indigeneous family For the purpose of this code, certain terms, phrases, words
dwellings. and their derivatives shall be construed as specified in this
chapter and elsewhere in this code where specific
Special structures such as but not limited to storage silos definitions are provided. Terms, phrases and words used
and liquid product tanks should be referred to special in the singular include the plural and vice versa. Terms,
state of practice literature but shall refer to provisions of phrases and words used in the masculine gender include
this code as a minimum wherever applicable. the feminine and vice versa.

Following are the different volumes of this code: The following terms are defined for use in this chapter:

Volume I - Buildings, Towers and Other Vertical ADDITION is an extension or increase in floor area or
Structures height of a building or structure.
Volume II - Bridges
Volume III - Housing ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN is a method of
Volume IV - Railways proportioning structural members such that elastically
Volume V - Ports and Harbors computed stresses produced in the members by nominal
loads do not exceed specified allowable stresses (also
For additions, alterations, maintenance, and change in use called WORKING STRESS DESIGN).
of buildings and structures, see Section 108.
ALTER or ALTERATION is any change, addition or
Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code modification in construction or occupancy.
specify different materials, methods of construction or
other requirements, the most restrictive provisions shall APPROVED as to materials and types of construction,
govern except in the case of single family dwellings. refers to approval by the building official as the result of
Where there is a conflict between a general requirement
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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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investigation and tests conducted by the building official,


or by reason of accepted principles or tests by recognized
authorities, technical or scientific organizations. SECTION 103 - CLASSIFICATION
OF BUILDINGS
AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION is the
organization, political subdivision, office or individual
charged with the responsibility of administering and 103.1 Nature of Occupancy
enforcing the provisions of this code. Buildings and other structures shall be classified, based
on the nature of occupancy, according to Table 103-1 for
BUILDING is any structure usually enclosed by walls purposes of applying wind and earthquake in Chapter 2.
and a roof, constructed to provide support or shelter for an Each building or other structures shall be assigned to the
intended use or occupancy. highest applicable occupancy category or categories.
Assignment of the same structure to multiple occupancy
BUILDING, EXISTING, is a building erected prior to categories based on use and the type of loading condition
the adoption of this code, or one for which a legal being evaluated (e.g. wind or seismic) shall be
building permit has been issued. permissible.

BUILDING OFFICIAL is the officer or other When buildings or other structures have multiple uses
designated authority charged with the administration and (occupancies), the relationship between the uses of
enforcement of this code, or the building official's duly various parts of the building or other structure and the
authorized representative. independence of the structural system for those various
parts shall be examined. The classification for each
LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN independent structural system of a multiple-use building
(LRFD) METHOD is a method of proportioning or other structure shall be that of the highest usage group
structural elements using load and resistance factors such in any part of the building or other structure that is
that no applicable limit state is reached when the structure dependent on that basic structural system.
is subjected to all appropriate load combinations. The
term "LRFD" is used in the design of steel Table 103-1 - Occupancy Category
OCCUPANCY is the purpose for which a building or
other structures or part thereof, is used or intended to be OCCUPANCY OCCUPANCY OR FUNCTION OF
used. CATEGORY STRUCTURE
Occupancies having surgery and emergency
STRENGTH DESIGN is a method of proportioning treatment areas,
structural members such that the computed forces Fire and police stations,
produced in the members by the factored load do not Garages and shelters for emergency
exceed the member design strength. vehicles and emergency aircraft,
Structures and shelters in
STRUCTURE is that which is built or constructed, an
emergency preparedness centers,
edifice or building of any kind, or any piece of work
artificially built up or composed of parts joined together Aviation control towers,
in some definite manner. Structures and equipment in
I Essential communication centers and other
STRUCTURAL ENGINEER is a registered Civil Facilities facilities required for emergency
response,
Engineer with special qualification in the practice of
Structural Engineering as recognized by the Board of Standby power-generating equipment for
Civil Engineering of the Professional Regulation Category I facilities,
Commission as endorsed by the Philippine Institute of Tanks or other structures containing
Civil Engineers through the Association of Structural housing or supporting water or other
fire-suppression material or equipment
Engineers of the Philippines, or Specialist Members of
required for the protection of Category I,
the Structural Engineering Specialty Division of the II or III structures.
Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers.
School buildings of more than one storey.
Hospitals and designated evacuation centers

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-5

Table 103-1 (continued) - Occupancy Category


OCCUPANCY OCCUPANCY OR FUNCTION OF SECTION 104 - DESIGN
CATEGORY STRUCTURE REQUIREMENTS
Occupancies and structures therein housing
or supporting toxic or explosive
104.1 Strength Requirement
II Hazardous chemicals or substances,
Facilities Non-building structures storing, supporting
Buildings and other structures and all portions thereof
or containing quantities of toxic or shall be designed and constructed to sustain, within the
explosive substances. limitations specified in this code, all loads set forth in
Chapter 2 and elsewhere in this code, combined in
Single storey school buildings accordance with Section 203.
Buildings with an assembly room with an
occupant capacity of 1,000 or more, Design shall be in accordance with Strength Design, Load
Educational buildings such as museums and Resistance Factor Design, or Allowable Stress Design
libraries, auditorium etc with a capacity methods, as permitted by the applicable materials
of 300 or more students, chapters.
III Special
Occupancy Buildings used for college or adult
Structures education with a capacity of 500 or Exception:
more students,
Unless otherwise required by the building official,
Institutional buildings with 50 or more buildings or portions thereof that are constructed in
incapacitated patients, but not included accordance with the conventional light-framing
in Category I,
requirements specified in Chapter 6 and the NSCP
Mental hospitals, sanitariums, jails, prison Volume III on Housing shall be deemed to meet the
and other buildings where personal liberties
requirements of this section.
of inmates are similarly restrained,
All structures with an occupancy 5,000 or
more persons, 104.2 Serviceability Requirement
Structures and equipment in power-
generating stations, and other public
utility facilities not included in Category 104.2.1 General.
I or Category II above, and required for Structural systems and members thereof shall be designed
continued operation. to have adequate stiffness to limit deflections, lateral
IV Standard All structures housing occupancies or
drifts, vibration, or any other deformations that adversely
Occupancy having functions not listed in Category affect the intended use and performance of buildings and
Structures I, II or III above and Category V below. other structures. The design shall also consider durability,
resistance to exposure to weather or aggressive
V Miscellaneous Private garages, carports, shed, , and fences environment, crack control, and other conditions that
Structures over 1.8 meters high.
affect the intended use and performance of buildings,
towers and other vertical structures.

104.3 Analysis
Any system or method of construction to be used shall be
based on a rational analysis in accordance with well-
established principles of mechanics that take into account
equilibrium, general stability, geometric compatibility and
both short- and long-term material properties. Members
that tend to accumulate residual deformations under
repeated service loads shall have included in their analysis
the added eccentricities expected to occur during their
service life. Such analysis shall result in a system that
provides a complete load path capable of transferring all
loads and forces from their point of origin to the load-
resisting elements. The analysis shall include, but not be

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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limited to, the provisions of Sections 104.3.1 through Detailed requirements for foundation investigations shall
104.3.3. be in accordance with Section 303 of this code.

104.3.1 Stability Against Overturning. 104.5 Design Review


Every structure shall be designed to resist the overturning
effects caused by the lateral forces specified. See Section The design calculations, drawings, specifications, and
206.6 for retaining walls, Section 207 for wind loading other design related documents for buildings, towers and
and Section 208 for earthquake loading. other vertical structures with irregular configuration in
Occupancy Categories I, II or III within Seismic Zone 4
shall be subject to a review by an independent recognized
104.3.2 Self-Straining Forces. structural engineer to be employed by the owner. The
Provisions shall be made for anticipated self-straining structural engineer performing the review shall have
forces arising from differential settlement of foundations comparable qualifications and experience as the structural
and from restrained dimensional changes due to engineer responsible for the design. The reviewer shall
temperature, moisture, shrinkage, heave, creep and similar obtain a professional waiver from the engineer-of-record
effects. who shall be expected to grant such waiver in keeping
with ethical standards of the profession, as adopted in the
104.3.3 Anchorage. ASEP Guidelines for Peer Review.
Anchorage of the roof to walls and columns, and of walls The design review shall, as a minimum, verify the general
and columns to foundations shall be provided and compliance with this code which shall include, but not be
adequately detailed to resist the uplift and sliding forces limited to, the review of the design load criteria, the
that result from the application of the prescribed forces. design concept, mathematical model and techniques.
Concrete and masonry walls shall be anchored to all The following may also be verified, that there are no
floors, roofs and other structural elements that provide major errors in pertinent calculations, drawings and
lateral support for the wall. Such anchorage shall provide specifications and may also ensure that the structure as
a positive direct connection capable of resisting the reviewed, meet minimum standards for safety, adequacy
horizontal forces specified in Chapter 2 but not less than and acceptable standard design practice.
the minimum forces in Section 206.4. In addition, in
Seismic Zone 4, diaphragm to wall anchorage using The engineer-of-record shall submit the plans and
embedded straps shall have the straps attached to or
specifications, a signed and sealed statement by the
hooked around the reinforcing steel or otherwise
structural engineer doing the review that the above review
terminated so as to effectively transfer forces to the has been performed and that minimum standards have
reinforcing steel. Walls shall be designed to resist bending
been met.
between anchors where the anchor spacing exceeds 1.2
meters. Required anchors in masonry walls of hollow
See Section 208.6.6.3.2 for design review requirements
units or cavity walls shall be embedded in a reinforced
when nonlinear time-history analysis is used for
grouted structural element of the wall. See Sections 208.7,
earthquake design.
208.8.2.7 and 208.8.2.8 for earthquake design
requirements. Stiffener beams and columns adequately
The design review shall not in any way transfer or
anchord to the main frames, shall be considered as
diminish the responsibility of the engineer-of-record.
necessary to ensure proper basket effect on the masonry
blocks to prevent collapse provided its contribution to the
overall stiffness of the structure is recognized.

104. 6 Erection of Structural Framing


104.4 Foundation Investigation
Walls and structural framing shall be erected true and
Soil explorations shall be required for buildings, towers
plumb in accordance with the design.
and other vertical structures, falling under Categories I, II
and III in accordance with Table 103-1 or as required by
the building official or if the site- specific conditions
make the foundation investigation necessary.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-7

instruments. Data shall be the property of the authorities


having jurisdiction, but copies of individual records shall
SECTION 105 - POSTING AND be made available to the owner of the building and to the
INSTRUMENTATION public on request and after the payment of an appropriate
fee.

105.1 Posting of Live Loads


The live loads for which each floor or portion thereof of a SECTION 106 - SPECIFICATIONS,
commercial or industrial building has been designed shall DRAWINGS AND CALCULATIONS
have such design live loads conspicuously posted by the
owner in that part of each story in which they apply, using
durable metal signs. It shall be unlawful to remove or 106.1 General
deface such notices. The occupant of the building shall be Copies of design calculations, reports, plans,
responsible for keeping the actual load below the specifications and inspection program for all
allowable limits. constructions shall bear signature and seal of the
engineer-of-record.
105.2 Earthquake Recording Instrumentation
106.2 Specifications
105.2.1 General. The specifications shall contain information covering the
material and construction requirements. The materials and
Unless waived by the building official, every building in
construction requirements shall conform to the
Seismic Zone 4 over thirty (30) storeys in height shall be
specifications referred to in Chapters 3 to 7 of this code.
provided with not less than three approved recording
accelerographs. The accelerographs shall be
interconnected for common start and common timing. 106.3 Design Drawings

105.2.2 Location. 106.3.1 General.


The instruments shall be located in the basement, The design drawings shall be drawn to scale upon
midportion, and near the top of the building. Each substantial paper or cloth and shall be of sufficient clarity
instrument shall be located so that access is maintained at to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work
all times and is unobstructed by room contents. A sign proposed. The drawings shall show a complete design
stating “MAINTAIN CLEAR ACCESS TO THIS with sizes, sections, relative locations and connection
INSTRUMENT” shall be posted in a conspicuous details of the various members. Floor levels, column
location. centers and offsets shall be dimensioned. Where available
and feasible, archive copies shall be maintained in durable
medium such as compact disc (CD) and digital versatile
105.2.3 Maintenance. disc (DVD).
Maintenance and service of the instruments shall be
provided by the owner of the building, subject to the
monitoring of the building official. Data produced by the 106.3.2 Required Information.
instruments shall be made available to the building The design drawings shall contain, but not be limited to,
official or the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and the general information listed in Section 106.3.2.1 and
Seismology on request. material specific information listed in Sections 106.3.2.2
and 106.3.2.3, as applicable.
105.2.4 Instrumentation of Selected Buildings.
All owners of existing structures selected by the 106.3.2.1 General Information.
authorities having jurisdiction shall provide accessible 1. Name and date of issue of building code and
space for the installation of appropriate earthquake- supplements, if any, to which the design conforms.
recording instruments. Location of said instruments shall
be determined by the authorities having jurisdiction. 2. Strengths or designations of materials to be used.
3. Design strengths of underlying soil or rock. The soil
The authorities having jurisdiction shall make or rock profile, when available, shall be provided.
arrangements to provide, maintain and service the

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4. Live loads and other loads used in design and clearly 5. Description or explanation of welding and inspection
indicated in the floor plans. symbols used on the design and shop drawings.
5. Seismic design basis including the total base shear 6. Notes for joints in which welding sequence and
coefficient; a description of the lateral load resisting technique of welding are required to be carefully
system; and the fundamental natural period in the controlled to minimize distortion.
design in each direction under consideration.
6. Provisions for dimensional changes resulting from 106.4 Calculations
creep, shrinkage, heave and temperature.
7. Camber of trusses, beams and girders, if required. 106.4.1 General.
8. Explanation or definition of symbols and Calculations pertinent to the structural design of
abbreviations used in the drawings. structures and its component members shall be filed with
the design drawings.
9. Engineer's professional license number and
expiration date of the current Professional Regulation
Commission registration. 106.4.2 Basis of Design Summary.
The calculations shall include a summary of the criteria
and methodologies used in the design. This summary
106.3.2.2 Structural Concrete
shall include, but need not be limited to, the following:
1. Specified compressive strength of concrete at stated
ages or stages of construction for which each part of 1. Name and date of issue of building code and
supplements, if any, to which the design conforms.
structure is designed. The 28-day compressive
strength shall be the basis of design in service. 2. Strengths or designations of materials to be used for
each component of the structure.
2. Anchorage embedment lengths or cutoff points of
steel reinforcement; and location and length of lap 3. Design strengths and other design parameters of the
splices. underlying soil or rock.
3. Type and location of welded splices and mechanical 4. Live loads and other loads used in design.
connections of reinforcement.
5. The basis of the seismic and wind design forces.
4. Magnitude and location of prestressing forces.
6. A description of the structure's gravity and lateral
5. Minimum concrete compressive strength at time of load resisting systems. A description of the roof,
post-tensioning. floor, foundation and other component systems shall
6. Stressing sequence for post-tensioned tendons. also be provided.
7. A description procedures used in the structural
7. Details and location of all contraction or isolation
analysis. This shall include the section and material
joints specified for plain concrete in Section 422.
properties used, loading combinations considered,
8. Statement if concrete slab is designed as a structural second-order effects considerations, and any
diaphragm, as specified in Section 421.8.3 and simplifying assumptions made.
421.8.4.
106.4.3 Computer Programs.
106.3.2.3 Structural Steel Calculations may include the results from an electronic
1. Type or types of construction as defined in Section digital computer analysis. The following requirements
501.2.2. apply to calculations which include such computer output.

2. Loads and design requirements necessary for 1. A drawing of the complete mathematical model used
preparation of shop drawings including shears, to represent the structure in the computer-generated
moments, and axial forces to be resisted by all analysis shall be provided. Design assumptions shall
members and their connections. be clearly described.

3. The type of connection for joints using high-strength 2. A program description giving the program name, the
bolts. version number, and the company which developed
the program and its address shall be provided as part
4. Stiffener and bracing requirements. of the computation documentation. A program User's

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-9

Guide shall also be made available, upon request, and


shall contain the information to determine the nature
and extent of the analysis, verify the input data, SECTION 107 - STRUCTURAL
interpret the result, and determine whether the INSPECTIONS, TESTS AND
computations comply with the requirements of this
code. STRUCTURAL OBSERVATIONS
3. Data provided, as computer input shall be clearly
distinguished from those computed in the program. 107.1 General
The information required in the output shall include All construction or work for which a permit is required
date of processing, program identification, and shall be subject to inspection throughout the various work
identification of structures being analyzed, all input stages. One or more structural inspectors who are
data, units and final results. An archived copy of all registered civil engineers with experience in structural
computer runs shall be stored in CD or DVD. construction, who shall undertake competent inspection
during construction on the types of work listed under
4. The first sheet of each computer run shall be signed
Section 107.5, shall be employed by the owner or the
of the engineer-of-record.
engineer-of- record acting as the owner's agent.
Exception:
106.4.4 Model Analysis.
Results from model analysis and experimental studies The building official may waive the requirement for the
shall be permitted to supplement calculations. The results employment of a structural inspector if the construction is
shall be accompanied by a description of the rational of a minor nature.
basis, set-up, methodology and other information required
for the evaluation of the results. In addition to structural inspections, structural
observations shall be performed when required by Section
107.9.
106.5 As-built Drawings
As-built drawings shall be prepared by the permit holder
or a person retained to provide such services to document 107.2 Definitions
the work as actually constructed. The as-built drawings The following terms are defined for use in this section:
shall be drawn to scale upon substantial paper or cloth and
shall indicate the sizes, sections, relative locations, and CONTINUOUS STRUCTURAL INSPECTION is a
connection details of the various structural members as structural inspection where the structural inspector is on
actually constructed. Strengths of materials, based on the site at all times observing the work requiring
required tests, shall also be indicated. structural inspection.

Work items which requires modifications of or are PERIODIC STRUCTURAL INSPECTION is a


otherwise different from those shown in the design structural inspection where the inspections are made on a
drawings filed with the building official shall be periodic basis and satisfy the requirements of continuous
accordingly marked in the as-built drawings and provided inspection, provided this periodic scheduled inspection is
with notes indicating the basis of such modifications or performed as outlined in the inspection program prepared
changes. The basis of modification or change shall by the structural engineer.
include reference to supplemental design drawings,
construction bulletins, or instructions from the owner, STRUCTURAL INSPECTION is the visual observation
owner's representative or structural engineer authorizing by a structural engineer of a particular type of
such modifications or changes. construction work or operation for the purpose of
ensuring its general compliance to the approved plans and
The signature, seal, name and professional license number specifications and the applicable workmanship provisions
of the structural inspector shall be included in the as-built of this code as well as overall construction safety at
drawings. various stages of construction.

Copies of the as-built drawings shall be provided to the STRUCTURAL OBSERVATION is the visual
owner, constructor, engineer-of-record and the building observation of the structural system by the structural
official. engineer responsible for the design (see Section 107.9.2),
for its general conformance to the approved plans and
specifications, at significant construction stages and at

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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completion of the structural system. Structural 107.5 Types of Work for Inspection
observation does not include or waive the responsibility Except as provided in Section 107.1, the types of work
for the structural inspections required by section 107.1 or listed below shall be inspected by a structural inspector.
other sections of this code.

107.5.1 Concrete.
107.3 Inspection Program
During the taking of test specimens and placing of
The structural engineer-of-record shall prepare an reinforced concrete. See Section 107.5.12 for shotcrete.
appropriate testing and inspection program that shall be
submitted to the building official. The inspection Exceptions:
program shall designate the portions of the work that 1. Concrete for foundations of residential buildings
require structural inspections and indicate the duties of the accommodating 10 or fewer persons, or buildings
structural inspectors. falling under Category V of Table 103-1, provided
the building official finds that a structural hazard
When structural observation is required by Section 107.9, does not exist.
the inspection program shall describe the stages of
construction at which structural observation is to occur. 2. For foundation concrete, other than cast-in-place
drilled piles or caissons, where the structural design
The inspection program shall include samples of is based on an f’c not greater than 17 MPa.
inspection reports and provide time limits for submission 3. Non-structural slabs on grade, including prestressed
of reports. slabs on grade when effective prestress in concrete is
less than 1.0 MPa.
107.4 Structural Inspector 4. Site work concrete fully supported on earth and
concrete where no special hazard exists.
107.4.1 Qualifications.
The structural inspector shall be a registered civil 107.5.2 Bolts Installed in Concrete.
engineer or a qualified person under the supervision of a Prior to and during the placement of concrete around bolts
registered civil engineer who shall demonstrate when stress increases permitted by Footnote 5 of Section
competence, to the satisfaction of the structural engineer, 423 are utilized.
for inspection of the particular type of construction or
operation requiring structural inspection.
107.5.3 Special Moment-Resisting Concrete Frames.
For moment frames resisting design seismic load in
107.4.2 Duties and Responsibilities. structures within Seismic Zone 4, the structural inspector
The structural inspector shall observe the work assigned shall provide reports to the engineer-of-record and shall
for conformance to the approved design drawings and provide continuous inspection of the placement of the
specifications. reinforcement and concrete.

The structural inspector shall also verify that the as-built


107.5.4 Reinforcing Steel and Prestressing Steel
drawings (see Section 106.5) pertaining to the work
Tendons.
assigned reflect the condition as constructed.
The structural inspector shall furnish inspection reports to
the building official, the structural engineer, and other 107.5.4.1 General.
designated persons. All discrepancies shall be brought to During all stressing and grouting of tendons in prestressed
the immediate attention of the contractor for correction, concrete.
then, if uncorrected, to the proper design authority and to
the building official.
107.5.4.2 General.
The structural inspector shall submit a final report duly During placing of reinforcing steel and prestressing
signed and sealed stating whether the work requiring tendons for all concrete required to have structural
structural inspection was, to the best of the inspector's inspection by Section 107.5.1.
knowledge, in conformance to the approved plans and
specifications and the applicable workmanship provisions
of this code.

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CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-11

recognized standards and the requirements of this section.


Exception:
While the work is in progress, the structural inspector
The structural inspector need not be present continuously shall determine that the requirements for bolts, nuts,
during placing of reinforcing steel and prestressing washers and paint; bolted parts; and installation and
tendons, provided the structural inspector has inspected tightening in such standards are met. Such inspections
for conformance to the approved plans prior to the may be performed on a periodic basis as defined in
closing of forms or the delivery of concrete to the jobsite. Section 107.2. The structural inspector shall observe the
calibration procedures when such procedures are required
by the plans or specifications and shall monitor the
107.5.5 Structural Welding. installation of bolts to determine that all plies of
connected materials have been drawn together and that
107.5.5.1 General. the selected procedure is properly used to tighten all bolts.
During the welding of any member or connection that is
designed to resist loads and forces required by this code. 107.5.7 Structural Masonry.
Exceptions:
1. Welding done in an approved fabricator's shop in 107.5.7.1 General.
accordance with Section 107.6. For masonry, other than fully grouted open-end hollow-
unit masonry, during preparation and taking of any
2. The structural inspector need not be continuously required prisms or test specimens, placing of all masonry
present during welding of the following items, units, placement of reinforcement, inspection of grout
provided the materials, qualifications of welding space, immediately prior to closing of cleanouts, and
procedures and welders are verified prior to the start during all grouting operations.
of work; periodic inspections are made of work in
progress; and a visual inspection of all welds is made Exception:
prior to completion or prior to shipment of shop For hollow-unit masonry where the fm is no more than 10
welding: MPa for concrete units or 18 MPa for clay units,
a) Single-pass fillet welds not exceeding 8 mm structural inspection may be performed as required for
in size. fully grouted open-end hollow-unit masonry specified in
Section 107.5.7.2.
b) Floor and roof deck welding.
c) Welded studs when used for structural
107.5.7.2 General.
diaphragm or composite systems.
For fully grouted open-end hollow-unit masonry during
d) Welded sheet steel for cold-formed steel preparation and taking of any required prisms or test
framing members such as studs and joists. specimens, at the start of laying units, after the placement
e) Welding of stairs and railing systems. of reinforcing steel, grout space prior to each grouting
operation, and during all grouting operations.

107.5.5.2 Special Moment-Resisting Steel Frames. Exception:


During the non-destructive testing (NDT) of welds Structural inspection as required in Sections 107.5.7.1
specified in Section 107.8 of this code. The use of and 107.5.7.2 need not be provided when design stresses
certified welders shall be required for welding structural have been adjusted as specified in Chapter 7 to permit
steel connections for this type of frame. Critical joint noncontinuous inspection.
connections shall be subjected to non-destructive testing
using certified NDT technicians.
107.5.8 Reinforced Gypsum Concrete.
When cast-in-place Class B gypsum concrete is being
107.5.5.3 Welding of Reinforcing Steel. mixed and placed.
During the non-destructive testing of welds.
107.5.9 Insulating Concrete Fill.
107.5.6 High-strength Bolting. During the application of insulating concrete fill when
The inspection of high-strength A325 and A490 bolts used as part of a structural system.
shall be in accordance with approved nationally

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
1-12 CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements

Exception: performed in accordance with the approved plans and


specifications to the building official and to the engineer
The structural inspections may be limited to an initial
or architect of record. The approved fabricator's
inspection to check the deck surface and placement of
qualifications shall be contingent on compliance with the
reinforcing steel. The structural inspector shall monitor
following:
the preparation of compression test specimens during this
initial inspection. 1. The fabricator has developed and submitted a
detailed fabrication procedural manual reflecting key
quality control procedures that will provide a basis
107.5.10 Spray-Applied Fire-Resistive Materials. for inspection control of workmanship and the
During the application of spray-applied fire-resistive fabricator plant.
materials..
2. Verification of the fabricator's quality control
capabilities, plant and personnel as outlined in the
107.5.11 Piling, Drilled Piers and Caissons. fabrication procedural manual shall be by an
During driving and load testing of piles and construction approved inspection or quality control agency.
of cast-in-place drilled piles or caissons. See Sections 3. Periodic plant inspections shall be conducted by an
107.5.1 and 107.5.4 for concrete and reinforcing steel approved inspection or quality control agency to
inspection. monitor the effectiveness of the quality control
program.
107.5.12 Shotcrete.
During the taking of test specimens and placing of all 107.7 Prefabricated Construction
shotcrete.
Exception: 107.7.1 General.
Shotcrete work fully supported on earth, minor repairs
and when, in the opinion of the building official, no 107.7.1.1 Purpose.
special hazard exists.
The purpose of this section is to regulate materials and
establish methods of safe construction where any
107.5.13 Special Grading, Excavation and Filling. structure or portion thereof is wholly or partially
During earthwork excavations, grading and filling prefabricated.
operations inspection to satisfy requirements of Chapter 3
and Section 109.5. 107.7.1.2 Scope.
Unless otherwise specifically stated in this section, all
107.5.14 Special Cases. prefabricated construction and all materials used therein
Work that, in the opinion of the structural engineer, shall conform to all the requirements of Section 101.4.
involves unusual hazards or conditions.
107.7.1.3 Definition.
107.5.15 Non-Destructive Testing.
PREFABRICATED ASSEMBLY is a structural unit,
In-situ non-destructive testing program, in addition to the
the integral parts of which have been built up or
requirements of Section 107.8 that in the opinion of the assembled prior to incorporation in the building.
structural engineer may supplement or replace
conventional tests on concrete or other materials and
assemblies. 107.7.2 Tests of Materials.
Every approval of a material not specifically mentioned in
107.6 Approved Fabricators this code shall incorporate as a proviso the kind and
number of tests to be made during prefabrication.
Structural inspections required by this section and
elsewhere in this code are not required where the work is
done on the premises of a fabricator approved by the 107.7.3 Tests of Assemblies.
structural engineer to perform such work without The building official may require special tests to be made
structural inspection. The approved fabricator shall on assemblies to determine their structural adequacy,
submit a certificate of compliance that the work was durability and weather resistance.

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CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-13

107.7.4 Connections. 107.8 Non-destructive Testing


Every device used to connect prefabricated assemblies
shall be designed as required by this code and shall be 107.8.1 General.
capable of developing the strength of the largest member
connected, except in the case of members forming part of In Seismic Zone 4, welded, fully restrained connections
between the primary members of ordinary moment frames
a structural frame designed as specified in Chapter 2.
and special moment-resisting frames shall be tested by
Connections shall be capable of withstanding uplift forces
as specified in Chapter 2. nondestructive methods performed by certified NDT
technicians for compliance with approved standards and
job specifications. This testing shall be a part of the
107.7.5 Pipes and Conduits. structural inspection requirements of Section 107.5. A
In structural design, due allowance shall be made for any program for this testing shall be established by the person
material to be removed for the installation of pipes, responsible for structural design and as shown on plans
conduits or other equipment. and specifications.

107.7.6 Certificate and Inspection. 107.8.2 Testing Program.


As a minimum, the testing program shall include the
following:
107.7.6.1 Materials.
Materials and the assembly thereof shall be inspected to
determine compliance with this code. Every material shall 107.8.2.1 General.
be graded, marked or labeled where required elsewhere in All complete penetration groove welds contained in joints
this code. and splices shall be tested 100 percent either by ultrasonic
testing or by radiography.
107.7.6.2 Certificate. Exceptions:
A certificate of acceptance shall be furnished with every 1. When approved, the nondestructive testing rate for
prefabricated assembly, except where the assembly is an individual welder or welding operator may be
readily accessible to inspection at the site. The certificate reduced to 25 percent, provided the reject rate is
of acceptance shall certify that the assembly in question demonstrated to be 5 percent or less of the welds
has been inspected and meets all the requirements of this tested for the welder or welding operator. A sampling
code. of at least 40 completed welds for a job shall be made
for such reduction evaluation. Reject rate is defined
107.7.6.3 Certifying Agency. as the number of welds containing rejectable defects
divided by the number of welds completed. For
To be acceptable under this code, every certificate of evaluating the reject rate of continuous welds over
approval shall be made by a recognized certifying body or 900 mm in length where the effective throat thickness
agency. is 25 mm or less, each 300 mm increment or fraction
thereof shall be considered as one weld. For
107.7.6.4 Field Erection. evaluating the reject rate on continuous welds over
Placement of prefabricated assemblies at the building site 900 mm in length where the effective throat thickness
is greater than 25 mm, each 150 mm of length or
shall be inspected to determine compliance with this code.
fraction thereof shall be considered one weld.
2. For complete penetration groove welds on materials
107.7.6.5 Continuous Inspection.
less than 8-mm thick, nondestructive testing is not
If continuous inspection is required for certain materials required; for this welding, continuous inspection is
where construction takes place on the site, it shall also be required.
required where the same materials are used in
prefabricated construction. 3. When approved by the building official and outlined
in the project plans and specifications, this
Exception: nondestructive ultrasonic testing may be performed
Continuous inspection will not be required during in the shop of an approved fabricator utilizing
prefabrication if the approved agency certifies to the qualified test techniques in the employment of the
construction and furnishes evidence of compliance. fabricator.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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107.8.2.2 General. identifying any reported deficiencies that, to the best of


Partial penetration groove welds when used in column the structural observer's knowledge, have not been
splices shall be tested either by ultrasonic testing or resolved.
radiography when required by the plans and
specifications. For partial penetration groove welds when 107.9.3 Construction Stages for Observations.
used in column splices, with an effective throat less than
The structural observations shall be performed at the
20 mm thick, nondestructive testing is not required; for
this welding, continuous structural inspection is required. construction stages prescribed by the inspection program
prepared as required by Section 107.3.

107.8.2.3 General. It shall be the duty of the person doing the work
Base metal thicker than 40 mm, when subjected to authorized by the permit to notify the structural observer
through-thickness weld shrinkage strains, shall be that the described construction stages have been reached,
ultrasonically inspected for discontinuities directly behind and to provide access to and means for observing the
such welds after joint completion. components of the structural system.

Any material discontinuities shall be accepted or rejected


on the basis of the defect rating in accordance with the SECTION 108 – EXISTING
(larger reflector) criteria of approved national standards. STRUCTURES

107.8.3 Others. 108.1 General


The structural engineer may accept or require in place Buildings in existence at the time of the adoption of this
non-destructive testing of concrete or other materials and code may have their existing use or occupancy continued,
assemblies to supplement or replace conventional tests. if such use or occupancy was legal at the time of the
adoption of this code, provided such continued use is not
dangerous to life.
107.9 Structural Observation
Any change in the use or occupancy of any existing
107.9.1 General. building or structure shall comply with the provisions of
Structural observation shall be provided in Seismic Zone Sections 108.4 of this code.
4 when one of the following conditions exists:
1. The structure is defined in Table 103-1 as Occupancy 108.2 Maintenance
Category I, II or III; All buildings and structures, both existing and new, and
all parts thereof, shall be maintained in a safe condition.
2. The structure is in Seismic Zone 4, Na as set forth in
The owner or the owner's designated agent shall be
Table 208-4 is greater than 1.0, and a lateral design is
responsible for the maintenance of buildings and
required for the entire structure;
structures. To determine compliance with this subsection,
3. When so designated by the structural engineer, or the building official may cause a structure to be
reinspected.
4. When such observation is specifically required by the
building official.
108.3 Additions, Alterations or Repairs
107.9.2 Structural Observer.
The owner shall employ the engineer responsible for the 108.3.1 General.
structural design, or another engineer designated by the Buildings and structures to which additions, alterations or
engineer responsible for the structural design, to perform repairs are made shall comply with all the requirements of
structural observation as defined in Section 107.2. this code for new facilities except as specifically provided
in this section.
Observed deficiencies shall be reported in writing to the
owner's representative, structural inspector, contractor and 108.3.2 When Allowed by the Building Official.
the building official. The structural observer shall submit Additions, alterations or repairs may be made to any
to the building official a written statement duly signed building or structure without requiring the existing
and sealed, that the site visits have been made and building or structure to comply with all the requirements

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-15

of this code, provided the addition, alteration or repair 108.3.4 Historic Buildings.
conforms to that required for a new building or structure Repairs, alterations and additions necessary for the
and provided further that such approval by the building preservation, restoration, rehabilitation or continued use
official is in writing. of a building or structure may be made without
conformance to all the requirements of this code when
Additions or alterations shall not be made to an existing authorized by the building official, provided:
building or structure that will cause the existing building
or structure to become unsafe. An unsafe condition shall 1. The building or structure has been designated by
be deemed to have been created if an addition or official action of the legally constituted authority of
alteration will cause any structural element of the existing this jurisdiction as having special historical or
building or structure to resist loads in excess of their architectural significance.
capacity or cause a reduction of their load carrying 2. Any structurally unsafe conditions are corrected.
capacity.
3. The restored building or structure will be no more
Additions or alterations shall not be made to an existing hazardous based on life safety than the existing
building or structure when such existing building or building.
structure is not in full compliance with the provisions of
this code except when such addition or alteration will 108.4 Change in Use
result in the existing building or structure being no more
No change shall be made in the character of occupancies
hazardous based on structural safety, than before such
or use of any building unless the new or proposed use is
additions or alterations are undertaken.
less hazardous, based on life safety than the existing use.
Exceptions: A change in use or occupancy of any building shall be
allowed only when the change in use or occupancy will
Alterations to existing structural elements or additions of
not cause any structural element of the existing building
new structural elements, which are initiated for the
to resist loads, determined on the basis on this code and
purpose of increasing the strength or stiffness of the
on the proposed use or occupancy, in excess of their
lateral-force-resisting system of an existing structure,
capacity. Alterations to the existing building shall be
need not be designed for forces conforming to these
permitted to satisfy this requirement.
regulations provided that an engineering analysis is
submitted to show that:
No change in the character of occupancy of a building
1. The capacity of existing structural elements required shall be made without a new certificate of occupancy
to resist forces is not reduced; regardless of whether any alterations to the building are
required.
2. The lateral force to required existing structural
elements is not increased beyond their design
strength. SECTION 109 - GRADING AND
3. New structural elements are detailed and connected EARTHWORK
to the existing structural elements as required by
these regulations; and
109.1 General
4. New or relocated non-structural elements are
detailed and connected to existing or new structural
elements as required by these regulations. 109.1.1 Scope.
The provisions of this section apply to grading,
108.3.3 Nonstructural. excavation and earthwork construction, including fills and
enbankments.
Nonstructural alterations or repairs to an existing building
or structure are permitted to be made of the same
materials of which the building or structure is constructed, 109.2 Definitions
provided that they do not adversely affect any structural The following terms are defined for use in this section:
member or the fire-resistance rating of any part of the
building or structure. APPROVAL shall mean that the proposed work or
completed work conforms to this section in the opinion of
the building official.

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AS GRADED is the extent of surface conditions on FINISH GRADE is the final grade of the site that
completion of grading. conforms to the approved plan.

BEDROCK is in-place solid or altered rock. ROUGH GRADE is the stage at which the grade
approximately conforms to the approved plan.
BENCH is a relatively level step excavated into earth
material on which fill is to be placed. GRADING is an excavator or fill or combination thereof.

BORROW is earth material acquired from an off-site KEY is a designed compacted fill placed in a trench
location for use in grading on a site. excavated in earth material beneath the toe of a slope.

CIVIL ENGINEER is a professional engineer licensed PROFESSIONAL INSPECTION is the inspection


to practice in the field of civil engineering. required by this code to be performed by the civil
engineer, geotechnical engineer or engineering geologist.
CIVIL ENGINEERING is the application of the Such inspections include that performed by persons
knowledge of the forces of nature, principles of supervised by such engineers or geologists and shall be
mechanics and the properties of materials to the sufficient to form an opinion relating to the conduct of the
evaluation, design and construction of civil works. work.

COMPACTION is the densification of a fill by SITE is any lot or parcel of land or contiguous
mechanical or chemical means. combination thereof, under the same ownership, where
grading is performed or permitted.
EARTH MATERIAL is any rock, natural soil or fill or
any combination thereof. SLOPE is an inclined ground surface the inclination of
which is expressed as a ratio of vertical distance to
ENGINEERING GEOLOGIST is a licensed geologist horizontal distance.
experienced and knowledgeable in engineering geology.
SOIL is naturally occurring superficial deposits overlying
ENGINEERING GEOLOGY is the application of bedrock.
geologic knowledge and principles in the investigation
and evaluation of naturally occurring rock and soil for use SOILS ENGINEER. See Geotechnical Engineer.
in the design of civil works.
SOILS ENGINEERING. See Geotechnical Engineering.
EROSION is the wearing away of the ground surface as a
result of the movement of wind, water or ice. TERRACE is a relatively level step constructed in the
face of a graded slope surface for drainage and
EXCAVATION is the mechanical removal of earth maintenance purposes.
material.
109.3 Permits Required
FILL is a deposit of earth material placed by artificial
means.
109.3.1 Permits Required.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER is an engineer Except as specified in Section 109.3.2 of this section, no
experienced and knowledgeable in the practice of soil and person shall do any grading without first having obtained
rock mechanics and foundation engineering. a grading permit from the building official.

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING is the application


of the principles of soil and rock mechanics in the 109.3.2 Exempted Work.
investigation, evaluation and design of civil works A grading permit shall not be required for the following:
involving the use of earth materials and foundations and
1. Grading in an isolated, self-contained area if there is
the inspection or testing of the construction thereof.
no danger to private or public property.
GRADE is the vertical location of the ground surface. 2. An excavation below finished grade for basements
and footings of a building, retaining wall or other
EXISTING GRADE is the grade prior to grading. structure authorized by a valid building permit. This

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CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-17

shall not exempt any fill made with the material from 109.5 Grading Permit Requirements
such excavation or exempt any excavation having an
unsupported height greater than 1.5 meters after the
completion of such structure; 109.5.1 General.
Except as exempted in Section 109.3.2 of this code, no
3. Cemetery graves; person shall do any grading without first obtaining a
4. Refuse disposal sites controlled by other regulations; grading permit from the building official. A separate
permit shall be obtained for each site, and may cover both
5. Excavations for wells, or trenches for utilities; excavations and fills.
6. Mining, quarrying, excavating, processing or
stockpiling of rock, sand, gravel, aggregate or clay 109.5.2 Grading Designation.
controlled by other regulations, provided such
operations do not affect the lateral support of, or Grading in excess of 4,000 m3 shall be performed in
accordance with the approved grading plan prepared by a
increase stresses in, soil on adjoining properties;
civil engineer, and shall be designated as "engineered
7. Exploratory excavations performed under the grading." Grading involving less than 4,000 m3 shall be
direction of a registered geotechnical engineer or designated "regular grading" unless the permittee chooses
engineering geologist; to have the grading performed as engineered grading, or
the building official determines that special conditions or
8. An excavation that (1) is less than 600 mm in depth
unusual hazards exist, in which case grading shall
or (2) does not create a cut slope greater than 1.5 m in
conform to the requirements for engineered grading.
height and steeper than 1 unit vertical in 1½ units
horizontal (66.7% slope); and
9. A fill less than 300 mm in depth and placed on 109.5.3 Engineered Grading Requirements.
natural terrain with a slope flatter than 1 unit vertical Application for a grading permit shall be accompanied by
in 5 units horizontal (20% slope), or less than 900 two sets of plans and specifications, and supporting data
mm in depth, not intended to support structures, that consisting of a geotechnical engineering report and
does not exceed 40 m3 on any one lot and does not engineering geology report. Additionally, the application
obstruct a drainage course. shall state the estimated quantities of work involved. The
plans and specifications shall be prepared and signed by
Exemption from the permit requirements of this section the civil engineer licensed to prepare such plans or
shall not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to specifications when required by the building official.
be done in any manner in violation of the provisions of
this code or any other laws or ordinances of this Specifications shall contain information covering
jurisdiction. construction and material requirements. Plans shall be
drawn to scale upon substantial paper or cloth and shall be
of sufficient clarity to indicate the nature and extent of the
109.4 Hazards work proposed and show in detail that they will conform
Whenever the building official determines that any to the provisions of this code and all relevant laws,
existing excavation or embankment or fill on private ordinances, rules and regulations. The first sheet of each
property has become a hazard to life and limb, or set of plans shall give location of the work, the name and
endangers property, or adversely affects the safety, use or address of the owner, and the person by whom they were
stability of a public way or drainage channel, the owner of prepared.
the property upon which the excavation or fill is located,
or other person or agent in control of said property, upon The plans shall include the following information:
receipt of notice in writing from the building official,
shall within the period specified therein repair or 1. General vicinity map of the proposed site.
eliminate such excavation or embankment to eliminate the 2. Property limits and accurate contours of existing
hazard and to be in conformance with the requirements of ground and details of terrain and area drainage.
this code.
3. Limiting dimensions elevations or finish contours to
be achieved by the grading, and proposed drainage
channels and related construction.
4. Detailed plans of all surface and subsurface drainage
devices, walls, cribbing, dams and other protective
devices to be constructed with, or as a part of, the

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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proposed work, together with a map showing the of the person who prepared the plan. The plan shall
drainage area and the estimated runoff of the area include the following information:
served by any drains.
1. General vicinity map of the proposed site.
5. Location of any buildings or structures on the
2. Limiting dimensions and depth of cut and fill.
property where the work is to be performed and the
location of any buildings or structures on land of 3. Location of any buildings or structures where work is
adjacent owners that are within 4.5 m of the property to be performed, and the location of any buildings or
or that may be affected by the proposed grading structures within 4.5 m of the proposed grading.
operations.
6. Recommendations included in the geotechnical 109.6 Grading Inspection
engineering report and the engineering geology
report shall be incorporated in the grading plans or
specifications. When approved by the building 109.6.1 General.
official, specific recommendations contained in the Grading operations for which a permit is required shall be
geotechnical engineering report and the engineering subject to inspection by the building official. Professional
geology report, which are applicable to grading, may inspection of grading operations shall be provided by the
be included by reference. civil engineer, geotechnical engineer and the engineering
geologist retained to provide such services in accordance
7. The dates of the geotechnical engineering and with Section 109.5.5 for engineered grading and as
engineering geology reports together with the names, required by the building official for regular grading.
addresses and phone numbers of the firms or
individuals who prepared the reports.
109.6.2 Civil Engineer.
109.5.4 Geotechnical Engineering Report. The civil engineer shall provide professional inspection
within such engineer's area of technical specialty, which
The geotechnical engineering report required by Section shall consist of observation and review as to the
109.5.3 shall include data regarding the nature, establishment of line, grade and surface drainage of the
distribution and strength of existing soil, conclusions and development area. If revised plans are required during the
recommendations for grading procedures and design course of the work, they shall be prepared by the civil
criteria for corrective measures, including buttress fills, engineer.
when necessary, and opinion on adequacy for the
intended use of sites to be developed by the proposed
grading as affected by geotechnical engineering factors, 109.6.3 Geotechnical Engineer.
including the stability of slopes. The geotechnical engineer shall provide professional
Refer to Chapter 3 on Excavations and Foundations for inspection within such engineer's area of technical
detailed requirements and guidelines. specialty, which shall include observation during grading
and testing for required compaction. The geotechnical
engineer shall provide sufficient observation during the
109.5.5 Engineering Geology Report. preparation of the natural ground and placement and
The engineering geology report required by Section compaction of the fill to verify that such work is being
109.5.3 shall include an adequate description of the performed in accordance with the conditions of the
geology of the site, conclusions and recommendations approved plan and the appropriate requirements of this
regarding the effect of geologic conditions on the chapter.
proposed development, and opinion on the adequacy for
the intended use of sites to be developed by the proposed Revised recommendations relating to conditions differing
grading, as affected by geologic factors or hazards. from the approved geotechnical engineering and
engineering geology reports shall be submitted to the
permittee, the building official and the civil engineer.
109.5.6 Regular Grading Requirements.
Each application for a grading permit shall be
accompanied by a plan in sufficient clarity to indicate the 109.6.4 Engineering Geologist.
nature and extent of the work, and state the estimated The engineering geologist shall provide professional
quantities of work involved. The plans shall give the inspection within such geologist's area of technical
location of the work, the name of the owner and the name specialty, which shall include professional inspection of
the bedrock excavation to determine if conditions

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 1 – General Requirements 1-19

encountered are in conformance with the approved report. 1. An as-built grading plan prepared by the civil
Revised recommendations relating to conditions differing engineer retained to provide such services in
from the approved engineering geology report shall be accordance with Section 109.6.5 showing original
submitted to the geotechnical engineer. ground surface elevations, as-graded ground surface
elevations, lot drainage patterns, and the locations
and elevations of surface drainage facilities and of
109.6.5 Permittee. the outlets of subsurface drains. As-constructed
The permittee shall be responsible for the work to be locations, elevations and details of subsurface drains
performed in accordance with the approved plans and shall be shown as reported by the geotechnical
specifications and in conformance with the provisions of engineer. Civil engineers shall state that to the best
this code, and the permittee shall engage consultants, as of their knowledge the work within their area of
may be necessary, to provide professional inspection on a responsibility was done in accordance with the final
timely basis. The permittee shall act as a coordinator approved grading plan.
between the consultants, the contractor and the building
official. In the event of changed conditions, the permittee 2. A report prepared by the geotechnical engineer
shall be responsible for informing the building official of retained to provide such services in accordance with
such change and shall provide revised plans for approval. Section 109.6.3, including locations and elevations of
field density tests, summaries of field and laboratory
tests, other substantiating data, and comments on any
109.6.6 Building Official. changes made during grading and their effect on the
The building official shall inspect the project at the recommendations made in the approved geotechnical
various stages of work requiring approval to determine engineering investigation report. Geotechnical
that adequate control is being exercised by the engineers shall submit a statement that, to the best of
professional consultants. their knowledge, the work within their area of
responsibilities is in accordance with the approved
geotechnical engineering report and applicable
109.6.7 Notification of Noncompliance. provisions of this section.
If, in the course of fulfilling their respective duties under
3. A report prepared by the engineering geologist
this chapter, the civil engineer, the geotechnical engineer
retained to provide such services in accordance with
or the engineering geologist finds that the work is not
Section 109.6.4, including a final description of the
being done in conformance with this chapter or the
geology of the site and any new information
approved grading plans, the discrepancies shall be
reported immediately in writing to the permittee and to disclosed during the grading and the effect of same
the building official. on recommendations incorporated in the approved
grading plan. Engineering geologists shall submit a
statement that, to the best of their knowledge, the
109.6.8 Transfer of Responsibility. work within their area of responsibility is in
If the civil engineer, the geotechnical engineer, or the accordance with the approved engineering geologist
engineering geologist of record is changed during report and applicable provisions of this section.
grading, the work shall be stopped until the replacement 4. The grading contractor shall submit in a form
has agreed in writing to accept their responsibility within prescribed by the building official a statement of
the area of technical competence for approval upon conformance to said as-built plan and the
completion of the work. It shall be the duty of the specifications.
permittee to notify the building official in writing of such
change prior to the recommencement of such grading.
109.7.2 Notification of Completion.
The permittee shall notify the building official when the
109.7 Completion of Work
grading operation is ready for final inspection. Final
permission by the building official shall not be given until
109.7.1 Final Reports. all work, including installation of all drainage facilities
Upon completion of the rough grading work and at the and their protective devices, and all erosion-control
final completion of the work, the following reports and measures have been completed in accordance with the
drawings and supplements thereto are required for final approved grading plan, and the required reports have
engineered grading or when professional inspection is been submitted by the engineer of record.
performed for regular grading, as applicable:

th
National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-1

Table of Contents
CHAPTER 2 – MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS ............. 5 206.7 Water Accumulation ......................................... 16
206.8 Uplift on Floors and Foundations ..................... 17
SECTION 201 - GENERAL ........................................ 5
206.9 Crane Loads ...................................................... 17
201.1 Scope .................................................................. 5 206.9.1 General. ..................................................... 17
201.2 Recognized Standards ......................................... 5 206.9.2 Maximum Wheel Load. ............................. 17
206.9.3 Vertical Impact Force. ............................... 17
SECTION 202 - DEFINITIONS.................................... 5 206.9.4 Lateral Force. ............................................. 17
202.1 Walls ................................................................... 6 206.9.5 Longitudinal Forces. .................................. 17
206.10 Heliport and Helistop Landing Areas ............. 17
SECTION 203 - COMBINATIONS OF LOADS ......... 6
SECTION 207 - WIND LOADS ................................ 18
203.1 General................................................................ 6
203.2 Notations ............................................................. 6 207.1 General ............................................................. 18
203.3 Load Combinations using Strength Design or 207.1.1 Scope. ........................................................ 18
Load and Resistance Factor Design .............................. 6 207.1.2 Allowed Procedures. .................................. 18
203.3.1 Basic Load Combinations. ........................... 6 207.1.3 Wind Pressures Acting on Opposite Faces of
203.3.2 Other Loads. ................................................ 7 Each Building Surface. ........................................... 18
203.4 Load Combinations using allowable Stress 207.1.4 Minimum Design Wind Loading. .............. 18
Design ........................................................................... 7 207.1.4.1 Main Wind-Force Resisting System. ...... 18
203.4.1 Basic Load Combinations. ........................... 7 207.1.4.2 Components and Cladding. ..................... 18
203.4.2 Alternate Basic Load Combinations. ........... 7 207.2 Definitions ........................................................ 18
203.4.3 Other Loads. ................................................ 7 207.3 Symbols and Notation ................................. 20
203.5 Special Seismic Load Combinations .................. 7 207.4 Method 1 – Simplified Procedure ..................... 21
207.4.1 Scope. ........................................................ 21
SECTION 204 - DEAD LOADS .................................. 10 207.4.1.1 Main Wind-Force Resisting Systems. .... 21
204.1 General.............................................................. 10 207.4.1.2 Components and Cladding. ..................... 22
204.2 Weights of Materials and Constructions ........... 10 207.4.2 Design Procedure....................................... 22
204.3 Partition Loads .................................................. 10 207.4.2.1 Main Wind-Force Resisting System. ...... 22
207.4.2.1 Minimum Pressures. ............................... 22
SECTION 205 - LIVE LOADS ................................... 10 207.4.2.2 Components and Cladding. ..................... 22
205.1 General.............................................................. 10 207.4.2.2.1 Minimum Pressures. ............................ 22
205.2 Critical Distribution of Live Loads ................... 10 207.4.3 Air Permeable Cladding. ........................... 22
205.3 Floor Live Loads............................................... 10 207.5 Method 2 – Analytical Procedure ..................... 23
205.3.1 General....................................................... 10 207.5.1 Scope. ........................................................ 23
205.3.2 Distribution of Uniform Floor Loads......... 10 207.5.2 Limitations................................................. 23
205.3.3 Concentrated Loads. .................................. 10 207.5.2.1 Shielding. ................................................ 23
205.3.4 Special Loads. ............................................ 10 207.5.2.2 Air Permeable Cladding. ........................ 23
205.4 Roof Live Loads ............................................... 14 207.5.3 Design Procedure. ...................................... 23
205.4.1 General....................................................... 14 207.5.4 Basic Wind Speed...................................... 23
205.4.2 Distribution of Loads. ................................ 14 207.5.4.1 Special Wind Regions. ........................... 23
205.4.3 Unbalanced Loading. ................................. 15 207.5.4.2 Estimation Of Basic Wind Speeds From
205.4.4 Special Roof Loads. ................................... 15 Regional Climatic Data. ......................................... 23
205.5 Reduction of Live Loads................................... 15 207.5.4.3 Limitation. .............................................. 24
205.6 Alternate Floor Live Load Reduction .............. 15 207.5.4.4 Wind Directionality Factor. .................... 24
207.5.5 Importance Factor. ..................................... 25
SECTION 206 - OTHER MINIMUM LOADS .......... 16 207.5.6 Exposure. ................................................... 25
206.1 General.............................................................. 16 207.5.6.1 Wind Directions and Sectors. ................. 25
206.2 Other Loads ...................................................... 16 207.5.6.2 Surface Roughness Categories................ 25
206.3 Impact Loads .................................................... 16 207.5.6.3 Exposure Categories ............................... 25
206.3.1 Elevators. ................................................... 16 207.5.6.4 Exposure Category for Main Wind-Force
206.3.2 Machinery. ................................................. 16 Resisting System. ................................................... 26
206.4 Anchorage of Concrete and Masonry Walls ..... 16 207.5.6.4.1 Buildings and Other Structures. ........... 26
206.5 Interior Wall Loads ........................................... 16 207.5.6.4.2 Low-Rise Buildings. ............................ 26
206.6 Retaining Walls ................................................ 16 207.5.6.5 Exposure Category for Components and
Cladding. ................................................................ 26
th
National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-2 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

207.5.6.6 Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficient..26 207.5.13.3 Component and Cladding Elements. ..... 32
207.5.7 Topographic Effects. ..................................27 207.5.14 Design Wind Loads on Solid Freestanding
207.5.7.1 Wind Speed-Up over Hills, Ridges, Walls and Solid Signs. ............................................ 32
and Escarpments .....................................................27 207.5.15 Design Wind Loads on Other Structures. 32
207.5.8 Gust Effect Factor. .....................................27 207.5.15.1 Rooftop Structures and Equipment
207.5.8.1 Rigid Structures.......................................27 for Buildings with h ≤ 18 m. ................................. 32
207.5.8.2 Flexible or Dynamically Sensitive 207.6 Method 3 – Wind Tunnel Procedure ................. 32
Structures. ...............................................................27 207.6.1 Scope.......................................................... 32
207.5.8.3 Rational Analysis. ...................................28 207.6.2 Test Conditions. ......................................... 33
207.5.8.4 Limitations. .............................................28 207.6.3 Dynamic Response..................................... 33
207.5.9 Enclosure Classifications. ..........................28 207.6.4 Limitations. ................................................ 33
207.5.9.1 General. ...................................................28 207.6.4.1 Limitations on Wind Speeds. .................. 33
207.5.9.2 Openings. ................................................28 207.6.5 Wind-Borne Debris. ................................... 33
207.5.9.3 Wind-Borne Debris. ................................28 207.7 Consensus Standards And Other Referenced
207.5.9.4 Multiple Classifications. .........................28 Documents .................................................................. 33
207.5.10 Velocity Pressure. ....................................28
SECTION 208 - EARTHQUAKE LOADS ................. 70
207.5.11 Pressure and Force Coefficients. ..................29
207.5.11.1 Internal Pressure Coefficient. ................29 208.1 General .............................................................. 70
207.5.11.1.1 Reduction Factor for Large Volume 208.1.1 Purpose. ..................................................... 70
Buildings, Ri. ...........................................................29 208.1.2 Minimum Seismic Design.......................... 70
207.5.11.2 External Pressure Coefficients. .............29 208.1.3 Seismic and Wind Design. ......................... 70
207.5.11.2.1 Main Wind-Force Resisting Systems. 29 208.2 Definitions ........................................................ 70
207.5.11.2.2 Components and Cladding. ................29 208.3 Symbols and Notations ..................................... 72
207.5.11.3 Force Coefficients. ................................29 208.4 Criteria Selection .............................................. 73
207.5.11.4 Roof Overhangs. ...................................29 208.4.1 Basis for Design. ........................................ 73
207.5.11.4.1 Main Wind-Force Resisting System. .29 208.4.2 Occupancy Categories. .............................. 73
207.5.11.4.2 Components and Cladding. ................29 208.4.3 Site Geology and Soil Characteristics. ....... 73
207.5.11.5 Parapets. ................................................29 208.4.3.1 Soil Profile Type. .................................... 74
207.5.11.5.1 Main Wind-Force Resisting System. .29 208.4.4 Site Seismic Hazard Characteristics........... 74
207.5.11.5.2 Components and Cladding. ................29 208.4.4.1 Seismic Zone........................................... 74
207.5.12 Design Wind Loads on Enclosed and 208.4.4.2 Seismic Zone 4 Near-Source Factor. ...... 74
Partially Enclosed Buildings. ..................................29 208.4.4.3 Seismic Response Coefficients. .............. 75
207.5.12.1 General. .................................................29 208.4.4.4 Seismic Source Types. ............................ 75
207.5.12.1.1 Sign Convention.................................29 208.4.5 Configuration Requirements. ..................... 75
207.5.12.1.2 Critical Load Condition......................29 208.4.5.1 Regular Structures................................... 76
207.5.12.1.3 Tributary Areas Greater than 65 m². ..29 208.4.5.2 Irregular Structures. ................................ 76
207.5.12.2 Main Wind-Force Resisting Systems. ...30 208.4.6 Structural Systems. .................................... 76
207.5.12.2.1 Rigid Buildings of All Heights. .........30 208.4.6.1 Bearing Wall System. ............................. 76
207.5.12.2.2 Low-Rise Building. ............................30 208.4.6.2 Building Frame System........................... 76
207.5.12.2.3 Flexible Buildings. .............................30 208.4.6.3 Moment Resisting Frame System. .......... 76
207.5.12.2.4 Parapets. .............................................30 208.4.6.4 Dual System. ........................................... 76
207.5.12.3 Design Wind Load Cases. .....................30 208.4.6.5 Cantilevered Column System.................. 77
207.5.12.4 Components and Cladding. ...................31 208.4.6.6 Undefined Structural System. ................. 77
207.5.12.4.1 Low-Rise Buildings and Buildings with 208.4.6.7 Nonbuilding Structural System. .............. 77
h < 18 m. .................................................................31 208.4.7 Height Limits. ............................................ 77
207.5.12.4.2 Buildings with h > 18 m. ....................31 208.4.8 Selection of Lateral Force procedure. ........ 78
207.5.12.4.3 Alternative Design Wind Pressures for 208.4.8.1 Simplified Static. .................................... 78
Components and Cladding in Buildings with 18m < 208.4.8.2 Static. ...................................................... 78
h < 27m. ..................................................................31 208.4.8.3 Dynamic. ................................................. 78
207.5.12.4.4 Parapets. .............................................31 208.4.9 System Limitations .................................... 78
207.5.13 Design Wind Loads on Open Buildings 208.4.9.1 Discontinuity. .......................................... 78
with Monoslope, Pitched, or Troughed Roofs. .......32 208.4.9.2 Undefined Structural Systems................. 78
207.5.13.1 General. .................................................32 208.4.9.3 Irregular Features. ................................... 78
207.13.1.1 Sign Convention....................................32 208.4.10 Alternative Procedures. ............................ 78
207.5.13.1.2 Critical Load Condition......................32 208.4.10.1 Seismic Isolation. .................................. 79
207.5.13.2 Main Wind-Force Resisting Systems. ...32

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-3

208.5 Minimum Design Lateral Forces and Related 208.6.6.1 Time History. .......................................... 90
Effects ..................................................................... 79 208.6.6.2 Elastic Time History Analysis. ............... 90
208.5.1 Earthquake Loads and Modeling 208.6.6.3 Nonlinear Time History Analysis. .......... 90
Requirements .......................................................... 79 208.6.6.3.1 Nonlinear Time History. ...................... 90
208.5.1.1 Earthquake Loads. .................................. 79 208.6.6.3.2 Design Review. .................................... 90
208.5.1.2 Modeling Requirements. ......................... 80 208.7 Lateral Force on Elements of Structures,
208.5.1.3 P∆ Effects. .............................................. 80 Nonstructural Components and Equipment Supported
208.5.2 Static Force Procedure. .............................. 80 by Structures .............................................................. 91
208.5.2.1 Design Base Shear. ................................. 80 208.7.1 General. ..................................................... 91
208.5.2.2 Structure Period. ..................................... 80 208.7.2 Design for Total Lateral Force. ................. 91
208.5.2.3 Simplified Design Base Shear. ............... 84 208.7.3 Specifying Lateral Forces .......................... 91
208.5.2.3.1 Base Shear. .......................................... 84 208.7.4 Relative Motion of Equipment Attachments.
208.5.2.3.2 Vertical Distribution. ........................... 84 ................................................................................ 94
208.5.2.3.3 Applicability. ....................................... 85 208.7.5 Alternative Designs. .................................. 94
208.5.3 Determination of Seismic Factors. ............. 85 208.8 Detailed Systems Design Requirements ....... 94
208.5.3.1 Determination of Ωo................................ 85 208.8.1 General ...................................................... 94
208.5.3.2 Determination of R. ................................ 85 208.8.2 Structural Framing Systems....................... 94
208.5.4 Combinations of Structural Systems. ......... 85 208.8.2.1 Detailing for Combinations of Systems. . 94
208.5.4.1 Vertical combinations. ............................ 85 208.8.2.2 Connections. ........................................... 94
208.5.4.2 Combinations Along Different Axes. ..... 85 208.8.2.3 Deformation Compatibility. .................... 94
208.5.4.3 Combinations Along the Same Axis. ...... 85 208.8.2.3.1 Adjoining Rigid Elements. .................. 95
208.5.5 Vertical Distribution of Force. ................... 85 208.8.2.3.2 Exterior Elements. ............................... 95
208.5.6 Horizontal Distribution of Shear................ 86 208.8.2.4 Ties and Continuity. ............................... 95
208.5.7 Horizontal Torsional Moments. ................. 86 208.8.2.5 Collector Elements. ................................ 95
208.5.8 Overturning. ............................................... 86 208.8.2.6 Concrete Frames. .................................... 96
208.5.8.1 Elements Supporting Discontinous 208.8.2.7 Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry Walls.
Systems. .................................................................. 87 ................................................................................ 96
208.5.8.1.1 General................................................. 87 208.8.2.7.1 Out-of-Plane Wall Anchorage to Flexible
208.5.8.1.2 Detailing requirements in Seismic Zone Diaphragms. ........................................................... 96
4. ............................................................................. 87 208.8.2.8 Diaphragms............................................. 96
208.5.8.2 At Foundation. ........................................ 87 208.8.2.9 Framing Below the Base......................... 97
208.5.9 Drift. .......................................................... 87 208.8.2.10 Building Separations............................. 97
208.5.9.1 Determination of ∆S. ............................... 87 208.9 Non-Building Structures .................................. 97
208.5.9.2 Determination of ∆M. .............................. 87 208.9.1General. ...................................................... 97
208.5.10 Story Drift Limitation. ............................. 88 208.9.1.1 Scope. ..................................................... 97
208.5.10.1 Calculated. ............................................ 88 208.9.1.2 Criteria. ................................................... 98
208.5.10.2 Limitations. ........................................... 88 208.9.1.3 Weight W. ............................................... 98
208.5.11 Vertical Component. ................................ 88 208.9.1.4 Period...................................................... 98
208.6 Dynamic Analysis Procedures .......................... 88 208.9.1.5 Drift. ....................................................... 98
208.6.1 General....................................................... 88 208.9.1.6 Interaction Effects................................... 98
208.6.2 Ground Motion. ......................................... 88 208.9.2 Lateral Force. ............................................. 98
208.6.3 Mathematical Model. ................................. 89 208.9.3 Rigid Structures. ........................................ 98
208.6.4 Description of Analysis Procedures. .......... 89 208.9.4 Tanks with Supported Bottoms ................. 98
208.6.4.1 Response Spectrum Analysis. ................. 89 208.9.5 Other Nonbuilding Structures .................... 99
208.6.4.2 Time History Analysis. ........................... 89 208.10 Site Categorization Procedure .................... 99
208.6.5 Response Spectrum Analysis. .................... 89 208.10.1 Scope. ...................................................... 99
208.6.5.1 Response Spectrum Representation and 208.10.2 Definitions ............................................... 99
Interpretation of Results. ........................................ 89 208.10.2.1 vs, Average Shear Wave Velocity ....... 100
208.6.5.2 Number of Modes. .................................. 89 208.10.2.2 N, Average Field Standard Penetration
208.6.5.3 Combining Modes. ................................. 89 Resistance and Nch, Average Standard Penetration
208.6.5.4 Reduction of Elastic Response Parameters Resistance for Cohesionless Soil Layers. ............. 100
for Design. .............................................................. 89 208.10.2.3 su, Average Undrained Shear Strength.
208.6.5.5 Directional Effects. ................................. 90 .............................................................................. 100
208.6.5.6 Torsion. ................................................... 90 208.10.2.4 Soft Clay Profile, SE............................ 100
208.6.5.7 Dual Systems. ......................................... 90 208.10.2.5 Soil Profiles SC, SD and SE. ................. 100
208.6.6 Time History Analysis. .............................. 90 208.10.2.6 Rock Profiles, SA and SB. .................... 101

th
National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-4 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

SECTION 209 - SOIL LATERAL LOADS ..............109


209.1 General ............................................................109
SECTION 210 - RAIN LOADS .................................109
210.1 Roof Drainage. ............................................109
210.2 Design Rain Loads. .....................................109
210.3 Ponding Instability. .....................................109
210.4 Controlled Drainage. ...................................109
SECTION 211 - FLOOD LOADS .............................109
211.1 General. .......................................................109
211.2 Definitions...................................................109
211.3 Establishment Of Flood Hazard Areas. .......111
211.3 Design And Construction. [check numbering]
..............................................................................111
211.4 Flood Hazard Documentation. ....................111

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-5

CHAPTER 2 – MINIMUM DESIGN worship, entertainment, amusement, drinking or dining, or


awaiting transportation.
LOADS
AWNING is an architectural projection that provides
weather protection, identity or decoration and is wholly
SECTION 201 - GENERAL supported by the building to which it is attached.

201.1 Scope BALCONY, EXTERIOR, is an exterior floor system


projecting from and supported by a structure without
This chapter provides minimum design load requirements
additional independent supports.
for the design of buildings and other structures. Loads
and appropriate load combinations, which have been
DEAD LOADS consist of the weight of all materials and
developed to be used together, for strength design and
fixed equipment incorporated into the building or other
allowable stress design are set forth.
structure.

201.2 Recognized Standards DECK is an exterior floor system supported on at least


The standards listed below are recognized standards for two opposing sides by an adjacent structure and/or posts,
different loads. piers, or other independent supports.
1. ASCE/SEI 7-05, ASCE Standard on Minimum Design ESSENTIAL FACILITIES are buildings and other
Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
structures that are intended to remain operational in the
2. IBC 2006, International Building Code event of extreme environmental loading from wind or
3. ANSI EIA/TIA 222-G-2005, Structural Standards for Steel
earthquakes.
Antenna Towers and Antenna Supporting Structures
FACTORED LOAD is the product of a load specified in
4. ANSI/NAAMM FP1001, Guide Specifications for the Sections 204 through 208 and a load factor. See Section
Design Loads of Metal Flagpoles
203.3 for combinations of factored loads.

SECTION 202 - DEFINITIONS GARAGE is a building or portion thereof in which motor


vehicle containing flammable or combustible liquids or
The following terms are defined for use in this Chapter: gas in its tank is stored, repaired or kept.

ACCESS FLOOR SYSTEM is an assembly consisting GARAGE, PRIVATE, is a building or a portion of a


of panels mounted on pedestals to provide an under-floor building, not more than 90 m2 in area, in which only
space for the installations of mechanical, electrical, motor vehicles used by the tenants of the building or
communications or similar systems or to serve as an buildings on the premises are kept or stored.
air-supply or return-air plenum.
LIMIT STATE is a condition beyond which a structure
AGRICULTURAL BUILDING is a structure designed or member becomes unfit for service and is judged to be
and constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, no longer useful for its intended function (serviceability
poultry, livestock or other horticultural products. The limit state) or to be unsafe (strength limit state).
structure shall not be a place of human habitation or a
place of employment where agricultural products are LIVE LOADS are those loads produced by the use and
processed, treated, or packaged, nor shall it be a place occupancy of the building or other structure and do not
used by the public. include dead load, construction load, or environmental
loads such as wind load, earthquake load and fluid load.
ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN METHOD is a
method of proportioning structural members such that LOADS are forces or other actions that result from the
elastically computed stresses produced in the members by weight of all building materials, occupants and their
the nominal load combinations do not exceed specified possessions, environmental effects, differential
allowable stresses (also called WORKING STRESS movements, and restrained dimensional changes.
DESIGN). Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over
time are rare or of small magnitude. All other loads are
ASSEMBLY BUILDING is a building or portion of a variable loads.
building for the gathering together of 50 or more persons
for such purposes as deliberation, education, instruction,

th
National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-6 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN


(LRFD) METHOD is a method of proportioning
structural elements using load and resistance factors such SECTION 203 - COMBINATIONS OF
that no applicable limit state is reached when the structure LOADS
is subjected to all appropriate load combinations. The
term "LRFD" is used in the design of steel and wood
structures. 203.1 General
Buildings and other structures and all portions thereof
MARQUEE is a permanent roofed structure attached to shall be designed to resist the load combinations specified
and supported by the building and projecting over public in Section 203.3 or 203.4 and, where required by Section
right-of-way. 208, or Chapter 3 through the special seismic load
combinations of Section 203.5.
OCCUPANCY is the purpose for that a building, or part
thereof, is used or intended to be used. The most critical effect can occur when one or more of
the contributing loads are not acting. All applicable loads
STRENGTH DESIGN METHOD is a method of shall be considered, including both earthquake and wind,
proportioning structural elements such that the computed in accordance with the specified load combinations.
forces produced in the elements by the factored load
combinations do not exceed the factored element strength.
The term "strength design" is used in the design of 203.2 Notations
concrete and masonry structures. D = dead load.
E = earthquake load set forth in Section 208.5.1.1.
202.1 Walls Em = estimated maximum earthquake force that can be
developed in the structure as set forth in Section
BEARING WALL is any wall meeting either of the 208.5.1.1.
following classifications: F = load due to fluids with well-defined pressures and
maximum heights.
1. Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than H = load due to lateral pressure of soil and water in
1.45 kN/m of vertical load in addition to its own soil.
weight. L = live load, except roof live load, including any
permitted live load reduction.
2. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more
Lr = roof live load, including any permitted live load
than 2.90 kN/m of vertical load in addition to its own
reduction.
weight.
P = ponding load.
R = rain load on the undefected roof.
EXTERIOR WALL is any wall or element of a wall, or
T = self-straining force and effects arising from
any member or group of members, that defines the
contraction or expansion resulting from
exterior boundaries or courts of a building and that has a
temperature change, shrinkage, moisture change,
slope of 60 degrees or greater with the horizontal plane.
creep in component materials, movement due to
differential settlement, or combinations thereof.
NONBEARING WALL is any wall that is not a bearing
W = load due to wind pressure.
wall.

PARAPET WALL is that part of any wall entirely above 203.3 Load Combinations using Strength Design or
the roof line. Load and Resistance Factor Design

RETAINING WALL is a wall designed to resist the


203.3.1 Basic Load Combinations.
lateral displacement of soil or other materials.
Where load and resistance factor design is used, structures
and all portions thereof shall resist the most critical
effects from the following combinations of factored loads:
1.4(D + F ) (203-1)

1.2(D + F + T ) + 1.6(L + H ) + 0.5L r (orR) (203-2)

1.2 D + 1.6 Lr + ( f1 Lor 0.8W ) (203-3)

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-7

1.2 D + 1.6W + f1L + 0.5 Lr (orR) (203-4) 203.4.2 Alternate Basic Load Combinations.
In lieu of the basic load combinations specified in Section
1.2 D + 1.0 E + f1 L (203-5) 203.4.1, structures and portions thereof shall be permitted
0.9 D ± (1.0 Eor1.6W ) + 1.6 H
to be designed for the most critical effects resulting from
(203-6)
the following load combinations. When using these
where: alternate basic load combinations, a one-third increase
f1 = 1.0 for floors in places of public assembly, for live shall be permitted in allowable stresses for all
loads in excess of 4.8 kPa, and for garage live load. combinations, including W or E.
= 0.5 for other live loads.
  E 
Exceptions: D + H + F + 0.75 L + Lr + W or  (203-12)
  1 .4 
1. Factored load combinations for structural concrete
per Section 409.3. 0.60 D + W + H (203-13)

2. Factored load combinations of this section multiplied E


by 1.1 masonry where load combinations include 0.60 D + +H (203-14)
1.4
seismic forces.
3. Where other factored load combinations are D + L + Lr (orR) (203-15)
specifically required by the provisions of this code. D + L +W (203-16)

E
203.3.2 Other Loads. D +L+ (203-17)
Where P is to be considered in design, the applicable load 1.4
shall be added to Section 203.3.1 factored as 1.2P. Exception:
Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof live
203.4 Load Combinations using allowable Stress load or with more than one half of the wind load.
Design

203.4.3 Other Loads.


203.4.1 Basic Load Combinations.
Where P is to be considered in design, each applicable
Where allowable stress design (working stress design) is load shall be added to the combinations specified in
used, structures and all portions thereof shall resist the Sections 203.4.1 and 203.4.2.
most critical effects resulting from the following
combinations of loads:
203.5 Special Seismic Load Combinations
D+F (203-7)
For both allowable stress design and strength design, the
D + H + F + L +T (203-8) following special load combinations for seismic design
D + H + F + (Lr orR )
shall be used as specifically required by Section 208, or
(203-9) by Chapters 3 through 7.
D + H + F + 0.75[L + T + (Lr orR )] (203-10) 1.2 D + f1 L + 1.0 E m (203-18)

 E  0.9 D ± 1.0 Em (203-19)


D + H + F +  W or  (203-11)
 1.4  where:
No increase in allowable stresses shall be used with these f1 = 1.0 for floors in places of public assembly, for live
load combinations except as specifically permitted by loads in excess of 4.8 kPa, and for garage live load.
Section 203.4.2. = 0.5 for other live loads.
Em = The maximum effect of horizontal and vertical
forces as set forth in Section 208.5.1.1.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-8 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Table 204-1 Minimum Densities for Design Loads from Materials (kN/m3)
Material Weight Material Weight
Aluminum ...................................................................................... 26.7 Lead ............................................................................................. 111.5
BITUMINOUS PRODUCTS LIME
Asphaltum ............................................................................ 12.7 Hydrated, loose ................................................................... 5.0
Graphite ................................................................................ 21.2 Hydrated, compacted .......................................................... 7.1
Paraffin .................................................................................. 8.8 MASONRY, Ashlar Stone
Petroleum, crude ................................................................... 8.6 Granite ................................................................................. 25.9
Petroleum, refined ................................................................ 7.9 Limestone, crystalline ......................................................... 25.9
Petroleum, benzine ............................................................... 7.2 Limestone, oolitic ............................................................... 21.2
Petroleum, gasoline .............................................................. 6.6 Marble .................................................................................. 27.2
Pitch ...................................................................................... 10.8 Sandstone ............................................................................. 22.6
Tar ......................................................................................... 11.8
MASONRY, Brick
Brass .............................................................................................. 82.6 Hard (low absorption) ......................................................... 20.4
Bronze ............................................................................................ 86.7 Medium (medium absorption) ........................................... 18.1
Cast-stone masonry (cement, stone, sand) .................................. 22.6 Soft (high absorption) ......................................................... 15.7
Cement, portland, loose ................................................................ 14.1
Ceramic tile ................................................................................... 23.6 MASONRY, Concrete (solid portion)
Charcoal .......................................................................................... 1.9 Lightweight units ................................................................ 16.5
Cinder fill ....................................................................................... 9.0 Medium weight units .......................................................... 19.6
Cinders, dry, in bulk ...................................................................... 7.1 Normal weight units ........................................................... 21.2
COAL Masonry grout .............................................................................. 22.0
Anthracite, piled ................................................................... 8.2 MASONRY, Rubble Stone
Bituminous, piled ................................................................. 7.4 Granite ................................................................................. 24.0
Lignite, piled ......................................................................... 7.4 Limestone, crystalline ......................................................... 23.1
Peat, dry, piled ...................................................................... 3.6 Limestone, oolitic ............................................................... 21.7
CONCRETE, Plain Marble .................................................................................. 24.5
Cinder ................................................................................... 17.0 Sandstone ............................................................................. 21.5
Expanded-slag aggregate .................................................... 15.7 Mortar, cement or lime ....................................................... 20.4
Haydite (burned-clay aggregate) ........................................ 14.1 Particle board ................................................................................ 7.1
Slag ....................................................................................... 20.7 Plywood ........................................................................................ 5.7
Stone ..................................................................................... 22.6 RIPRAP (not submerged)
Vermiculite and perlite aggregate, nonload-bearing .......... 3.9-7.9 Limestone ............................................................................ 13.0
Other light aggregate, load bearing ................................. 11.0-16.5 Sandstone ............................................................................. 14.1
CONCRETE, Reinforced SAND
Cinder ................................................................................... 17.4 Clean and dry ...................................................................... 14.1
Slag ....................................................................................... 21.7 River, dry ............................................................................. 16.7
Stone, (including gravel) ..................................................... 23.6
SLAG
Copper ........................................................................................... 87.3 Bank ..................................................................................... 11.0
Cork, compressed .......................................................................... 2.2 Bank screenings .................................................................. 17.0
EARTH (not submerged) Machine ............................................................................... 15.1
Clay, dry ............................................................................... 9.9 Sand ..................................................................................... 8.2
Clay, damp ........................................................................... 17.3 Slate ............................................................................................... 27.0
Clay and gravel, dry ............................................................ 15.7 Steel, cold-drawn .......................................................................... 77.3
Silt, moist, loose .................................................................. 12.3
Silt, moist, packed ............................................................... 15.1 STONE, Quarried, Piled
Silt, flowing ......................................................................... 17.0 Basalt, granite, gneiss ......................................................... 15.1
Sand and gravel, dry, loose .................................................. 15.7 Limestone, marble, quartz .................................................. 14.9
Sand and gravel, dry, packed ................................................. 17.3 Sandstone ............................................................................. 12.9
Sand and gravel, wet ............................................................. 18.9 Shale .................................................................................... 14.5
Greenstone, hornblende ...................................................... 16.8
EARTH (submerged)
Clay ...................................................................................... 12.6 TERRA COTTA, Architectural
Soil ........................................................................................ 11.0 Voids filled .......................................... 18.9
River mud ............................................................................. 14.1 Voids unfilled ..................................... 11.3
Sand or gravel ...................................................................... 9.4 Tin ................................................................................................. 72.1
Sand or gravel and clay ....................................................... 10.2 WATER
Glass .............................................................................................. 25.1 Fresh .................................................................................... 9.8
Gravel, dry ..................................................................................... 16.3 Sea ........................................................................................ 10.1
Gypsum, loose ............................................................................... 11.0 Wood (see Table 6.2 for relative densities for Philippine wood)
Gypsum, wallboard ....................................................................... 7.9
Ice .............................................................................................. 9.0 Zinc, rolled sheet .......................................................................... 70.5
IRON
Cast .................................................................................... 70.7
Wrought ............................................................................. 75.4

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-9

Table 204-2 Minimum Design Dead Loads (kPa) (Use actual loads when available)
Component Load Component Load Component Load
CEILINGS Asphalt block (50 mm), 13 mm 200 mm ................................. 3.80
mortar .......................................1.44 300 mm ................................. 5.50
Acoustical Fiber Board ........... 0.05 Cement finish (25 mm) on stone- 400 mm ................................. 7.42
Gypsum Board (per mm thickness) 0.008
concrete fill ..............................1.53 Hollow Concrete Masonry units
Mechanical duct allowance ...... 0.20
Ceramic or quarry tile (20 mm) on (Unplastered, add 0.24 kPa for each
Plaster on tile or concrete ....... 0.24
13 mm mortar bed ...................0.77 face plastered)
Plaster on wood lath ................ 0.38
Ceramic or quarry tile (20 mm) on Grout Wythe thickness (mm)
Suspended steel channel system 0.10
25 mm mortar bed ...................1.10 Spacing 100 150 200
Suspended metal lath and cement
Concrete fill finish (per mm 16.5 kN/m3 Density of Unit
plaster .................................. 0.72
thickness) .............................. 0.023
Suspended metal lath and gypsum No grout 1.05 1.15 1.48
Hardwood flooring, 22 mm .........0.19
plaster .................................. 0.48 800 1.53 2.01
Wood furring suspension system 0.12
Linoleum or asphalt tile, 6mm ....0.05
Marble and mortar on stone-concrete 600 1.63 2.20
COVERINGS, Roof and Wall fill .............................................1.58 400 1.92 2.54
Asphalt shingles .......................... 0.10 Slate (per mm thickness) .......... 0.028 Full 2.63 3.59
Cement tile................................... 0.77 Solid flat tile on 25 mm mortar base . 1.10 19.6 kN/m3 Density of Unit
Clay tile (for mortar add 0.48 kPa) Subflooring, 19 mm .....................0.14 No grout 1.24 1.34 1.72
Book tile, 50 mm .................... 0.57 Terrazzo (38 mm) directly on slab .... 0.91 800 1.72 2.25
Book tile, 75 mm ..................... 0.96 Terrazzos (25 mm) on stone- 600 1.87 2.44
Ludowici .................................. 0.48 concrete fill ..............................1.53 400 2.11 2.82
Roman ...................................... 0.57 Terrazzo (25 mm), 50 mm stone Full 2.82 3.88
Spanish ..................................... 0.91 concrete ....................................1.53 21.2 kN/m3 Density of Unit
Composition: Wood block (76 mm) on mastic, no No grout 1.39 1.44 1.87
Three-ply ready roofing .......... 0.05 fill .............................................0.48 800 1.82 2.39
Four-ply felt and gravel .......... 0.26 Wood block (76 mm) on 13 mm 600 1.96 2.59
Five-ply felt and gravel ........... 0.29 mortar base...............................0.77 400 2.2 2.92
Copper or tin ................................ 0.05 FLOORS, WOOD-JOIST (no Full 2.97 3.97
Corrugated asbestos-cement roofing ..0.19 plaster)
Deck, metal 20 gage.................... 0.12
Joist Joist Spacing
Deck, metal, 18 gage................... 0.14
Sizes 300 400 600
Fiberboard, 13 mm ...................... 0.04
(mm) mm mm mm
Gypsum sheathing, 13 mm ......... 0.10
Insulation, roof boards (per mm 50x150 0.30 0.25 0.25
thickness) 50x200 0.30 0.30 0.25
Cellular glass ................... 0.0013 50x250 0.35 0.30 0.30
Fibrous glass .................... 0.0021
Fiberboard ........................ 0.0028 50x300 0.40 0.35 0.30
Perlite ............................... 0.0015 FRAME PARTITIONS
polystyrene foam ............. 0.0004 Movable steel partitions..................... 0.19
Urethane foam with skin ... 0.0009 Wood or steel studs, 13 mm
Plywood (per mm thickness) 0.0060 gypsum board each side................. 0.38
Rigid Insulation, 13 mm .......... 0.04 Wood studs, 50 x 100,
Skylight, metal frame, 10 mm wire unplastered ................................... 0.19
glass ..................................... 0.38 Wood studs 50 x 100, plastered
Slate, 5 mm .............................. 0.34 one side ............................................. 0.57
Slate, 6 mm .............................. 0.48 Wood studs 50 x 100, plastered
Waterproofing membranes: two side ............................................. 0.96
Bituminous, gravel-covered 0.26
Bituminous, smooth surface . 0.07 FRAME WALLS
Liquid, applied ..................... 0.05 Exterior stud walls:
Single-ply, sheet ................... 0.03 50x100 mm @ 400 mm, 15-mm
Wood Sheathing (per mm thickness) . 0.0057 gypsum, insulated, 10-mm
Wood Shingles ............................ 0.14 siding ....................................0.53
FLOOR FILL 50x150 mm @ 400 mm, 15-mm
gypsum, insulated, 10-mm
Cinder concrete, per mm .......... 0.017
siding ....................................0.57
Lightweight concrete, per mm . 0.015 Exterior stud wall with brick veneer ....... 2.30
Sand, per mm ............................. 0.015 Windows, glass, frame and sash ..... 0.38
Stone concrete, per mm ............ 0.023 Clay brick wythes:
FLOOR AND FLOOR FINISHES 100 mm ................................ 1.87
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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-10 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

205.3 Floor Live Loads

SECTION 204 - DEAD LOADS


205.3.1 General.
Floors shall be designed for the unit live loads as set forth
204.1 General in Table 205-1. These loads shall be taken as the
Dead loads consist of the weight of all materials of minimum live loads in kilonewton per square meter of
construction incorporated into the building or other horizontal projection to be used in the design of buildings
structure, including but not limited to walls, floors, roofs, for the occupancies listed, and loads at least equal shall be
ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, finishes, cladding assumed for uses not listed in this section but that create
and other similarly incorporated architectural and or accommodate similar loadings.
structural items, and fixed service equipment, including
the weight of cranes. Where it can be determined in designing floors that the
actual live load will be greater than the value shown in
Table 205-1, the actual live load shall be used in the
204.2 Weights of Materials and Constructions
design of such buildings or portions thereof. Special
The actual weights of materials and constructions shall be provisions shall be made for machine and apparatus loads.
used in determining dead loads for purposes of design. In
the absence of definite information, it shall be permitted
to use the minimum values in Tables 204-1 and 204-2. 205.3.2 Distribution of Uniform Floor Loads.
Where uniform floor loads are involved, consideration
may be limited to full dead load on all spans in
204.3 Partition Loads
combination with full live load on adjacent spans and
Floors in office buildings and other buildings where alternate spans.
partition locations are subject to change shall be designed
to support, in addition to all other loads, a uniformly
distributed dead load equal to 1.0 kPa of floor area. 205.3.3 Concentrated Loads.
Floors shall be designed to support safely the uniformly
Exception:
distributed live loads prescribed in this section or the
Access floor systems shall be designed to support, in concentrated load in kN given in Table 205-1 whichever
addition to all other loads, a uniformly distributed dead produces the greatest load effects. Unless otherwise
load not less than 0.5 kPa of floor area. specified the indicated concentration shall be assumed to
be uniformly distributed over an area 760 mm square and
shall be located so as to produce the maximum load
SECTION 205 - LIVE LOADS effects in the structural member.

Provision shall be made in areas where vehicles are used


205.1 General
or stored for concentrated loads, L, consisting of two or
Live loads shall be the maximum loads expected by the more loads spaced 1.5 meters nominally on center without
intended use or occupancy but in no case shall be less uniform live loads. Each load shall be 40 percent of the
than the loads required by this section. gross weight of the maximum size vehicle to be
accommodated. Parking garages for the storage of private
205.2 Critical Distribution of Live Loads or pleasure-type motor vehicles with no repair or
refueling shall have a floor system designed for a
Where structural members are arranged to create
concentrated load of not less than 8.9 kN acting on an
continuity, members shall be designed using the loading
area of 0.013 m2 without uniform live loads. The
conditions, which would cause maximum shear and
condition of concentrated or uniform live load, combined
bending moments. This requirement may be satisfied in
in accordance with Section 203.3 or 203.4 as appropriate,
accordance with the provisions of Section 205.3.2 or
producing the greatest stresses shall govern.
205.4.2, where applicable.

205.3.4 Special Loads.


Provision shall be made for the special vertical and lateral
loads as set forth in Table 205-2.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-11

Table 205-1 – Minimum Uniform and Concentrated Live Loads


Concen-trated
Use or Occupancy Uniform Load 1
Load
Category Description kPa kN
Office use 2.4 9.0 2
1. Access floor systems
Computer use 4.8 9.0 2

2. Armories -- 7.2 0

Fixed seats 2.9 0


3
3. Theaters, assembly areas and Movable seats 4.8 0
auditoriums.
Lobbies and platforms 4.8 0

Stages areas 7.2 0


4. Bowling alleys, poolrooms and similar
-- 3.6 0
recreational areas
5. Catwalk for maintenance access -- 1.9 1.3

6. Cornices and marquees -- 3.6 4 0

7. Dining rooms and restaurants -- 4.8 0

8. Exit facilities 5 -- 4.8 06

General storage and/or repair 4.8 -- 7


9. Garages
Private or pleasure-type motor
1.9 -- 7
vehicle storage
Wards and rooms 1.9 4.5 2
Laboratories & operating
10. Hospitals 2.9 4.5 2
rooms
Corridors above first floor 3.8 4.5

Reading rooms 2.9 4.5 2

11. Libraries Stack rooms 7.2 4.5 2

Corridors above first floor 3.8 4.5

Light 6.0 9.0 2


12. Manufacturing
Heavy 12.0 13.4 2

Call Centers & BPO 2.9 9.0


Lobbies & First floor
4.8 9.0
corridors
13. Office
Offices 2.4 9.0 2
Building corridors above first
3.8 9.0
floor

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-12 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Press rooms 7.2 11.0 2


14. Printing plants
Composing and linotype
4.8 9.0 2
rooms
Basic floor area 1.9 06
Exterior balconies 2.9 4 0
15. Residential 8 4
Decks 1.9 0
Storage 1.9 0
9
16. Restrooms -- -- --
17.Reviewing stands, grandstands,
Bleachers, and folding and telescoping -- 4.8 0
seating
Same as area served or
18. Roof decks -- --
Occupancy
Classrooms 1.9 4.5 2
19. Schools Corridors above first floor 3.8 4.5
First floor corridors 4.8 4.5
20. Sidewalks and driveways Public access 12.0 -- 7
Light 6.0 --
21. Storage
Heavy 12.0 --
Retail 4.8 4.5 2
22. Stores
Wholesale 6.0 13.4 2
23. Pedestrian bridges and walkways -- 4.8 --
NOTES FOR TABLE 205-1
1
See Section 205.5 for live load reductions.
2
See Section 205.3.3, first paragraph, for area of load application.
3
Assembly areas include such occupancies as dance halls, drill rooms, gymnasiums, playgrounds, plazas, terraces and similar occupancies that
are generally accessible to the public.
4
For special-purpose roofs, see Section 205.4.4.
5
Exit facilities shall include such uses as corridors serving an occupant load of 10 or more persons, exterior exit balconies, stairways, fire escapes
and similar uses.
6
Individual stair treads shall be designed to support a 1.3 kN concentrated load placed in a position that would cause maximum stress. Stair
stringers may be designed for the uniform load set forth in the table.
7
See Section 205.3.3, second paragraph, for concentrated loads. See Table 205-2 for vehicle barriers.
8
Residential occupancies include private dwellings, apartments and hotel guest rooms.
9
Restroom loads shall not be less than the load for the occupancy with which they are associated, but need not exceed 2.4 kPa.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-13

Table 205-2 - Special Loads1 NOTES FOR TABLE 205-2


1
The tabulated loads are minimum loads. Where other vertical by
Vertical Lateral this code or required by the design would cause greater stresses,
Use or Occupancy
Load Load they shall be used. Loads are in kPa unless otherwise indicated
Category Description kPa kPa in the table.
2
Units is kN/m.
1. Construction, Walkway 7.2 - 3
Lateral sway bracing loads of 350 N/m parallel and 145 N/m
public access at perpendiculars to seat and footboards.
site (live load) Canopy 7.2 - 4
Does not apply to ceilings that have sufficient total access from
below, such that access is not required within the space above
2. Grandstands, the ceiling. Does not apply to ceilings if the attic areas above the
reviewing, ceiling are not provided with access. This live load need not be
stands bleachers, considered as acting simultaneously with other live loads
Seats and 1.75 See imposed upon the ceiling framing or its supporting structure.
and folding and
footboards kN/m 2 Note 3 5
telescoping The impact factors included are for cranes with steel wheels
seating (live riding on steel rails. They may be modified if substantiating
load) technical data acceptable to the building official is submitted.
Live loads on crane support girders and their connections shall
Catwalks 1.9 - be taken as the maximum crane wheel loads. For pendant-
3. Stage operated traveling crane support girders and their connections,
accessories (live Followspot, the impact factors shall be 1.10.
load) projection and 2.4 -
6
This applies in the direction parallel to the runway rails
control rooms (longitudinal). The factor for forces perpendicular to the rail is
0.20 x the transverse traveling loads (trolley, cab, hooks and
Over stages 1.0 - lifted loads). Forces shall be applied at top of rail and may be
4. Ceiling framing disturbed among rails of multiple rail cranes and shall be
(live load) All uses distributed with due regard for lateral stiffness of the structures
except over 0.5 4 - supporting these rails.
stages 7
A load per lineal meter (kN/m) to be applied horizontally at right
5. Partitions and angles to the top rail.
- - 0.25 8
Intermediate rails, panel fillers and their connections shall be
interior walls,
capable of withstanding a load of 1.2 kPa applied horizontally at
6. Elevators and right angles over the entire tributary area, including openings
dumbwaiters 2 x total and spaces between rails. Reactions due to this loading need not
-
(dead and live loads be combined with those of Footnote 7.
loads) 9
A horizontal load in kilonewtons applied at right angles to the
Total load vehicle barrier at a height of 450 mm above the parking surface.
0.10 x The force may be distributed over a 300-millimeter-square area.
7. Cranes (dead including 1.25 x total
total
and live loads) impact load5 10
The mounting of handrails shall be such that the completed
load6 handrail and supporting structure are capable of withstanding a
increase
Exit facilities load of at least 890 N applied in any direction at any point on
serving an the rail. These loads shall not be assumed to act cumulatively
0.75 with Item 9.
occupant load -
kN/m 7 11
Vertical members of storage racks shall be protected from
greater than
impact forces of operating equipment, or racks shall be designed
8. Balcony railings 50 so that failure of one vertical member will no cause collapse of
and guardrails Other than 0.30 more than the bay or bays directly supported by that member.
-
exit facilities kN/m 7 12
The 1.1 kN load is to be applied to any single fire sprinkler
support point but not simultaneously to all support joints.
Components - 1.2 8 .

9. Vehicle barriers -- - 27 kN9

See See
10. Handrails
Note 10 Note 10
See
Over 2.4 Total
11. Storage racks Table
meter high loads11
208-12
1.1 kN plus
12. Fire sprinkler See
weight of
structural - Table
water-filled
support 208-12
pipe12

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-14 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Table 205-3 Minimum Roof Live Loads 1


METHOD 1 METHOD 2
Tributary Area (m2) Uniform Rate of Maximum
ROOF SLOPE Reduction
0 to 20 20 to 60 Over 60 Load 2 Reduction, R
Uniform Load (kPa) (kPa) r (percentage)
1. Flat3 or rise less than 4 units vertical in
12 units horizontal (33.3% slope). Arch
1.00 0.75 0.60 1.00 0.08 40
and dome with rise less than one-eight
of span.
2. Rise 4 units vertical to less than 12 units
vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3% to
less than 100% slope). Arch and dome 0.75 0.70 0.60 0.75 0.06 25
with rise one-eight of span to less than
three-eights of span.
3. Rise 12 units vertical in 12 units
horizontal (100% slope) and greater.
0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Arch or dome with rise three eights of
span or greater.
No reduction
4 permitted
4. Awnings except cloth covered. 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25

5. Greenhouses, lath houses and


0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
agricultural buildings. 5
1
For special-purpose roofs, see Section 205.4.4.
2
See Sections 205.5 and 205.6 for live-load reductions. The rate of reduction r in Equation 205-1 shall be as indicated in the table. The maximum
reduction, R, shall not exceed the value indicated in the table.
3
A flat roof is any roof with a slope less than 1/4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2% slope). The live load for flat roofs is in addition to the
ponding load required by Section 206.7.
4
See definition in Section 202.
5
See Section 205.4.4 for concentrated load requirements for greenhouse roof members.

For those conditions where light-gage metal preformed


205.4 Roof Live Loads
structural sheets serve as the support and finish of roofs,
roof structural members arranged to create continuity
205.4.1 General. shall be considered adequate if designed for full dead
Roofs shall be designed for the unit live loads, Lr, set loads on all spans in combination with the most critical
forth in Table 205-3. The live loads shall be assumed to one of the following superimposed loads:
act vertically upon the area projected on a horizontal 1. The uniform roof live load, Lr, set forth in Table
plane. 205-3 on all spans.
2. A concentrated gravity load, Lr, of 9 kN placed on
205.4.2 Distribution of Loads. any span supporting a tributary area greater than 18.5
Where uniform roof loads are involved in the design of m2 to create maximum stresses in the member,
structural members arranged to create continuity, whenever this loading creates greater stresses than
consideration may be limited to full dead loads on all those caused by the uniform live load. The
spans in combination with full roof live loads on adjacent concentrated load shall be placed on the member over
spans and on alternate spans. a length of 750 mm along the span. The concentrated
load need not be applied to more than one span
Exception: simultaneously.
Alternate span loading need not be considered where the 3. Water accumulation as prescribed in Section 206.7.
uniform roof live load is 1.0 kPa or more.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-15

205.4.3 Unbalanced Loading. The live load reduction shall not exceed 40 percent in
Unbalanced loads shall be used where such loading will garages for the storage of private pleasure cars having a
result in larger members or connections. Trusses and capacity of not more than nine passengers per vehicle.
arches shall be designed to resist the stresses caused by
unit live loads on one half of the span if such loading 205.6 Alternate Floor Live Load Reduction
results in reverse stresses, or stresses greater in any
As an alternate to Equation (205-1), the unit live loads set
portion than the stresses produced by the required unit
live load on the entire span. For roofs whose structures forth in Table 205-1 may be reduced in accordance with
Equation 205-3 on any member, including flat slabs,
are composed of a stressed shell, framed or solid, wherein
stresses caused by any point loading are distributed having an influence area of 37 m2 or more.
throughout the area of the shell, the requirements for
unbalanced unit live load design may be reduced 50   1 
percent. L = Lo 0.25 + 4.57  (205-3)
  A 
  I 
205.4.4 Special Roof Loads. where:
Roofs to be used for special purposes shall be designed AI = influence area, in square meter. The influence area
for appropriate loads as approved by the building official.
AI is four times the tributary area for a column, two
Greenhouse roof bars, purlins and rafters shall be
times the tributary area for a beam, equal to the
designed to carry a 0.45 kN concentrated load, Lr, in
panel area for a two-way slab, and equal to the
addition to the uniform live load
product of the span and the full flange width for a
precast T-beam.
205.5 Reduction of Live Loads L = reduced design live load per square meter of area
The design live load determined using the unit live loads supported by the member.
as set forth in Table 205-1 for floors and Table 205-3, Lo = unreduced design live load per square meter of area
Method 2, for roofs may be reduced on any member supported by the member (Table 205-1).
supporting more than 14 m2, including flat slabs, except
for floors in places of public assembly and for live loads The reduced live load shall not be less than 50 percent of
greater than 4.8 kPa, in accordance with the following the unit live load Lo for members receiving load from one
equation: level only, nor less than 40 percent of the unit live load Lo
for other members.
R = r ( A − 14) (205-1)

The reduction shall not exceed 40 percent for members


receiving load from one level only, 60 percent for other
members or R, as determined by the following equation:
R = 23.1(1 + D / L) (205-2)

where:
A = area of floor or roof supported by the member,
square meter, m2.
D = dead load per square meter of area supported by
the member, kPa.
L = unit live load per square meter of area supported by
the member, kPa.
R = reduction in percentage, %.
r = rate of reduction equal to 0.08 for floors. See Table
205-3 for roofs.

For storage loads exceeding 4.8 kPa, no reduction shall be


made, except that design live loads on columns may be
reduced 20 percent.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-16 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

SECTION 206 - OTHER MINIMUM 206.4 Anchorage of Concrete and Masonry Walls
Concrete and masonry walls shall be anchored as required
LOADS by Section 104.3.4. Such anchorage shall be capable of
resisting the load combinations of Section 203.3 or 203.4
206.1 General using the greater of the wind or earthquake loads required
In addition to the other design loads specified in this by this chapter or a minimum horizontal force of 4 kN/m
chapter, structures shall be designed to resist the loads of wall, substituted for E.
specified in this section and the special loads set forth in
Table 205-2. See Section 207 for design wind loads, and 206.5 Interior Wall Loads
Section 208 for design earthquake loads.
Interior walls, permanent partitions and temporary
partitions that exceed 1.8 meters in height shall be
206.2 Other Loads designed to resist all loads to which they are subjected but
Buildings and other structures and portions thereof shall not less than a load, L, of 0.25 kPa applied perpendicular
be designed to resist all loads due to applicable fluid to the walls. The 0.25 kPa load need not be applied
pressures, F, lateral soil pressures, H, ponding loads, P, simultaneously with wind or seismic loads. The deflection
and self-straining forces, T. See Section 206.7 for ponding of such walls under a load of 0.25 kPa shall not exceed
loads for roofs. 1/240 of the span for walls with brittle finishes and 1/120
of the span for walls with flexible finishes. See Table
208-12 for earthquake design requirements where such
206.3 Impact Loads requirements are more restrictive.
The live loads specified in Sections 205.3 shall be Exception:
assumed to include allowance for ordinary impact
conditions. Provisions shall be made in the structural Flexible, folding or portable partitions are not required to
design for uses and loads that involve unusual vibration meet the load and deflection criteria but must be
and impact forces. See Section 206.9.3 for impact loads anchored to the supporting structure to meet the
for cranes, and Section 206.10 for heliport and helistop provisions of this code.
landing areas.
206.6 Retaining Walls
206.3.1 Elevators. Retaining walls shall be designed to resist loads due to the
All elevator loads shall be increased by 100% for impact. lateral pressure of retained material in accordance with
accepted engineering practice. Walls retaining drained
soil, where the surface of the retained soil is level, shall
206.3.2 Machinery. be designed for a load, H, equivalent to that exerted by a
For the purpose of design, the weight of machinery and fluid weighing not less than 4.7 kPa per meter of depth
moving loads shall be increased as follows to allow for and having a depth equal to that of the retained soil. Any
impact: surcharge shall be in addition to the equivalent fluid
pressure.
1. Elevator machinery 100%
2. Light machinery, shaft- or motor-driven 20% Retaining walls shall be designed to resist sliding by at
least 1.5 times the lateral force and overturning by at least
3. Reciprocating machinery or power-driven units 50%
1.5 times the overturning moment, using allowable stress
4. Hangers for floors and balconies 33% design loads.

All percentages shall be increased where specified by the


206.7 Water Accumulation
manufacturer.
All roofs shall be designed with sufficient slope or
camber to ensure adequate drainage after the long-term
deflection from dead load or shall be designed to resist
ponding load, P, combined in accordance with Section
203.3 or 203.4. Ponding load shall include water
accumulation from any source due to deflection.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-17

206.8 Uplift on Floors and Foundations


In the design of basement floors and similar 206.9.4 Lateral Force.
approximately horizontal elements below grade, the
upward pressure of water, where applicable, shall be The lateral force on crane runway beams with electrically
taken as the full hydrostatic pressure applied over the powered trolleys shall be calculated as 20% of the sum of
the rated capacity of the crane and the weight of the hoist
entire area. The hydrostatic load shall be measured from
and trolley. The lateral force shall be assumed to act
the underside of the construction. Any other upward
loads shall be included in the design. horizontally at the traction surface of a runway beam, in
either direction perpendicular to the beam, and shall be
distributed with due regard to the lateral stiffness of the
Where expansive soils are present under foundations or
runway beam and supporting structure.
slabs-on-ground, the foundations, slabs, and other
components shall be designed to tolerate the movement or
resist the upward loads caused by the expansive soils, or 206.9.5 Longitudinal Forces.
the expansive soil shall be removed or stabilized around The longitudinal force on crane runway beams, except for
and beneath the structure. bridge cranes with hand-geared bridges, shall be
calculated as 10% of the maximum wheel loads of the
206.9 Crane Loads crane. The longitudinal force shall be assumed to act
horizontally at the traction surface of a runway beam, in
either direction parallel to the beam.
206.9.1 General.
The crane load shall be the rated capacity of the crane.
206.10 Heliport and Helistop Landing Areas
Design loads for the runway beams, including
connections and support brackets, of moving bridge In addition to other design requirements of this chapter,
cranes and monorail cranes shall include the maximum heliport and helistop landing or touchdown areas shall be
wheel loads of the crane and the vertical impact, lateral, designed for the following loads, combined in accordance
and longitudinal forces induced by the moving crane. with Section 203.3 or 203.4:
1. Dead load plus actual weight of the helicopter.
206.9.2 Maximum Wheel Load. 2. Dead load plus a single concentrated impact load, L,
The maximum wheel loads shall be the wheel loads covering 0.093 m2 of 0.75 times the fully loaded
produced by the weight of the bridge, as applicable, plus weight of the helicopter if it is equipped with
the sum of the rated capacity and the weight of the trolley hydraulic-type shock absorbers, or 1.5 times the fully
with the trolley positioned on its runway where the loaded weight of the helicopter if it is equipped with
resulting load effect is maximum. a rigid or skid-type landing gear.
The dead load plus a uniform live load, L, of 4.8 kPa. The
required live load may be reduced in accordance with
206.9.3 Vertical Impact Force. Section 205.5 or 205.6.
The maximum wheel loads of the crane shall be increased
by the percentages shown below to determine the induced
vertical impact or vibration force:
1. Monorail cranes (powered) 25%
2. Cab-operated or remotely operated bridge cranes
(powered) 25%
3. Pendant-operated bridge cranes (powered) 10%
4. Bridge cranes or monorail cranes with hand-geared
ridge, trolley and hoist 0%

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-18 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

207.2 Definitions
The following definitions apply to the provisions of
SECTION 207 - WIND LOADS Section 207.

207.1 General APPROVED: Acceptable to the authority having


jurisdiction.

207.1.1 Scope. BASIC WIND SPEED, V Three-second gust speed at


Buildings and other structures, including the Main Wind- 10m above the ground in Exposure C (see Section
Force Resisting System (MWFRS) and all components 207.5.6.3) as determined in accordance with Section
and cladding thereof, shall be designed and constructed to 207.5.4 and associated with an annual probability for 0.02
resist wind loads as specified herein. of being equaled or exceeded. (50-years mean recurrence
interval).
207.1.2 Allowed Procedures.
BUILDING, ENCLOSED is a building that does not
The design wind loads for buildings and other structures, comply with the requirements for open or partially
including the MWFRS and component and cladding enclosed buildings.
elements thereof, shall be determined using one of the
following procedures: (1) Method 1 – Simplified BUILDING ENVELOPE: Cladding, roofing, exterior
Procedure as specified in Section 207.4 for building wall, glazing, door assemblies, window assemblies,
meeting the requirements specified therein; (2) Method 2 skylight assemblies, and other components enclosing the
– Analytical Procedure as specified in Section 207.5 for building.
buildings meeting the requirements specified therein; (3)
Method 3 – Wind Tunnel Procedure as specified in BUILDING AND OTHER STRUCTURE,
Section 207.6. FLEXIBLE: Slender buildings and other structures that
have a fundamental natural frequency less than 1 Hz.
207.1.3 Wind Pressures Acting on Opposite Faces of
Each Building Surface. BUILDING, LOW-RISE: Enclosed or partially enclosed
building that comply with the following conditions:
In the calculation of design wind loads for the MWFRS
and for components and cladding for buildings, the 1. Mean roof height h less than or equal to 18 m.
algebraic sum of the pressures acting on opposite faces of
2. Mean roof height h does not exceed least horizontal
each building surface shall be taken into account.
dimension.

207.1.4 Minimum Design Wind Loading. BUILDING, OPEN: A building having each wall at least
The design wind load, determined by any one of the 80 percent open. This condition is expressed for each
procedures specified in Section 207.1.2, shall be not less wall by the equation Ao ≥ 0.8 Ag where
than specified in this section. Ao = total area of openings in a wall that receives positive
external pressure, in square meters, m².
207.1.4.1 Main Wind-Force Resisting System. Ag = the gross area of that wall in which Ao is identified,
The wind load to be used in the design of the MWFRS for in square meters, m².
an enclosed or partially enclosed building or other
structure shall not be less than 0.5 kPa multiplied by the BUILDING, PARTIALLY ENCLOSED is a building
area of the building or structure projected onto a vertical that complies with both of the following conditions:
plane normal to the assumed wind direction. The design
wind force for open buildings and other structures shall be 1. the total area of openings in a wall that receives
not less than 0.5 kPa multiplied by the area Af. positive external pressure exceeds the sum of the
areas of openings in the balance of the building
envelope (walls and roof) by more than 10%; and
207.1.4.2 Components and Cladding.
2. the total area of openings in a wall that receives
The design wind pressure for components and cladding of positive external pressure exceeds 0.5 m² or 1
buildings shall not be less than a net pressure of 0.5 kPa percent of the area of that wall, whichever is smaller,
acting in either direction normal to the surface. and the percentage of openings in the balance of the
building envelope does not exceed 20 percent.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-19

ESCARPMENT: Also known as scarp, with respect to


These conditions are expressed by the following topographic effect in Section 207.5.7, a cliff or steep
equations: slope generally separating two levels or gently sloping
areas (see Fig. 207-4).
1. Ao > 1.10 Aoi
2. Ao > smaller of (0.5m² or 0.01 Ag) and FREE ROOF: Roof with a configuration generally
Aoi /Agi ≤ 0.20 conforming to those shown in Figs. 207-18A through
207-18D (monoslope, pitched, or troughed) in an open
where: building with no enclosing walls underneath the roof
Ao, Ag = are as defined for Open Buildings surface.
Aoi = the sum of the areas of openings in the building
envelope (walls and roof) not including Ao, in GLAZING: Glass or transparent or translucent plastic
square meters, m2 sheet used in windows, doors, skylights, or curtain walls.
Agi = the sum of the gross surface areas of the building
envelope (walls and roof) not including Ag, in GLAZING, IMPACT RESISTANT: Glazing that has
square meters, m2 been shown by testing in accordance with ASTM E1886
and ASTM E1996 or other approved test methods to
BUILDING OR OTHER STRUCTURE, REGULAR- withstand the impact of wind-borne missiles likely to be
SHAPED: A building or other structure having no generated in wind-borne debris regions during design
unusual geometrical irregularity in spatial form. winds.

BUILDING OR OTHER STRUCTURES, RIGID: A HILL: With respect to topographic effects in Section
building or other structure whose fundamental frequency 207.5.7, a land surface characterized by strong relief in
is greater than or equal to 1 Hz. any horizontal direction (Fig. 207-4)

BUILDING, SIMPLE DIAPHRAGM: A building in IMPACT RESISTANT COVERING: A covering


which both windward and leeward wind loads are designed to protect glazing, which has been shown by
transmitted through floor and roof diaphragms to the same testing in accordance with ASTM E1886 and ASTM
vertical MWFRS (e.g., no structural separations). E1996 or other approved test methods to withstand the
impact or wind-borne debris missiles likely to be
COMPONENTS AND CLADDING: Elements of the generated in wind-borne debris regions during design
building envelope that do not qualify as part of the winds.
MWFRS.
IMPORTANCE FACTOR, Iw: A factor that accounts
DESIGN FORCE, F, is the equivalent static force to be for the degree of hazard to human life and damage to
used in the determination of wind loads for open property.
buildings and other structures.
MAIN WIND-FORCE RESISTING SYSTEM
DESIGN PRESSURE, p, is the equivalent static pressure (MWFRS): An assemblage of structural elements
to be used in the determination of wind loads for assigned to provide support and stability for the overall
buildings. structure. The system generally receives wind loading
from more than one surface.
EAVE HEIGHT, h: The distance from the ground
surface adjacent to the building to the roof eave line at a MEAN ROOF HEIGHT, h: The average of the roof
particular wall. If the height of the eave varies along the eave height and the height to the highest point on the roof
wall, the average height shall be used. surface, except that, for roof angles of less than or equal
to 10°, the mean roof height shall be the roof heave
EFFECTIVE WIND AREA is the area used to height.
determine GCp. For component and cladding elements,
the effective wind area in Figs. 207-11 through 207-17 OPENINGS: Apertures or holes in the building envelope
and Fig. 207-19 is the span length multiplied by an that allow air to flow through the building envelope and
effective width that need not be less than one-third the that are designed as “open” during design winds as
span length. For cladding fasteners, the effective wind defined by these provisions.
area shall not be greater than the area that is tributary to
an individual fastener.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-20 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

RECOGNIZED LITERATURE: Published research D = diameter of a circular structure or member, in


findings and technical papers that are approved. meter, m.
D’ = depth of protruding elements such as ribs and
RIDGE: With respect to topographic effects in Section spoilers, in meter, m.
207.5.7 an elongated crest of a hill characterized by F = design wind force for other structures, in N.
strong relief in two directions (see Fig. 207-4). G = gust effect factor.
Gf = gust effect factor for MWFRS of flexible buildings
WIND-BORNE DEBRIS REGIONS: Areas within and other structures.
typhoon prone regions located: GCpn = combined net pressure coefficient for a parapet.
GCp = product of external pressure coefficient and gust
1. Within 1.6 km of the coastal mean high water line effect factor to be used in the determination of
where the basic wind speed is equal to or greater than wind loads for buildings.
180 kph. GCpf = product of equivalent external pressure
2. In areas where the basic wind speed is equal to or coefficient and gust effect factor to be used in the
greater than 190 kph. determination of wind loads for MWFRS of low-
rise buildings.
GCpi = product of internal pressure coefficient and gust
207.3 Symbols and Notation effect factor to be used in the determination of
The following symbols and notation apply only to the wind loads for buildings.
provisions of Section 207: gQ = peak factor for background response in Eqs. 207-4
and 207-8.
A = effective wind area, in square meters, m2.
gR = peak factor for resonant response in Eq. 207-8
Af = area of open buildings and other structures either
gr = peak factor for wind response in Eqs. 207-4 and
normal to the wind direction or projected on a
207-8
plane normal to the wind direction, in square
H = height of hill or escarpment in Fig 207-4, in meter,
meters, m2.
m.
Ag = the gross area of that wall in which Ao is identified,
h = mean roof height of a building or height of other
in square meters, m2.
structure, except that eave height shall be used for
Agi = the sum of the gross surface areas of the building
envelope (walls and roof) not including Ag, in roof angle θ of less than or equal to 10º, in meter,
square meters, m2. m.
Ao = total area of openings in a wall that receives he = roof eave height at a particular wall, or the average
positive external pressure, in square meters, m2. height if the eave varies along the wall.
Aoi = the sum of the areas of openings in the building Iw = importance factor.
envelope (walls and roof) not including Ao, in Iz = intensity of turbulence from Eq. 207-5
square meters, m2. K1, K2, K3 = multipliers in Fig. 207-4 to obtain Kzt.
Aog = total area of openings in the building envelope in Kd = wind directionality factor in Table 207-2
square meters, m2. Kh = velocity pressure exposure coefficient evaluated at
As = gross area of the solid freestanding wall or solid height z = h.
sign, in square meters, m2. Kz = velocity pressure exposure coefficient evaluated at
a = width of pressure coefficient zone, in meter, m. height z.
B = horizontal dimension of a building measured Kzt = topographic factor as defined in Section 207.5.7
normal to wind direction, in meter, m. L = horizontal dimension of a building measured
parallel to the wind direction, in meter, m.
b = mean hourly wind speed factor in Eq. 207-14 from Lh = distance upwind of crest of hill or escarpment in
Table 207-5. Fig 207-4 to where the difference in ground
b̂ = 3-s gust speed factor from Table 207-5. elevation is half the height of hill or escarpment, in
Cf = force coefficient to be used in the determination of meter, m.
wind loads for other structures. Lz = integral length scale of turbulence, in meter, m.
CN = net pressure coefficient to be used in determination Lr = horizontal dimension of return corner for a solid
of wind loads for open buildings. freestanding wall or solid sign from Fig. 207-20, in
Cp = external pressure coefficient to be used in the meter, m.
determination of wind loads for buildings. ℓ = integral length scale factor from Table 207-5, in
c = turbulence intensity factor in Eq. 207-5 from Table meter, m.
207-1.5 N1 = reduced frequency from Eq. 207-12
n1 = building natural frequency, Hz

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-21

p = design pressure to be used in the determination of ᾱ = mean hourly wind-speed power law exponent in
wind loads for buildings, in kilo Pascal, kPa. Eq. 207-14 from Table 207-5.
pL = wind pressure acting on leeward face in Figure β = damping ratio, percent critical for buildings or
207-9, in kilo Pascal, kPa. other structures.
pnet = net design wind pressure from Eq. 207-2, in kilo ε = ratio of solid area to gross area for open sign, face
Pascal, kPa. or a trussed tower, or lattice structure.
pnet9 = net design wind pressure for Exposure B at h = 9m λ = adjustment factor for building height and exposure
and Iw = 1.0 from Fig. 207-3, in kilo Pascal, kPa. from Figs. 207-2A and 207-3.
pp = combined net pressure on a parapet from ε = integral length scale power law exponent in Eq.
Eq. 207-20, in kilo Pascal, kPa. 207.7 from Table 207-5.
ps = net design wind pressure from Eq. 207-1, in kilo ɳ = value used in Eq. 207.13 (see Section 207.5.8.2)
Pascal, kPa. θ = angle of plane of roof from horizontal, in degrees.
ps9 = net design wind pressure for Exposure B at h = 9m ν = height-to-width ratio for solid sign.
and Iw = 1.0 from Fig. 207-3, in kilo Pascal, kPa.
pW = wind pressure acting on windward face in Figure
207-9, in kilo Pascal, kPa. 207.4 Method 1 – Simplified Procedure
Q = background response factor from Eq. 207-6
q = velocity pressure, in kilo Pascal, kPa.
207.4.1 Scope.
qh = velocity pressure evaluated at height z = h, in kilo
Pascal, kPa. A building whose design wind loads are determined in
qi = velocity pressure for internal pressure accordance with this section shall meet all the conditions
determination, in kilo Pascal, kPa. of Sections 207.4.1.1 or 207.4.1.2. If a building qualifies
qp = velocity pressure at top of parapet, in kilo Pascal, only under Section 207.4.1.2 for design of its components
kPa. and cladding, then its MWFRS shall be designed by
qz = velocity pressure evaluated at height z above Method 2 or Method 3.
ground, in kilo Pascal, kPa.
R = resonant response factor from Eq. 207-10 207.4.1.1 Main Wind-Force Resisting Systems.
RB, Rh, RL = values from Eq. 207-13
For the design of MWFRSs the building must meet all of
Ri = reduction factor from Eq. 207-16
the following conditions:
Rn = value from Eq. 207-11
s = vertical dimension of the solid freestanding wall or 1. The building is a simple diaphragm building as
solid sign from Fig. 207-20, in meter, m. defined in Section 207.2.
r = rise-to-span ratio for arched roofs.
V = basic wind speed obtained from Table 207-1 or 2. The building is a low-rise building as defined in
Figure 207-1, in kph. The basic wind speed Section 207.2.
corresponds to a 3-sec. gust speed at 10m above 3. The building is enclosed as defined in Section 207.2
ground in exposure category C. and conforms to the wind-borne debris provisions of
Vi = unpartitioned internal volume m³. Section 207.5.9.3.
Vz = mean hourly wind speed at height z, kph.
W = width of a building in Figs. 207-12 and 207-14A 4. The building is a regular-shaped building or structure
and B and width of span in Figs. 207-13 and 207- as defined in Section 207.2.
15, in meter, m. 5. The building is not classified as a flexible building as
X = distance to center of pressure from windward edge defined in Section 207.2
in Fig. 207-18, in meter, m.
x = distance upwind or downwind of crest in Fig. 207- 6. The building does not have response characteristics
4 in meter, m. making it subject to across wind loading, vortex
z = height above ground level, in meter, m. shedding, instability due to galloping or flutter; and
z = equivalent height of structure, in meter, m. does not have a site location for which channeling
zg = nominal height of the atmospheric boundary layer effects or buffeting in the wake of upwind
used in this standard. Values appear in Table 207- obstructions warrant special consideration.
5. 7. The building has and approximately symmetrical
zmin = exposure constant from Table 207-5. cross-section in each direction with either a flat roof
α = 3-s gust-speed power law exponent from Table or a gable or hip roof with θ ≤ 45°.
207-5.
ἃ = reciprocal of α from Table 207-5. 8. The building is exempted from torsional load cases as
indicated in Note 5 of Fig. 207-10, or the torsional

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-22 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

load cases defined in Note 5 do not control the design where


of any of the MWFRSs of the building.
λ = adjustment factor for building height and exposure
from Fig. 207-2.
207.4.1.2 Components and Cladding. Kzt = topographic factor as defined in Section 207.5.7
For the design of components and cladding the building evaluated at mean roof height, h.
must meet all the conditions: Iw = importance factor as defined in Section 207.2.
ps9 = simplified design wind pressure for Exposure B, at h
1. The mean roof height h must be less than or equal = 9 m, and for Iw = 1.0, from Eq. 207-15.
to 18 m.
2. The building is enclosed as defined in Section 207.2 207.4.2.1 Minimum Pressures.
and conforms to the wind-borne debris provisions of
The load effects of the design wind pressures from
Section 207.5.9.3.
Section 207.4.2.1 shall not be less than the minimum load
3. The building is a regular-shaped building or structure case from Section 207.1.4.1 assuming the pressures, ps,
as defined in Section 207.2. for zones A, B, C, and D all equal to +0.50 kPa, while
assuming zones E, F, G, and H all equal to 0 kPa.
4. The building does not have response characteristics
making it subject to across wind loading, vortex
shedding, instability due to galloping or flutter; and 207.4.2.2 Components and Cladding.
does not have a site location for which channeling Net design wind pressures, pnet, for the components and
effects or buffeting in the wake of upwind cladding of buildings designed using Method 1 represent
obstructions warrant special consideration. the net pressures (sum of internal and external) to be
5. The building has either a flat roof, a gable roof with θ applied normal to each building surface as shown in Fig.
< 45°, or a hip roof w/ θ ≤ 27°. 207-3. pnet shall be determined by the following equation:
pnet = λK zt I w pnet 9 (207-2)
207.4.2 Design Procedure.
where
1. The basic wind speed V shall be determined in
accordance with Section 207.5.4. The wind shall be λ = adjustment factor for building height and exposure
assumed to come from any horizontal direction. from Fig. 207-3.
Kzt = topographic factor as defined in Section 207.5.7
2. An importance factor Iw shall be determined in evaluated at mean roof height, h.
accordance with Section 207.5.5. Iw = importance factor as defined in Section 207.2.
3. An exposure category shall be determined in pnet9= net design wind pressure for exposure B, at h = 9m,
accordance with Section 207.5.6. and for Iw = 1.0, from Eq. 207-15.

4. A height and exposure adjustment coefficient, λ,


shall be determined from Fig. 207-2 and 207-3. 207.4.2.2.1 Minimum Pressures.
The positive design wind pressures, pnet, from Section
207.4.2.2 shall not be less than +0.50 kPa, and the
207.4.2.1 Main Wind-Force Resisting System. negative design wind pressures, pnet, from Section
Simplified design wind pressures, ps, for the MWFRSs of 207.4.2.2 shall not be less than -0.50 kPa.
low-rise simple diaphragm buildings represent the net
pressures (sum of internal and external) to be applied to
the horizontal and vertical projections of building surfaces 207.4.3 Air Permeable Cladding.
as shown in Fig. 207-2. For the horizontal pressures Design wind loads determined from Fig. 207.3 shall be
(zones A,B,C,D), ps is the combination of the windward used for all air permeable cladding unless approved test
and leeward net pressures, ps shall be determined by the data or the recognized literature demonstrate lower loads
following equation: for the type of air permeable cladding being considered.

p s = λK zt I w p s 9 (207-1)

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-23

207.5 Method 2 – Analytical Procedure 6. An enclosure classification shall be determined in


accordance with Section 207.5.9.
7. Internal pressure coefficient GCpi shall be determined
207.5.1 Scope. in accordance with Section 207.5.11.1.
A building or other structure whose design wind loads are 8. External pressure coefficients Cp or GCpf, or force
determined in accordance with this section shall meet all coefficients Cf, as applicable, shall be determined in
of the following conditions: accordance with Section 207.5.11.2 or 207.5.11.3,
1. The building or other structure is a regular-shaped respectively.
building or structure as defined in Section 207.2. 9. Velocity pressure qz or qh, as applicable, shall be
2. The building or other structure does not have determined in accordance with Section 207.5.10.
response wind loading, vortex shedding, instability 10. Design wind load p or F shall be determined in
due to galloping or flutter; or does not have a site accordance with Sections 207.5.12, 207.5.13,
location for which channeling effect or buffeting in 207.5.14, and 207.5.15, as applicable.
the wake of upwind obstructions warrant special
consideration.
207.5.4 Basic Wind Speed.
The basic wind speed, V, used in the determination of
207.5.2 Limitations. design wind loads on buildings and other structures shall
The provision of Section 207.5 take into consideration the be as given in Table 207-1 and Fig. 207-1 except as
load magnification effect caused by gusts in resonance provided in Sections 207.5.4.1 and 207.5.4.2. The wind
with along-wind vibrations of flexible building or other shall be assumed to come from any horizontal direction.
structures. Buildings or other structures not meeting the
requirements of Section 207.5.1, or having unusual shapes
or response characteristics, shall be designed using 207.5.4.1 Special Wind Regions.
recognized literature documenting such wind load effects The basic wind speed shall be increased where records or
or shall use the wind tunnel procedure specified in experience indicate that the wind speeds are higher than
Section 207.6. those reflected in Table 207-1 or Fig. 207-1.
Mountainous terrain, gorges, and special regions shall be
examined for unusual wind conditions. The authority
207.5.2.1 Shielding. having jurisdiction shall, if necessary, adjust the values
There shall be no reductions in velocity pressure due to given in Fig. 207-1 to account for higher local wind
apparent shielding afforded by buildings and other speeds. Such adjustment shall be based on
structures or terrain features. meteorological information and an estimate of the basic
wind speed obtained in accordance with the provisions of
207.5.2.2 Air Permeable Cladding. Section 207.5.4.2.
Design wind loads determined from Section 207.5 shall
be used for air permeable cladding unless approved test 207.5.4.2 Estimation Of Basic Wind Speeds From
data or recognized literature demonstrate lower loads for Regional Climatic Data.
the type of air permeable cladding being considered. Regional climatic data shall only be used in lieu of the
basic wind speeds given in Figure 207-1 when: (1)
207.5.3 Design Procedure. approved extreme-value statistical-analysis procedures
have been employed in reducing the data; and (2) the
1. The basic wind speed V and wind directionality length of record, sampling error, averaging time,
factor Kd shall be determined in accordance with anemometer height, data quality, and terrain exposure
Section 207.5.4 and Table 207-2 respectively. have been taken into account.
2. An importance factor Iw shall be determined in
accordance with Section 207.5.5.
3. An exposure category or exposure categories and
velocity pressure exposure coefficient Kz or Kh, as
applicable, shall be determined for each wind
direction in accordance with Section 207.5.6.
4. A topographic factor Kzt shall be determined in
accordance with Section 207.5.7.
5. A gust effect Factor G or Gf, as applicable, shall be
determined in accordance with Section 207.5.8.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-24 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Table 207-11 Wind Zone for the Different Provinces of Negros Oriental 2 200
the Philippines Zone Basic Wind
Provinces
Zone Basic Wind Classification Speed, kph
Provinces
Classification Speed, kph North Cotabato 3B 125
Abra 2 200 Northern Samar 1B 250
Agusan del Norte 2 200 Nueva Ecija 2 200
Agusan del Sur 2 200 Nueva Vizcaya 2 200
Aklan 2 200 Occidental Mindoro 2 200
Albay 1B 250 Oriental Mindoro 2 200
Antique 2 200 Quezon 1B 250
Apayao 2 200 Quirino 1B 250
Aurora 1B 250 Palawan 3A 150
Bataan 2 200 Pampanga 2 200
Batanes 1B 250 Pangasinan 2 200
Batangas 2 200 Rizal 2 200
Basilan 3B 125 Romblon 2 200
Benguet 2 200 Samar 1B 250
Bohol 2 200 Sarangani 3B 125
Bukidnon 3A 150 Siquijor 2 200
Bulacan 2 200 Sorsogon 1B 250
Cagayan 1B 250 South Cotabato 3B 125
Camarines Norte 1B 250 Southern Leyte 2 200
Camarines Sur 1B 250 Sultan Kudarat 3B 125
Camiguin 2 200 Sulu 3B 125
Capiz 2 200 Surigao del Norte 2 200
Catanduanes 1A 300 Surigao del Sur 2 200
Cavite 2 200 Tarlac 2 200
Cebu 2 200 Tawi-tawi 3B 125
Compostela Valley 2 200 Zambales 2 200
Davao del Norte 3A 150 Zamboanga del Norte 3A 150
Davao del Sur 3A 150 Zamboanga del Sur 3B 125
Davao Oriental 2 200 Zamboanga Sibugay 3B 125
Eastern Samar 1B 250 Note:
Guimaras 2 200 Zone 1A – 300kph
Zone 1B – 250kph
Ifugao 2 200 Zone 2 – 200kph
Ilocos Norte 2 200 Zone 3A -150kph
Ilocos Sur 2 200 Zone 3B – 125kph
Iloilo 2 200
Isabela 1B 250 207.5.4.3 Limitation.
Kalinga 2 200 Extreme typhoons have not been considered in
La Union 2 200 developing the basic wind-speed distributions.
Laguna 2 200
Lanao del Norte 3B 125
Lanao del Sur 3B 125 207.5.4.4 Wind Directionality Factor.
Leyte 2 200 The wind directionality factor, Kd, shall be determined
Maguindanao 3B 125 from Table 207-2. This factor shall only be applied when
Marinduque 2 200 used in conjunction with load combinations specified in
Masbate 2 200 Sections 203.3 and 203.4.
Misamis Occidental 3A 150
Misamis Oriental 2 200
Mountain Province 2 200
National Capital Region 2 200
Negros Occidental 2 200

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-25

207.5.6 Exposure.
Table 207-2 Wind Directionality Factor, Kd For each wind direction considered, the upwind exposure
category shall be based on ground surface roughness that
Directionality is determined from natural topography, vegetation, and
Structural Type
Factor Kd* constructed facilities.

Buildings
Main Wind Force Resisting System 0.85 207.5.6.1 Wind Directions and Sectors.
Components and Cladding 0.85 For each selected wind direction at which the wind loads
are to be evaluated, the exposure of the building or
structure shall be determined for the two upwind sectors
Arched Roofs 0.85 extending 45° either side of the selected wind direction.
The exposures in these two sectors shall be determined in
accordance with Section 207.5.6.2 and 207.5.6.3 and the
Chimneys, Tanks, and Similar Structures exposure resulting in the highest wind loads shall be used
Square 0.90 to represent the winds from that direction.
Hexagonal 0.95
Round 0.95
207.5.6.2 Surface Roughness Categories.
A ground surface roughness within each 45° sector shall
Solid Signs 0.85 be determined for a distance upwind of the site as defined
in Section 207.5.6.3 from the categories defined in the
following text, for the purpose of assigning an exposure
Open Signs and Lattice Framework 0.85 category as defined in Section 207.5.6.3.

Surface Roughness B: Urban and suburban areas,


wooded areas, or other terrain with numerous closely
Trussed Towers
spaced obstructions having the size of single-family
Triangular, square, rectangular 0.85
All other cross sections 0.95 dwelling or larger.

*Directionality Factor Kd has been calibrated with combinations of loads Surface Roughness C: Open terrain with scattered
specified in Section 203. This factor shall only be applied when used in obstructions having heights generally less than 9m. This
conjunction with load combinations specified in Section 203.3 and category includes flat open country, grasslands, and all
203.4. water surfaces in hurricane prone regions.

207.5.5 Importance Factor. Surface Roughness D: Flat, unobstructed areas and water
surfaces outside hurricane prone regions. This category
An importance factor, Iw, for the building or other
includes smooth mud flats, salt flats, and unbroken ice.
structure shall be determined from Table 207-3 based on
building and structure categories listed in Table 103-1.
207.5.6.3 Exposure Categories
Table 207-3 Importance Factor, Iw (Wind Loads)
Exposure B: Exposure B shall apply where the ground
Occupancy surface roughness condition, as defined by Surface
Category 1
Description Iw
Roughness B, prevails in the upwind direction for a
I Essential 1.15 distance of at least 800 m or 20 times the height of the
building, whichever is greater.
II Hazardous 1.15
Exception:
Special For buildings whose mean roof height is less than or
III 1.15
Occupancy
equal to 9 m, the upwind distance may be reduced to 450
Standard
IV 1.00 m.
Occupancy
V Miscellaneous 0.87 Exposure C: Exposure C shall apply for all cases where
1 see Table 103-1 for types of occupancy under each Exposure B or D do not apply.
category.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-26 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Exposure D: Exposure D shall apply where the ground Table 207-4 Velocity Pressure Exposure
surface roughness, as defined by Surface Roughness D,
Coefficients 1, Kh and Kz
prevails in the upwind direction for a distance greater than
1.5 km or 20 times the building height, which is greater.
Height Exposure (Note 1)
above B C D
Exposure D shall extend into downwind areas of Surface Ground
Roughness B or C for a distance of 180m or 20 times the level, z Case 1 Case 2
Cases Cases
height of the building, whichever is greater. 1&2 1&2
(m)
0 - 4.5 0.70 0.57 0.85 1.03
For a site located in the transition zone between exposure 6 0.70 0.62 0.90 1.08
categories, the category resulting in the largest wind
7.5 0.70 0.66 0.94 1.12
forces shall be used.
9 0.70 0.70 0.98 1.16
Exception: 12 0.76 0.76 1.04 1.22
An intermediate exposure between the preceding 15 0.81 0.81 1.09 1.27
categories is permitted in a transition zone provided that 18 0.85 0.85 1.13 1.31
it is determined by a rational analysis method defined in 21 0.89 0.89 1.17 1.34
the recognized literature. 24 0.93 0.93 1.21 1.38
27 0.96 0.96 1.24 1.40
207.5.6.4 Exposure Category for Main Wind-Force 30 0.99 0.99 1.26 1.43
Resisting System. 36 1.04 1.04 1.31 1.48
42 1.09 1.09 1.36 1.52
207.5.6.4.1 Buildings and Other Structures. 48 1.13 1.13 1.39 1.55
For each wind direction considered wind loads for the 54 1.17 1.17 1.43 1.58
design of the MWFRS determined from Fig. 207-6 shall 60 1.20 1.20 1.46 1.61
be based on the exposure categories defined in Section 75 1.28 1.28 1.53 1.68
207.5.6.3. 90 1.35 1.35 1.59 1.73
105 1.41 1.41 1.64 1.78
207.5.6.4.2 Low-Rise Buildings. 120 1.47 1.47 1.69 1.82
Wind loads for the design of the MWFRSs for low-rise 135 1.52 1.52 1.73 1.86
buildings shall be determined using a velocity pressure qh 150 1.56 1.56 1.77 1.89
based on the exposure resulting in the highest wind loads Notes:
for any wind direction at the site where external pressure 1. Case 1: a. All components and cladding.
b. Main wind force resisting system in low-rise buildings
coefficients GCpf given in Fig. 207-10 are used. designed using Figure 207-10.
Case 2: a. All main wind force resisting systems in buildings except
those in low-rise buildings designed using Figure 207-10.
207.5.6.5 Exposure Category for Components and b. All main wind force resisting systems in other structures.
Cladding. 2. The velocity pressure exposure coefficient Kz may be determined
from the following formula:
Components and cladding design pressures for all For 4.6 m ≤ z ≤ zg For z < 4.6 m
buildings and other structures shall be based on the Kz – 2.01 (z/zg)2/α Kz – 2.01 (15/zg)2/α
exposure resulting in the highest wind loads for any Note: z shall not be taken less than 9.0 m for Case 1 in exposure B.
direction at the site. 3. α and zg are tabulated in Table 207-5.
4. Linear interpolation for intermediate values of height z is acceptable.
5. Exposure categories are defined in Section 207.5.6.
207.5.6.6 Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficient.
Based on the exposure category determined in Section
207.5.6.3, a velocity pressure exposure coefficient Kz or
Kh, as applicable, shall be determined from Table 207-4.
For a site located in a transition zone between exposure
categories, that is, near to a change in ground surface
roughness, intermediate values of Kz or Kh, between those
shown in Table 207-4, are permitted, provided that they
are determined by a rational analysis method defined in
the recognized literature.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-27

where
207.5.7 Topographic Effects.  10 
16
I z = c  (207-5)
 z 
207.5.7.1 Wind Speed-Up over Hills, Ridges, and
Escarpments.
Wind speed-up effects at isolated hills, ridges, and where I z = the intensity of turbulence at height z where z
escarpments constituting abrupt changes in the general = the equivalent height of the structure defined as 0.6 h,
topography, located in any exposure category, shall be but not less than zmin for all building heights, zmin and c are
included in the design when buildings and other site listed for each exposure in Table 207-2; gQ and gv shall be
conditions and locations of structures meet all of the taken as 3.4. The background response Q is given by:
following conditions:
1
1. The hill, ridge, or escarpment is isolated and Q= 0.63
(207-6)
unobstructed upwind by other similar topographic  B+h
1 + 0.63 
features of comparable height for 100 times the  Lz 
height of the topographic feature (100H) or 3.2 km
whichever is less. This distance shall be measured where B, h are defined in Section 207.3; and = the
horizontally from the point at which the height H of integral length scale of turbulence at the equivalent height
the hill, ridge, or escarpment is determined. given by
ε
2. The hill, ridge, or escarpment protrudes above the  z 
L z = l  (207-7)
height of upwind terrain features within a 3.2 km  10 
radius in any quadrant by a factor of two or more.
3. The structure is located as shown in Fig. 207-4 in the In which l and ε are constants listed in Table 207-2.
upper one-half of a hill or ridge or near the crest of
an escarpment. 207.5.8.2 Flexible or Dynamically Sensitive
4. H/Lh ≥ 0.2. Structures.
For flexible or dynamically sensitive structures as defined
5. H is greater than or equal to 4.5m for Exposures C
in Section 207.2 the gust-effect factor shall be calculated
and D and 18m for Exposure B.
by
207.5.7.2 Topographic Factor.  1 + 1.7 I g 2 Q Q 2 + g 2 R R 2 
 
The wind speed-up effect shall be included in the G f = 0.925 z

 1 + 1.7 g v I z
calculation of design wind loads by using the factor Kzt:  
K zt = (1 + K 1K 2 K 3 ) 2 (207-3) (207-8)

where K1, K2 and K3 are given in Fig. 207-4. gQ and gv shall be taken as 3.4 and gR is given by
0.577
g R = 21n(3.600n1 ) +
If site conditions and locations of structures do not meet 2 ln(3.600n1 )
all the conditions specified in Section 207.5.7.1 the Kzt =
1.0. (207-9)
R = the resonant response factor is given by
207.5.8 Gust Effect Factor.
1
207.5.8.1 Rigid Structures. R= Rn Rh RB (0.53 + 0.47 R L ) (207-10)
β
For rigid structures as defined in Section 207.2, the gust-
effect factor shall be taken as 0.85 or calculated by the  7.47 N1 
formula: RR =   (207-11)
 (1 + 10.3 N ) 5 3 
 1 
 1 + 1.7 g Q I z Q 
G = 0.925 
 (207-4) n1Lz
 1 + 1.7 g v I z  N= (207-12)
Vz

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-28 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

1 1 207.5.9 Enclosure Classifications.


Rl = − (1 − e − 2η ) for η > 0 (207-13a)
η 2η 2

207.5.9.1 General.
Rl = 1 for η = 0 (207-13b)
For the purpose of determining internal pressure
where the subscript ℓ in Eq. 207-13 shall be taken as h, B, coefficients, all buildings shall be classified as enclosed,
and L, respectively, where h, B, and L are defined in partially enclosed, or open as defined in Section 207.2.
Section 207.3.
n1 = building natural frequency 207.5.9.2 Openings.
Rℓ = Rh setting η = 4.6n1h V z A determination shall be made of the amount of openings
Rℓ = RB setting η = 4.6n1 EB Vz in the building envelope to determine the enclosure
classification as defined in Section 207.5.9.1.
Rℓ = RL setting η = 15.4n1 L V z
β = damping ratio, percent of critical
V zˆ = mean hourly wind speed (kph) at height z 207.5.9.3 Wind-Borne Debris.
determined from Eq. 207-14. Glazing in buildings located in wind-borne debris regions
shall be protected with an impact-resistant covering or be
a impact-resistant glazing according to the requirements
 z 
Vz = b   V (207-14) specified in ASTM E1886 and ASTM E1996 or other
 10  approved test methods and performance criteria. The
levels of impact resistance shall be a function of Missile
where b and a are constants listed in Table 207-5 and V
Levels and Wind Zones specified in ASTM E1886 and
is the basic wind speed in kph.
ASTM E1996.
Table 207-5 Terrain Exposure Constants
Exceptions:
Exposure B C D
A 7.0 9.5 11.5 1. Glazing in category i, ii, or iii buildings located over
zg(m) 365.76 274.32 213.36 18m above the ground and over 9m above aggregate
ȃ 1/7 1/9.5 1/11.5 surface roofs located within 458m of the building
0.84 1.00 1.07 shall be permitted to be unprotected.

ᾱ 1/4.0 1/6.5 1/9.0 2. Glazing in category iv buildings shall be permitted to
0.45 0.65 0.80 be unprotected.
b
c 0.30 0.20 0.15
ℓ(m) 97.54 152.4 198.12 207.5.9.4 Multiple Classifications.
ε 73.0 75.0 78.0 If a building by definition complies with both the “open”
*zmin (m) 9 4.5 2.10 and “partially enclosed” definitions, it shall be classified
*zmin = minimum height used to ensure that the equivalent height z is as an “open” building. A building that does not comply
greater of 0.6h or zmin. For building with h ≤ zmin, z shall be taken as with either the “open” or “partially enclosed” definitions
zmin. shall be classified as an “enclosed” building.

207.5.8.3 Rational Analysis. 207.5.10 Velocity Pressure.


In lieu of the procedure defined in Sections 207.5.8.1 and Velocity pressure, qz, evaluated at height z shall be
207.5.8.2, determination of the gust-effect factor by any calculated by the following equation:
rational analysis defined in the recognized literature is
permitted. q z = 47.3 × 10 −6 K z K zt K d V 2 I w (207-15)

where Kd is the wind directionality factor defined in


207.5.8.4 Limitations. Section 207.5.4.4, Kz is the velocity pressure exposure
Where combined gust-effect factors and pressure coefficient defined in Section 207.5.6.6, Kzt is the
coefficients (GCp, GCpi, and GCpf) are given in figures topographic factor defined in Section 207.5.7.2, and qh is
and tables, the gust-effect factor shall not be determined the velocity pressure calculated using Eq. 207-15 at mean
separately. roof height h.
The numerical coefficient 47.3 x 10-6 shall be used except
where sufficient climatic data are available to justify the

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-29

selection of a different value of this factor for a design 207.5.11.4 Roof Overhangs.
application.
207.5.11.4.1 Main Wind-Force Resisting System.
207.5.11 Pressure and Force Coefficients. Roof over-hangs shall be designed for a positive pressure
on the bottom surface of windward roof overhangs
207.5.11.1 Internal Pressure Coefficient. corresponding to Cp = 0.8 in combination with the
pressures determined from using Figs. 207-6 and 207-10.
Internal pressure coefficients, GCpi, shall be determined
from Fig. 207-5 based on building enclosure
classifications determined from Section 207.5.9. 207.5.11.4.2 Components and Cladding.
For all buildings, roof overhangs shall be designed for
207.5.11.1.1 Reduction Factor for Large Volume pressures determined from pressure coefficients given in
Buildings, Ri. Figs. 207-11B, C, D.
For a partially enclosed building containing a single,
unpartitioned large volume, the internal pressure 207.5.11.5 Parapets.
coefficient, GCpi, shall be multiplied by the following
reduction factor, Ri:
207.5.11.5.1 Main Wind-Force Resisting System.
Ri = 1.0 or The pressure coefficients for the effect of parapets on the
MWFRS loads are given in Section 207.5.12.2.4.
 
 
 1 
Ri = 0.51 +  ≤ 1.0 (207-16) 207.5.11.5.2 Components and Cladding.
 Vi 
 1+ 
The pressure coefficients for the design of parapet
6,952 Aog component and cladding elements are taken from the wall
 
and roof pressure coefficients as specified in Section
where 207.5.12.4.4.
Aog = total area of openings in the building envelope
(walls and roof, in m²) 207.5.12 Design Wind Loads on Enclosed and
Vi = unpartitioned internal volume, in cubic meters, m³ Partially Enclosed Buildings.

207.5.11.2 External Pressure Coefficients. 207.5.12.1 General.

207.5.11.2.1 Main Wind-Force Resisting Systems. 207.5.12.1.1 Sign Convention.


External pressure coefficients for MWFRSs Cp are given Positive pressure acts toward the surface and negative
in Figs. 207-6, 207-7, and 207-8. Combined gust effect pressure acts away from the surface.
factor and external pressure coefficients, GCpf, are given
in Fig. 207-10 for low-rise buildings. The pressure
coefficient values and gust effect factor in Fig. 207-10 207.5.12.1.2 Critical Load Condition.
shall not be separated. Values of external and internal pressures shall be
combined algebraically to determine the most critical
load.
207.5.11.2.2 Components and Cladding.
Combined gust-effect factor and external pressure
coefficients for components and cladding GCp are given 207.5.12.1.3 Tributary Areas Greater than 65 m².
in Figs. 207-11 through 207-17. The pressure coefficient Component and cladding elements with tributary areas
values and gust-effect factor shall not be separated. greater than 65 m² shall be permitted to be designed using
the provisions for MWFRS.
207.5.11.3 Force Coefficients.
Force coefficients Cf are given in Figs. 207-20 through
207-23.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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207.5.12.2 Main Wind-Force Resisting Systems. 207.5.12.2.3 Flexible Buildings.


Design wind pressures for the MWFRS of flexible
207.5.12.2.1 Rigid Buildings of All Heights. buildings shall be determined from the following
equation:
Design wind pressures for the MWFRS of buildings of all
heights shall be determined by the following equation: p = qG f C p − qi (GC pi )(kPa) (207-19)
( )
p = qGC p − qi GC pi (kPa ) (207-17) where q, qi, Cp, and (CGpi) are as defined in Section
207.5.12.2.1 and Gf = gust effect factor is defined as in
where
Section 207.5.8.2.
q = qz for windward walls evaluated at height z above
the ground
207.5.12.2.4 Parapets.
q = qh for leeward walls, side walls, and roofs,
evaluated at height h The design wind pressure for the effect of parapets on
qi = qh for windward walls, side walls, leeward walls, MWFRSs of rigid, low-rise, or flexible buildings with
and roofs of enclosed buildings and for negative flat, gable, or hip roofs shall be determined by the
internal pressure evaluation in partially enclosed following equation:
buildings p p = q p GC pm (kPa ) (207-20)
qi = qz for positive internal pressure evaluation in
partially enclosed buildings where height z is where
defined as the level of the highest opening in the
building that could affect the positive internal pp = combined net pressure on the parapet due to the
pressure. For buildings sited in wind-borne debris combination of the net pressures from the front
regions, glazing that is not impact resistant or and back parapet surfaces. Plus (and minus)
protected with an impact resistant covering, shall signs signify net pressure acting toward (and
be treated as an opening in accordance with away from) the front (exterior) side of the
Section 207.5.9.3. For positive internal pressure parapet
evaluation, qi may conservatively be evaluated at qp = velocity pressure evaluated at the top of the
height h (qi = qh) parapet
G = gust effect factor from Section 207.5.8. GCpn = combined net pressure coefficient
Cp = external pressure coefficient from Fig. 207-6 or = +1.5 for windward parapet
207-8. = -1.0 for leeward parapet
(GCpi) = internal pressure coefficient from Fig. 207-5
q and qi shall be evaluated using exposure 207.5.12.3 Design Wind Load Cases.
defined in Section 207.5.6.3. Pressure shall be
applied simultaneously on windward and The MWFRS of buildings of all heights, whose wind
leeward walls and on roof surface as defined in loads have been determined under the provisions of
Figs. 207-6 and 207-8. Sections 207.5.12.2.1 and 207.5.12.2.3, shall be designed
for the wind load cases as defined in Fig. 207-9. The
eccentricity e for rigid structures shall be measured from
207.5.12.2.2 Low-Rise Building. the geometric center of the building face and shall be
Alternatively, design wind pressures for the MWFRS of considered for each principal axis (eX, eY). The
low-rise buildings shall be determined by the following eccentricity e for flexible structures shall be determined
equation: from the following equation and shall be considered for
each principal axis (eX, eY):
p = q h [ (GC pf ) − (GC pi ) ](kPa ) (207-18)
eQ + 1.7 I z ( g Q QeQ ) 2 + ( g Q Re Q ) 2
where e= (207-21)
1 + 1.7 I z ( g Q Q ) 2 + ( g R R ) 2
qh = velocity pressure evaluated at mean roof height
h using exposure defined in Section 207.5.6.3.
(GCpf) = external pressure coefficient from Fig. 207-10.
(GCpi) = internal pressure coefficient from Fig. 207-5.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-31

where buildings sited in wind-borne debris regions,


glazing that is not impact resistant or protected
eQ = eccentricity e as determined for rigid structures in
with an impact-resistant covering, shall be treated
Fig. 207-9.
as an opening in accordance with Section
eR = distance between the elastic shear center and center
207.5.9.3. For positive internal pressure
of mass of each floor.
evaluation, qi may conservatively be evaluated at
I z , g Q , Q, g R , R shall be as defined in Section 207.5.8 height h (qi = qh)
(GCp) = external pressure coefficient from Fig. 207-17
(GCpi) = internal pressure coefficient given in Fig. 207-5.
The sign of the eccentricity e shall be plus or minus,
whichever causes the more severe load effect. q and qi shall be evaluated using exposure defined in
Exception:
Section 207.5.6.3.

One-storey buildings with h less than or equal to 9 m, buildings two


stories or less framed with light-frame construction, and buildings two 207.5.12.4.3 Alternative Design Wind Pressures for
stories or less designed with flexible diaphragms need only be designed Components and Cladding in Buildings with 18m <
for load case 1 and load case 3 in fig. 207-9.
h < 27m.
Alternative to the requirements of Section 207.5.12.4.2,
207.5.12.4 Components and Cladding. the design of components and cladding for buildings with
a mean roof height greater than 18m and less than 27m
207.5.12.4.1 Low-Rise Buildings and Buildings with values from Figs. 207-11 through 207-17 shall be used
h < 18 m. only if the height to width ratio is one or less (except as
permitted by Note 6 of Fig. 207-17) and Eq. 207-22 is
Design wind pressures on component and cladding used.
elements of low-rise buildings with h ≤ 18 m shall be
determined from the following equation:
207.5.12.4.4 Parapets.
p = qh [ (GC p ) − (GC pi ) ](kPa ) (207-22)
The design wind pressure on the components and
where cladding elements of parapets shall be designed by the
qh = velocity pressure evaluated at mean roof height h following equation:
using exposure defined in Section 207.5.6.3 p = q p [ (GC p ) − (GC pi ) ](kPa ) (207-24)
(GCp) = external pressure coefficients given in Fig. 207-
11 through 207-16 where
(GCpi) = internal pressure coefficient given in Fig. 207-5
qp = velocity pressure evaluated at the top of the
parapet
207.5.12.4.2 Buildings with h > 18 m. GCp = external pressure coefficients from Figs. 207-11
Design wind pressures on components and cladding for through 207-17
all buildings with h > 18m shall be determined from the GCpi = internal pressure coefficient from Fig. 207-5,
following equation: based on the porosity of the parapet envelope

p = q[ (GC p ) − qi (GC pi ) ](kPa ) (207-23) Two load cases shall be considered. Load Case A shall
consist of applying the applicable positive wall pressure
where from Fig. 207-11A or Fig. 207-17 to the front surface of
q = qz for windward walls calculated at height z above the parapet while applying the applicable negative edge or
the ground corner zone roof pressure from Figs. 207-11 through 207-
q = qh for leeward walls, side walls, and roofs, evaluated 17 to the back surface. Load Case B shall consist of
at height h applying the applicable positive wall pressure from Fig.
qi = qh for windward walls, side walls, leeward walls, and 207-11A or Fig. 207-17 to the back of the parapet surface,
roofs of enclosed buildings and for negative and applying the applicable negative wall pressure from
internal pressure evaluation in partially enclosed Fig. 207-11A or Fig. 207-17 to the front surface. Edge
buildings. and corner zones shall be arranged as shown in Figs. 207-
qi = qz for positive internal pressure evaluation in partially 11 through 207-17. GCp shall be determined for
enclosed buildings where height z is defined as the appropriate roof angle and effective wind area from Figs.
level of the highest opening in the building that 207-11 through 207-17. If internal pressure is present,
could affect the positive internal pressure. For both load cases should be evaluated under positive and
negative internal pressure.
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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-32 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

207.5.13 Design Wind Loads on Open Buildings 207.5.14 Design Wind Loads on Solid Freestanding
with Monoslope, Pitched, or Troughed Roofs. Walls and Solid Signs.
The design wind force for solid freestanding walls and
207.5.13.1 General. solid signs shall be determined by the following formula:
F = qh GC f As (kN ) (207-27)
207.13.1.1 Sign Convention.
where
Plus and minus signs signify pressure acting toward and
away from the top surface of the roof, respectively. qh = the velocity pressure evaluated at height h (defined
in Fig. 207-20) using exposure in Section
207.5.6.4.1
207.5.13.1.2 Critical Load Condition. G = gust-effect factor from Section 207.5.8
Net pressure coefficients CN include contributions from Cf = net force coefficient from Fig. 207-20
top and bottom surfaces. All load cases shown for each As = the gross area of the solid freestanding wall or solid
roof angle shall be investigated. sign, in square meters, m²

207.5.13.2 Main Wind-Force Resisting Systems. 207.5.15 Design Wind Loads on Other Structures.
The net design pressure for the MWFRSs of monoslope, The design wind force for other structures shall be
pitched, or troughed roofs shall be determined by the determined by the following equation:
following equation:
F = q z GC f A f (kN ) (207-28)
p = qh GC N (207-25)
where
where
qz = velocity pressure evaluated at height z of the
qh = velocity pressure evaluated at mean roof height h centroid of area Af using exposure defined in
using the exposure as defined in Section 207.5.6.3 Section 207.5.6.3
that results in the highest wind loads for any wind G = gust-effect factor from Section 207.5.8
direction at the site Cf = force coefficients from Figs. 207-21 through 207-
G = gust effect factor from Section 207.5.8 23
CN = net pressure coefficient determined from Figs. 207- Af = projected area normal to the wind except where Cf
18A through 207-18D is specified for the actual surface area, square
meters, m²
For free roofs with an angle of plane of roof from
horizontal θ less than or equal to 5° and containing fascia
panels, the fascia panel shall be considered an inverted 207.5.15.1 Rooftop Structures and Equipment
parapet. The contribution of loads on the fascia to the for Buildings with h ≤ 18 m.
MWFRS loads shall be determined using Section The force on rooftop structures and equipment with Af
207.5.12.2.4 with qp equal to qh. less than (0.1 Bh) located on buildings with h ≤ 18 m shall
be determined from Eq. 207-28, increased by a factor of
1.9. The factor shall be permitted to be reduced linearly
207.5.13.3 Component and Cladding Elements.
from 1.9 to 1.0 as the value of Af is increased from (0.1
The net design wind pressure for component and cladding Bh) to (Bh).
elements of monoslope, pitched, and troughed roofs shall
be determined by the following equation:
207.6 Method 3 – Wind Tunnel Procedure
p = qh GC N (207-26)

where 207.6.1 Scope.


qh = velocity pressure evaluated at mean roof height h Wind tunnel tests shall be used where required by Section
using the exposure as defined in Section 207.5.6.3 207.5.2. Wind tunnel testing shall be permitted in lieu of
that results in the highest wind loads for any wind Methods 1 and 2 for any building or structure.
direction at the site
G = gust-effect factor from Section 207.5.8
CN = net pressure coefficient determined from Figs. 207-
19A through 207-19C

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-33

207.6.2 Test Conditions.


Wind tunnel tests, or similar employing fluids other than 207.6.4 Limitations.
air, used for the determination of design wind loads for
any building or other structure, shall be conducted in
accordance with this section. Tests for the determination 207.6.4.1 Limitations on Wind Speeds.
of mean and fluctuating forces and pressures shall meet Variation of basic wind speeds with direction shall not be
all of the following conditions: permitted unless the analysis for wind speeds conforms to
1. The natural atmospheric boundary layer has been the requirements of Section 207.5.4.2.
modeled to account for the variation of wind speed
with height. 207.6.5 Wind-Borne Debris.
2. The relevant macro- (integral) length and micro- Glazing in buildings in wind-borne debris regions shall be
length scales of the longitudinal component of protected in accordance with Section 207.5.9.3.
atmospheric turbulence are modeled to approximately
the same scale as that used to model the building or
207.7 Consensus Standards And Other Referenced
structure.
Documents
3. The modeled building or other structure and This section lists the consensus standards and other
surrounding structures and topography are documents which are adopted by reference within this
geometrically similar to their full-scale counterparts, section:
except that, for low-rise buildings meeting the
requirements of Section 207.5.1, tests shall be ASTM
permitted for the modeled building in a single ASTM International
exposure site as defined in Section 207.5.6.3. 100 Barr Harbor Drive
4. The projected area of the modeled building or other West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959
structure and surroundings is less than 8 percent of
the test section cross-sectional area unless correction
is made for blockage.
5. The longitudinal pressure gradient in the wind tunnel
test section is accounted for.
6. Reynolds number effects on pressures and forces are
minimized.
7. Response characteristics of the wind tunnel
instrumentation are consistent with the required
measurements.

207.6.3 Dynamic Response.


Tests for the purpose of determining the dynamic
response of a building or other structure shall be in
accordance with Section 207.6.2. The structural model
and associated analysis shall account for mass
distribution, stiffness, and damping.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-34 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Figure 207-1 Wind Zone Map of the Philippines

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-35

WALLS AND ROOFS


Notes:
1. Pressures shown are applied to the horizontal and vertical projections, for exposure B, at h= 9 m, Iw=1.0, and Kzt = 1.0. Adjust
to other conditions using Equation 207-1.
2. The load patterns shown shall be applied to each corner of the building in turn as the reference corner. (See Figure 207-10).
3. For the design of the longitudinal MWFRS use θ - 0°, and locate the zone E/F, G/H boundary at the mid-length of the building.
4. Load cases 1 and 2 must be checked for 25° < θ ≤ 45°. Load case 2 at 25° is provided only for interpolation between 25° to
30°.
5. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the projected surfaces, respectively.
6. For roof slopes other than those shown, linear interpolation is permitted.
7. The total horizontal load shall not be less than that determined by assuming pS = θ in zones B & D.
8. The zone pressures represent the following:
Horizontal pressure zones – Sum of the windward and leeward net (sum of internal and external) pressures on vertical
projection of:
A – End zone of wall C – Interior zone of wall
B – End zone of roof D – Interior zone of roof
Vertical pressure zones – Net (sum of internal and external) pressures on horizontal projection of:
E – End zone of windward roof G – Interior zone of windward roof
F – End zone of leeward roof H – Interior zone of leeward roof
9. Where zone E or G falls on a roof overhang on the windward side of the building, use EOH and GOH for the pressure on the
horizontal projection of the overhang. Overhangs on the leeward and side edges shall have the basic zone pressure applied.
10. Notation:
a: 10percent of least horizontal dimension or 0.4 h, whichever is smaller, but not less than either 4% of least horizontal
dimension or 0.9 m.
h: Mean roof height, in meters, except that eave height shall be used for roof angles < 10°.
θ: Angle of plane of roof from horizontal, in degrees.

Figure 207-2 Design Wind Pressures on


Walls and Roofs of Enclosed Buildings with h ≤ 18m,
Main Wind Force Resisting System – Method 1

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-36 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Adjustment factor
for Building Height and Exposure λ
Mean roof Exposure
height (m) B C D
4.5 1.00 1.21 1.47
6 1.00 1.29 1.55
7.5 1.00 1.35 1.61
9 1.00 1.40 1.66
11 1.05 1.45 1.70
12 1.09 1.49 1.74
13.7 1.12 1.53 1.78
15.2 1.16 1.56 1.81
16.8 1.19 1.59 1.84
18 1.22 1.62 1.87

WALLS AND ROOFS

Figure 207-2(cont’d) – Design Wind Pressures on


Walls and Roofs of Enclosed Buildings with h ≤ 18m,
Main Wind Force Resisting System – Method 1

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-37

WALLS AND ROOFS


Notes:
1. Pressure shown are applied normal to the surface, for exposure B, at h = 9 m, Iw = 1.0, and Kzt = 1.0. Adjust to other conditions using Equation
207-2.
2. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the surfaces, respectively.
3. For hip roofs with θ ≤ 25°, Zone 3 shall be treated as Zone 2.
4. For effective wind areas between those given, value may be interpolated, otherwise use the value associated with the lower effective wind area.
5. Notation:
a: 10 percent of least horizontal dimension or 0.4 h, whichever is smaller, but not less than either 4% of least horizontal dimension or 0.9m.
h: Mean roof height, in meters, except that eave height shall be used for roof angles < 10°.
θ: Angle of plane of roof from horizontal, in degrees.

Figure 207-3 Design Wind Pressures on Walls & Roof of Enclosed


Buildings with h ≤ 18 m, Components and Cladding – Method 1

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-38 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Adjustment Factor for


Buildings Height and Exposure, λ
Mean roof Exposure
height (m) B C D
4.5 1.00 1.21 1.47
6 1.00 1.29 1.55
7.5 1.00 1.35 1.61
9 1.00 1.40 1.66
11 1.05 1.45 1.70
12 1.09 1.49 1.74
13.7 1.12 1.53 1.78
15.2 1.16 1.56 1.81
16.8 1.19 1.59 1.84
18 1.22 1.62 1.87

WALLS AND ROOFS

Figure 207-3(cont’d) - Design Wind Pressures on Walls & Roof of Enclosed


Buildings with h ≤ 18 m, Components and Cladding – Method 1

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-39

K1 Multiplier K2 Multiplier K3 Multiplier


3-D All 3-D
H/Lh 2-D 2-D x/Lh 2-D z/ Lh 2-D 2-D
Axisym Other Axisym
Ridge Escarp Escarp Ridge Escarp
. Hill Cases . Hill
0.2 0.29 0.17 0.21 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
0.25 0.36 0.21 0.26 0.50 0.88 0.67 0.10 0.74 0.78 0.67
0.30 0.43 0.26 0.32 1.00 0.75 0.33 0.20 0.55 0.61 0.45
0.35 0.51 0.30 0.37 1.50 0.63 0.00 0.30 0.41 0.47 0.30
0.40 0.58 0.34 0.42 2.00 0.50 0.00 0.40 0.30 0.37 0.20
0.45 0.65 0.38 0.47 2.50 0.38 0.00 0.50 0.22 0.29 0.14
0.50 0.72 0.43 0.53 3.00 0.25 0.00 0.60 0.17 0.22 0.09
3.50 0.13 0.00 0.70 0.12 0.17 0.06
4.00 0.00 0.00 0.80 0.09 0.14 0.04
0.90 0.07 0.11 0.03
1.00 0.05 0.08 0.02
1.50 0.01 0.02 0.00
2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Notes:
1. For values H/Lh and z/Lh other than those shown, linear interpolation is permitted.
2. For H/Lh > 0.5, assume H/Lh = 0.5 for evaluating K1 and substitute 2H for Lh for evaluation K2 and K3.
3. Multipliers are based on the assumption that approaches the hill or escarpment along the direction of maximum slope.
4. Notation:
H : Height of hill or escarpment relative to the upwind terrain, in meters.
Lh : Distance upwind of crest to where the difference in ground elevation is half the height of hill or escarpment, in meters.
K1 : Factor to account for shape of topographic feature and maximum speed-up effect.
K2 : Factor to account for reduction in speed-up with distance upwind or downwind of crest.
K3 : Factor to account for reduction in speed-up with height above local terrain.
x : Distance (upwind or downwind) from the crest to the building site, in meters.
z : Height above local ground level, in meters.
µ : Horizontal attenuation factor.
γ : Height attenuation factor.

Figure 207-4: Topographic Factor, Kzt – Method 2

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-40 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Equations:

Kzt = (1 + K1 K 2 K 3 ) 2

K1 determined from table below


x
K 2 = (1 − )
µLh

K 3 = e −γz / Lh

Parameters for Speed-Up over Hills and Escarpments


K1/(H/Lh) µ
Hill Shape Exposure γ Upwind Downwind
B C D of Crest of Crest
2-dimensional ridges (or valleys
1.30 1.45 1.55 3 1.5 1.5
with negative H in K1/(H/Lh)
2-dimensional escarpments 0.75 0.85 0.95 2.5 1.5 4
3-dimensional axisym. hill 0.95 1.05 1.15 4 1.5 1.5

Figure 207-4 (cont’d): Topographic Factor, Kzt – Method 2

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-41

Enclosure Classification GCpi


Open Buildings 0.00
Partially Enclosed Buildings +0.55
-0.55
Enclosed Buildings +0.18
-0.18

WALLS AND ROOFS

Notes:
1. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the internal surface,
respectively.

2. Values of GCpi shall be used with qz or qh as specified in Section 207.5.12.

3. Two cases shall be considered to determine the critical load requirements for the
appropriate condition:

(i) a positive value of GCpi applied to all internal surfaces


(ii) a negative value of GCpi applied to all internal surfaces

Figure 207-5 Internal Pressure Coefficients, GCpi for loads on


Walls and Roofs of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings for all Heights
Main Wind Force Resisting System/Components & Cladding - Method 2

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-42 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

WALLS AND ROOFS

Figure 207-6 External Pressure Coefficients, Cp for loads on


Walls and Roofs of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings for all Heights
Main Wind Force Resisting System – Method 2

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-43

Wall Pressure Coefficients, Cp


Surface L/B Cp Use With
Windward Wall All values 0.8 qz
0-1 -0.5
Leeward Wall 2 -0.3 qh
≥4 -0.2
Side Wall All values -0.7 qh

Roof Pressure Coefficients, Cp, for use with qh


Wind
Windward Leeward
Direction
Angel, θ (degrees) Angel, θ (degrees)
h/L 10 15 20 25 30 35 45 ≥60# 10 15 ≥20
-0.7 -0.5 -0.3 -0.2 -0.2 0.0* -0.3 -0.5 -
≤0.25 -0.18 0.0* 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.01θ 0.6
Normal to
-0.9 -0.7 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.2 0.0* -0.5 -0.5 -
ridge for θ
0.5 -0.18 -0.18 0.0* 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.01θ 0.6
≥ 10°
-1.3** -1.0 -0.7 -0.5 -0.3 -0.2 0.0* -0.7 -0.6 -
≥1.0 -0.18 -0.18 -0.18 0.0* 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.01θ 0.6
Horiz distance from *Value is provided for interpolation purposes.
Cp
windward edge
Normal to 0 to h/2 -0.9, -0.18 **Value can be reduced linearly with area over
≤ 0.5
ridge for θ h/2 to h -0.9, -0.18 which it is applicable as follows
< 10 and h to 2 h -0.5, -0.18
Parallel to ˃2h -0.3, -0.18
ridge for all Area (m²) Reduction Factor
0 to h/2 -1.3**, -0.18
θ ≤ 9.3 sq m 1.0
≥ 1.0
23.2 sq m 0.9
˃ h/2 -0.7, -0.18
≥ 92.9 sq m 0.8

WALLS AND ROOFS


Notes:
1. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the surfaces, respectively.
2. Linear interpolation is permitted for values of L/B; h/L and θ other than shown. Interpolation shall only be carried out between values of the same sign.
Where no value of the same sign is given, assume 0.0 for interpolation purposes.
3. Where two values of Cp are listed, this indicates that the windward roof slope is subjected to either positive or negative pressures and the roof structure
shall be designed for both conditions. Interpolation for intermediate ratios of h/L in this case shall only be carried out between Cp values of like sign.
4. For monoslope roofs, entire roof surface is either a windward or leeward surface.
5. For flexible buildings use appropriate Gf as determined by Section 207.5.8.
6. Refer to Figure 207-7 for domes and Figure 207-8 for arched roofs.
7. Notation:
B: Horizontal dimension of building, in meter, measured normal to wind direction.
L: Horizontal dimension of building, in meter, measured parallel to wind direction.
h: Mean roof height in feet (meters), except that eave height shall be used for θ ≤ 10 degrees.
z: Height above ground, in feet (meters).
G: Gust effect factor.
qz,qh: Velocity pressure, in pounds per square foot (N/m²), evaluated at respective height.
θ : Angle of plane of roof from horizontal, in degrees.
8. For mansard roofs, the top horizontal surface and leeward inclined surface shall be treated as leeward surfaces from the table.
9. Excepts for MWFRS’ at the roof consisting of moment resisting frames, the total horizontal shear shall not be less than that determined by neglecting wind
forces on roof surfaces.
#For roof slopes greater than 80°, use Cp = 0.8

Figure 207-6(cont’d) - External Pressure Coefficients, Cp for loads on


Walls and Roofs of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings for all Heights
Main Wind Force Resisting System – Method 2

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-44 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

External Pressure Coefficients for Dome with Circular Base


(Adapted from Eurocode, 1995)
Notes:
1. Two load cases shall be considered:
Case A. Cp values between A and B and between B and C shall be determined by linear interpolation along arcs on the dome parallel to the wind
direction;
Case B. Cp shall be the constant value of A for θ ≤ 25 degrees, and shall be determined by linear interpolation from 25 degrees to B and from B to
C.
2. Values denote Cp to be used with q(hp+f) where hp + f is the height at the top of the dome.
3. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the surfaces, respectively.
4. Cp is constant on the dome surface for arcs of circles perpendicular to the wind direction; for example, the arc passing through B-B-B and all arcs parallel
to B-B-B.
5. For values of hp/D between those listed on the graph curves, linear interpolation shall be permitted.
6. θ = 0 degrees on dome springline, θ = 90 degrees at dome center top point, f is measured from springline to top.
7. The total horizontal shear shall not be less than that determined by neglecting wind forces on roof surfaces.
8. For f/D values less than 0.05, use Figure 207-6.

Figure 207-7 External Pressure Coefficients, Cp for loads on Domed Roofs


of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings and Structures for all Heights
Main Wind Force Resisting System – Method 2

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-45

ARCHED ROOFS
Cp
Rise-to-span
Conditions Windward Center half Leeward
ratio, r
quarter quarter
0 < r < 0.2 -0.9 -0.7 - r -0.5
Roof on elevated structure 0.2 ≤ r < 0.3* 1.5r – 0.3 -0.7 - r -0.5
0.3 ≤ r ≤ 0.6 2.75r – 0.7 -0.7 - r -0.5
Roof springing from ground
0 < r ≤ 0.6 1.4r -0.7 - r -0.5
level

When the rise-to-span ratio is 0.2 ≤ r ≤ 0.3, alternate coefficients given by 6r-2.1 shall also be used for the windward quarter.

Notes:

1. Values listed are for the determination of average loads on main wind force resisting systems.

2. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the surfaces, respectively.

3. For wind directed parallel to the axis of the arch, use pressure coefficients from Fig. 207-6 with wind directed parallel to ridge.

4. For components and cladding: (1) At roof perimeter, use the external pressure coefficients in Fig. 207-11 with θ based on spring-line slope
and (2) for remaining roof areas, use external pressure coefficients of this table multiplied by 0.87.

Figure 207-8 External Pressure Coefficients, Cp for loads on Arched Roofs


of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings and Structures for all Heights
Main Wind Force Resisting System/Components and Cladding – Method 2

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-46 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Case 1. Full design wind pressure acting on the projected area perpendicular to each principal axis of the structure, considered separately along
each principal axis.

Case 2. Three quarters of the design wind pressure acting on the projected area perpendicular to each principal axis of the structure in conjunction
with a torsional moment as shown, considered separately for each principal axis.

Case 3. Wind loading as defined in Case 1, but considered to act simultaneously at 75% of the specified value.

Case 4. Wind loading as defined in Case 2, but considered to act simultaneously at 75% of the specified value.

Notes:

1. Design wind pressures for windward and leeward faces shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of Sects. 207.5.12.2.1 and
207.5.12.2.3 as applicable for buildings of all heights.
2. Diagrams show plan views of building.
3. Notation:

PWX, PWY: Windward face design pressure acting in the x, y principal axis, respectively.
PLX, PLY : Leeward face design pressure acting in the x, y principal axis, respectively.
e (eX,eY): Eccentricity for the x, y principal axis of the structure, respectively.
Mɼ: Torsional moment per unit height acting about a vertical axis of the building.

Figure 207-9 Design Wind Load Cases for All Heights


Main Wind Force Resisting System – Method 2

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-47

Figure 207-10 External Pressure Coefficients, GCpf on Low-Rise Walls & Roofs
of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings with h ≤ 18 m,
Components and Cladding – Method 2

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-48 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Roof Building Surface


Angle θ
1 2 3 4 5 6 1E 2E 3E 4E
(degrees)
0-5 0.40 -0.69 -0.37 -0.29 -0.45 -0.45 0.61 -1.07 -0.53 -0.43
20 0.53 -0.69 -0.48 -0.43 -0.45 -0.45 0.80 -1.07 -0.69 -0.64
30-45 0.56 0.21 -0.43 -0.37 -0.45 -0.45 0.69 0.27 -0.53 -0.48
90 0.56 0.56 -0.37 -0.37 -0.45 -0.45 0.69 0.69 -0.48 -0.48

Notes:

1. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the surfaces, respectively.
2. For values of θ other than those shown, linear interpolation is permitted.
3. The building must be designed for all wind directions using the 8 loading patterns shown. The load patterns are applied to each building
corner in turns as the Reference Corner.
4. Combinations of external and internal pressures (see Figure 207-5) shall be evaluated as required to obtain the most severe loadings.
5. For the torsional load cases shown below, the pressures in zones designated with a “I” (1T, 2T, 3T, 4T) shall be 25% of the full design wind
pressures (zone 1,2,3,4).
Exception: One storey buildings with less than or equal to 9 m buildings two stories or less framed with light frame construction, and
buildings two stories or less designated with flexible diaphragms need not be designed for the torsional load cases.
Torsional loading shall apply to all eight basic load patterns using the figures below applied at each reference corner.
6. Except for moment-resisting frames, the total horizontal shear shall not be less than that determined by neglecting wind forces on roof
surfaces.
7. For the design of the MWFRS providing lateral resistance in a direction parallel to a ridge line or for flat roofs, use θ = 0° and locate the zone
2/3 boundary at the mid-length of the building.
8. The roof pressure coefficient GCpf, when negative in Zone 2 or 2F, shall be applied in Zone 2/2F, for a distance from the edge of roof equal to
0.5 times the horizontal dimension of the building parallel to the direction of the MWFRS being designed or 2.5 times the eave height, he, at
the windward wall, whichever is less; the remainder of Zone 2/2F, extending to the ridge line shall use the pressure coefficient GCpf for Zone
3/3F.
9. Notation:
a: 10 percent of least horizontal dimension or 0.4h, whichever is smaller, but not less than either 4% of less horizontal dimension or 0.9 m.
h: Mean roof height, in meters, except that eave height shall be used for θ ≤ 10°.
θ: Angle of plane of roof from horizontal, in degrees.

LOW-RISE WALLS AND ROOFS


Figure 207-10(cont’d) External Pressure Coefficients, GCpf on Low-Rise Walls & Roofs
of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings with h ≤ 18 m,
Components and Cladding – Method 2

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-49

NOTES:
1. Vertical scale denotes GCp to be used with qh.
2. Horizontal scale denotes effective wind area, in square meters.
3. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the surfaces, respectively.
4. Each component shall be designed for maximum positive and negative pressures.
5. Values of GCp for walls shall be reduced by 10% when θ ≤ 10º
6. Notation:
a = 10 percent of least horizontal dimension or 0.4h, whichever is smaller, but not less than either 4% of least horizontal dimension
or 0.9 m
b = .5h1 Fig 207-5C, but not greater than 30 m
h = Mean roof height, in meters, except that eave height shall be used forθ ≤ 10º
θ =Angle of plane of roof from horizontal, in degrees.

Figure 207-11A External Pressure Coefficients, GCp for Loads on Walls


of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings w/ h ≤ 18 m
Components and Cladding – Method 2

th
National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-50 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

GABLE ROOF θ ≤ 7°

NOTES:
1. Vertical scale denotes GCp to be used with qh.
2. Horizontal scale denotes effective wind area A, in square meters.
3. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the surfaces, respectively.
4. Each component shall be designed for maximum positive and negative pressures.

5. For θ ≤ 10º, values of GCp from Figure 207-5B shall be used.


6. For buildings sited within Exposure B, calculated pressures shall be multiplied by 0.85.
7. Notation:
a = 10% of least horizontal dimension of a single-span module or 0.4h, whichever is smaller, but not less than either 4 percent of least
horizontal dimension of a single-span module or 1 meter.
h = Mean roof height, in meters.
W = Building width, in meters.
θ = Angle of plane of roof from horizontal, in degrees.

Figure 207-11B External Pressure Coefficients, GCp for Loads on Gable Roofs
of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings with h ≤ 18 m
Components and Cladding – Method 2

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-51

Notes:

1. Vertical scale denotes GCp to be used with qh.


2. Horizontal scale denotes effective wind area, in square meters, m².
3. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the surfaces, respectively.
4. Each component shall be designed for maximum positive and negative pressures.
5. Values of GCp for roof over hangs include pressure contributions from both upper and lower surfaces.
6. For hip roofs with 7° < θ ≤ 27°, edge / ridge strips and pressure coefficients for ridges of gabled roofs shall apply for each hip.
7. For hip roofs with θ ≤ 25°, Zone 3 shall be treated as Zone 2.
8. Notations:
a: 10 percent of least horizontal dimensions or 0.4h, whichever is smaller, but not less than either 4% of least horizontal dimension or 0.9 m.
h: Mean roof height, in meters, except that eave height shall be used for θ ≤ 10°.
θ: Angle of plane of roof from horizontal, in degrees.

Figure 207-11C External Pressure Coefficients, GCp for Loads on Gable/Hip Roofs
of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings with h ≤ 18 m
Components and Cladding – Method 2

th
National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-52 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

GABLE ROOFS 27° < θ ≤ 45°


Notes:

1. Vertical scale denotes GCp to be used with qh.


2. Horizontal scale denotes effective wind area, in square meters, m².
3. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the surfaces, respectively.
4. Each component shall be designed for maximum positive and negative pressures.
5. Values of GCp for roof over hangs include pressure contributions from both upper and lower surfaces.
6. Notations:
a: 10 percent of least horizontal dimensions or 0.4h, whichever is smaller, but not less than either 4% of least horizontal dimension or 0.9 m.
h: Mean roof height, in meters.
θ: Angle of plane of roof from horizontal, in degrees.

Figure 207-11D External Pressure Coefficients, GCp for Loads on Gable Roofs
of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings with h ≤ 18 m
Components and Cladding – Method 2

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-53

Notes:
1. On the lower level of flat, stepped roofs shown in Fig. 207-12, the zone designations and pressure coefficients shown in Fig. 207-11B shall apply,
except that at the roof-upper wall intersection(s), Zone 3 shall be treated as Zone 2 and Zone 2 shall be treated s Zone 1. Positive values of GCp
equal to those for walls in Fig. 207-11A shall apply on the cross-hatched areas shown in Fig. 207-12.
2. Notations:
b: 1.5h1 in Fig. 207-12, but not greater than 30 m.
h: Mean roof height, in meters
h1: h1 or h2 in Fig. 207-12; h = h1 + h2; h1 ≥ 3 m; h1 / h = 0.3 to 0.7
W: Building width in Fig. 207-12
W1: W1 or W2 or W3 in Fig. 207.12. W = W1 + W2 or W1 + W2 + W3; W1/W = 0.25 to 0.75
θ : Angle of plane of roof from horizontal, in degrees.

Figure 207-12 External Pressure Coefficients, GCp for loads on Stepped Roofs
of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings with h ≤ 18 m
Components and Cladding – Method 2

th
National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-54 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Notes:
1. Vertical scale denotes GCp to be used with qh.
2. Horizontal scale denotes effective wind area, in square meters.
3. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the surfaces, respectively.
4. Each component shall be designed for maximum positive and negative pressures.
5. For θ ≤ 10°, values of GCp from Fig. 207-11 shall be used.
6. Notations:
a: 10 percent of least horizontal dimensions of a single-span module or 0.4h, whichever is smaller, but not less than either 4 percent of least
horizontal dimension of a single-span module or 0.9 m.
h: Mean roof height, in meters, except that eave height shall be used for θ ≤ 10°.
W: Building module width, in meters.
θ: Angle of plane of roof from horizontal, in degrees.

Figure 207-13 External Pressure Coefficients, GCp on Multispan Gable Roofs


of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings with h ≤ 18 m
Components and Cladding – Method 2

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-55

Notes:
1. Vertical scale denotes GCp to be used with qh.
2. Horizontal scale denotes effective wind area A, in square meters.
3. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the surfaces, respectively.
4. Each component shall be designed for maximum positive and negative pressures.
5. For θ ≤ 3°, values of GCp from Fig. 207-11B shall be used.
6. Notations:
a: 10 percent of least horizontal dimensions or 0.4h, whichever is smaller, but not less than either 4 percent of least horizontal dimension or
0.9 m.
h: Eave height shall be used for θ ≤ 10°.
W: Building module width, in meters.
θ: Angle of plane of roof from horizontal, in degrees.

Figure 207-14A External Pressure Coefficients, GCp on Monoslope Roofs 3° < θ ≤ 10°
of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings with h ≤ 18 m
Components and Cladding – Method 2

th
National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-56 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Notes:

1. Vertical scale denotes GCp to be used with qh.


2. Horizontal scale denotes effective wind area A, in square meters.
3. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the surfaces, respectively.
4. Each component shall be designed for maximum positive and negative pressures.
5. For θ ≤ 10°, values of GCp from Fig. 207-11 shall be used.
6. Notations:
a: 10 percent of least horizontal dimensions or 0.4h, whichever is smaller, but not less than either 4 percent of least horizontal dimension or
0.9m.
h: Mean roof height, in meters, except that eave height shall be used for θ ≤ 10°.
W: Building module width, in meters.
θ: Angle of plane of roof from horizontal, in degrees.

Figure 207-15 External Pressure Coefficients, GCp on Sawtooth Roofs


of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings with h ≤ 18 m
Components and Cladding – Method 2

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-57

External Pressure Coefficients for Domes with a Circular Base


Negative Positive Positive
Pressures Pressures Pressures
Θ, degrees 0 – 90 0 – 60 61 – 90
GCp -0.9 +0.9 +0.5

Notes:

1. Vertical scale denotes GCp to be used with qh.


2. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the surfaces, respectively.
3. Each component shall be designed for maximum positive and negative pressures.
4. Values apply to 0 ≤ hD/D ≤ 0.5, 0.2 ≤ f/D ≤ 0.5.
5. θ = 0 degrees on dome springline, θ = 90 degrees at dome center top point, f is measured from springline to top.

Figure 207-16 External Pressure Coefficients, GCp for Loads of Domed Roofs
of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings and Structures with all Heights
Components and Cladding – Method 2

th
National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-58 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Walls and Roofs


Notes:

1. Vertical scale denotes GCp to be used with qz or qh


2. Horizontal scale denotes effective wind area A, in square meters.
3. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the surfaces, respectively.
4. Use qz with positive values of GCp and qh with negative values of GCp.
5. Each component shall be designed for maximum positive and negative pressures.
6. Coefficients are for roofs with angle θ ≤ 10°. For other roof angles and geometry, use GCp values from Fig. 207-11 and attendants qh based on
exposure defined in 207.5.6.
7. If a parapet equal to or higher than 0.9 m is provided around the perimeter of the roof with θ ≤ 10°, Zone 3 shall be treated as Zone 2.
8. Notations:
a: 10 percent of least horizontal dimensions, but not less than 0.9 m.
h: Mean roof height, in meters, except that eave height shall be used for θ ≤ 10°.
z: Height above ground, in meters.
θ: Angle of plane of roof from horizontal, in degrees.

Figure 207-17 External Pressure Coefficients GCp on Walls and Roofs


of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings with h ˃ 18 m
Components and Cladding – Method 2

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-59

Roof Angle Wind Direction γ = 0 Wind Direction γ = 180


Load Case Clear Wind Flow Obstructed Wind Flow Clear Wind Flow Obstructed Wind Flow
θ
CNW CNL CNW CNL CNW CNL CNW CNL
A 1.2 0.1 0.5 1.2 1.2 0.2 0.5 -1.2

B -1.1 -0.1 -1.1 -0.6 1.1 -0.1 -1.1 -0.6
A -0.6 -1 -1 -1.5 0.9 1.5 -0.2 -1.2
7.5°
B -1.4 0 -1.3 -0.8 1.1 0.3 0.8 -0.3
A -0.9 -1.3 -1.1 -1.5 1.3 1.6 0.4 1.1
15°
B -1.9 0 -2.1 -0.6 1.8 0.6 1.2 -0.3
A -1.5 -1.6 -1.5 -1.7 1.7 1.8 0.5 -1
22.5°
B -2.4 -0.3 -2.3 -0.9 2.2 0.7 1.3 0
A -1.8 -1.8 -1.5 -1.3 2.1 2.1 0.6 -1
30°
B -2.5 -0.5 -2.3 -1.1 2.6 1 1.6 0.1
A -1.8 -1.8 -1.5 -1.8 2.1 2.2 1.7 0.9
37.5°
B -2.4 -0.6 -2.2 -1.1 2.7 1.1 1.9 0.3
A -1.6 -1.8 -1.3 -1.8 2.2 2.5 0.8 -0.9
45°
B -2.3 -0.7 -1.9 -1.2 2.0 1.4 2.1 0.4

Notes:
1. CNW and CNL denote net pressures (contributions from top and bottom surfaces) for windward and leeward half of roof surfaces, respectively.
2. Clear wind flow denotes relatively unobstructed wind flow with blockage less than or equal to 50%. Obstructed wind flow denotes objects below
roof inhibiting wind flow (>50% blockage).
3. For values of θ between 7.5° and 45°, linear interpolation is permitted. For values of θ less than 7.5°, use monoslope roof load coefficients.
4. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting towards and away from the top roof surface, respectively.
5. All load cases shown for each roof angle shall be investigated.
6. Notations:
L : horizontal dimensions of roof, measured in the along wind direction, m
h : mean roof height, m
γ : direction of wind, degrees
θ : angle of plane of roof from horizontal, degrees

Figure 207-18A Net Pressure Coefficients, CN for Loads on Monoslope Free


Roofs θ ≤ 45°, γ = 0°, 180° of Open Buildings
Main Wind Force Resisting System

th
National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-60 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Wind Direction γ - 0°, 180°


Roof Angle, θ Load Case Clear Wind Flow Obstructed Wind Flow
CNW CNL CNW CNL
A 1.1 -0.3 -1.6 -1
7.5°
B 0.2 -1.2 -0.9 -1.7
A 1.1 -0.4 -1.2 -1
15°
B 0.1 -1.1 -0.6 -1.6
A 1.1 0.1 -1.2 -1.2
22.5°
B -0.1 -0.8 -0.8 -1.7
A 1.3 0.3 -0.7 -0.7
30°
B -0.1 -0.9 -0.2 -1.1
A 1.3 0.6 -0.6 -0.6
37.5°
B -0.2 -0.6 -0.3 -0.9
A 1.1 0.9 -0.5 -0.5
45°
B -0.3 -0.5 -0.3 -0.7

PITCHED FREE ROOFS θ ≤ 45°, γ = 0°, 180°


Notes:
1. CNW and CNL denote net pressures (contributions from top and bottom surfaces) for windward and leeward half of roof surfaces, respectively.
2. Clear wind flow denotes relatively unobstructed wind flow with blockage less than or equal to 50%. Obstructed wind flow denotes objects below
roof inhibiting wind flow (>50% blockage).
3. For values of θ between 7.5° and 45°, linear interpolation is permitted. For values of θ less than 7.5°, use monoslope roof load coefficients.
4. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting towards and away from the top roof surface, respectively.
5. All load cases shown for each roof angle shall be investigated.
6. Notations:
L : horizontal dimensions of roof, measured in the along wind direction, m
h : mean roof height, m
γ : direction of wind, degrees
θ : angle of plane of roof from horizontal, degrees

Figure 207-18B Net Pressure Coefficients, CN for Loads on Pitched Free


Roofs θ ≤ 45°, γ = 0°, 180° of Open Buildings with
Height h to Length, L ratio 0.25 ≤ h/L ≤ 1.0
Main Wind Force Resisting System

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-61

Wind Direction γ - 0°, 180°


Roof Angle, θ Load Case Clear Wind Flow Obstructed Wind Flow
CNW CNL CNW CNL
A -1.1 0.3 -1.6 -0.5
7.5°
B -0.2 1.2 -0.9 -0.8
A -1.1 0.4 -1.2 -0.5
15°
B 0.1 1.1 -0.6 -0.8
A -1.1 -0.1 -1.2 -0.6
22.5°
B -0.1 0.8 -0.8 -0.8
A -1.3 -0.3 -1.4 -0.4
30°
B -0.1 0.9 -0.2 -0.5
A -1.3 -0.6 -1.4 -0.3
37.5°
B 0.2 0.6 -0.3 -0.4
A -1.1 -0.9 -1.2 -0.3
45°
B 0.3 0.5 -0.3 -0.4

TROUGHED FREE ROOFS θ ≤ 45°, γ = 0°, 180°


Notes:

1. CNW and CNL denote net pressures (contributions from top and bottom surfaces) for windward and leeward half of roof surfaces, respectively.
2. Clear wind flow denotes relatively unobstructed wind flow with blockage less than or equal to 50%. Obstructed wind flow denotes objects below
roof inhibiting wind flow (>50% blockage).
3. For values of θ between 7.5° and 45°, linear interpolation is permitted. For values of θ less than 7.5°, use monoslope roof load coefficients.
4. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting towards and away from the top roof surface, respectively.
5. All load cases shown for each roof angle shall be investigated.
6. Notations:
L : horizontal dimensions of roof, measured in the along wind direction, m
h : mean roof height, m
γ : direction of wind, degrees
θ : angle of plane of roof from horizontal, degrees

Figure 207-18C Net Pressure Coefficients, CN for Loads on Troughed Free


Roofs θ ≤ 45°, γ = 0°, 180° of Open Buildings with
Height h to Length, L ratio 0.25 ≤ h/L ≤ 1.0
Main Wind Force Resisting System

th
National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-62 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Obstructed Wind
Clear Wind Flow
Horizontal Flow
Distance from Roof Angle θ Load Case
Windward Edge CN CN

All Shapes A -0.8 -1.2


≤h
θ ≤ 45° B 0.8 0.5

A -0.6 -0.9
All Shapes
> h, ≤ 2h
θ ≤ 45°
B 0.5 0.5

All Shapes A -0.3 -0.6


> 2h
θ ≤ 45°
B 0.3 0.3

TROUGHED FREE ROOFS θ ≤ 45°, γ = 0°, 180°


Notes:
1. CN denote net pressures (contributions from top and bottom surfaces)
2. Clear wind flow denotes relatively unobstructed wind flow with blockage less than or equal to 50%. Obstructed wind flow denotes objects
below roof inhibiting wind flow (>50% blockage).
3. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting towards and away from the top roof surface, respectively.
4. All load cases shown for each roof angle shall be investigated.
5. For monoslope roofs with theta less than 5 degrees. Cn values shown apply also for cases where gamma = 0 degrees and 0.05 less than or
equal to h/L less than or equal 0.25. See Figure 207-18A for other h/L values.
6. Notations:
L : horizontal dimensions of roof, measured in the along wind direction, m
h : mean roof height, m
γ : direction of wind, degrees
θ : angle of plane of roof from horizontal, degrees

Figure 207-18D Net Pressure Coefficients, CN for Loads on Troughed Free


Roofs θ ≤ 45°, γ = 0°, 180° of Open Buildings with Height h to Length,
L ratio 0.25 ≤ h/L ≤ 1.0 Main Wind Force Resisting System

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-63

Roof CN
Effective
Angle Clear Wind Flow Obstructed Wind Flow
Wind Area
θ Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1 Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1
≤ a² 2.4 -3.3 1.8 -1.7 1.2 -1.1 1 -3.6 0.8 -1.8 0.5 -1.2
θ° >a², ≤ 4θa² 1.8 -1.7 1.8 -1.7 1.2 -1.1 0.8 -1.8 0.8 -1.8 0.5 -1.2
> 4.0a² 1.2 -1.1 1.2 -1.1 1.2 -1.1 0.5 -1.2 0.5 -1.2 0.5 -1.2
≤a² 3.2 -4.2 2.4 -2.1 1.6 -1.4 1.6 -5.1 1.2 -2.6 0.8 -1.7
7.5° >a², ≤ 4.0a² 2.4 -2.1 2.4 -2.1 1.6 -1.4 1.2 -2.6 1.2 -2.6 0.8 -1.7
>4.0a² 1.6 -1.4 1.6 -1.4 1.6 -1.4 0.8 -1.7 0.8 -1.7 0.8 -1.7
≤a² 3.6 -3.8 2.7 -2.9 1.8 -1.9 2.4 -4.2 1.8 -3.2 1.2 -2.1
15° >a², ≤ 4.0a² 2.7 -2.9 2.7 -2.9 1.8 -1.9 1.8 -3.2 1.8 -3.2 1.2 -2.1
> 4.0a² 1.8 -1.9 1.8 -1.9 1.8 -1.9 1.2 -2.1 1.2 -2.1 1.2 -2.1
≤ a² 5.2 -5 3.9 -3.8 2.6 -2.5 3.2 -4.6 2.4 -3.5 1.6 -2.3
30° >a², ≤ 4.0a² 3.9 -3.8 3.9 -3.8 2.6 -2.5 2.4 -3.5 2.4 -3.5 1.6 -2.3
> 4.0a² 2.6 -2.5 2.6 -2.5 2.6 -2.5 1.6 -2.3 1.6 -2.3 1.6 -2.3
≤ a² 5.2 -4.6 3.9 -3.5 2.6 -2.3 4.2 -3.8 3.2 -2.9 2.1 -1.9
45° >a², ≤ 4.0a² 3.9 -3.5 3.9 -3.5 2.6 -2.3 3.2 -2.9 3.2 -2.9 2.1 -1.9
>4.0a² 2.6 -2.3 2.6 -2.3 2.6 -2.3 2.1 -1.9 2.1 -1.9 2.1 -1.9

Notes:
1. CN denote net pressures (contributions from top and bottom surfaces)
2. Clear wind flow denotes relatively unobstructed wind flow with blockage less than or equal to 50%. Obstructed wind flow denotes objects below
roof inhibiting wind flow (>50% blockage).
3. For values of θ other than those shown, linear interpolation is permitted.
4. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting towards and away from the top roof surface, respectively.
5. Components and cladding elements shall be designed for positive and negative pressure coefficients shown.
6. Notations:
a : 10% of least horizontal dimensions or 0.4h, whichever is smaller but not less than 4% of least horizontal dimensions or 0.9 m
h : mean roof height, m
L : horizontal dimension of building measured in along wind direction, m.
θ : angle of plane of roof from horizontal, degrees

Figure 207-19A Net Pressure Coefficients, CN for Loads on Monoslope Free


Roofs θ ≤ 45° of Open Buildings with Height, h to Length,L ratio 0.25 ≤ h/L ≤ 1.0
Components and Cladding

th
National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-64 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Roof CN
Effective
Angle Clear Wind Flow Obstructed Wind Flow
Wind Area
θ Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1 Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1
≤ a² 2.4 -3.3 1.8 -1.7 1.2 -1.1 1 -3.6 0.8 -1.8 0.5 -1.2
θ° >a², ≤ 4θa² 1.8 -1.7 1.8 -1.7 1.2 -1.1 0.8 -1.8 0.8 -1.8 0.5 -1.2
> 4.0a² 1.2 -1.1 1.2 -1.1 1.2 -1.1 0.5 -1.2 0.5 -1.2 0.5 -1.2
≤a² 3.2 -4.2 2.4 -2.1 1.6 -1.4 1.6 -5.1 1.2 -2.6 0.8 -1.7
7.5° >a², ≤ 4.0a² 2.4 -2.1 2.4 -2.1 1.6 -1.4 1.2 -2.6 1.2 -2.6 0.8 -1.7
>4.0a² 1.6 -1.4 1.6 -1.4 1.6 -1.4 0.8 -1.7 0.8 -1.7 0.8 -1.7
≤a² 3.6 -3.8 2.7 -2.9 1.8 -1.9 2.4 -4.2 1.8 -3.2 1.2 -2.1
15° >a², ≤ 4.0a² 2.7 2.9 -2.7 -2.9 1.8 -1.9 1.8 -3.2 1.8 -3.2 1.2 -2.1
> 4.0a² 1.8 -1.9 1.8 -1.9 1.8 -1.9 1.2 -2.1 1.2 -2.1 1.2 -2.1
≤ a² 5.2 -5 3.9 -3.8 2.6 -2.5 3.2 -4.6 2.4 -3.5 1.6 -2.3
30° >a², ≤ 4.0a² 3.9 -3.8 3.9 -3.8 2.6 -2.5 2.4 -3.5 2.4 -3.5 1.6 -2.3
> 4.0a² 2.6 -2.5 2.6 -2.5 2.6 -2.5 1.6 -2.3 1.6 -2.3 1.6 -2.3
≤ a² 5.2 -4.6 3.9 -3.5 2.6 -2.3 4.2 -3.8 3.2 -2.9 2.1 -1.9
45° >a², ≤ 4.0a² 3.9 -3.5 3.9 -3.5 2.6 -2.3 3.2 -2.9 3.2 -2.9 2.1 -1.9
>4.0a² 2.6 -2.3 2.6 -2.3 2.6 -2.3 2.1 -1.9 2.1 -1.9 2.1 -1.9

Notes:

1. CN denote net pressures (contributions from top and bottom surfaces)


2. Clear wind flow denotes relatively unobstructed wind flow with blockage less than or equal to 50%. Obstructed wind flow denotes objects below
roof inhibiting wind flow (>50% blockage).
3. For values of θ other than those shown, linear interpolation is permitted.
4. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting towards and away from the top roof surface, respectively.
5. Components and cladding elements shall be designed for positive and negative pressure coefficients shown.
6. Notations:

a : 10% of least horizontal dimensions or 0.4h, whichever is smaller but not less than 4% of least horizontal dimensions or 0.9 m
h : mean roof height, m
L : horizontal dimension of building measured in along wind direction, m.
θ : angle of plane of roof from horizontal, degrees

Figure 207-19B Net Pressure Coefficients, CN for Loads on Monoslope Free


Roofs θ ≤ 45° of Open Buildings with Height, h to Length,L ratio 0.25 ≤ h/L ≤ 1.0
Components and Cladding

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-65

Roof CN
Effective
Angle Clear Wind Flow Obstructed Wind Flow
Wind Area
θ Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1 Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1
≤ a² 2.4 -3.3 1.8 -1.7 1.2 -1.1 1 -3.6 0.8 -1.8 0.5 -1.2
θ° >a², ≤ 4θa² 1.8 -1.7 1.8 -1.7 1.2 -1.1 0.8 -1.8 0.8 -1.8 0.5 -1.2
> 4.0a² 1.2 -1.1 1.2 -1.1 1.2 -1.1 0.5 -1.2 0.5 -1.2 0.5 -1.2
≤a² 2.4 -3.3 1.8 -1.7 1.2 -1.1 1 -4.8 0.8 -2.4 0.5 -1.6
7.5° >a², ≤ 4.0a² 1.8 -1.7 1.8 -1.7 1.2 -1.1 0.8 -2.4 0.8 -2.4 0.5 -1.6
>4.0a² 1.2 -1.1 1.2 -1.1 1.2 -1.1 0.5 -1.6 0.5 -1.6 0.5 -1.6
≤a² 2.2 -2.2 1.7 -1.7 1.1 -1.1 1 -2.1 0.8 -1.8 0.5 -1.2
15° >a², ≤ 4.0a² 1.7 -1.7 1.7 -1.7 1.1 -1.1 0.8 -1.8 0.8 -1.8 0.5 -1.2
> 4.0a² 1.1 -1.1 1.1 -1.1 1.1 -1.1 0.5 -1.2 0.5 -1.2 0.5 -1.2
≤ a² 1.8 -2.6 1.4 -2 0.9 -1.3 1 -2.8 0.8 -2.1 0.5 -1.4
30° >a², ≤ 4.0a² 1.4 -2 1.4 -2 0.9 -1.3 0.8 -2.1 0.8 -2.1 0.5 -1.4
> 4.0a² 0.9 -1.3 1.9 -1.3 0.9 -1.3 0.5 -1.4 0.5 -1.4 0.5 -1.4
≤ a² 1.6 -2.2 1.2 -1.7 0.8 -1.1 1 -2.4 0.8 -1.8 0.5 -1.2
45° >a², ≤ 4.0a² 1.2 -1.7 1.2 -1.7 0.8 -1.1 0.8 -1.8 0.8 -1.8 0.5 -1.2
>4.0a² 0.8 -1.1 1.8 -1.1 0.8 -1.1 0.5 -1.2 0.5 -1.2 0.5 -1.2

Notes:

1. CN denote net pressures (contributions from top and bottom surfaces)


2. Clear wind flow denotes relatively unobstructed wind flow with blockage less than or equal to 50%. Obstructed wind flow denotes objects below
roof inhibiting wind flow (>50% blockage).
3. For values of θ other than those shown, linear interpolation is permitted.
4. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting towards and away from the top roof surface, respectively.
5. Components and cladding elements shall be designed for positive and negative pressure coefficients shown.
6. Notations:

a : 10% of least horizontal dimensions or 0.4h, whichever is smaller but not less than 4% of least horizontal dimensions or 0.9 m
h : mean roof height, m
L : horizontal dimension of building measured in along wind direction, m.
θ : angle of plane of roof from horizontal, degrees

Figure 207-19C Net Pressure Coefficients, CN for Loads on Monoslope Free


Roofs θ ≤ 45° of Open Buildings with Height, h to Length,L ratio 0.25 ≤ h/L ≤ 1.0
Components and Cladding

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-66 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Cf, CASE A & CASE B


Clearance Aspect Ratio, B/s
Ratio, s/h ≤ 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 4 5 10 20 30 40
1 1.80 1.70 1.65 1.55 1.45 1.40 1.35 1.35 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30
0.9 1.85 1.75 1.70 1.60 1.55 1.50 1.45 1.45 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40
0.7 1.90 1.85 1.75 1.70 1.65 1.60 1.60 1.55 1.55 1.55 1.55 1.55
0.5 1.95 1.85 1.80 1.75 1.75 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.75
0.3 1.95 1.90 1.85 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.85 1.85 1.85
0.2 1.95 1.90 1.85 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.90 1.95
≤ 0.16 1.95 1.90 1.85 1.85 1.80 1.80 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.90 1.90 1.95
Cf, CASE C

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 13 ≥ 45
0 to s 2.25 2.60 2.90 3.10* 3.30* 3.40* 3.55* 3.65* 3.75* 0 to s 4.00* 4.30*
s to 2s 1.50 1.70 1.90 2.00 2.15 2.25 2.30 2.35 2.45 s to 2s 2.60 2.55
2s 1.15 1.30 1.45 1.55 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.85 2s to 3s 2.00 1.95
3s to 10s 1.10 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.00 0.95 3s to 4s 1.50 1.85
4s to 5s 1.35 1.85
5s to 0.90 1.10
10s
> 10s 0.55 0.55

Notes:
1. The term “signs” in notes below also applies to “freestanding walls”.
2. Signs with openings comprising less than 30% of the gross area are classified as solid signs. Force coefficients for solid signs with openings shall be permitted to
be multiplied by the reduction factor (1- (1 –ε) 15 ).
3. To allow both normal and oblique wind directions, the following cases shall be considered:
For s/h < 1:
CASE A: resultant force acts normal to the face of the sign through the geometric center.
CASE B: resultant force acts normal to the face of the sign at a distance from the geometric center toward the windward edge equal to 0.2 times the
average width of the sign.
For B/s > 2, CASE C must also be considered:
CASE C: resultant forces act normal to the face of the sign through the geometric centers of each region.
For s/h = 1:
The same cases as above except that the vertical locations of the resultant forces occur at a distance above the geometric center equal to 0.05 times the
average height of the sign.
4. For CASE C where s/h > 0.8, force coefficients shall be multiplied by the reduction factor (1.8 – s/h).
5. Linear interpolation is permitted for values of s/h. B/s and L/s other than shown.
6. Notation:
B: horizontal dimension of sign, in meters
h: height of the sign, in meters;
s: vertical dimension of the sign in meters;
ε: ratio of solid area to gross area;
Lf: horizontal dimension of return corner, in meters

Figure 207-20 Force Coefficients, Cf for Loads on Solid Freestanding


Walls & Solid Signs of All Heights
Other Structures – Method 2

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-67

Cross-Section Type of Surface h/D

Square (wind normal to face) All 1.3 1.4 2.0


Square (wind along diagonal) All 1.0 1.1 1.5
Hexagonal or Octagonal All 1.0 1.2 1.4
Moderately Smooth 0.5 0.6 0.7
Rough (D’/D 0.02) 0.7 0.8 0.9
Round ( D q z > 2.5) Very rough (D’/D = 0.08) 0.8 1.0 0.2

( D q z >5.3, D in m, qz in k/Pa
All 0.7 0.8 1.2

Notes:
1. The design wind force shall be calculated based on the area of the structure projected on a plane normal to the wind direction. The force shall be
assumed to act parallel to the wind direction.
2. Linear interpolation is permitted for h/D values other than shown.
3. Notation:

D: diameter of circular cross-section and least horizontal dimensions of square, hexagonal or octagonal cross-sections at elevation under
consideration, in meters;

D: depth of protruding elements such as ribs and spoilers, in meters; and

h: height of structure, in meters; and

qz: velocity pressure evaluated at height z above ground, in KPa.

Figure 207-21 Force Coefficients, Cf for Loads on Chimneys, Tanks,


Rooftop Equipment, & Similar Structures of All Heights
Other Structures – Method 2

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-68 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Rounded Members

ε
Flat- Sided D q z ≤ 2.5 D q z ≤ 2.5
Members
D q z ≤ 5.3 D q z ≤ 5.3
< 0.1 2.0 1.2 0.8

0.1 to 0.29 1.8 1.3 0.9

0.3 to 0.7 1.6 1.5 1.1

Notes:

1. Signs with opening comprising 30% or more of the gross area classified as open signs.

2. The calculation of the design wind forces shall be based on the area of all exposed members and elements projected on a plane normal to the wind
direction. Forces shall be assumed to act parallel to the wind direction.

3. The area Af consistent with these force coefficient is the solid area projected normal to the wind direction.

4. Notation:

ε : ratio of solid area to gross area;


D: diameter of a typical round member, ln.m.
qz: velocity pressure evaluated at height z above ground in KPa.

Figure 207-22 Force Coefficients, Cf for Loads on Open Signs and


Lattice Frameworks of All Heights
Other Structures – Method 2

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-69

Tower Cross Section Cf

Square 4.0ε 2 − 5.9ε + 4.0

Triangle 3.4ε 2 − 4.7ε + 3.4

Notes:

1. For all wind directions considered, the area Af consistent with the specified force coefficients shall be the solid area of a tower face projected on
the plane of that face for the tower segment under consideration.

2. The specified force coefficients are for towers with structural angles or similar flat-sided members.

3. For towers containing rounded members, it is acceptable to multiply the specified force coefficients by the following factor when determining
wind forces on such members:

0.51 ε² + 0.57, but not > 1.0

4. Wind forces shall be applied in the directions resulting in maximum member forces and reactions. For towers with square cross-sections, wind
forces shall be multiplied by the following factor when the wind is directed along a tower diagonal:

1 + 0.75 ε, but not > 1.2

5. Wind forces on tower appurtenances such as ladders, conduits, lights, elevators, etc., shall be calculated using appropriate force coefficients for
these elements.

6. Notation:

ε : ratio of solid area to gross area of one tower face for the segment under consideration.

Figure 207-23 Force Coefficients, Cf for Loads on


Trussed Towers of All Heights
Other Structures – Method 2

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-70 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

COLLECTOR is a member or element provided to


transfer lateral forces from a portion of a structure to
SECTION 208 - EARTHQUAKE vertical elements of the lateral-force-resisting system.
LOADS
COMPONENT is a part or element of an architectural,
electrical, mechanical or structural system.
208.1 General
COMPONENT, EQUIPMENT, is a mechanical or
208.1.1 Purpose. electrical component or element that is part of a
mechanical and/or electrical system.
The purpose of the earthquake provisions herein is
primarily to safeguard against major structural failures COMPONENT, FLEXIBLE, is a component, including
and loss of life, not to limit damage or maintain function. its attachments, having a fundamental period greater than
0.06 second.
208.1.2 Minimum Seismic Design.
Structures and portions thereof shall, as a minimum, be COMPONENT, RIGID, is a component, including its
designed and constructed to resist the effects of seismic attachments, having a fundamental period less than or
ground motions as provided in this section. equal to 0.06 second.

CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAME is a braced


208.1.3 Seismic and Wind Design. frame in which the members are subjected primarily to
When the code-prescribed wind design produces greater axial forces.
effects, the wind design shall govern, but detailing
requirements and limitations prescribed in this section and DESIGN BASIS GROUND MOTION is that ground
referenced sections shall be followed. motion that has a 10 percent chance of being exceeded in
50 years as determined by a site-specific hazard analysis
or may be determined from a hazard map. A suite of
208.2 Definitions ground motion time histories with dynamic properties
representative of the site characteristics shall be used to
BASE is the level at which the earthquake motions are represent this ground motion. The dynamic effects of the
considered to be imparted to the structure or the level at Design Basis Ground Motion may be represented by the
which the structure as a dynamic vibrator is supported. Design Response Spectrum. See Section 208.6.2.

BASE SHEAR, V, is the total design lateral force or DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRUM is an elastic
shear at the base of a structure. response spectrum for 5 percent equivalent viscous
damping used to represent the dynamic effects of the
BEARING WALL SYSTEM is a structural system with- Design Basis Ground Motion for the design of structures
out a complete vertical load-carrying space frame. See in accordance with Sections 208.5 and 208.6. This
Section 208.4.6.1. response spectrum may be either a site-specific spectrum
based on geologic, tectonic, seismological and soil
BOUNDARY ELEMENT is an element at edges of characteristics associated with a specific site or may be a
openings or at perimeters of shear walls or diaphragms. spectrum constructed in accordance with the spectral
shape in Figure 208-3 using the site-specific values of Ca
BRACED FRAME is an essentially vertical truss system and Cv and multiplied by the acceleration of gravity,
of the concentric or eccentric type that is provided to 9.815 m/sec2. See Section 208.6.2.
resist lateral forces.
DESIGN SEISMIC FORCE is the minimum total
BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM is an essentially com- strength design base shear, factored and distributed in
plete space frame that provides support for gravity loads. accordance with Section 208.5.
See Section 208.4.6.2.

CANTILEVERED COLUMN ELEMENT is a column


element in a lateral-force-resisting system that cantilevers
from a fixed base and has minimal moment capacity at the
top, with lateral forces applied essentially at the top.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-71

MOMENT RESISTING FRAME is a frame in which


DIAPHRAGM is a horizontal or nearly horizontal members and joints are capable of resisting forces
system acting to transmit lateral forces to the vertical- primarily by flexure.
resisting elements. The term "diaphragm" includes
horizontal bracing systems. MOMENT RESISTING WALL FRAME (MRWF) is
a masonry wall frame especially detailed to provide
ductile behavior and designed in conformance with
DIAPHRAGM or SHEAR WALL CHORD is the Section 708.2.6.
boundary element of a diaphragm or shear wall that is
assumed to take axial stresses analogous to the flanges of ORDINARY BRACED FRAME (OBF) is a steel-
a beam. braced frame designed in accordance with the provisions
of Section 515.7 or 516.5 or concrete-braced frame
DIAPHRAGM STRUT (drag strut, tie, collector) is the designed in accordance with Section 421.
element of a diaphragm parallel to the applied load that
collects and transfers diaphragm shear to the vertical- ORDINARY MOMENT-RESISTING FRAME
resisting elements or distributes loads within the (OMRF) is a moment-resisting frame not meeting special
diaphragm. Such members may take axial tension or detailing requirements for ductile behavior.
compression.
ORTHOGONAL EFFECTS are the earthquake load
DRIFT. See "story drift." effects on structural elements common to the lateral-
force-resisting systems along two orthogonal axes.
DUAL SYSTEM is a combination of moment-resisting
frames and shear walls or braced frames designed in OVERSTRENGTH is a characteristic of structures
accordance with the criteria of Section 208.4.6.4. where the actual strength is larger than the design
strength. The degree of overstrength is material-and
ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAME (EBF) is a system-dependent.
steel-braced frame designed in conformance with Section
515.9. P∆ EFFECT is the secondary effect on shears, axial
forces and moments of frame members due to the action
ELASTIC RESPONSE PARAMETERS are forces and of the vertical loads induced by horizontal displacement
deformations determined from an elastic dynamic analysis of the structure resulting from various loading.
using an unreduced ground motion representation, in
accordance with Section 208.5. SHEAR WALL is a wall designed to resist lateral forces
parallel to the plane of the wall (sometimes referred to as
ESSENTIAL FACILITIES are those structures that are vertical diaphragm or structural wall).
necessary for emergency operations subsequent to a
natural disaster. SHEAR WALL FRAME INTERACTIVE SYSTEM
uses combinations of shear walls and frames designed to
FLEXIBLE ELEMENT or system is one whose resist lateral forces in proportion to their relative
deformation under lateral load is significantly larger than rigidities, considering interaction between shear walls and
adjoining parts of the system. Limiting ratios for defining frames on all levels.
specific flexible elements are set forth in Section 208.5.6.
SOFT STORY is one in which the lateral stiffness is less
HORIZONTAL BRACING SYSTEM is a horizontal than 70 percent of the stiffness of the story above. See
truss system that serves the same function as a diaphragm. Table 208-9.

INTERMEDIATE MOMENT RESISTING FRAME SPACE FRAME is a three-dimensional structural


(IMRF ) is a concrete frame designed in accordance with system, without bearing walls, composed of members
Section 421.10. interconnected so as to function as a complete self-
contained unit with or without the aid of horizontal
LATERAL FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM is that part diaphragms or floor-bracing systems.
of the structural system designed to resist the Design
Seismic Forces. SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAME
(SCBF) is a steel-braced frame designed in conformance
with the provisions of Section 515.8.

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2-72 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

SPECIAL MOMENT RESISTING FRAME (SMRF) Ae = the minimum cross-sectional area in any horizontal
is a moment-resisting frame specially detailed to provide plane in the first story, in square meter of a shear
ductile behavior and comply with the requirements given wall, m2.
in Chapter 4 or 5. Ax = the torsional amplification factor at Level x.
ap = numerical coefficient specified in Section 208.7
SPECIAL TRUSS MOMENT FRAME (STMF) is a and set forth in Table 208-12.
moment-resisting frame specially detailed to provide Ca = seismic coefficient, as set forth in Table 208-7.
ductile behavior and comply with the provisions of Ct = numerical coefficient given in Section 208.5.2.2.
Section 515.10. Cv = seismic coefficient, as set forth in Table 208-8.
D = dead load on a structural element.
STORY is the space between levels. Story x is the story De = the length of a shear wall in the first story in the
below level x. direction parallel to the applied forces, in m2.
E, Eh,
STORY DRIFT is the lateral displacement of one level Em, Ev = earthquake loads set forth in Section 208.5.1. ,in
relative to the level above or below. N.
Fi, Fn,
STORY DRIFT RATIO is the story drift divided by the Fx = design seismic force applied to Level i, n or x,
story height. respectively,in N.
Fp = design seismic force on a part of the structure,in N.
STORY SHEAR, Vx, is the summation of design lateral Fpx = design seismic force on a diaphragm, in N.
forces above the story under consideration. Ft = that portion of the base shear, V, considered
concentrated at the top of the structure in addition
STRENGTH is the capacity of an element or a member to Fn, in N.
to resist factored load as specified in Chapters 2, 3, 4, 5 fi = lateral force at Level i for use in Equation (208-
and 7. 10), in N.
g = acceleration due to gravity.
STRUCTURE is an assemblage of framing members = 9.815 m/sec2
designed to support gravity loads and resist lateral forces. hi, hn,
Structures may be categorized as building structures or hx = height above the base to Level i, n or x,
nonbuilding structures. respectively, in m.
I = importance factor given in Table 208-1.
SUBDIAPHRAGM is a portion of a diaphragm used to Ip = importance factor specified in Table 208-1.
transfer wall anchorage forces to diaphragm cross ties. L = live load on a structural element.
Level i = level of the structure referred to by the
VERTICAL LOAD CARRYING FRAME is a space subscript i.
frame designed to carry vertical gravity loads. "i = 1" designates the first level above the base.
Level n = that level that is uppermost in the main portion
WALL ANCHORAGE SYSTEM is the system of of the structure.
Level x = that level that is under design consideration.
elements anchoring the wall to the diaphragm and those
"x = 1" designates the first level above the base.
elements within the diaphragm required to develop the
M = maximum moment magnitude.
anchorage forces, including subdiaphragms and
Na = near-source factor used in the determination of Ca
continuous ties, as specified in Sections 208.8.2.7 and
208.8.2.8. in Seismic Zone 4 related to both the proximity of
the building or structure to known faults with
magnitudes as set forth in Tables 208-4 and 208-6.
WEAK STORY is one in which the story strength is less
Nv = near-source factor used in the determination of Cv
than 80 percent of the story above. See Table 208-9.
in Seismic Zone 4 related to both the proximity of
the building or structure to known faults with
208.3 Symbols and Notations magnitudes as set forth in Tables 208-5 and 208-6.
PI = plasticity index of soil determined in accordance
AB = ground floor area of structure in square meter to
with approved national standards.
include area covered by all overhangs and
R = numerical coefficient representative of the inherent
projections, in m2.
overstrength and global ductility capacity of
Ac = the combined effective area, in square meter, of the
lateral- force-resisting systems, as set forth in
shear walls in the first story of the structure, in m2.
Table 208-11 or 208-13.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-73

R = a ratio used in determining ρ. See Section 208.5.1.


SA, SB, SC, SD, The minimum design strength shall be based on the
SE, SF = soil profile types as set forth in Table 208-2. Design Seismic Forces determined in accordance with the
T = elastic fundamental period of vibration, in seconds, static lateral force procedure of Section 208.5, except as
of the structure in the direction under modified by Section 208.6.5.4.
consideration, in sec.
V = the total design lateral force or shear at the base Where strength design is used, the load combinations of
given by Equation (208-4), (208-5), (208-6), (208- Section 203.3 shall apply. Where Allowable Stress
7) or (208-11), in N. Design is used, the load combinations of Section 203.4
Vx = the design story shear in Story x. shall apply.
W = the total seismic dead load defined in Section
208.5.1.1, in N. Allowable Stress Design may be used to evaluate sliding
wi, wx = that portion of W located at or assigned to Level i or overturning at the soil-structure interface regardless of
or x, respectively, in N. the design approach used in the design of the structure,
Wp = the weight of an element or component, in N. provided load combinations of Section 203.4 are utilized.
wpx = the weight of the diaphragm and the element
tributary thereto at Level x, including applicable
portions of other loads defined in Section 208.4.2 Occupancy Categories.
208.5.1.1, in N. For purposes of earthquake-resistant design, each
Z = seismic zone factor as given in Table 208-3. structure shall be placed in one of the occupancy
∆M = Maximum Inelastic Response Displacement, which categories listed in Table 103-1. Table 208-1 assigns
is the total drift or total story drift that occurs when importance factors, I and Ip, and structural observation
the structure is subjected to the Design Basis requirements for each category.
Ground Motion, including estimated elastic and Table 208-1 - Seismic Importance Factors
inelastic contributions to the total deformation
defined in Section 208.5.9, in mm. Seismic Seismic
Occupancy
∆S = Design Level Response Displacement, which is the Importance Importance 2
Category 1
total drift or total story drift that occurs when the Factor, I Factor, Ip
structure is subjected to the design seismic forces, I. Essential
1.50 1.50
in mm. Facilities 3
δι = horizontal displacement at Level i relative to the II. Hazardous
1.25 1.50
base due to applied lateral forces, f, for use in Facilities
Equation (208-10) , in mm. III. Special
ρ = Redundancy/Reliability Factor given by Equation Occupancy 1.00 1.00
(208-3). Structures 4
Ωo = Seismic Force Amplification Factor, which is IV. Standard
required to account for structural overstrength and Occupancy 1.00 1.00
set forth in Table 208-11. Structures 4
V. Miscellaneous
1.00 1.00
structures
208.4 Criteria Selection 1
See Table 103-1 for occupancy category listing.
2
The limitation of Ip for panel connections in Section 208.8.2.3 shall
be 1.0 for the entire connector.
208.4.1 Basis for Design. 3
Structural observation requirements are given in Section 107.9.
The procedures and the limitations for the design of 4
For anchorage of machinery and equipment required for life-safety
structures shall be determined considering seismic zoning, systems, the value of IP shall be taken as 1.5.
site characteristics, occupancy, configuration, structural
system and height in accordance with this section.
208.4.3 Site Geology and Soil Characteristics.
Structures shall be designed with adequate strength to
withstand the lateral displacements induced by the Design Each site shall be assigned a soil profile type based on
Basis Ground Motion, considering the inelastic response properly substantiated geotechnical data using the site
of the structure and the inherent redundancy, overstrength categorization procedure set forth in Section 208.10 and
and ductility of the lateral-force-resisting system. Table 208-2.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-74 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

1
Soil Profile Type SE also includes any soil profile with more than
Exception: 3.0 meters of soft clay defined as a soil with plasticity index, PI >
20, wmc ≥ 40 percent and su < 24 kPa. The Plasticity Index, PI,
When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail and the moisture content, wmc, shall be determined in accordance
to determine the soil profile type, Type SD shall be used. with approved national standards.
Soil Profile Type SE or SF need not be assumed unless the
building official determines that Type SE or SF may be
present at the site or in the event that Type SE or SF is 208.4.4 Site Seismic Hazard Characteristics.
established by geotechnical data. Seismic hazard characteristics for the site shall be
established based on the seismic zone and proximity of
the site to active seismic sources, site soil profile
208.4.3.1 Soil Profile Type. characteristics and the structure's importance factor.
Soil Profile Types SA, SB, SC, SD and SE are defined in
Table 208-2 and Soil Profile Type SF is defined as soils
requiring site-specific evaluation as follows:
208.4.4.1 Seismic Zone.
1. Soils vulnerable to potential failure or collapse under Each site shall be assigned a seismic zone in accordance
seismic loading, such as liquefiable soils, quick and with Table 208-15 or Figure 208-1. Each structure shall
highly sensitive clays, and collapsible weakly be assigned a seismic zone factor Z, in accordance with
cemented soils. Table 208-3.
2. Peats and/or highly organic clays, where the Table 208-3 Seismic Zone Factor Z
thickness of peat or highly organic clay exceeds 3.0
meters. ZONE 2 4
Z 0.20 0.40
3. Very high plasticity clays with a plasticity index, PI
> 75, where the depth of clay exceeds 7.6 meters.
4. Very thick soft/medium stiff clays, where the depth 208.4.4.2 Seismic Zone 4 Near-Source Factor.
of clay exceeds 36 meters. In Seismic Zone 4, each site shall be assigned near-source
factors in accordance with Table 208-4 and 208-5 based
The criteria set forth in the definition for Soil Profile Type on the Seismic Source Type as set forth in Section
SF requiring site-specific evaluation shall be considered. 208.4.4.4.
If the site corresponds to these criteria, the site shall be
classified as Soil Profile Type SF and a site-specific The value of Na used to determine Ca need not exceed 1.1
evaluation shall be conducted. for structures complying with all the following
conditions:
Table 208-2 - Soil Profile Types
1. The soil profile type is SA, SB, SC or SD.
Average Soil Properties for Top
Soil
Soil Profile
30 m of Soil Profile 2. ρ = 1.0.
Profile Name / Shear Undrained
SPT, N 3. Except in single-story structures, residential building
Generic Wave Shear
Type (blows/ Strength, accommodating 10 or fewer persons, private garages,
Description Velocity, Vs
300 mm) (kPa) carports, sheds and agricultural buildings, moment
(m/s)
Hard frame systems designated as part of the lateral-force-
SA > 1500
Rock resisting system shall be special moment-resisting
760 to frames.
SB Rock
1500 4. The exceptions to Section 515.6.5 shall not apply,
Very except for columns in one-story buildings or columns
Dense at the top story of multistory buildings.
360 to
SC Soil ad > 50 > 100
760 5. None of the following structural irregularities is
Soft
Rock present: Type 1, 4 or 5 of Table 208-9, and Type 1 or
Stiff Soil 180 to 15 to 50 to 4 of Table 208-10.
SD
Profile 360 50 100
Soft Soil
SE1 < 180 < 15 < 50
Profile
Soil Requiring Site-specific Evaluation.
SF
See Section 208.4.3.1

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-75

208.4.4.3 Seismic Response Coefficients. Table 208-6 - Seismic Source Types 1


Each structure shall be assigned a seismic coefficient, Ca, Seismic Source
in accordance with Table 208-7 and a seismic coefficient, Seismic
Seismic Source Definition
Cv, in accordance with Table 208-8. Source
Description Maximum Moment
Type
Magnitude, M
208.4.4.4 Seismic Source Types. Faults that are
Table 208-6 defines the types of seismic sources. The capable of
location and type of seismic sources to be used for design producing large
shall be established based on approved geological data; A magnitude events M ≤ 7.0
see Figure 208-2A. Type A sources shall be determined and that have a
from Figures 208-2B, C, D, E or the most recent mapping high rate of seismic
of active faults by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology activity.
and Seismology. All faults other
B than Types A and 6.5 ≤ M < 7.0
Table 208-4 Near-Source Factor Na 1 C.
Seismic Closest Distance To Faults that are not
Source Known Seismic Source2 capable of
Type ≤ 5 km ≥ 10 km producing large
A 1.2 1.0 magnitude
C M < 6.5
B 1.0 1.0 earthquakes and
C 1.0 1.0 that have a
relatively low rate
Table 208-5 Near-Source Factor, Nv 1 of seismic activity.
1
Seismic Closest Distance To Subduction sources shall be evaluated on a site-specific basis.
Source Known Seismic Source2
Type ≤ 5 km 10 km ≥ 15 km
Table 208-7 - Seismic Coefficient, Ca

A 1.6 1.2 1.0 Soil Profile Seismic Zone Z


Type Z = 0.2 Z = 0.4
B 1.2 1.0 1.0 SA 0.16 0.32Na
C 1.0 1.0 1.0 SB 0.20 0.40Na
Notes for Tables 208.4 and 208.5: SC 0.24 0.40Na
1
The Near-Source Factor may be based on the linear interpolation SD 0.28 0.44Na
of values for distances other than those shown in the table. SE 0.34 0.44Na
2
The closest distance to seismic source shall be taken as the SF See Footnote 1 of Table 208-8
minimum distance between the site and the area described by the
vertical projection of the source on the surface (i.e., surface Table 208-8 - Seismic Coefficient, Cv
projection of fault plane). The surface projection need not include
portions of the source at depths of 10 km or greater. The largest Soil Profile Seismic Zone Z
value of the Near-Source Factor considering all sources shall be Type Z=0.2 Z=0.4
used for design.
SA 0.16 0.32NV
SB 0.20 0.40NV
SC 0.32 0.56NV
SD 0.40 0.64NV
SE 0.64 0.96NV
SF See Footnote 1 of Table 208-8
1
Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response
analysis shall be performed to determine seismic coefficients.

208.4.5 Configuration Requirements.


Each structure shall be designated as being structurally
regular or irregular in accordance with Sections 208.4.5.1
and 208.4.5.2.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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208.4.5.1 Regular Structures.


Regular structures have no significant physical 208.4.6.3 Moment Resisting Frame System.
discontinuities in plan or vertical configuration or in their
lateral-force-resisting systems such as the irregular A structural system with an essentially complete space
features described in Section 208.4.5.2. frame providing support for gravity loads. Moment-
resisting frames provide resistance to lateral load
primarily by flexural action of members.
208.4.5.2 Irregular Structures.
1. Irregular structures have significant physical 208.4.6.4 Dual System.
discontinuities in configuration or in their lateral- A structural system with the following features:
force-resisting systems. Irregular features include, but
are not limited to, those described in Tables 208-9 1. An essentially complete space frame that provides
and 208-10. All structures in occupancy Categories 4 support for gravity loads.
and 5 in Seismic Zone 2 need to be evaluated only for 2. Resistance to lateral load is provided by shear walls
vertical irregularities of Type 5 (Table 208-9) and or braced frames and moment-resisting frames
horizontal irregularities of Type 1 (Table 208-10). (SMRF, IMRF, MMRWF or steel OMRF). The
2. Structures having any of the features listed in Table moment-resisting frames shall be designed to
208-9 shall be designated as if having a vertical independently resist at least 25 percent of the design
irregularity. base shear.
Exception: 3. The two systems shall be designed to resist the total
design base shear in proportion to their relative
Where no story drift ratio under design lateral forces is
rigidities considering the interaction of the dual
greater than 1.3 times the story drift ratio of the story
system at all levels.
above, the structure may be deemed to not have the
structural irregularities of Type 1 or 2 in Table 208-9.
The story drift ratio for the top two stories need not be
considered. The story drifts for this determination may be
calculated neglecting torsional effects.
3. Structures having any of the features listed in Table
208-10 shall be designated as having a plan
irregularity.

208.4.6 Structural Systems.


Structural systems shall be classified as one of the types
listed in Table 208-11 and defined in this section.

208.4.6.1 Bearing Wall System.


A structural system without a complete vertical load-
carrying space frame. Bearing walls or bracing systems
provide support for all or most gravity loads. Resistance
to lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced
frames.

208.4.6.2 Building Frame System.


A structural system with an essentially complete space
frame providing support for gravity loads. Resistance to
lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced frames.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-77

Table 208-9 Vertical Structural Irregularities Table 208-10 Horizontal Structural Irregularities
Reference Reference
Irregularity Type and Definition Irregularity Type and Definition
Section Section
1. Stiffness Irregularity – Soft 1. Torsional Irregularity - To Be
Story Considered When Diaphragms Are
A soft story is one in which the Not Flexible
208.4.8.3
lateral stiffness is less than 70 percent Torsional irregularly shall be
Item 2
of that in the story above or less than considered to exist when the 208.8.2.8
80 percent of the average stiffness of maximum story drift, computed Item 6
the three stories above. including accidental torsion, at one
2. Weight (Mass) Irregularity end of the structure transverse to an
Mass irregularity shall be considered axis is more than 1.2 times the
to exist where the effective mass of 208.4.8.3 average of the story drifts of the two
any story is more than 150 percent of Item 2 ends of the structure.
the effective mass of an adjacent 2. Re-Entrant Corner Irregularity
story. A roof that is lighter than the Plan configurations of a structure and
floor below need not be considered. its lateral-force-resisting system 208.8.2.8
3. Vertical Geometric Irregularity contain re-entrant corners, where both Items 6
Vertical geometric irregularity shall projections of the structure beyond a and 7
be considered to exist where the re-entrant corner are greater than 15
horizontal dimension of the lateral- 208.4.8.3 percent of the plan dimension of the
force-resisting system in any story is Item 2 structure in the given direction.
more than 130 percent of that in an 3. Diaphragm Discontinuity
adjacent story. One-story penthouses Irregularity
need not be considered. Diaphragms with abrupt dis-
4. In-Plane Discontinuity In Vertical continuities or variations in stiffness,
Lateral-Force-Resisting Element including those having cutout or open 208.8.2.8
Irregularity areas greater than 50 percent of the Item 6
208.5.8.1
An in-plane offset of the lateral-load- gross enclosed area of the diaphragm,
resisting elements greater than the or changes in effective diaphragm
length of those elements. stiffness of more than 50 percent from
5. Discontinuity In Capacity – Weak one story to the next.
Story Irregularity 4. Out-Of-Plane Offsets Irregularity 208.5.8.1
A weak story is one in which the Discontinuities in a lateral force path, 208.8.2.8
story strength is less than 80 percent such as out-of-plane offsets of the Item 6;
of that in the story above. The story 208.4.9.1 vertical elements 515.7
strength is the total strength of all 5. Nonparallel Systems Irregularity
seismic-resisting elements sharing The vertical lateral-load-resisting
the story for the direction under elements are not parallel to or 208.8.1
consideration. symmetric about the major orthogonal
axes of the lateral-force systems.
208.4.6.5 Cantilevered Column System.
A structural system relying on cantilevered column 208.4.7 Height Limits.
elements for lateral resistance. Height limits for the various structural systems in Seismic
Zone 4 are given in Table 208-11.
208.4.6.6 Undefined Structural System. Exception:
A structural system not listed in Table 208-11. Regular structures may exceed these limits by not more
than 50 percent for unoccupied structures, which are not
accessible to the general public.
208.4.6.7 Nonbuilding Structural System.
A structural system conforming to Section 208.9.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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208.4.8 Selection of Lateral Force procedure. 3. Structures over five stories or 20 meters in height in
Any structure may be, and certain structures defined Seismic Zones 4 not having the same structural
below shall be, designed using the dynamic lateral-force system throughout their height except as permitted by
procedures of Section 208.6. Section 208.6.2.
4. Structures, regular or irregular, located on Soil
208.4.8.1 Simplified Static. Profile Type SF, that have a period greater than 0.7
second. The analysis shall include the effects of the
The simplified static lateral-force procedure set forth in
soils at the site and shall conform to Section 208.6.2,
Section 208.5.2.3 may be used for the following
Item 4.
structures of Occupancy Category IV or V:
1. Buildings of any occupancy (including single-family
208.4.9 System Limitations
dwellings) not more than three stories in height
excluding basements that use light-frame
construction. 208.4.9.1 Discontinuity.
2. Other buildings not more than two stories in height Structures with a discontinuity in capacity, vertical
excluding basements. irregularity Type 5 as defined in Table 208-9, shall not be
over two stories or 9 meters in height where the weak
story has a calculated strength of less than 65 percent of
208.4.8.2 Static. the story above.
The static lateral force procedure of Section 208.5 may be
Exception:
used for the following structures:
Where the weak story is capable of resisting a total
1. All structures, regular or irregular in Occupancy lateral seismic force of Ωo times the design force
Categories IV and V in Seismic Zone 2. prescribed in Section 208.5.
2. Regular structures under 75 meters in height with
lateral force resistance provided by systems listed in 208.4.9.2 Undefined Structural Systems.
Table 208-11, except where Section 208.4.8.3, Item
4, applies. For undefined structural systems not listed in Table 208-
11, the coefficient R shall be substantiated by approved
3. Irregular structures not more than five stories or 20 cyclic test data and analyses. The following items shall be
meters in height. addressed when establishing R:
4. Structures having a flexible upper portion supported 1. Dynamic response characteristics,
on a rigid lower portion where both portions of the
structure considered separately can be classified as 2. Lateral force resistance,
being regular, the average story stiffness of the lower 3. Overstrength and strain hardening or softening,
portion is at least 10 times the average story stiffness
of the upper portion and the period of the entire 4. Strength and stiffness degradation,
structure is not greater than 1.1 times the period of 5. Energy dissipation characteristics,
the upper portion considered as a separate structure
fixed at the base. 6. System ductility, and
7. Redundancy.
208.4.8.3 Dynamic.
The dynamic lateral-force procedure of Section 208.6 208.4.9.3 Irregular Features.
shall be used for all other structures, including the All structures having irregular features described in Table
following: 208-9 or 208-10 shall be designed to meet the additional
1. Structures 75 meters or more in height, except as requirements of those sections referenced in the tables.
permitted by Section 208.4.8.2, Item 1.
2. Structures having a stiffness, weight or geometric 208.4.10 Alternative Procedures.
vertical irregularity of Type 1, 2 or 3, as defined in Alternative lateral-force procedures using rational
Table 208-9, or structures having irregular features analyses based on well-established principles of
not described in Table 208-9 or 208-10, except as mechanics may be used in lieu of those prescribed in
permitted by Section 208.5.4.1. these provisions.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-79

208.4.10.1 Seismic Isolation. AB = the ground floor area of the structure, in m2.
Seismic isolation, energy dissipation and damping
systems may be used in the design of structures when For any given Story Level i, the element-story shear ratio
approved by the building official and when special is denoted as ri. The maximum element-story shear ratio
detailing is used to provide results equivalent to those rmax is defined as the largest of the element story shear
obtained by the use of conventional structural systems. ratios, ri, which occurs in any of the story levels at or
below the two-thirds height level of the building.

208.5 Minimum Design Lateral Forces and Related For braced frames, the value of ri is equal to the
Effects maximum horizontal force component in a single brace
element divided by the total story shear.
208.5.1 Earthquake Loads and Modeling
Requirements For moment frames, ri shall be taken as the maximum of
the sum of the shears in any two adjacent columns in a
moment frame bay divided by the story shear. For
208.5.1.1 Earthquake Loads. columns common to two bays with moment-resisting
Structures shall be designed for ground motion producing connections on opposite sides at Level i in the direction
structural response and seismic forces in any horizontal under consideration, 70 percent of the shear in that
direction. The following earthquake loads shall be used in column may be used in the column shear summation.
the load combinations set forth in Section 203:
For shear walls, ri shall be taken as the maximum value of
E = ρEh + Ev (208-1)
the product of the wall shear multiplied by 3 / l w and
Em = Ω o Eh (208-2) divided by the total story shear, where lw is the length of
the wall in meter.
where:
E = the earthquake load on an element of the structure For dual systems, ri shall be taken as the maximum value
resulting from the combination of the horizontal of ri as defined above considering all lateral-load-resisting
component, Eh, and the vertical component, Ev. elements. The lateral loads shall be distributed to
Eh = the earthquake load due to the base shear, V, as set elements based on relative rigidities considering the
forth in Section 208.5.2 or the design lateral force, interaction of the dual system. For dual systems, the value
Fp, as set forth in Section 208.7. of ρ need not exceed 80 percent of the value calculated
Em = the estimated maximum earthquake force that can above.
be developed in the structure as set forth in Section
208.5.1.1, and used in the design of specific ρ shall not be taken less than 1.0 and need not be greater
elements of the structure, as specifically identified than 1.5. For special moment-resisting frames, except
in this code. when used in dual systems, ρ shall not exceed 1.25. The
Ev = the load effect resulting from the vertical number of bays of special moment-resisting frames shall
component of the earthquake ground motion and is be increased to reduce r, such that ρ is less than or equal
equal to an addition of 0.5Ca ID to the dead load to 1.25.
effect, D, for Strength Design, and may be taken as Exception:
zero for Allowable Stress Design. AB may be taken as the average floor area in the upper
Ωo = the seismic force amplification factor that is setback portion of the building where a larger base area
required to account for structural overstrength, as exists at the ground floor.
set forth in Section 208.5.3.1.
ρ = Reliability/Redundancy Factor as given by the When calculating drift, or when the structure is located in
following equation:
Seismic Zone 2, ρ shall be taken equal to 1.0.
6.1
ρ = 2− (208-3) The ground motion producing lateral response and design
rmax AB
seismic forces may be assumed to act non-concurrently in
rmax = the maximum element-story shear ratio. For a the direction of each principal axis of the structure, except
given direction of loading, the element-story shear as required by Section 208.8.1.
ratio is the ratio of the design story shear in the
most heavily loaded single element divided by the Seismic dead load, W, is the total dead load and
total design story shear. applicable portions of other loads listed below.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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1. In storage and warehouse occupancies, a minimum of 2.5Ca I


25 percent of the floor live load shall be applicable. V = W (208-5)
R
2. Where a partition load is used in the floor design, a
load of not less than 0.5 kN/m2 shall be included. The total design base shear shall not be less than the
following:
3. Total weight of permanent equipment shall be
included. V = 0.11Ca IW (208-6)

208.5.1.2 Modeling Requirements. In addition, for Seismic Zone 4, the total base shear shall
also not be less than the following:
The mathematical model of the physical structure shall
include all elements of the lateral-force-resisting system. 0.8ZN v I
The model shall also include the stiffness and strength of V= W (208-7)
R
elements, which are significant to the distribution of
forces, and shall represent the spatial distribution of the
mass and stiffness of the structure. In addition, the model 208.5.2.2 Structure Period.
shall comply with the following: The value of T shall be determined from one of the
following methods:
1. Stiffness properties of reinforced concrete and
masonry elements shall consider the effects of
cracked sections. 1. Method A:

2. For steel moment frame systems, the contribution of For all buildings, the value T may be approximated from
panel zone deformations to overall story drift shall be the following equation:
included.
T = Ct (hn )3 / 4 (208-8)

where:
208.5.1.3 P∆ ∆ Effects.
The resulting member forces and moments and the story Ct = 0.0853 for steel moment-resisting frames.
drifts induced by P∆ effects shall be considered in the Ct = 0.0731 for reinforced concrete moment-
evaluation of overall structural frame stability and shall be resisting frames and eccentrically braced frames.
evaluated using the forces producing the displacements of Ct = 0.0488 for all other buildings.
∆S. P∆ need not be considered when the ratio of
secondary moment to primary moment does not exceed Alternatively, the value of Ct for structures with concrete
0.10; the ratio may be evaluated for any story as the or masonry shear walls may be taken as
product of the total dead and floor live loads, as required 0.07433 / Ac with Ac in square meter.
in Section 203, above the story times the seismic drift in
that story divided by the product of the seismic shear in
The value of Ac shall be determined from the following
that story times the height of that story. In Seismic Zone
equation:
4, P∆ need not be considered when the story drift ratio
does not exceed 0.02 / R. Ac = ∑ A [0.2 + ( D / h ) ] `
e e n
2
(208-9)

208.5.2 Static Force Procedure. The value of De / hn used in Equation (208-9) shall not
exceed 0.9.
208.5.2.1 Design Base Shear.
The total design base shear in a given direction shall be 2. Method B:
determined from the following equation: The fundamental period T may be calculated using the
structural properties and deformational characteristics of
Cv I
V = W (208-4) the resisting elements in a properly substantiated analysis.
RT The analysis shall be in accordance with the requirements
of Section 208.5.1.2. The value of T from Method B shall
The total design base shear need not exceed the not exceed a value 30 percent greater than the value of T
following: obtained from Method A in Seismic Zone 4, and 40
percent in Seismic Zone 2.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-81

Table 208-11A Earthquake-Force-Resisting Structural Systems of Concrete


System Limitation and
Building Height Limitation by
Basic Seismic-Force Resisting System R Ω0
Seismic Zone (meters)
Zone 2 Zone 4
A. Bearing Wall Systems
• Special reinforced concrete shear walls 4.5 2.8 NL 30
• Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls 4.5 2.8 NL NP
• Detailed plain concrete shear walls 3.0 2.2 NL NP
• Ordinary plain concrete shear walls 2.0 2.2 NL NP
• Intermediate precast shear walls 4.5 2.8 NL NP
• Ordinary precast shear walls 3.5 2.2 NL NP
B. Building Frame Systems
• Special reinforced concrete shear walls 6.0 2.8 NL 48
• Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls 5.0 2.8 NL NP
• Detailed plain concrete shear walls 3.0 2.2 NP NP
• Ordinary plain concrete shear walls 2.0 2.2 NP NP
• Intermediate precast shear walls 5.5 2.8 NL 12
• Ordinary precast shear walls 3.5 2.2 NP NP
C. Moment-resisting Frame Systems
• Special reinforced concrete moment frames 8.5 2.8 NL NL
• Intermediate reinforced concrete moment
5.5 2.8 NL NP
frames
• Ordinary reinforced concrete moment frames 3.5 2.8 NP NP
D. Dual System with Special Moment Frames
• Special reinforced concrete shear walls 8.5 2.8 NL NL
• Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls 6.5 2.8 NP NP
E. Dual System with Intermediate Moment Frames
• Special reinforced concrete shear walls 6.5 2.8 NL 18
• Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls 6.5 2.8 NL NP
• Shear wall frame interactive system with
ordinary reinforced concrete moment frames 4.2 2.8 NP NP
and ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls
F. Cantilevered Column Systems Detailed to
Conform to the Requirements for:
• Special reinforced concrete moment frames 2.5 2.2 10 10
• Intermediate reinforced concrete moment
1.5 2.2 10 NP
frames
• Ordinary reinforced concrete moment frames 1.0 2.2 NP NP

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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Table 208-11B Earthquake-Force-Resisting Structural Systems of Steel


System Limitation and
Building Height Limitation by
Basic Seismic-Force Resisting System R Ω0
Seismic Zone (meters)
Zone 2 Zone 4
A. Bearing Wall Systems
• Light-framed wall sheathed with wood
structural panels rated for shear resistance or 5.5 2.8 NL 20
steel sheets
• Light-framed walls with shear panels of all
4.5 2.8 NL 20
other materials
• Light-framed wall systems using flat strap
2.8 2.2 NL NP
bracing
B. Building Frame Systems
• Steel eccentrically braced frames, moment-
resisting connections at columns away from 8.5 2.8 NL 48
links
• Steel EBF, non-moment-resisting connections
7.0 2.8 NL 30
at columns away from links
• Special steel CBF 6.4 2.2 NL 50
• Ordinary steel CBF 5.6 2.2 NL 30
• Light-framed walls sheathed with wood
6.5 2.8 NL 20
structural panels / sheet steel panels
• Light frame walls with shear panels of all other
5.0 2.8 NL NP
materials
• Buckling-restrained braced frames, non
7.0 2.8 NL 30
moment-resisting beam-column connection
• Buckling-restrained braced frames, moment-
8.5 2.8 NL 30
resisting beam-column connections
• Special steel plate shear walls 7.0 2.8 NL 30
C. Moment-resisting Frame Systems
• Special steel moment frames 8.5 2.8 NL NL
• Special steel truss moment frames 6.5 2.8 NL NP
• Intermediate steel moment frames 5.5 2.8 NL NP
• Ordinary steel moment frames 4.5 2.8 NL NP
D. Dual System with Special Moment Frames
• Steel EBF 8.5 2.8 NL NL
• Special steel CBF 7.0 2.8 NL NL
• Buckling-restrained braced frames 8.5 2.8 NL NL
• Special Steel plate shear walls 8.5 2.8 NL NL
E. Dual System with Intermediate Moment Frames
• Special steel CBF 6.5 2.8 NL NP
F. Cantilevered Column Systems Detailed to
Conform to the Requirements for:
• Special steel moment frames 2.2 2.0 10 10
• Intermediate steel moment frames 1.2 2.0 10 NP
• Ordinary steel moment frames 1.0 2.0 10 NP
G. Others
• Structural steel systems not specifically
4.2 2.8 NL NP
detailed for seismic resistance

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-83

Table 208-11C Earthquake-Force-Resisting Structural Systems of Masonry


System Limitation and
Building Height Limitation by
Basic Seismic-Force Resisting System R Ω0
Seismic Zone (meters)
Zone 2 Zone 4
A. Bearing Wall Systems
• Special reinforced masonry shear walls 4.5 2.8 NL 30
• Intermediate reinforced masonry shear walls 3.0 2.8 NL NP
• Ordinary reinforced masonry shear walls 1.5 2.8 48 NP
• Detailed plain masonry shear walls 1.5 2.8 NP NP
• Ordinary plain masonry shear walls 1.0 2.8 NP NP
• Prestressed masonry shear walls 1.0 2.8 NP NP
B. Building Frame Systems
• Special reinforced masonry shear walls 5.5 2.8 NL 30
• Intermediate reinforced masonry shear walls 4.0 2.8 NL NP
• Ordinary reinforced masonry shear walls 2.0 2.8 48 NP
• Detailed plain masonry shear walls 2.0 2.8 NP NP
• Ordinary plain masonry shear walls 1.5 2.8 NP NP
• Prestressed masonry shear walls 1.5 2.8 NP NP
C. Moment Resisting Frame System
• Masonry wall frames 5.5 2.8 NL 30
D. Dual System with Special Moment Frames
• Special reinforced masonry shear walls 5.5 2.8 48 48
• Intermediate reinforced masonry shear walls 5.5 2.8 NL NP
• Ordinary reinforced masonry shear walls 5.5 2.8 NL NP
E. Dual System with Intermediate Moment Frames
• Intermediate reinforced masonry shear walls 5.5 2.8 NL NP
• Ordinary reinforced masonry shear walls 4.2 2.8 48 NP
F. Dual System with Ordinary Moment Frames of
Steel
• Special reinforced masonry shear walls 4.2 2.8 NL 48
• Ordinary reinforced masonry shear walls 4.2 2.8 NL NP

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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Table 208-11D Earthquake-Force-Resisting Structural Systems of Wood


System Limitation and
Building Height Limitation by
Basic Seismic-Force Resisting System R Ω0
Seismic Zone (meters)
Zone 2 Zone 4
A. Bearing Wall Systems
• Light-framed walls sheathed with Wood
Structural Panels rated for shear resistance or 6.0 2.8 NL 20
steel sheets
• Light-framed walls with shear panels of all
1.5 2.2 NL NP
other materials
• Light-framed walls with wood shear panels
5.5 2.8 NL 20
walls for structures three stories or less
• All other light framed walls 4.5 2.8 NL 20
• Heavy timber braced frames where bracing
2.8 2.2 NL 20
carries gravity load
B. Building Frame Systems
• Light-framed walls sheathed with wood
structural panels rated for shear resistance or 6.5 2.8 20 20
steel sheets
• Light frame walls with shear panels walls of
5.0 2.8 20 20
all other materials
• Ordinary heavy timber braced frames 5.6 2.2 20 20
C. Cantilevered Column Systems Detailed to
Conform to the Requirements for:
• Timber frames 1.5 2.2 10 NP

The fundamental period T may be computed by using the 3Ca


V = W` (208-11)
following equation: r
where the value of Ca shall be based on Table 208-7 for
 n 

 the soil profile type. When the soil properties are not
wiδ i2 
  known in sufficient detail to determine the soil profile
T = 2π  i =1  (208-10) type, Type SD shall be used in Seismic Zone 4, and Type
 n  SE shall be used in Seismic Zones 2. In Seismic Zone 4,
g
 ∑ f iδ i 
 the Near-Source Factor, Na, need not be greater than 1.3 if
 i =1  none of the following structural irregularities are present:
1. Type 1, 4 or 5 of Table 208-9, or
The values of fi represent any lateral force distributed
approximately in accordance with the principles of 2. Type 1 or 4 of Table 208-10.
Equations (208-13), (208-14) and (208-15) or any other
rational distribution. The elastic deflections, δi, shall be 208.5.2.3.2 Vertical Distribution.
calculated using the applied lateral forces, fi.
The forces at each level shall be calculated using the
following equation:
208.5.2.3 Simplified Design Base Shear.
3Ca
Structures conforming to the requirements of Section Fx = wi (208-12)
208.4.8.1 may be designed using this procedure. R
where the value of Ca shall be determined as in Section
208.5.2.3.1.
208.5.2.3.1 Base Shear.
The total design base shear in a given direction shall be
determined from the following equation:

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-85

208.5.2.3.3 Applicability.
Sections 208.5.1.2, 208.5.1.3, 208.5.2.1, 208.5.2.2, Structures may be designed using the procedures of this
208.5.5, 208.5.9, 208.5.10 and 208.6 shall not apply when section under the following conditions:
using the simplified procedure. 1. The entire structure is designed using the lowest R of
Exception: the lateral-force-resisting systems used, or
For buildings with relatively flexible structural systems, 2. The following two-stage static analysis procedures
the building official may require consideration of P∆ may be used for structures conforming to Section
effects and drift in accordance with Sections 208.5.1.3, 208.4.8.2, Item 4.
208.5.9 and 208.5.10. ∆s shall be determined using 2.1 The flexible upper portion shall be designed as a
design seismic forces from Section 208.5.2.3.1.
separate structure, supported laterally by the
rigid lower portion, using the appropriate values
Where used, ∆M shall be taken equal to 0.01 times the of R and ρ.
story height of all stories. In Section 208.8.2.8, Equation
3C 2.2 The rigid lower portion shall be designed as a
(208-20) shall read F px = a w px and need not exceed separate structure using the appropriate values of
R
R and ρ. The reactions from the upper portion
Ca w px , but shall not be less than 0.5Ca w px . R and Ωo
shall be those determined from the analysis of
shall be taken from Table 208-11. the upper portion amplified by the ratio of the
(R/ρ) of the upper portion over (R/ρ) of the lower
208.5.3 Determination of Seismic Factors. portion.

208.5.3.1 Determination of Ωo . 208.5.4.2 Combinations Along Different Axes.


For specific elements of the structure, as specifically In Seismic Zone 4 where a structure has a bearing wall
identified in this code, the minimum design strength shall system in only one direction, the value of R used for
design in the orthogonal direction shall not be greater than
be the product of the seismic force overstrength factor Ωo
that used for the bearing wall system.
and the design seismic forces set forth in Section 208.5.
For both Allowable Stress Design and Strength Design,
Any combination of bearing wall systems, building frame
the Seismic Force Overstrength Factor, Ωo, shall be taken
systems, dual systems or moment-resisting frame systems
from Table 208-11.
may be used to resist seismic forces in structures less than
50 meters in height. Only combinations of dual systems
208.5.3.2 Determination of R. and special moment-resisting frames shall be used to
The value for R shall be taken from Table 208-11. resist seismic forces in structures exceeding 50 meters in
height in Seismic Zone 4.

208.5.4 Combinations of Structural Systems.


208.5.4.3 Combinations Along the Same Axis.
Where combinations of structural systems are
incorporated into the same structure, the requirements of Where a combination of different structural systems is
this section shall be satisfied. utilized to resist lateral forces in the same direction, the
value of R used for design in that direction shall not be
greater than the least value for any of the systems utilized
208.5.4.1 Vertical combinations. in that same direction.
The value of R used in the design of any story shall be
less than or equal to the value of R used in the given 208.5.5 Vertical Distribution of Force.
direction for the story above.
The total force shall be distributed over the height of the
Exception: structure in conformance with Equations (208-13), (208-
This requirement need not be applied to a story where the 14) and (208-15) in the absence of a more rigorous
dead weight above that story is less than 10 percent of the procedure.
total dead weight of the structure. n
V = Ft + ∑F
i =1
i (208-13)

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The concentrated force Ft at the top, which is in addition


to Fn, shall be determined from the equation:
208.5.7 Horizontal Torsional Moments.
Ft = 0.07TV (208-14) Provisions shall be made for the increased shears resulting
from horizontal torsion where diaphragms are not
The value of T used for the purpose of calculating Ft shall
flexible. The most severe load combination for each
be the period that corresponds with the design base shear
element shall be considered for design.
as computed using Equation (208-4). Ft need not exceed
0.25V and may be considered as zero where T is 0.7
The torsional design moment at a given story shall be the
second or less. The remaining portion of the base shear
moment resulting from eccentricities between applied
shall be distributed over the height of the structure,
design lateral forces at levels above that story and the
including Level n, according to the following equation:
vertical-resisting elements in that story plus an accidental
(V − Ft ) wx hx torsion.
Fx = n
(208-15)

∑w h
i =1
i i
The accidental torsional moment shall be determined by
assuming the mass is displaced as required by Section
208.5.6.
At each level designated as x, the force Fx shall be applied
over the area of the building in accordance with the mass Where torsional irregularity exists, as defined in Table
distribution at that level. Structural displacements and 208-10, the effects shall be accounted for by increasing
design seismic forces shall be calculated as the effect of the accidental torsion at each level by an amplification
forces Fx and Ft applied at the appropriate levels above factor, Ax, determined from the following equation:
the base.
2
 δ 
Ax =  max  (208-16)
208.5.6 Horizontal Distribution of Shear. 1.2δ avg 
The design story shear, Vx, in any story is the sum of the
forces Ft and Fx above that story. Vx shall be distributed to where:
the various elements of the vertical lateral-force-resisting δavg = the average of the displacements at the extreme
system in proportion to their rigidities, considering the points of the structure at Level x, in mm.
rigidity of the diaphragm. See Section 208.8.2.3 for rigid δmax = the maximum displacement at Level x, in mm.
elements that are not intended to be part of the lateral-
force- resisting systems. The value of Ax need not exceed 3.0.

Where diaphragms are not flexible, the mass at each level 208.5.8 Overturning.
shall be assumed to be displaced from the calculated
center of mass in each direction a distance equal to 5 Every structure shall be designed to resist the overturning
percent of the building dimension at that level effects caused by earthquake forces specified in Section
perpendicular to the direction of the force under 208.5.5. At any level, the overturning moments to be
consideration. The effect of this displacement on the resisted shall be determined using those seismic forces (Ft
story shear distribution shall be considered. and Fx) that act on levels above the level under
consideration. At any level, the incremental changes of
Diaphragms shall be considered flexible for the purposes the design overturning moment shall be distributed to the
of distribution of story shear and torsional moment when various resisting elements in the manner prescribed in
the maximum lateral deformation of the diaphragm is Section 208.5.6. Overturning effects on every element
more than two times the average story drift of the shall be carried down to the foundation. See Sections
associated story. This may be determined by comparing 207.1 and 208.8 for combining gravity and seismic forces.
the computed midpoint in-plane deflection of the
diaphragm itself under lateral load with the story drift of
adjoining vertical-resisting elements under equivalent
tributary lateral load.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-87

5. Steel elements designed primarily as axial-load


members shall comply with Sections 515.4.2 and
208.5.8.1 Elements Supporting Discontinous 515.4.3.
Systems.
6. Steel elements designed primarily as flexural
members or trusses shall have bracing for both top
208.5.8.1.1 General. and bottom beam flanges or chords at the location of
Where any portion of the lateral-load-resisting system is the support of the discontinuous system and shall
discontinuous, such as for vertical irregularity Type 4 in comply with the requirements of Section 515.6.1.3.
Table 208-9 or plan irregularity Type 4 in Table 208-10,
concrete, masonry, steel and wood elements supporting 7. Wood elements designed primarily as flexural
such discontinuous systems shall have the design strength members shall be provided with lateral bracing or
to resist the combination loads resulting from the special solid blocking at each end of the element and at the
seismic load combinations of Section 203.5. connection location(s) of the discontinuous system.

Exceptions:
208.5.8.2 At Foundation.
1. The quantity Em in Section 203.5 need not exceed the See Sections 208.4.1 and 308.4 for overturning moments
maximum force that can be transferred to the element
to be resisted at the foundation soil interface.
by the lateral-force-resisting system.
2. Concrete slabs supporting light-frame wood shear
208.5.9 Drift.
wall systems or light-frame steel and wood structural
panel shear wall systems. Drift or horizontal displacements of the structure shall be
computed where required by this code. For both
For Allowable Stress Design, the design strength may be Allowable Stress Design and Strength Design, the
determined using an allowable stress increase of 1.7 and a Maximum Inelastic Response Displacement, ∆M, of the
resistance factor, φ, of 1.0. This increase shall not be structure caused by the Design Basis Ground Motion shall
combined with the one- third stress increase permitted by be determined in accordance with this section. The drifts
Section 203.4, but may be combined with the duration of corresponding to the design seismic forces of Section
load increase permitted in Section 615.3.4. 208.5.2.1, ∆S, shall be determined in accordance with
Section 208.5.9.1. To determine ∆M, these drifts shall be
amplified in accordance with Section 208.5.9.2.
208.5.8.1.2 Detailing requirements in Seismic Zone
4.
In Seismic Zone 4, elements supporting discontinuous 208.5.9.1 Determination of ∆ S.
systems shall meet the following detailing or member A static, elastic analysis of the lateral force-resisting
limitations: system shall be prepared using the design seismic forces
1. Reinforced concrete or reinforced masonry elements from Section 208.5.2.1. Alternatively, dynamic analysis
designed primarily as axial-load members shall may be performed in accordance with Section 208.6.
comply with Section 421.4.4.5. Where Allowable Stress Design is used and where drift is
being computed, the load combinations of Section 203.3
2. Reinforced concrete elements designed primarily as shall be used. The mathematical model shall comply with
flexural members and supporting other than light- Section 208.5.1.2. The resulting deformations, denoted as
frame wood shear wall system or light-frame steel ∆S, shall be determined at all critical locations in the
and wood structural panel shear wall systems shall structure. Calculated drift shall include translational and
comply with Sections 421.3.2 and 421.3.3. Strength torsional deflections.
computations for portions of slabs designed as
supporting elements shall include only those portions
of the slab that comply with the requirements of these 208.5.9.2 Determination of ∆ M.
sections. The Maximum Inelastic Response Displacement, ∆M,
3. Masonry elements designed primarily as axial-load shall be computed as follows:
carrying members shall comply with Sections ∆ M = 0.7 R∆ S (208-17)
706.1.12.4, Item 1, and 708.2.6.2.6.
4. Masonry elements designed primarily as flexural
members shall comply with Section 708.2.6.2.5.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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Exception:
Alternatively, ∆M may be computed by nonlinear time In addition to all other applicable load combinations,
history analysis in accordance with Section 208.6.6. horizontal prestressed components shall be designed using
not more than 50 percent of the dead load for the gravity
The analysis used to determine the Maximum Inelastic load, alone or in combination with the lateral force
Response Displacement ∆M shall consider P∆ effects. effects.

208.5.10 Story Drift Limitation. 208.6 Dynamic Analysis Procedures


Story drifts shall be computed using the Maximum
Inelastic Response Displacement, ∆M. 208.6.1 General.
Dynamic analyses procedures, when used, shall conform
to the criteria established in this section. The analysis
208.5.10.1 Calculated.
shall be based on an appropriate ground motion
Calculated story drift using ∆M shall not exceed 0.025 representation and shall be performed using accepted
times the story height for structures having a fundamental principles of dynamics.
period of less than 0.7 second. For structures having a
fundamental period of 0.7 second or greater, the Structures that are designed in accordance with this
calculated story drift shall not exceed 0.020 times the section shall comply with all other applicable
story height. requirements of these provisions.
Exceptions:
1. These drift limits may be exceeded when it is 208.6.2 Ground Motion.
demonstrated that greater drift can be tolerated by The ground motion representation shall, as a minimum, be
both structural elements and nonstructural elements one having a 10-percent probability of being exceeded in
that could affect life safety. The drift used in this 50 years, shall not be reduced by the quantity R and may
assessment shall be based upon the Maximum be one of the following:
Inelastic Response Displacement, ∆M.
1. An elastic design response spectrum constructed in
2. There shall be no drift limit in single-story steel- accordance with Figure 208-3, using the values of Ca
framed structures whose primary use is limited to and Cv consistent with the specific site. The design
storage, factories or workshops. Minor accessory acceleration ordinates shall be multiplied by the
uses shall be allowed. Structures on which this acceleration of gravity, 9.815 m/sec2.
exception is used shall not have equipment attached
2. A site-specific elastic design response spectrum
to the structural frame or shall have such equipment
based on the geologic, tectonic, seismologic and soil
detailed to accommodate the additional drift. Walls
characteristics associated with the specific site. The
that are laterally supported by the steel frame shall
spectrum shall be developed for a damping ratio of
be designed to accommodate the drift in accordance
0.05, unless a different value is shown to be
with Section 208.8.2.3.
consistent with the anticipated structural behavior at
the intensity of shaking established for the site.
208.5.10.2 Limitations. 3. Ground motion time histories developed for the
The design lateral forces used to determine the calculated specific site shall be representative of actual
drift may disregard the limitations of Equation (208-6) earthquake motions. Response spectra from time
and (208-7) and may be based on the period determined histories, either individually or in combination, shall
from Equation (208-10) neglecting the 30 or 40 percent approximate the site design spectrum conforming to
limitations of Section 208.5.2.2, Item 2. Section 208.6.2, Item 2.
4. For structures on Soil Profile Type SF, the following
208.5.11 Vertical Component. requirements shall apply when required by Section
The following requirements apply in Seismic Zone 4 208.4.8.3, Item 4:
only. Horizontal cantilever components shall be designed 4.1 The ground motion representation shall be
for a net upward force of 0.7Ca IW p . developed in accordance with Items 2 and 3.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-89

4.2 Possible amplification of building response due


to the effects of soil-structure interaction and 208.6.5.1 Response Spectrum Representation and
lengthening of building period caused by Interpretation of Results.
inelastic behavior shall be considered. The ground motion representation shall be in accordance
with Section 208.6.2. The corresponding response
5. The vertical component of ground motion may be
parameters, including forces, moments and displacements,
defined by scaling corresponding horizontal
shall be denoted as Elastic Response Parameters. Elastic
accelerations by a factor of two- thirds. Alternative
Response Parameters may be reduced in accordance with
factors may be used when substantiated by site-
Section 208.6.5.4.
specific data. Where the Near Source Factor, Na, is
greater than 1.0, site-specific vertical response
spectra shall be used in lieu of the factor of two- 208.6.5.2 Number of Modes.
thirds. The requirement of Section 208.6.4.1 that all significant
modes be included may be satisfied by demonstrating that
208.6.3 Mathematical Model. for the modes considered, at least 90 percent of the
participating mass of the structure is included in the
A mathematical model of the physical structure shall
calculation of response for each principal horizontal
represent the spatial distribution of the mass and stiffness
direction.
of the structure to an extent that is adequate for the
calculation of the significant features of its dynamic
response. A three-dimensional model shall be used for 208.6.5.3 Combining Modes.
the dynamic analysis of structures with highly irregular The peak member forces, displacements, story forces,
plan configurations such as those having a plan story shears and base reactions for each mode shall be
irregularity defined in Table 208-10 and having a rigid or combined by recognized methods. When three-
semirigid diaphragm. The stiffness properties used in the dimensional models are used for analysis, modal
analysis and general mathematical modeling shall be in interaction effects shall be considered when combining
accordance with Section 208.5.1.2. modal maxima.

208.6.4 Description of Analysis Procedures. 208.6.5.4 Reduction of Elastic Response Parameters


for Design.
208.6.4.1 Response Spectrum Analysis. Elastic Response Parameters may be reduced for purposes
An elastic dynamic analysis of a structure utilizing the of design in accordance with the following items, with the
peak dynamic response of all modes having a significant limitation that in no case shall the Elastic Response
contribution to total structural response. Peak modal Parameters be reduced such that the corresponding design
responses are calculated using the ordinates of the base shear is less than the Elastic Response Base Shear
appropriate response spectrum curve which correspond to divided by the value of R.
the modal periods. Maximum modal contributions are 1. For all regular structures where the ground motion
combined in a statistical manner to obtain an approximate representation complies with Section 208.6.2, Item 1,
total structural response. Elastic Response Parameters may be reduced such
that the corresponding design base shear is not less
208.6.4.2 Time History Analysis. than 90 percent of the base shear determined in
accordance with Section 208.5.2.
An analysis of the dynamic response of a structure at each
increment of time when the base is subjected to a specific 2. For all regular structures where the ground motion
ground motion time history. representation complies with Section 208.6.2, Item 2,
Elastic Response Parameters may be reduced such
that the corresponding design base shear is not less
208.6.5 Response Spectrum Analysis. than 80 percent of the base shear determined in
accordance with Section 208.5.2.
3. For all irregular structures, regardless of the ground
motion representation, Elastic Response Parameters
may be reduced such that the corresponding design
base shear is not less than 100 percent of the base
shear determined in accordance with Section 208.5.2.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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The corresponding reduced design seismic forces shall be 0.2T second to 1.5T seconds. Each pair of time histories
used for design in accordance with Section 203. shall be applied simultaneously to the model considering
torsional effects.
208.6.5.5 Directional Effects.
The parameter of interest shall be calculated for each
Directional effects for horizontal ground motion shall time- history analysis. If three time-history analyses are
conform to the requirements of Section 208.5.1. The performed, then the maximum response of the parameter
effects of vertical ground motions on horizontal of interest shall be used for design. If seven or more time-
cantilevers and prestressed elements shall be considered history analyses are performed, then the average value of
in accordance with Section 208.5.11. Alternately, vertical the response parameter of interest may be used for design.
seismic response may be determined by dynamic response
methods; in no case shall the response used for design be
less than that obtained by the static method. 208.6.6.2 Elastic Time History Analysis.
Elastic time history shall conform to Sections 208.6.1,
208.6.2, 208.6.3, 208.6.5.2, 208.6.5.4, 208.6.5.5,
208.6.5.6 Torsion.
208.6.5.6, 208.6.5.7 and 208.6.6.1. Response parameters
The analysis shall account for torsional effects, including from elastic time-history analysis shall be denoted as
accidental torsional effects as prescribed in Section Elastic Response Parameters. All elements shall be
208.5.7. Where three-dimensional models are used for designed using Strength Design. Elastic Response
analysis, effects of accidental torsion shall be accounted Parameters may be scaled in accordance with Section
for by appropriate adjustments in the model such as 208.6.5.4.
adjustment of mass locations, or by equivalent static
procedures such as provided in Section 208.5.6.
208.6.6.3 Nonlinear Time History Analysis.

208.6.5.7 Dual Systems.


208.6.6.3.1 Nonlinear Time History.
Where the lateral forces are resisted by a dual system as
defined in Section 208.4.6.4, the combined system shall Nonlinear time history analysis shall meet the
be capable of resisting the base shear determined in requirements of Section 208.4.10, and time histories shall
accordance with this section. The moment-resisting frame be developed and results determined in accordance with
shall conform to Section 208.4.6.4, Item 2, and may be the requirements of Section 208.6.6.1. Capacities and
analyzed using either the procedures of Section 208.5.5 or characteristics of nonlinear elements shall be modeled
those of Section 208.6.5. consistent with test data or substantiated analysis,
considering the Importance Factor. The maximum
inelastic response displacement shall not be reduced and
208.6.6 Time History Analysis. shall comply with Section 208.5.10.

208.6.6.1 Time History. 208.6.6.3.2 Design Review.


Time-history analysis shall be performed with pairs of When nonlinear time-history analysis is used to justify a
appropriate horizontal ground-motion time- history structural design, a design review of the lateral- force-
components that shall be selected and scaled from not less resisting system shall be performed by an independent
than three recorded events. Appropriate time histories engineering team, including persons licensed in the
shall have magnitudes, fault distances and source appropriate disciplines and experienced in seismic
mechanisms that are consistent with those that control the analysis methods. The lateral-force-resisting system
design-basis earthquake (or maximum capable design review shall include, but not be limited to, the
earthquake). Where three appropriate recorded ground- following:
motion time-history pairs are not available, appropriate 1. Reviewing the development of site-specific spectra
simulated ground-motion time-history pairs may be used and ground-motion time histories.
to make up the total number required. For each pair of
horizontal ground- motion components, the square root of 2. Reviewing the preliminary design of the lateral-
the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the 5 percent-damped force-resisting system.
site-specific spectrum of the scaled horizontal 3. Reviewing the final design of the lateral-force-
components shall be constructed. The motions shall be resisting system and all supporting analyses.
scaled such that the average value of the SRSS spectra
does not fall below 1.4 times the 5 percent-damped
spectrum of the design-basis earthquake for periods from

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-91

The engineer-of-record shall submit with the plans and


where:
calculations a statement by all members of the
engineering team doing the review stating that the above hx = the element or component attachment elevation
review has been performed. with respect to grade. hx shall not be taken less than
0.0.
hr = the structure roof elevation with respect to grade.
208.7 Lateral Force on Elements of Structures,
ap = the in-structure Component Amplification Factor
Nonstructural Components and Equipment Supported
that varies from 1.0 to 2.5.
by Structures
A value for ap shall be selected from Table 208-12.
208.7.1 General. Alternatively, this factor may be determined based on the
Elements of structures and their attachments, permanent dynamic properties or empirical data of the component
nonstructural components and their attachments, and the and the structure that supports it. The value shall not be
attachments for permanent equipment supported by a taken less than 1.0.
structure shall be designed to resist the total design
seismic forces prescribed in Section 208.7.2. Rp is the Component Response Modification Factor that
shall be taken from Table 208-12, except that Rp for
Attachments for floor- or roof-mounted equipment anchorages shall equal 1.5 for shallow expansion anchor
weighing less than 1.8 kN, and furniture need not be bolts, shallow chemical anchors or shallow cast-in-place
designed. anchors. Shallow anchors are those with an embedment
length-to-diameter ratio of less than 8. When anchorage is
Attachments shall include anchorages and required constructed of nonductile materials, or by use of adhesive,
bracing. Friction resulting from gravity loads shall not be Rp shall equal 1.0.
considered to provide resistance to seismic forces.
The design lateral forces determined using Equation (208-
When the structural failure of the lateral-force-resisting 18) or (208-19) shall be distributed in proportion to the
systems of nonrigid equipment would cause a life hazard, mass distribution of the element or component.
such systems shall be designed to resist the seismic forces
prescribed in Section 208.7.2. Forces determined using Equation (208-18) or (208-19)
shall be used to design members and connections that
When permissible design strengths and other acceptance transfer these forces to the seismic-resisting systems.
criteria are not contained in or referenced by this code, Members and connection design shall use the load
such criteria shall be obtained from approved national combinations and factors specified in Section 203.3 or
standards subject to the approval of the building official. 203.4. The Reliability/Redundancy Factor, ρ, may be
taken equal to 1.0.

208.7.2 Design for Total Lateral Force. For applicable forces and Component Response
The total design lateral seismic force, Fp, shall be Modification Factors in connectors for exterior panels and
determined from the following equation: diaphragms, refer to Sections 208.8.2.3, 208.8.2.7, and
208.8.2.8.
Fp = 4Ca I pW p (208-18)
Forces shall be applied in the horizontal directions, which
Alternatively, Fp may be calculated using the following
result in the most critical loadings for design.
equation:
a p Ca I p  h  208.7.3 Specifying Lateral Forces
Fp = 1 + 3 x W p (208-19)
Rp  hr  Design specifications for equipment shall either specify
the design lateral forces prescribed herein or reference
Except that Fp shall not be less than 0.7Ca I pW p and these provisions.
need not be more than 4C a I pW p .

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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Table 208-12 Horizontal Force Factors, ap and Rp for


Elements of Structures and Nonstructural Components and Equipment
Category Element or Component ap Rp Footnote

1. Walls including the following:

a. Unbraced (cantilevered) parapets 2.5 3.0

b. Exterior walls at or above the ground floor and parapets braced


1.0 3.0 2
1. Elements of above their centers of gravity
Structures
c. All interior-bearing and non-bearing walls 1.0 3.0 2

2. Penthouse (except when framed by an extension of the structural


2.5 4.0
frame)
3. Connections for prefabricated structural elements other walls. See also
1.0 3.0 3
Section 208.7.2

1. Exterior and interior ornamentations and appendages. 2.5 3.0

2. Chimneys, stacks and trussed towers supported on or projecting above


the roof
a. Laterally braced or anchored to the structural frame at a point
2.5 3.0
below their centers of mass
b. Laterally braced or anchored to the structural frame at or above
1.0 3.0
their centers of mass

3. Signs and billboards 2.5 3.0

2. Nonstructural
4. Storage racks (include contents) over 1.8 meters tall. 2.5 4.0 4
Components
5. Permanent floor-supported cabinets and book stacks more than 1.8
1.0 3.0 5
meters in height (include contents)

6. Anchorage and lateral bracing for suspended ceilings and light fixtures 1.0 3.0 3, 6, 7, 8

7. Access floor systems 1.0 3.0 4, 5, 9

8. Masonry or concrete fences over 1.8 meters high 1.0 3.0

9. Partitions. 1.0 3.0

1. Tanks and vessels (include contents), including support systems. 1.0 3.0

2. Electrical, mechanical and plumbing equipment and associated conduit 5, 10, 11, 12,
1.0 3.0
and ductwork and piping. 13, 14, 15, 16
3. Any flexible equipment laterally braced or anchored to the structural 5, 10, 14,
2.5 3.0
3. Equipment frame at a point below their center of mass 15, 16
4. Anchorage of emergency power supply systems and essential
communications equipment. Anchorage and support systems for
1.0 3.0 17, 18
battery racks and fuel tanks necessary for operation of emergency
equipment. See also Section 208.7.2
5. Temporary containers with flammable or hazardous materials. 1.0 3.0 19

1. Rigid components with ductile material and attachments. 1.0 3.0 1

2. Rigid components with nonductile material or attachments 1.0 1.5 1


4. Other
Components
3. Flexible components with ductile material and attachments. 2.5 3.0 1

4. Flexible components with nonductile material or attachments. 2.5 1.5 1

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CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-93

FOOTNOTES FOR TABLE 208.12


1
See Section 208.2 for definitions of flexible components and rigid components.
2
See Section 208.8.2.3 and 208.8.2.7 for concrete and masonry walls and Section 208.7.2 for connections for panel connectors for panels.
3
Applies to Seismic Zones 2 and 4 only.
4
Ground supported steel storage racks may be designed using the provisions of Sections 208.9. Load and resistance factor design may be
used for the design of cold-formed steel members, provided seismic design forces are equal to or greater than those specified in Section
208.7.2 or 208.9.2 as appropriate.
5
Only anchorage or restraints need be designed.
6
Ceiling weight shall include all light fixtures and other equipment or partitions that are laterally supported by the ceiling. For purposes
of determining the seismic force, a ceiling weight of not less than 0.2 kPa shall be used.
7
Ceilings constructed of lath and plaster or gypsum board screw or nail attached to suspended members that support a ceiling at one
level extending from wall to wall need not be analyzed, provided the walls are not over 15 meters apart.
8
Light fixtures and mechanical services installed in metal suspension systems for acoustical tile and lay-in panel ceilings shall be
independently supported from the structure above as specified in UBC Standard 25-2, Part III.
9
WP for access floor systems shall be the dead load of the access floor system plus 25 percent of the floor live load plus a 0.5 kPa partition
load allowance.
10
Equipment includes, but is not limited to, boilers, chillers, heat exchangers, pumps, air-handling units, cooling towers, control panels,
motors, switchgear, transformers and life-safety equipment. It shall include major conduit, ducting and piping, which services such
machinery and equipment and fire sprinkler systems. See Section 208.7.2 for additional requirements for determining ap for nonrigid or
flexibly mounted equipment.
11
Seismic restraints may be omitted from piping and duct supports if all the following conditions are satisfied:
11.1
Lateral motion of the piping or duct will not cause damaging impact with other systems.
11.2
The piping or duct is made of ductile material with ductile connections.
11.3
Lateral motion of the piping or duct does not cause impact of fragile appurtenances (e.g., sprinkler heads) with any other equipment,
piping or structural member.
11.4
Lateral motion of the piping or duct does not cause loss of system vertical support.
11.5
Rod-hung supports of less than 300 mm in length have top connections that cannot develop moments.
11.6
Support members cantilevered up from the floor are checked for stability.
12
Seismic restraints may be omitted from electrical raceways, such as cable trays, conduit and bus ducts, if all the following conditions are
satisfied:
12.1
Lateral motion of the raceway will not cause damaging impact with other systems.
12.2
Lateral motion of the raceway does not cause loss of system vertical support.
12.3
Rod-hung supports of less than 300 mm in length have top connections that cannot develop moments.
12.4
Support members cantilevered up from the floor are checked for stability.
13
Piping, ducts and electrical raceways, which must be functional following an earthquake, spanning between different buildings or
structural systems shall be sufficiently flexible to withstand relative motion of support points assuming out-of-phase motions.
14
Vibration isolators supporting equipment shall be designed for lateral loads or restrained from displacing laterally by other means.
Restraint shall also be provided, which limits vertical displacement, such that lateral restraints do not become disengaged. ap and Rp for
equipment supported on vibration isolators shall be taken as 2.5 and 1.5, respectively, except that if the isolation mounting frame is
supported by shallow or expansion anchors, the design forces for the anchors calculated by Equation (208-18),or (208-19) (including
limits), shall be additionally multiplied by factor of 2.0.
15
Equipment anchorage shall not be designed such that loads are resisted by gravity friction (e.g., friction clips).
16
Expansion anchors, which are required to resist seismic loads in tension, shall not be used where operational vibrating loads are
present.
17
Movement of components within electrical cabinets, rack-and skid-mounted equipment and portions of skid-mounted electromechanical
equipment that may cause damage to other components by displacing, shall be restricted by attachment to anchored equipment or
support frames.
18
Batteries on racks shall be restrained against movement in all direction due to earthquake forces.
19
Seismic restraints may include straps, chains, bolts, barriers or other mechanisms that prevent sliding, falling and breach of containment
of flammable and toxic materials. Friction forces may not be used to resist lateral loads in the restraints unless positive uplift restraint is
provided which ensures that the friction forces act continuously.

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1. The structure has plan irregularity Type 5 as given in


Table 208-10.
208.7.4 Relative Motion of Equipment Attachments.
For equipment in Categories I and II buildings as defined 2. The structure has plan irregularity Type 1 as given in
in Table 103-1, the lateral-force design shall consider the Table 208-10 for both major axes.
effects of relative motion of the points of attachment to 3. A column of a structure forms part of two or more
the structure, using the drift based upon ∆M. intersecting lateral-force-resisting systems.

208.7.5 Alternative Designs. Exception:


Where an approved national standard or approved If the axial load in the column due to seismic forces
physical test data provide a basis for the earthquake- acting in either direction is less than 20 percent of the
resistant design of a particular type of equipment or other column axial load capacity.
nonstructural component, such a standard or data may be
accepted as a basis for design of the items with the The requirement that orthogonal effects be considered
following limitations: may be satisfied by designing such elements for 100
percent of the prescribed design seismic forces in one
1. These provisions shall provide minimum values for direction plus 30 percent of the prescribed design seismic
the design of the anchorage and the members and forces in the perpendicular direction. The combination
connections that transfer the forces to the seismic- requiring the greater component strength shall be used for
resisting system. design. Alternatively, the effects of the two orthogonal
directions may be combined on a square root of the sum
2. The force, Fp, and the overturning moment used in of the squares (SRSS) basis. When the SRSS method of
the design of the nonstructural component shall not combining directional effects is used, each term
be less than 80 percent of the values that would be computed shall be assigned the sign that will result in the
obtained using these provisions. most conservative result.

208.8 Detailed Systems Design Requirements 208.8.2 Structural Framing Systems


Four types of general building framing systems defined in
208.8.1 General Section 208.4.6 are recognized in these provisions and
All structural framing systems shall comply with the shown in Table 208-11. Each type is subdivided by the
requirements of Section 208.4. Only the elements of the types of vertical elements used to resist lateral seismic
designated seismic-force-resisting system shall be used to forces. Special framing requirements are given in this
resist design forces. The individual components shall be section and in Chapters 4 through 7.
designed to resist the prescribed design seismic forces
acting on them. The components shall also comply with 208.8.2.1 Detailing for Combinations of Systems.
the specific requirements for the material contained in For components common to different structural systems,
Chapters 4 through 7. In addition, such framing systems the more restrictive detailing requirements shall be used.
and components shall comply with the detailed system
design requirements contained in Section 208.8.
208.8.2.2 Connections.
All building components in Seismic Zones 2 and 4 shall Connections that resist design seismic forces shall be
be designed to resist the effects of the seismic forces designed and detailed on the drawings.
prescribed herein and the effects of gravity loadings from
dead and floor live loads.
208.8.2.3 Deformation Compatibility.
Consideration shall be given to design for uplift effects
caused by seismic loads. All structural framing elements and their connections, not
required by design to be part of the lateral-force-resisting
In Seismic Zones 2 and 4, provision shall be made for the system, shall be designed and/or detailed to be adequate
effects of earthquake forces acting in a direction other to maintain support of design dead plus live loads when
than the principal axes in each of the following subjected to the expected deformations caused by seismic
circumstances: forces. P∆ effects on such elements shall be considered.
Expected deformations shall be determined as the greater
of the Maximum Inelastic Response Displacement, ∆M,

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CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-95

considering P∆ effects determined in accordance with 2. Connections to permit movement in the plane of the
Section 208.5.9.2 or the deformation induced by a story panel for story drift shall be sliding connections using
drift of 0.0025 times the story height. When computing slotted or oversize holes, connections that permit
expected deformations, the stiffening effect of those movement by bending of steel, or other connections
elements not part of the lateral-force-resisting system providing equivalent sliding and ductility capacity.
shall be neglected.
3. Bodies of connections shall have sufficient ductility
and rotation capacity to preclude fracture of the
For elements not part of the lateral-force-resisting system, concrete or brittle failures at or near welds.
the forces inducted by the expected deformation may be
considered as ultimate or factored forces. When 4. The body of the connection shall be designed for the
computing the forces induced by expected deformations, force determined by Equation (208-19), where Rp =
the restraining effect of adjoining rigid structures and 3.0 and ap = 1.0.
nonstructural elements shall be considered and a rational
5. All fasteners in the connecting system, such as bolts,
value of member and restraint stiffness shall be used.
inserts, welds and dowels, shall be designed for the
Inelastic deformations of members and connections may
forces determined by Equation (208-19), where Rp =
be considered in the evaluation, provided the assumed
1.0 and ap = 1.0.
calculated capacities are consistent with member and
connection design and detailing. 6. Fasteners embedded in concrete shall be attached to,
or hooked around, reinforcing steel or otherwise
For concrete and masonry elements that are part of the terminated to effectively transfer forces to the
lateral- force-resisting system, the assumed flexural and reinforcing steel.
shear stiffness properties shall not exceed one half of the
gross section properties unless a rational cracked-section
208.8.2.4 Ties and Continuity.
analysis is performed. Additional deformations that may
result from foundation flexibility and diaphragm All parts of a structure shall be interconnected and the
deflections shall be considered. For concrete elements not connections shall be capable of transmitting the seismic
part of the lateral-force-resisting system, see Section force induced by the parts being connected. As a
421.9. minimum, any smaller portion of the building shall be tied
to the remainder of the building with elements having at
least a strength to resist 0.5 CaI times the weight of the
208.8.2.3.1 Adjoining Rigid Elements. smaller portion.
Moment-resisting frames and shear walls may be
enclosed by or adjoined by more rigid elements, provided A positive connection for resisting horizontal force acting
it can be shown that the participation or failure of the parallel to the member shall be provided for each beam,
more rigid elements will not impair the vertical and girder or truss. This force shall not be less than 0.3 CaI
lateral- load-resisting ability of the gravity load and times the dead plus live load.
lateral-force-resisting systems. The effects of adjoining
rigid elements shall be considered when assessing
whether a structure shall be designated regular or irregular 208.8.2.5 Collector Elements.
in Section 208.4.5. Collector elements shall be provided that are capable of
transferring the seismic forces originating in other
portions of the structure to the element providing the
208.8.2.3.2 Exterior Elements. resistance to those forces.
Exterior non-bearing, non-shear wall panels or elements
that are attached to or enclose the exterior shall be Collector elements, splices and their connections to
designed to resist the forces per Equation (208-18) or resisting elements shall resist the forces determined in
(208-19) and shall accommodate movements of the accordance with Equation (208-20). In addition, collector
structure based on ∆M and temperature changes. Such elements, splices, and their connections to resisting
elements shall be supported by means of cast-in-place elements shall have the design strength to resist the
concrete or by mechanical connections and fasteners in combined loads resulting from the special seismic load of
accordance with the following provisions: Section 203.5.
1. Connections and panel joints shall allow for a relative
movement between stories of not less than two times
story drift caused by wind, the calculated story drift
based on ∆M or 12.7 mm, whichever is greater.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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2. In Seismic Zone 4, the value of Fp used for the design


Exception:
of the elements of the wall anchorage system shall
In structures, or portions thereof, braced entirely by light- not be less than 6.1 kN per lineal meter of wall
frame wood shear walls or light-frame steel and wood substituted for E.
structural panel shear wall systems, collector elements,
splices and connections to resisting elements need only be 3. See Section 206.4 for minimum design forces in
designed to resist forces in accordance with Equation other seismic zones.
(208-20). 4. When elements of the wall anchorage system are not
loaded concentrically or are not perpendicular to the
The quantity EM need not exceed the maximum force that wall, the system shall be designed to resist all
can be transferred to the collector by the diaphragm and components of the forces induced by the eccentricity.
other elements of the lateral-force-resisting system. For
Allowable Stress Design, the design strength may be 5. When pilasters are present in the wall, the anchorage
determined using an allowable stress increase of 1.7 and a force at the pilasters shall be calculated considering
resistance factor, φ, of 1.0. This increase shall not be the additional load transferred from the wall panels to
combined with the one-third stress increase permitted by the pilasters. However, the minimum anchorage force
Section 203.4, but may be combined with the duration of at a floor or roof shall be that specified in Section
load increase permitted in Section 615.3.4. 208.8.2.7.1, Item 1.
6. The strength design forces for steel elements of the
208.8.2.6 Concrete Frames. wall anchorage system shall be 1.4 times the forces
otherwise required by this section.
Concrete frames required by design to be part of the
lateral-force-resisting system shall conform to the 7. The strength design forces for wood elements of the
following: wall anchorage system shall be 0.85 times the force
otherwise required by this section and these wood
1. In Seismic Zone 4 they shall be special moment- elements shall have a minimum actual net thickness
resisting frames. of 63.5 mm.
2. In Seismic Zone 2 they shall, as a minimum, be
intermediate moment-resisting frames.
208.8.2.8 Diaphragms.
1. The deflection in the plane of the diaphragm shall not
208.8.2.7 Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry Walls. exceed the permissible deflection of the attached
Concrete or masonry walls shall be anchored to all floors elements. Permissible deflection shall be that
and roofs that provide out-of-plane lateral support of the deflection that will permit the attached element to
wall. The anchorage shall provide a positive direct maintain its structural integrity under the individual
connection between the wall and floor or roof loading and continue to support the prescribed loads.
construction capable of resisting the larger of the
horizontal forces specified in this section and Sections 2. Floor and roof diaphragms shall be designed to resist
206.4 and 208.7. In addition, in Seismic Zone 4, the forces determined in accordance with the
diaphragm to wall anchorage using embedded straps shall following equation:
have the straps attached to or hooked around the n
reinforcing steel or otherwise terminated to effectively Ft + ∑ Fi
i=x
transfer forces to the reinforcing steel. Requirements for F px = n
w px (208-20)
developing anchorage forces in diaphragms are given in ∑ wi
Section 208.8.2.8. Diaphragm deformation shall be i= x
considered in the design of the supported walls.
The force Fpx determined from Equation (208-20) need
208.8.2.7.1 Out-of-Plane Wall Anchorage to Flexible not exceed 1.0CaIwpx, but shall not be less than 0.5CaIwpx.
Diaphragms.
When the diaphragm is required to transfer design seismic
This section shall apply in Seismic Zone 4 where flexible forces from the vertical-resisting elements above the
diaphragms, as defined in Section 208.5.6, provide lateral diaphragm to other vertical-resisting elements below the
support for walls. diaphragm due to offset in the placement of the elements
1. Elements of the wall anchorage system shall be or to changes in stiffness in the vertical elements, these
designed for the forces specified in Section 208.7 forces shall be added to those determined from Equation
where Rp = 3.0 and ap = 1.5. (208-20).

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CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-97

3. Design seismic forces for flexible diaphragms


providing lateral supports for walls or frames of
masonry or concrete shall be determined using 208.8.2.9 Framing Below the Base.
Equation (208-20) based on the load determined in The strength and stiffness of the framing between the base
accordance with Section 208.5.2 using a R not and the foundation shall not be less than that of the
exceeding 4. superstructure. The special detailing requirements of
Chapters 4, 5 and 7, as appropriate, shall apply to
4. Diaphragms supporting concrete or masonry walls columns supporting discontinuous lateral-force-resisting
shall have continuous ties or struts between elements and to SMRF, IMRF, EBF, STMF and
diaphragm chords to distribute the anchorage forces MMRWF system elements below the base, which are
specified in Section 208.8.2.7. Added chords of required to transmit the forces resulting from lateral loads
subdiaphragms may be used to form subdiaphragms to the foundation.
to transmit the anchorage forces to the main
continuous crossties. The maximum length-to-width
ratio of the wood structural sub-diaphragm shall be 208.8.2.10 Building Separations.
2½:1. All structures shall be separated from adjoining structures.
5. Where wood diaphragms are used to laterally support Separations shall allow for the displacement ∆M. Adjacent
concrete or masonry walls, the anchorage shall buildings on the same property shall be separated by at
conform to Section 208.8.2.7. In Seismic Zone 2 least ∆MT where
and 4, anchorage shall not be accomplished by use of
toenails or nails subject to withdrawal, wood ledgers ∆ MT = (∆ M 1 )2 + (∆ M 2 )2 (208-21)
or framing shall not be used in cross-grain bending or
cross-grain tension, and the continuous ties required and ∆M1 and ∆M2 are the displacements of the adjacent
by Item 4 shall be in addition to the diaphragm buildings.
sheathing.
6. Connections of diaphragms to the vertical elements in When a structure adjoins a property line not common to a
structures in Seismic Zone 4, having a plan public way, that structure shall also be set back from the
irregularity of Type 1, 2, 3 or 4 in Table 208-10, shall property line by at least the displacement ∆M of that
be designed without considering either the one-third structure.
increase or the duration of load increase considered Exception:
in allowable stresses for elements resisting
earthquake forces. Smaller separations or property line setbacks may be
permitted when justified by rational analyses based on
7. In structures in Seismic Zone 4 having a plan maximum expected ground motions.
irregularity of Type 2 in Table 208-10, diaphragm
chords and drag members shall be designed
considering independent movement of the projecting 208.9 Non-Building Structures
wings of the structure. Each of these diaphragm
elements shall be designed for the more severe of the
following two assumptions: 208.9.1General.

a. Motion of the projecting wings in the same direction.


208.9.1.1 Scope.
1. Motion of the projecting wings in opposing Nonbuilding structures include all self- supporting
directions. structures other than buildings that carry gravity loads and
Exception: resist the effects of earthquakes. Nonbuilding structures
shall be designed to provide the strength required to resist
This requirement may be deemed satisfied if the
procedures of Section 208.6 in conjunction with a three- the displacements induced by the minimum lateral forces
dimensional model have been used to determine the specified in this section. Design shall conform to the
lateral seismic forces for design. applicable provisions of other sections as modified by the
provisions contained in Section 208.9.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
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208.9.1.2 Criteria. 208.9.1.6 Interaction Effects.


The minimum design seismic forces prescribed in this In Seismic Zone 4, structures that support flexible
section are at a level that produce displacements in a fixed nonstructural elements whose combined weight exceeds
base, elastic model of the structure, comparable to those 25 percent of the weight of the structure shall be designed
expected of the real structure when responding to the considering interaction effects between the structure and
Design Basis Ground Motion. Reductions in these forces the supported elements.
using the coefficient R is permitted where the design of
nonbuilding structures provides sufficient strength and
ductility, consistent with the provisions specified herein 208.9.2 Lateral Force.
for buildings, to resist the effects of seismic ground Lateral-force procedures for nonbuilding structures with
motions as represented by these design forces. structural systems similar to buildings (those with
structural systems which are listed in Table 208-11) shall
When applicable, design strengths and other detailed be selected in accordance with the provisions of Section
design criteria shall be obtained from other sections or 208.4.
their referenced standards. The design of nonbuilding Exception:
structures shall use the load combinations or factors
specified in Section 203.3 or 203.4. For nonbuilding Intermediate moment-resisting frames (IMRF) may be
structures designed using Section 208.9.3, 208.9.4 or used in Seismic Zone 4 for non-building structures in
Occupancy Categories III and IV if (1) the structure is
208.9.5, the Reliability/Redundancy Factor, ρ, may be
less than 15 meterd in height and (2) the value R used in
taken as 1.0.
reducing calculated member forces and moments does not
exceed 2.8.
When applicable design strengths and other design
criteria are not contained in or referenced by this code,
such criteria shall be obtained from approved national 208.9.3 Rigid Structures.
standards. Rigid structures (those with period T less than 0.06
second) and their anchorages shall be designed for the
208.9.1.3 Weight W. lateral force obtained from Equation (208-22).
The weight, W, for nonbuilding structures shall include all V = 0.7Ca IW (208-22)
dead loads as defined for buildings in Section 208.5.1.1.
For purposes of calculating design seismic forces in The force V shall be distributed according to the
nonbuilding structures, W shall also include all normal distribution of mass and shall be assumed to act in any
operating contents for items such as tanks, vessels, bins horizontal direction.
and piping.

208.9.4 Tanks with Supported Bottoms


208.9.1.4 Period.
Flat bottom tanks or other tanks with supported bottoms,
The fundamental period of the structure shall be founded at or below grade, shall be designed to resist the
determined by rational methods such as by using Method seismic forces calculated using the procedures in Section
B in Section 208.5.2.2. 208.7 for rigid structures considering the entire weight of
the tank and its contents. Alternatively, such tanks may be
208.9.1.5 Drift. designed using one of the two procedures described
below:
The drift limitations of Section 208.5.10 need not apply to
nonbuilding structures. Drift limitations shall be 1. A response spectrum analysis that includes
established for structural or nonstructural elements whose consideration of the actual ground motion anticipated
failure would cause life hazards. P∆ effects shall be at the site and the inertial effects of the contained
considered for structures whose calculated drifts exceed fluid.
the values in Section 208.5.1.3.
2. A design basis prescribed for the particular type of
tank by an approved national standard, provided that
the seismic zones and occupancy categories shall be
in conformance with the provisions of Sections
208.4.4 and 208.4.2, respectively.

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CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-99

208.9.5 Other Nonbuilding Structures


Table 208-13 R and Ωο Factors for Nonbuilding
Nonbuilding structures that are not covered by Sections Structures
208.9.3 and 208.9.4 shall be designed to resist design
seismic forces not less than those determined in STRUCTURE TYPE R Ωο
accordance with the provisions in Section 208.5 with the
1. Vessels, including tanks and
following additions and exceptions: pressurized spheres, on braced or 2.2 2.0
1. The factors R and Ωo shall be as set forth in Table unbraced legs.
208-13. The total design base shear determined in 2. Cast-in-place concrete silos and
accordance with Section 208.5.2 shall not be less chimneys having walls continuous 3.6 2.0
to the foundations
than the following: 3. Distributed mass cantilever
V = 0.56C a IW (208-23) structures such as stacks,
2.9 2.0
chimneys, silos and skirt-
supported vertical vessels.
Additionally, for Seismic Zone 4, the total base shear 4. Trussed towers (freestanding or
shall also not be less than the following: guyed), guyed stacks and 2.9 2.0
chimneys.
1.6 ZN v I
V = W (208-24) 5. Cantilevered column-type
2.2 2.0
R structures.
2. The vertical distribution of the design seismic forces 6. Cooling towers. 3.6 2.0
in structures covered by this section may be 7. Bins and hoppers on braced or
determined by using the provisions of Section 2.9 2.0
unbraced legs.
208.5.5 or by using the procedures of Section 208.6.
Exception: 8. Storage racks. 3.6 2.0
For irregular structures assigned to Occupancy 9. Signs and billboards. 3.6 2.0
Categories I and II that cannot be modeled as a single
mass, the procedures of Section 208.6 shall be used. 10. Amusement structures and
2.2 2.0
monuments.
3. Where an approved national standard provides a basis 11. All other self-supporting structures
2.9 2.0
for the earthquake-resistant design of a particular not otherwise covered.
type of nonbuilding structure covered by this section,
such a standard may be used, subject to the
limitations in this section: 208.10.2 Definitions
Soil profile types are defined as follows:
The seismic zones and occupancy categories shall be in SA Hard rock with measured shear wave velocity,
conformance with the provisions of Sections 208.4.4 and vs > 1500 m/s.
208.4.2, respectively.
SB Rock with 760 m/s < vs ≤ 1500 m/s.
The values for total lateral force and total base SC Very dense soil and soft rock with
overturning moment used in design shall not be less than
360 m/s < vs ≤ 760 m/s or with
80 percent of the values that would be obtained using
either N > 50 or su ≥ 100 kPa.
these provisions.
SD Stiff soil with 180 m/s ≤ vs ≤ 360 m/s or
208.10 Site Categorization Procedure with 15 ≤ N ≤ 50 or 50 kPa ≤ su ≤ 100 kPa.
SE A soil profile with vs < 180 m/s or
any profile with more than 3 meters of soft clay
208.10.1 Scope.
defined as soil with PI > 20, wmc ≥ 40 percent and
This section describes the procedure for determining Soil su < 25 kPa.
Profile Types SA through SF as defined in Table 208-2.
SF Soils requiring site-specific evaluation:
1. Soils vulnerable to potential failure or collapse under
seismic loading such as liquefiable soils, quick and
highly sensitive clays, collapsible weakly cemented
soils.

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2. Peats and/or highly organic clays where:


di = thickness of Layer i in millimeter
3. (H > 3 meters of peat and/or highly organic clay
ds = the total thickness of cohesionless soil layers in
where H = thickness of soil).
the top 30 meters.
4. Very high plasticity clays NI = the standard penetration resistance of soil layer
in accordance with approved nationally
5. (H > 7.5 meters with PI > 75).
recognized standards.
6. Very thick soft/medium stiff clays
7. (H > 36 meters). 208.10.2.3 s u, Average Undrained Shear Strength.
Exception: su shall be determined in accordance with the following
equation:
When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail
to determine the soil profile type, Type SD shall be used. dc
Su = (208-28)
Soil Profile Type SE need not be assumed unless the n d
building official determines that Soil Profile Type SE may ∑ i
i =1 S ui
be present at the site or in the event that Type SE is
established by geotechnical data. where:
dc = the total thickness (100 - ds) of cohesive soil
The criteria set forth in the definition for Soil Profile Type
layers in the top 30 meters.
SF requiring site-specific evaluation shall be considered. If
Sui = the undrained shear strength in accordance with
the site corresponds to this criteria, the site shall be
approved nationally recognized standards, not to
classified as Soil Profile Type SF and a site-specific
exceed 250 kPa.
evaluation shall be conducted.

208.10.2.4 Soft Clay Profile, SE.


208.10.2.1 vs, Average Shear Wave Velocity
The existence of a total thickness of soft clay greater than
vs shall be determined in accordance with the following
3 meters shall be investigated where a soft clay layer is
equation:
defined by su < 24 kPa, wmc.> 40 percent and PI > 20. If
n these criteria are met, the site shall be classified as Soil
∑ di Profile Type SE.
vs = i =1 (208-25)
n d
∑ i 208.10.2.5 Soil Profiles SC, SD and SE.
i =1vsi
Sites with Soil Profile Types SC, SD and SE shall be
where: classified by using one of the following three methods
di = thickness of Layer i in meter. with vs , N and su computed in all cases as specified in
vsi = shear wave velocity in Layer i in m/sec. Section 208.10.2.
1. vs for the top 30 meters (vs method).
208.10.2.2 N, Average Field Standard Penetration 2. N for the top 30 meters (N method).
Resistance and Nch, Average Standard Penetration
Resistance for Cohesionless Soil Layers. 3. NCH for cohesionless soil layers (PI < 20) in the top
30 meters and average su for cohesive soil layers (PI
N and NCH shall be determined in accordance with the
> 20) in the top 30 meters (su method).
following equation:
n
∑ di
i =1
N= n d
(208-26)
∑ i
i =1 Ni

ds
N CH = n
(208-27)
d
∑ i
i =1 N i

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CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-101

Table 208-14 Seismic Zone for the Different


208.10.2.6 Rock Profiles, SA and SB.
Provinces of the Philippines
The shear wave velocity for rock, Soil Profile Type SB,
Zone 2 Mountain Province
shall be either measured on site or estimated by a Palawan NCR
geotechnical engineer, engineering geologist or Tawi-tawi Negros Occidental
seismologist for competent rock with moderate fracturing Sulu Negros Oriental
and weathering. Softer and more highly fractured and North Cotabato
weathered rock shall either be measured on site for shear Zone 4 Northern Samar
wave velocity or classified as Soil Profile Type SC. Abra Nueva Ecija
Agusan del Norte Nueva Vizcaya
The hard rock, Soil Profile Type SA, category shall be Agusan del Sur Occidental Mindoro
Aklan Oriental Mindoro
supported by shear wave velocity measurement either on Albay Pampanga
site or on profiles of the same rock type in the same Antique Pangasinan
formation with an equal or greater degree of weathering Apayao Quezon
and fracturing. Where hard rock conditions are known to Aurora Quirino
be continuous to a depth of 30 meters, surficial shear Basilan Rizal
wave velocity measurements may be extrapolated to Bataan Romblon
assess vs. The rock categories, Soil Profile Types SA and Batanes Samar
SB, shall not be used if there is more than 3 meters of soil Batangas Sarangani
between the rock surface and the bottom of the spread Benguet Siquijor
Bohol Sorsogon
footing or mat foundation. Bukidnon South Cotabato
Bulacan Southern Leyte
The definitions presented herein shall apply to the upper Cagayan Sultan Kudarat
30 meters of the site profile. Profiles containing distinctly Camarines Norte Sulu
different soil layers shall be subdivided into those layers Camarines Sur Surigao del Norte
designated by a number from 1 to n at the bottom, where Camiguin Surigao del Sur
there are a total of n distinct layers in the upper 30 meters. Capiz Tarlac
The symbol i then refer to any one of the layers between 1 Catanduanes Zambales
Cavite Zamboanga del Norte
and n.
Cebu Zamboanga del Sur
Compostela Valley Zamboanga Sibugay
Davao
Davao del Sur
Davao Oriental
Eastern Samar
Guimaras
Ifugao
Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Sur
Iloilo
Isabela
Kalinga
La Union
Laguna
Lanao del Norte
Lanao del Sur
Leyte
Maguindanao
Marinduque
Masbate
Misamis Occidental
Misamis Oriental

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-102 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Figure 208-1 Seismic Zone Map of the Philippines

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-103

Figure 208-2A - Type A and Type B Seismic Sources

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-104 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Figure 208-2B - Type A Seismic Sources

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-105

Figure 208-2C - Type A Seismic Sources

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-106 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Figure 208-2D- Type A Seismic Sources

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-107

Figure 208-2E- Type A Seismic Sources


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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-108 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

Figure 208-3 - Design Response Spectra

Control Periods
2.5Ca
Ts = Cv / 2.5Ca

To = 0.2Ts

Cv /T

Ca

0
0 0.2 1 2 3 4 5
T o /T s Period ( T/T S )

Table 209-1 - Soil Lateral Load

Design Lateral Soil Loada


Unified Soil
Classification kpª / meter of load
Description Of Backfill Materialc
Active pressure At-rest pressure
Well-graded, clean gravels; gravel-sand mixes GW 5 10
Poorly graded clean gravels; gravel-sand mixes GP 5 10
Silty gravels, poorly graded gravel-sand mixes GM 6 10
Clayey gravels, poorly graded gravel-and-clay mixes GC 7 10
Well-graded, clean sands; gravelly sand mixes SW 5 10
Poorly graded clean sands; sand-gravel mixes SP 5 10
Silty sands, poorly graded sand-silt mixes SM 7 10
Sand-silt clay mix with plastic fines SM-SC 7 16
Clayey sands, poorly graded sand-clay mixes SC 10 16
Inorganic silts and clayey silts ML 7 16
Mixture of inorganic silt and clay ML-CL 10 16
Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity CL 10 16
Organic silts and silt clays, low plasticity OL Note b Note b
Inorganic clayey silts, elastic silts MH Note b Note b
Inorganic clays of high plasticity CH Note b Note b
Organic clays and silty clays OH Note b Note b
a. Design lateral soil loads are given for moist conditions for the specified soils at their optimum densities. Actual field conditions shall
govern. Submerged or saturated soil pressures shall include the weight of the buoyant soil plus the hydrostatic loads.
b. Unsuitable as backfill material.
c. The definition and classification of soil materials shall be in accordance with ASTM D 2487.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-109

When the phrase “undeflected roof” is used, deflections


from loads (including dead loads) shall not be considered
SECTION 209 - SOIL LATERAL when determining the amount of rain on the roof.
LOADS
210.3 Ponding Instability.
209.1 General For roofs with a slope less than 6 mm per 300 mm (1.19
Basement, foundation and retaining walls shall be degrees or 0.0208 radian), the design calculations shall
designed to resist lateral soil loads. Soil loads specified in include verification of adequate stiffness to preclude
Table 209-1 shall be used as the minimum design lateral progressive deflection in accordance with Section 8.4 of
soil loads unless specified otherwise in a soil investigation ASCE-7-05.
report approved by the building official. Basement walls
and other walls in which horizontal movement is 210.4 Controlled Drainage.
restricted at the top shall be designed for at-rest pressure.
Roofs equipped with hardware to control the rate of
Retaining walls free to move and rotate at the top are
drainage shall be equipped with a secondary drainage
permitted to be designed for active pressure. Design
system at a higher elevation that limits accumulation of
lateral pressure from surcharge loads shall be added to the
water on the roof above that elevation. Such roofs shall be
lateral earth pressure load. Design lateral pressure shall be
designed to sustain the load of rainwater that will
increased if soils with expansion potential are present at
accumulate on them to the elevation of the secondary
the site.
drainage system plus the uniform load caused by water
Exception: that rises above the inlet of the secondary drainage system
at its design flow determined from Section 210.2. Such
Basement walls extending not more than 2400 mm below roofs shall also be checked for ponding instability in
grade and supporting flexible floor systems shall be accordance with Section 210.3.
permitted to be designed for active pressure.

SECTION 210 - RAIN LOADS SECTION 211 - FLOOD LOADS

211.1 General.
210.1 Roof Drainage.
Within flood hazard areas as established in Section 211.3,
Roof drainage systems shall be designed in accordance all new construction of buildings, structures and portions
with the provisions of the code having jurisdiction in the of buildings and structures, including substantial
area. The flow capacity of secondary (overflow) drains or improvement and restoration of substantial damage to
scuppers shall not be less than that of the primary drains buildings and structures, shall be designed and
or scuppers. constructed to resist the effects of flood hazards and flood
loads. For buildings that are located in more than one
210.2 Design Rain Loads. flood hazard area, the provisions associated with the most
Each portion of a roof shall be designed to sustain the restrictive flood hazard area shall apply.
load of rainwater that will accumulate on it if the primary
drainage system for that portion is blocked plus the 211.2 Definitions.
uniform load caused by water that rises above the inlet of The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of
the secondary drainage system at its design flow. this section, have the meanings shown herein.
R = 0.0098(d s + d h ) (Equation 210-1)
BASE FLOOD. The flood having a 1-percent chance of
where: being equaled or exceeded in any given year.
dh = Additional depth of water on the undeflected roof
above the inlet of secondary drainage system at BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. The elevation of the base
its design flow (i.e., the hydraulic head), in mm.
d = Depth of water on the undeflected roof up to the flood, including wave height, relative to the datum to be
inlet of secondary drainage system when the set by the specific national or local government agency.
primary drainage system is blocked (i.e., the static
head), in mm. BASEMENT The portion of a building having its floor
R = Rain load on the undeflected roof, in kN/m2. subgrade (below ground level) on all sides.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
2-110 CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads

DESIGN FLOOD The flood associated with the greater FLOOD HAZARD AREA SUBJECT TO HIGH
of the following two areas: VELOCITYWAVE ACTION Area within the flood
hazard area that is subject to high velocity wave action.
1. Area with a flood plain subject to a 1-percent or
greater chance of flooding in any year; or
FLOODWAY The channel of the river, creek or other
2. Area designated as a flood hazard area on a watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be
community’s flood hazard map, or otherwise legally reserved in order to discharge the base flood without
designated. cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more
than a designated height.
DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION The elevation of the
“design flood,” including wave height, relative to the LOWEST FLOOR The floor of the lowest enclosed
datum specified on the community’s legally designated area, including basement, but excluding any unfinished or
flood hazard map. The design flood elevation shall be the
elevation of the highest existing grade of the building’s flood-resistant enclosure, usable solely for vehicle
perimeter plus the depth number (in meters) specified on parking, building access or limited storage provided that
the flood hazard map. such enclosure is not built so as to render the structure in
violation of this section.
DRY FLOODPROOFING A combination of design
modifications that results in a building or structure, START OF CONSTRUCTION The date of permit
including the attendant utility and sanitary facilities, being issuance for new construction and substantial
water tight with walls substantially impermeable to the improvements to existing structures, provided the actual
passage of water and with structural components having start of construction, repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation,
the capacity to resist loads as identified in the code. addition, placement or other improvement is within 180
days after the date of issuance. The actual start of
EXISTING CONSTRUCTION Any buildings and construction means the first placement of permanent
structures for which the “start of construction” construction of a building (including a manufactured
commenced before the effective date of the community’s home) on a site, such as the pouring of a slab or footings,
first flood plain management code, ordinance or standard. installation of pilings or construction of columns.
“Existing construction” is also referred to as “existing Permanent construction does not include land preparation
structures.” (such as clearing, excavation, grading or filling), the
installation of streets or walkways, excavation for a
EXISTING STRUCTURE See “Existing construction.” basement, footings, piers or foundations, the erection of
temporary forms or the installation of accessory buildings
FLOOD or FLOODING A general and temporary such as garages or sheds not occupied as dwelling units or
condition of partial or complete inundation of normally not part of the main building. For a substantial
dry land from: improvement, the actual “start of construction” means the
first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor or other
1. The overflow of inland or tidal waters. structural part of a building, whether or not that alteration
2. The unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of
surface waters from any source. affects the external dimensions of the building.

FLOOD DAMAGE-RESISTANT MATERIALS Any SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE Damage of any origin


construction material capable of withstanding direct and sustained by a structure whereby the cost of restoring the
prolonged contact with floodwaters without sustaining structure to its before-damaged condition would equal or
any damage that requires more than cosmetic repair. exceed 50 percent of the market value of the structure
before the damage occurred.
FLOOD HAZARD AREA The greater of the following
two areas: SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT Any repair,
reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition or improvement of
1. The area within a flood plain subject to a 1-percent or a building or structure, the cost of which equals or
greater chance of flooding in any year. exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the structure
2. The area designated as a flood hazard area on a before the improvement or repair is started. If the
community’s flood hazard map, or otherwise legally structure has sustained substantial damage, any repairs are
designated. considered substantial improvement regardless of the
actual repair work performed. The term does not,
however, include either:

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 – Minimum Design Loads 2-111

1. Any project for improvement of a building required


2.2. Construction documents shall include a statement that
to correct existing health, sanitary or safety code
the building is designed, including that the pile or
violations identified by the building official and that
column foundation and building or structure to be
are the minimum necessary to assure safe living
attached thereto is designed to be anchored to resist
conditions.
flotation, collapse and lateral movement due to the
2. Any alteration of a historic structure provided that the effects of wind and flood loads acting simultaneously
alteration will not preclude the structure’s continued on all building components, and other load
designation as a historic structure. requirements of Chapter 2.
2.3. For breakaway walls designed to resist a nominal
211.3 Establishment Of Flood Hazard Areas. load of less than 0.48 kN/m2, or more than 0.96
To establish flood hazard areas, the governing body shall kN/m2, construction documents shall include a
adopt a flood hazard map and supporting data. The flood statement that the breakaway wall is designed.
hazard map shall include, at a minimum, areas of special
flood hazard where records are available.

211.3 Design And Construction. [check numbering]


The design and construction of buildings and structures
located in flood hazard areas, including flood hazard areas
subject to high velocity wave action.

211.4 Flood Hazard Documentation.


The following documentation shall be prepared and
sealed by an engineer-of-record and submitted to the
building official:
1. For construction in flood hazard areas not subject to
high-velocity wave action:
1.1. The elevation of the lowest floor, including the
basement, as required by the lowest floor elevation.
1.2. For fully enclosed areas below the design flood
elevation where provisions to allow for the automatic
entry and exit of floodwaters do not meet the
minimum requirements, construction documents shall
include a statement that the design will provide for
equalization of hydrostatic flood forces.
1.3. For dry flood-proofed nonresidential buildings,
construction documents shall include a statement that
the dry flood-proofing is designed.
2. For construction in flood hazard areas subject to
high-velocity wave action:
2.1. The elevation of the bottom of the lowest horizontal
structural member as required by the lowest floor
elevation.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
CHAPTER 3 – Excavations and Foundations 3-1

Table of Contents
CHAPTER 3 - EXCAVATION AND FOUNDATION .. 3 305.5 Footings On or Adjacent To Slopes .................... 10
305.5.1 Scope. ........................................................... 10
SECTION 301 - GENERAL ............................................. 3
305.5.2 Building Clearance from Ascending Slopes. 10
301.1 Scope ..................................................................... 3 305.5.3 Footing Setback from Descending Slope
301.2 Quality and Design ................................................ 3 Surface....................................................................... 10
301.3 Allowable Bearing Pressures ................................. 3 305.5.4 Pools. ............................................................ 10
305.5.5 Foundation Elevation. .................................. 10
SECTION 302 - EXCAVATION AND FILLS .............. 3 305.5.6 Alternate Setback and Clearance. ................. 10
302.1 General .................................................................. 3 305.6 Foundation Plates or Sills .................................... 10
302.2 Cuts ........................................................................ 3 305.7 Designs Employing Lateral Bearing.................... 10
302.2.1 General............................................................ 3 305.7.1 General. ........................................................ 10
302.2.2 Slope. .............................................................. 3 305.7.2 Design Criteria ................................................. 11
302.2.4 Protection of Adjoining Property. ................... 3 305.7.2.1 Nonconstrained. ......................................... 11
302.3 Fills ........................................................................ 3 305.7.2.3 Vertical Load. ............................................ 11
302.3.1 General............................................................ 3 305.7.3 Backfill. ........................................................ 11
302.3.2 Preparation of Ground. ................................... 4 305.7.2.2 Constrained................................................ 11
302.3.3 Fill Material. ................................................... 4 305.7.4 Limitations. .................................................. 12
302.3.4 Compaction. .................................................... 5 305.8 Grillage Footings ................................................. 12
302.3.5 Slope. .............................................................. 5 305.9 Bleacher Footings ................................................ 12
302.4 Setbacks ................................................................. 5
SECTION 306 - PILES - GENERAL
302.4.1 General............................................................ 5
REQUIREMENTS .......................................................... 12
302.4.2 Top of Cut Slope............................................. 5
302.4.3 Toe of Fill Slope. ............................................ 5 306.1 General ................................................................ 12
302.4.4 Modification of Slope Location. ..................... 5 306.2 Interconnection .................................................... 12
302.5 Drainage and Terracing ......................................... 5 306.3 Determination of Allowable Loads ..................... 12
301.5.1 General............................................................ 5 306.4 Static Load Test ................................................... 12
302.5.2 Terrace. ........................................................... 5 306.5 Dynamic Load Test ............................................. 13
302.5.3 Subsurface Drainage. ...................................... 5 306.6 Column Action .................................................... 13
302.5.4 Disposal. ......................................................... 5 306.7 Group Action ....................................................... 13
302.5.5 Interceptor Drains. .......................................... 6 306.8 Piles in Subsiding Areas ...................................... 13
302.6 Erosion Control...................................................... 6 306.9 Jetting .................................................................. 13
302.6.1 Slopes. ............................................................ 6 306.10 Protection of Pile Materials ............................... 13
302.6.2 Other Devices. ................................................ 6 306.11 Allowable Loads................................................ 13
306.12 Use of Higher Allowable Pile Stresses .............. 13
SECTION 303 - FOUNDATION INVESTIGATION .... 6
SECTION 307 - PILES - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS
303.1 General .................................................................. 6
........................................................................................... 13
303.2 Soil Classification .................................................. 6
303.3 Questionable Soil ................................................... 6 307.1 Round Wood Piles ............................................... 13
303.4 Liquefaction Study................................................. 6 307.1.1 Material. ....................................................... 13
303.5 Expansive Soil ....................................................... 7 307.1.2 Allowable Stresses. ...................................... 13
303.6 Reports ................................................................... 7 307.2 Uncased Cast-In-Place Concrete Piles ................ 14
303.7 Liquefaction Potential and Soil Strength Loss....... 7 307.2.1 Material. ....................................................... 14
303.8 Adjacent Loads ...................................................... 7 307.2.2 Allowable Stresses. ...................................... 14
303.9 Drainage ................................................................ 7 307.3 Metal-Cased Concrete Piles ................................ 14
307.3.1 Material. ....................................................... 14
SECTION 304 - ALLOWABLE FOUNDATION 307.3.2 Installation. ................................................... 14
AND LATERAL PRESSURES ........................................ 9 307.3.3 Allowable Stresses. ...................................... 14
SECTION 305 - FOOTINGS ............................................ 9 307.4 Precast Concrete Piles ......................................... 14
307.4.1 Materials. ...................................................... 14
305.1 General .................................................................. 9 307.4.2 Reinforcement Ties. ..................................... 14
305.2 Footing Design ...................................................... 9 307.4.3 Allowable Stresses. ...................................... 14
305.2.1 Design Loads .................................................. 9 307.5 Precast Prestressed Concrete Piles (Pretensioned)
305.2.2 Vibratory Loads .............................................. 9 ....................................................................................... 15
305.3 Bearing Walls .................................................... 9 307.5.1 Materials. ...................................................... 15
305.4 Stepped Foundations............................................ 10 307.5.2 Reinforcement .............................................. 15
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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
3-2 CHAPTER 3 – Excavations and Foundations

307.5.2.1 Longitudinal Reinforcement. .................... 15


307.5.2.2 Transverse Reinforcement. ....................... 15
307.5.3 Allowable Stresses. ...................................... 15
307.5.4 Splicing. ....................................................... 15
307.6 Structural Steel Piles ........................................... 15
307.6.1 Material. ....................................................... 15
307.6.2 Allowable Stresses. ...................................... 15
307.6.3 Minimum Dimensions.................................. 15
307.7 Concrete-Filled Steel Pipe Piles .......................... 15
307.7.1 Material. ....................................................... 15
307.7.2 Allowable Stresses. ...................................... 16
307.7.3 Minimum Dimensions.................................. 16
SECTION 308 - FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION-
SEISMIC ZONE 4 .......................................................... 16
308.1 General ................................................................ 16
308.2 Soil Capacity ....................................................... 16
308.3 Superstructure to Foundation Connection. .......... 16
308.4 Foundation-Soil Interface. .................................. 16
308.5 Special Requirements for Piles and Caissons. .... 16
308.5.1 General. ........................................................ 16
308.5.2 Steel Piles, Nonprestressed Concrete Piles and
Prestressed Concrete Piles. ....................................... 16
308.5.2.1 Steel Piles. ................................................. 16
308.5.2.2 Nonprestressed Concrete Piles. ................. 16
308.5.2.3 Prestressed Concrete Piles. ....................... 16
SECTION 309 - SPECIAL FOUNDATION, SLOPE
STABILIZATION AND MATERIALS OF
CONSTRUCTION .......................................................... 17
309.1 Special Foundation Systems ............................... 17
309.2 Acceptance and Approval. .................................. 17
309.3 Specific Applications .......................................... 17

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 3 – Excavations and Foundations 3-3

CHAPTER 3 - EXCAVATION AND or degradation by sufficient cover, drainage, engineering


and/or biotechnical means.
FOUNDATION
302.2.3 Existing footings or foundations which may be
affected by any excavation shall be underpinned adequately
SECTION 301 - GENERAL or otherwise protected against settlement and shall be
protected against lateral movement.
301.1 Scope
This chapter sets forth requirements for excavations, fills, 302.2.4 Protection of Adjoining Property.
footings and foundations for any building or structure. The requirement for protection of adjacent property and the
depth to which protection is required shall be defined by
301.2 Quality and Design prevailing law. Where not defined by law, the following
shall apply:
The quality and design of materials used structurally in
excavations, fills, footings and foundations shall conform to 1. Any person making or causing an excavation to be
the requirements specified in Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7. made to a depth of 3.5 meters or less below the grade
shall protect the excavation so that the soil of adjoining
property will not cave in or settle, but shall not be
301.3 Allowable Bearing Pressures liable for the expense of underpinning or extending the
Allowable stresses and design formulas provided in this foundation of structures on adjoining properties where
chapter shall be used with the allowable stress design load his excavation is not in excess of 3.5 meters in depth.
combinations specified in Section 203.4.
2. Before commencing the excavation, the person making
or causing the excavation to be made shall notify in
SECTION 302 - EXCAVATION AND writing the owners of adjoining building not less than
10 days before such excavation is to be made and that
FILLS the adjoining building should be protected.
3. The owners of the adjoining property shall be given
302.1 General access to the excavation for the purpose of protecting
Excavation or fills for buildings or structures shall be such adjoining buildings.
constructed or protected that they do not endanger life or
4. Any person making or causing an excavation to be
property. Reference is made to Section 109 of this code for
made exceeding 3.5 meters in depth below the grade
requirements governing excavation, grading and earthwork
shall protect the excavation so that the adjoining soil
construction, including fills and embankments.
will not cave in or settle and shall extend the
foundation of any adjoining buildings below the depth
302.2 Cuts of 3.5 meters below grade at his own expense. The
owner of adjoining buildings shall extend the
foundation of these buildings to a depth of 3.5 meters
302.2.1 General. below grade at his own expense, as provided in the
Unless otherwise recommended in the approved preceding paragraph
geotechnical engineering or engineering geology report,
cuts shall conform to the provisions of this section. In the
absence of an approved geotechnical engineering report, 302.3 Fills
these provisions may be waived for minor cuts not intended
to support structures. 302.3.1 General.
Unless otherwise recommended in the approved
302.2.2 Slope. geotechnical engineering report, fills shall conform to the
The slope of cut surfaces shall be no steeper than is safe for provisions of this section. In the absence of an approved
the intended use and shall be no steeper than 1 unit vertical geotechnical engineering report, these provisions may be
in 2 units horizontal (50% slope) unless a geotechnical waived for minor fills not intended to support structures.
engineering or an engineering geology report, or both,
stating that the site has been investigated and giving an
opinion that a cut at a steeper slope will be stable and not
create a hazard to public or private property, is submitted
and approved. Such cuts shall be protected against erosion
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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
3-4 CHAPTER 3 – Excavations and Foundations

Fills to be used to support the foundations of any building


or structure shall be placed in accordance with accepted The area beyond the toe of fill shall be sloped for sheet
engineering practice. A geotechnical investigation report overflow or a paved drain shall be provided. When fill is to
and a report of satisfactory placement of fill, both be placed over a cut, the bench under the toe of fill shall be
acceptable to the building official, shall be submitted when at least 3 meters wide but the cut shall be made before
required by the building official. placing the fill and acceptance by the geotechnical engineer
as a suitable foundation for fill.
No fill or other surcharge loads shall be placed adjacent to
any building or structure unless such building or structure is 302.3.3 Fill Material.
capable of withstanding the additional vertical and
Detrimental amounts of organic material shall not be
horizontal loads caused by the fill or surcharge.
permitted in fills. Except as permitted by the geotechnical
engineer, no rock or similar irreducible material with a
Fill slopes shall not be constructed on natural slopes steeper maximum dimension greater than 300 mm shall be buried
than 1 unit vertical in 2 units horizontal (50% slope) or placed in fills.
Exception:
302.3.2 Preparation of Ground.
The ground surface shall be prepared to receive fill by The placement of larger rock may be permitted when the
removing vegetation, organic materials, non-complying fill, geotechnical engineer properly devises a method of
topsoil and other unsuitable materials, and by scarifying to placement, and continuously inspects its placement and
provide a bond with the new fill. approves the fill stability. The following conditions shall
also apply:
Where the natural slopes are steeper than 1 unit vertical in 5 1. Prior to issuance of the grading permit, potential rock
units horizontal (20% slope) and the height is greater than disposal areas shall be delineated on the grading plan.
1.5 meters, the ground surface shall be prepared by
benching into sound bedrock or other competent material as 2. Rock sizes greater than 300 mm in maximum
determined by the geotechnical engineer. The bench under dimension shall be 3 meters or more below grade,
the toe of a fill on a slope steeper than 1 unit vertical in 5 measured vertically.
units horizontal (20% slope) shall be at least 3 meters wide.

Top of PA*
Slope
H/5 but
0.60 mm
min. and
Toe of 3 m max.
PA*
Slope

Cut or Fill
H/2 but 0.6 mm Natural or Finish
Slope
min. and 6 m Grade
max. H

Natural or Finish
Grade
* Permit Area Boundary

Figure 302-1 Setback Dimensions for Cut and Fill Slopes


Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines
CHAPTER 3 – Excavations and Foundations 3-5

3. Mechanical stabilization or chemical treatment of the


fill slope surface to minimize erosion.
3. Rocks shall be placed so as to assure filling of all voids 4. Rockfall protection
with well-graded soil. 5. Provisions for the control of surface waters.

302.3.4 Compaction. 302.4.4 Modification of Slope Location.


All fills shall be compacted to a minimum of 90 percent of The building official may approve alternate setbacks. The
maximum density as determined by ASTM Standard D- building official may require an investigation and
698, or D-1557. In-place density shall be determined in recommendation by a qualified geotechnical engineer to
accordance with ASTM D-1556, D-2167, D-2922, D-3017 demonstrate that the intent of this section has been satisfied.
or equivalent. For clean granular materials, the use of the
foregoing procedures is inappropriate. Relative density
criteria shall be used based on ASTM D5030 -04 302.5 Drainage and Terracing

302.3.5 Slope. 301.5.1 General.


The slope of fill surfaces shall be no steeper than is safe for Unless otherwise indicated on the approved grading plan,
the intended use. Fill slopes shall be no steeper than 1 unit drainage facilities and terracing shall conform to the
vertical in 2 units horizontal (50% slope) unless provisions of this section for cut or fill slopes steeper than 1
substantiating data justifying steeper slopes are submitted unit vertical in 3 units horizontal (33.3% slope).
and approved.
302.5.2 Terrace.
302.4 Setbacks Terraces at least 2 meters in width shall be established at
not more than 10 meters vertical intervals on all cut or fill
302.4.1 General. slopes to control surface drainage and debris except that
where only one terrace is required, it shall be at midheight.
Cut and fill slopes shall be set back from site boundaries in For cut or fill slopes greater than 20 meters and up to 40
accordance with this section unless an alternate setback is meters in vertical height, one terrace at approximately
approved by the building official (see Section 302.4.4). midheight shall be 4 meters in width. Terrace widths and
Setback dimensions shall be horizontal distances measured spacing for cut and fill slopes greater than 40 meters in
perpendicular to the site boundary. Setback dimensions height shall be designed by the civil engineer and approved
shall be as shown in Figure 302-1. by the building official. Suitable access shall be provided to
permit proper cleaning and maintenance.
302.4.2 Top of Cut Slope.
Swales or ditches on terraces shall have a minimum
The top of cut slopes shall not be made nearer to a site
gradient of 5 percent and must be paved with reinforced
boundary line than one fifth of the vertical height of cut
with a minimum of 0.6 meter and a maximum of 3 meters. concrete not less than 75 mm in thickness or an approved
The setback may need to be increased for any required equal paving material. They shall have a minimum depth at
interceptor drains. the deepest point of 0.3 meter and a minimum paved width
of 1.5 meters.

302.4.3 Toe of Fill Slope. A single run of swale or ditch shall not collect runoff from a
The toe of fill slope shall be made not nearer to the site tributary area exceeding 1,000 m2 (projected area) without
boundary line than one half the height of the slope with a discharging into a down drain.
minimum of 0.6 meter and a maximum of 6 meters. Where
a fill slope is to be located near the site boundary and the 302.5.3 Subsurface Drainage.
adjacent off-site property is developed, special precautions
shall be incorporated in the work as the building official Cut and fill slopes shall be provided with surface drainage
deems necessary to protect the adjoining property from as necessary for stability.
damage as a result of such grading. These precautions may
include but are not limited to: 302.5.4 Disposal.
1. Additional setbacks. All drainage facilities shall be designed to carry waters to
the nearest practicable drainage way approved by the
2. Provision for retaining or slough walls. building official or other appropriate jurisdiction as a safe
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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
3-6 CHAPTER 3 – Excavations and Foundations

place to deposit such waters. Erosion of ground in the area SECTION 303 - FOUNDATION
of discharge shall be prevented by installation of non-
erosive down drains or other devices or splash blocks. INVESTIGATION
Building pads shall have a drainage gradient of 2 percent 303.1 General
toward approved drainage facilities, unless waived by the
building official. Foundation investigation shall be conducted and a
professional report shall be submitted at each building site
Exception: when required by the building official or when the
The gradient from the building pad may be 1 percent if all engineer-of-record requires such information.
of the following conditions exist throughout the permit
area: Foundation and soils investigation shall be conducted in
cases of questionable soils, expansive soils, groundwater
1. No proposed fills are greater than 3 meters in table to determine whether the existing ground water table
maximum depth. is above or within 1.5 meters below the elevation of the
2. No proposed finish cut or fill slope faces have a lowest floor level or where such floor is located below the
vertical height in excess of 3 meters. finished ground level adjacent to the foundation, pile
foundations, or in rock strata where the rock is suspected to
3. No existing slope faces steeper than 1 unit vertical in be of doubtful characteristics or indicate variations in the
10 units horizontal (10% slope) have a vertical height structure of the rock or where solution cavities or voids are
in excess of 3 meters. expected to be present in the rock..

The building official may require that the interpretation and


302.5.5 Interceptor Drains. evaluation of the results of the foundation investigation be
Paved or lined interceptor drains shall be installed along the made by a registered civil engineer, experienced and
top of all cut slopes where the tributary drainage area above knowledgeable in the field of geotechnical engineering.
slopes toward the cut and has a drainage path greater than
12 meters measured horizontally. Interceptor drains shall be
paved with a minimum of 75 mm of concrete or gunite and 303.2 Soil Classification
reinforced. They shall have a minimum depth of 300 mm For the purposes of this chapter, the definition and
and a minimum paved width of 750 mm measured classification of soil materials for use in Table 304-1 shall
horizontally across the drain. The slope of drain shall be be according to ASTM D-2487.
approved by the building official.
Soil classification shall be based on observation and any
necessary tests of the materials disclosed by borings or
302.6 Erosion Control excavations made in appropriate locations. Additional
studies may be necessary to evaluate soil strength, the effect
302.6.1 Slopes. of moisture variation on soil-bearing capacity,
compressibility, liquefaction and expansiveness.
The faces of cut and fill slopes shall be prepared and
maintained to control against erosion. This control may
consist of effective planting adapted to the locality. The 303.3 Questionable Soil
protection for the slopes shall be installed as soon as Where the classification, strength or compressibility of the
practicable and prior to calling for final approval. Where soil are in doubt, or where a load bearing value superior to
cut slopes are not subject to erosion due to the erosion- that specified in this code is claimed, the building official
resistant character of the materials, such protection may be shall require that the necessary soil investigation be made.
omitted.

303.4 Liquefaction Study


302.6.2 Other Devices.
The building official may require a geotechnical evaluation
Where necessary, check dams, cribbing, riprap or other in accordance with Section 303.6 when, during the course
devices or methods shall be employed to control erosion of the foundation investigation, where all of the following
and provide safety. conditions are discovered which could trigger liquefaction
or spreading:
1. Shallow ground water, 15 meters or less
2. Unconsolidated saturated sandy alluvium.

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CHAPTER 3 – Excavations and Foundations 3-7

3. Seismic Zone 4 7. Laboratory strength and compressibility parameters.


Exception:
The soil classification and design-bearing capacity shall be
The building official may waive this evaluation upon receipt shown on the plans, unless the foundation conforms to
of written opinion of a qualified geotechnical engineer that Table 305-1.
liquefaction is not probable.
When expansive soils are present, the building official may
require that special provisions be made in the foundation
303.5 Expansive Soil
design and construction to safeguard against damage due to
When the expansive characteristic of a soil is suspected this expansiveness. The building official may require a
and needs to be determined, the procedures shall be in special investigation and report to provide these design and
accordance with ASTM D-4546 or D-4829 and the soil construction criteria.
shall be classified according to Table 303-1. Foundations
for structures resting on soils with an expansion index
303.7 Liquefaction Potential and Soil Strength Loss
greater than 20 shall require special design consideration. If
the soil expansion index varies with depth, the variation is When required by Section 303.4, the potential for soil
to be included in the engineering analysis of the expansive liquefaction and soil strength loss during earthquakes shall
soil effect upon the structure. be evaluated during the geotechnical investigation. The
geotechnical evaluation shall assess potential consequences
Table 303-1 Classification of Expansive Soil of any liquefaction and soil strength loss, including
estimation of differential settlement, lateral movement or
Expansion Index Potential Expansion reduction in foundation soil-bearing capacity, and discuss
mitigating measures. Such measures shall be given
0 - 20 Very Low consideration in the design of the building and may include,
21 - 50 Low but are not limited to, ground stabilization, selection of
appropriate foundation type and depths, selection of
51 - 90 Medium appropriate structural systems to accommodate anticipated
displacements, or any combination of these measures.
91 - 130 High
Above 130 Very High The potential for liquefaction and soil strength loss shall be
evaluated for a site peak ground acceleration that, as a
minimum, conforms to the probability of exceedance
303.6 Reports specified in Section 208.6.2. Peak ground acceleration may
The building official may require submission of a written be determined based on a site-specific study taking into
professional report and record of the investigation, which account soil amplification effects.
shall include, but need not be limited to, the following
information: In the absence of such a study, peak ground acceleration
may be assumed equal to the seismic zone factor in Table
1. A plot showing the location of all test borings and/or 208-3.
excavations.
2. Descriptions and classifications of the materials 303.8 Adjacent Loads
encountered.
Where footings are placed at varying elevations, the effect
3. Elevation of the water table, if encountered. of adjacent induced lateral and vertical loads shall be
included in the foundation design.
4. Recommendations for foundation type and design
criteria, including bearing capacity, pile or pier load
capacity, including special foundation solutions, 303.9 Drainage
provisions to mitigate the effects of differential Provisions shall be made for the control and drainage of
settlements and expansive soils, provisions to mitigate surface water around buildings. (See also Section 305.5.5.)
the effects of liquefaction and soil strength loss, and and ensure that scour will not threaten such structures.
the effects of adjacent loads
5. Expected total and differential settlements.
6. Seismicity consideration such as near source factor,
soil classification based on Chapter 2 of this code.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
3-8 CHAPTER 3 – Excavations and Foundations

Table 304-1 Allowable Foundation and Lateral Pressure

Lateral
Bearing Lateral Sliding1
Allowable
Below
Foundation
Class of Materials2 Natural
Pressure3
Grade4 Resistance6
(kPa)
(kPa/m of Coefficient5
(kPa)
depth)

1. Massive Crystalline Bedrock 200 200 0.70 -

2. Sedimentary and Foliated Rock 100 60 0.35 -

3. Sandy Gravel and /or Gravel(GW & GP) 100 30 0.35 -

4. Well-graded Sand, Poorly-graded Sand, Silty Sand,


Clayey Sand, Silty Gravel and Clayey Gravel (SW, 75 25 0.25 -
SP, SM, SC, GM and GC)
5. Clay, Sandy Clay, Silty Clay and Clayey Silt (CL, ML,
50 7 15 - 7
MH, and CH)
1
Lateral bearing and lateral sliding resistance may be combined.
2
For soil classification OL, OH and PT (i.e., organic clays and peat), a foundation investigation shall be required.
3
All values of allowable foundation pressure are for footings having a minimum width of 300 mm and a minimum depth of 300 mm into natural grade.
Except as in Footnote 7 below, increase of 20 percent is allowed for each additional 300 mm of width and/or depth to a maximum value of three
times the designated value.
4
The amount of the designated value may be increased for each additional 300 mm of depth to a maximum of 15 times the designated value. Isolated
poles for uses such as flagpoles or signs and poles used to support structures which are not adversely affected by a 12 mm motion at ground surface
due to short term lateral bearing values equal to two times the tabulated values.
5
Coefficient to be multiplied by the dead load.
6
Lateral sliding resistance value to be multiplied by the contact area. In no case shall the lateral sliding resistance exceed one half the dead load.
7
No increase for width is allowed.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 3 – Excavations and Foundations 3-9

Slab-on-grade and mat-type footings for structures located


on expansive soils may be designed in accordance with the
SECTION 304 - ALLOWABLE geotechnical recommendation as permitted by the building
FOUNDATION AND LATERAL official.
PRESSURES Table 305-1 – Foundations for Stud Bearing Walls
– Minimum Requirements1,2,3
Number of Thickness of Depth
The allowable foundation and lateral pressures shall not Width Thickness Below
exceed the values set forth in Table 304-1 unless data to Floors Foundation Wall
Supported
of of Undisturbed
(mm) Ground
substantiate the use of higher values are submitted. Table by the Footing Footing
Unit (mm) (mm) Surface
304-1 may be used for design of foundations on rock , non- Foundations Concrete
(mm)
Masonry
liquefiable sites or non-expansive soil for structures that do
not exceed three stories in height or for structures that have 1 150 150 300 150 300
continuous footings having a load of less than 30 kN/m and
isolated footings with loads of less than 250 kN. 2 200 200 375 175 450

Allowable bearing pressures provided in Table 304-1 shall 3 250 250 450 200 600
be used with the allowable stress design load combinations
1
specified in Section 203.4. Where unusual conditions are found, footings and foundations shall be
as required in Section 305.1.
2
The ground under the floor may be excavated to the elevation of the top
of the footing.
SECTION 305 - FOOTINGS 3
Foundation may support a roof in addition to the stipulated number of
floors. Foundations supporting roofs only shall be as required for
supporting one floor.
305.1 General
Footings shall be so designed that the allowable bearing 305.2.1 Design Loads
capacity of the soil is not exceeded, and that differential
settlement is minimized to within limits tolerable to the Footings shall be designed for the most unfavorable load
structure. effects due to combinations of loads. The dead load is
permitted to include the weight of foundations, footings and
Footings and foundations shall be constructed of masonry, overlying fill. Reduced live loads as permitted in the
concrete or treated wood permanently under the water table Chapter on Loadings are permitted to be used in the design
in conformance with Chapter 4, 5, 6 and 7. Footings of of footings.
concrete and masonry shall be of solid material.
Foundations supporting wood shall extend at least 150 mm 305.2.2 Vibratory Loads
above the adjacent finish grade. Footings shall have a
Where machinery operations or other vibratory loads or
minimum depth as indicated in Table 305-1, unless another
vibrations are transmitted to the foundations, consideration
depth is recommended by a foundation investigation.
shall be given in the report to address the foundation design
to prevent detrimental disturbances to the soil.
The provisions of this section do not apply to building and
foundation systems in those areas subject to scour and
water pressure by wind and wave action. Buildings and 305.3 Bearing Walls
foundations subject to such loads shall be designed in Bearing walls shall be supported on masonry or concrete
accordance with approved national standards and supported foundations or piles or other permitted foundation system
by calculation of scour depth. that shall be of sufficient size to support all loads.

305.2 Footing Design Where a design is not provided, the minimum foundation
requirements for stud bearing walls shall be as set forth in
Except for special provisions of Section 307 covering the
Table 305-1, unless expansive soils of a severity to cause
design of piles, all portions of footings shall be designed in
differential movement are known to exist.
accordance with the structural provisions of this code and
shall be designed to minimize differential settlement when
necessary and the effects of expansive soils when present.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
3-10 CHAPTER 3 – Excavations and Foundations

Exceptions: 305.5.4 Pools.


1. A one-storey wood or metal-frame structure not used The setback between pools regulated by this code and
for human occupancy and not over 40 m2 in floor area slopes shall be equal to one half the building footing
may be constructed with walls supported on a wood setback distance required by this section. That portion of
foundation plate when permitted by the building the pool wall within a horizontal distance of 2 meters from
official. the top of the slope shall be capable of supporting the water
in the pool without soil support.
2. The support of structures by posts embedded in earth
shall be designed as specified in Section 305.7. Wood
posts or poles embedded in earth shall be pressure 305.5.5 Foundation Elevation.
treated with an approved preservative. Steel posts or On graded sites, the top of any exterior foundation shall
poles shall be protected as specified in Section 306.10. extend above the elevation of the street gutter at point of
discharge or the inlet of an approved drainage device a
minimum of 300 mm plus 2 percent. The building official
305.4 Stepped Foundations
may permit alternate elevations, provided it can be
Foundations for all buildings where the surface of the demonstrated that required drainage to the point of
ground slopes more than 1 unit vertical in 10 units discharge and away from the structure is provided at all
horizontal (10% slope) shall be level or shall be stepped so locations on the site.
that both top and bottom of such foundation are level.

305.5.6 Alternate Setback and Clearance.


305.5 Footings On or Adjacent To Slopes
The building official may approve alternate setbacks and
clearances. The building official may require an
305.5.1 Scope. investigation and recommendation of a qualified engineer
The placement of buildings and structures on or adjacent to to demonstrate that the intent of this section has been
slopes steeper than 1 unit vertical in 3 units horizontal satisfied. Such an investigation shall include consideration
(33.3% slope) shall be in accordance with this section. of material, height of slope, slope gradient, load intensity
and erosion characteristics of slope material.

305.5.2 Building Clearance from Ascending Slopes.


305.6 Foundation Plates or Sills
In general, buildings below slopes shall be set a sufficient
distance from the slope to provide protection from slope Wood plates or sills shall be bolted to the foundation or
drainage, erosion and shallow failures. Except as provided foundation wall. Steel bolts with a minimum nominal
for in Section 305.5.6 and Figure 305-1, the following diameter of 12 mm shall be used in Seismic Zone 2. Steel
criteria will be assumed to provide this protection. Where bolts with a minimum nominal diameter of 16 mm shall be
the existing slope is steeper than 1 unit vertical in 1 unit used in Seismic Zone 4. Bolts shall be embedded at least
horizontal (100% slope), the toe of the slope shall be 180 mm into the concrete or masonry and shall be spaced
assumed to be at the intersection of a horizontal plane not more than 2 meters apart. There shall be a minimum of
drawn from the top of the foundation and a plane drawn two bolts per piece with one bolt located not more than 300
tangent to the slope at an angle of 45 degrees to the mm or less than seven bolt diameters from each end of the
horizontal. Where a retaining wall is constructed at the toe piece. A properly sized nut and washer shall be tightened
of the slope, the height of the slope shall be measured from on each bolt to the plate. Foundation plates and sills shall be
the top of the wall to the top of the slope. the kind of wood specified in Chapter 6.

305.5.3 Footing Setback from Descending Slope Surface. 305.7 Designs Employing Lateral Bearing
Footings on or adjacent to slope surfaces shall be founded
in firm material with an embedment and setback from the 305.7.1 General.
slope surface sufficient to provide vertical and lateral Construction employing posts or poles as columns
support for the footing without detrimental settlement. embedded in earth or embedded in concrete footings in the
Except as provided for in Section 305.5.6 and Figure 305-1, earth may be used and designed to resist both axial and
the following setback is deemed adequate to meet the lateral loads. The depth to resist lateral loads shall be
criteria. Where the slope is steeper than 1 unit vertical in 1 determined by means of the design criteria established
unit horizontal (100% slope), the required setback shall be herein or other methods approved by the building official.
measured from an imaginary plane 45 degrees to the
horizontal, projected upward from the toe of the slope.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 3 – Excavations and Foundations 3-11

305.7.2 Design Criteria 305.7.2.3 Vertical Load.


The resistance to vertical loads is determined by the
305.7.2.1 Nonconstrained. allowable soil-bearing pressure set forth in Table 304-1.
The following formula may be used in determining the
depth of embedment required to resist lateral loads where 305.7.3 Backfill.
no constraint is provided at the ground surface, such as
rigid floor or rigid ground surface pavement.
305.7.2.2 Constrained.
The following formula may be used to determine the depth
(305-1)
of embedment required to resist lateral loads where
constraint is provided at the ground surface, such as a rigid
where: floor or pavement.
Ph
d 2 = 4.25 (305-2)
S3 b
b = diameter of round post or footing or diagonal
dimension of square post or footing, meters . The backfill in the annular space around column not
embedded in poured footings shall be by one of the
d = depth of embedment in earth in meters but not
following methods:
over 3.5 meters for purpose of computing lateral
pressure. 1. Backfill shall be of concrete with an ultimate strength
of 15 MPa at 28 days. The hole shall not be less than
H = distance in meters from ground surface to point of
100 mm larger than the diameter of the column at its
application of “P.”
bottom or 100 mm larger than the diagonal dimension
P = applied lateral force in kilonewtons . of a square or rectangular column.
S1 = allowable lateral soil-bearing pressure as set forth in 2. Backfill shall be of clean sand. The sand shall be
Table 304-1 based on a depth of one third the depth thoroughly compacted by tamping in layers not more
of embedment (kPa). than 200 mm in depth.
S3 = allowable lateral soil-bearing pressure as set forth in
Table 304-1 based on a depth equal to the depth of
embedment (kPa).

Face of Footing

Top of Slope

Face of Structure
Toe of Slope
H/2 but
need not
exceed
4.5.m max.
H

H/3 but need not


exceed 12 m max.

Figure 305-1 Setback Dimensions For Building Clearance from Slopes


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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
3-12 CHAPTER 3 – Excavations and Foundations

The use of piles not specifically mentioned in this chapter


305.7.4.1 The frictional resistance for retaining walls and shall be permitted, subject to the approval of the building
slabs on silts and clays shall be limited to one half of the official upon submission of acceptable test data,
normal force imposed on the soil by the weight of the calculations or other information relating to the properties
footing or slab. and load-carrying capacities of such piles.

305.7.4 Limitations. 306.2 Interconnection


The design procedure outlined in this section shall be Individual pile caps and caissons of every structure
subject to the following limitations: subjected to seismic forces shall be interconnected by ties.
Such ties shall be capable of resisting, in tension or
305.7.4.1 Posts embedded in earth shall not be used to compression, a minimum horizontal force equal to 10
provide lateral support for structural or nonstructural percent of the largest column vertical load.
materials such as plaster, masonry or concrete unless
bracing is provided that develops the limited deflection Exception:
required. Other approved methods may be used where it can be
demonstrated that equivalent restraint can be provided.
305.8 Grillage Footings
When grillage footings of structural steel shapes are used 306.3 Determination of Allowable Loads
on soils, they shall be completely embedded in concrete. The allowable axial and lateral loads on piles shall be
Concrete cover shall be at least 150 mm on the bottom and determined by an approved formula, by a foundation
at least 100 mm at all other points. investigation or by load tests. Static axial compressive pile
load test shall be in accordance with ASTM Standard D-
1143, and lateral load testing of piles shall conform with
305.9 Bleacher Footings ASTM Standard D-3966. Dynamic pile tests shall be in
Footings for open-air seating facilities shall comply with accordance with ASTM Standard D-4945. Static axial
Chapter 3. tensile load testing to determine the uplift capacity of pile-
soil systems shall be in accordance with ASTM Standard
Exceptions: D-3689.
Temporary open-air portable bleachers may be supported
upon wood sills or steel plates placed directly upon the
ground surface, provided soil pressure does not exceed 50 306.4 Static Load Test
kPa. Static axial compressive pile load test shall be in
accordance with ASTM Standard D-1143. The building
official may require that the test be conducted under the
SECTION 306 - PILES - GENERAL supervision of a registered civil engineer experienced and
REQUIREMENTS knowledgeable in the practice of static pile load testing

When the allowable axial compressive load of a single pile


306.1 General is determined by a static load test, one of the following
Pile foundations shall be designed and installed on the basis methods shall be used:
of a foundation investigation as defined in Section 303
where required by the building official. Method 1. It shall not exceed 50 percent of the yield point
under test load. The yield point shall be defined as that
The investigation and report provisions of Section 303 shall point at which an increase in load produces a
be expanded to include, but not be limited to, the following: disproportionate increase in settlement.
1. Recommended pile types and installed capacities. Method 2. It shall not exceed one half of the load, which
2. Driving criteria. causes a net settlement, after deducting rebound, of 0.03
mm/kN of test load, which has been applied for a period of
3. Installation procedures. at least 24 hours.
4. Field inspection and reporting procedures (to include
procedures for verification of the installed bearing Method 3. It shall not exceed one half of that load under
capacity where required). which, during a 40-hour period of continuous load
application, no additional settlement takes place.
5. Pile load test requirements.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 3 – Excavations and Foundations 3-13

306.5 Dynamic Load Test materials shall be adequately protected by methods or


High-strain dynamic load test may be used to determine the processes approved by the geotechnical engineer.
bearing capacity of piles, in accordance with ASTM
Standard D-4945. The building official may require that The effectiveness of such methods or processes for the
the test be conducted by a registered civil engineer particular purpose shall have been thoroughly established
experienced and knowledgeable in the practice of dynamic by satisfactory service records or other evidence, which
load testing. demonstrates the effectiveness of such protective measures.

306.6 Column Action 306.11 Allowable Loads


All piles standing unbraced in air, water or material not The allowable loads based on soil conditions shall be
capable of lateral support shall conform with the applicable established in accordance with Section 306.
column formula as specified in this code. Such piles driven
into firm ground may be considered fixed and laterally Exception:
supported at 1.5 meters below the ground surface and in Any uncased cast-in-place pile may be assumed to develop
soft material at 3 meters from the ground surface unless a frictional resistance equal to one sixth of the bearing
otherwise prescribed by the building official after a value of the soil material at minimum depth as set forth in
foundation investigation by an approved agency. Table 305-1 but not to exceed 25 kPa unless a greater value
is allowed by the building official after a foundation
investigation as specified in Section 303 is submitted.
306.7 Group Action Frictional resistance and bearing resistance shall not be
Consideration shall be given to the reduction of allowable assumed to act simultaneously unless recommended after a
pile load when piles are placed in groups. foundation investigation as specified in Section 303.

Where soil conditions make such load reductions advisable


306.12 Use of Higher Allowable Pile Stresses
or necessary, the allowable axial load determined for a
single pile shall be reduced by any rational method or Allowable compressive stresses, greater than those
formula submitted to the building official. specified in Section 307 shall be permitted when
substantiating data justifying such higher stresses are
submitted to and approved by the building official. Such
306.8 Piles in Subsiding Areas substantiating data shall be included in the foundation
Where piles are driven through subsiding fills or other investigation report in accordance with Section 306.1.
subsiding strata and derive support from underlying firmer
materials, consideration shall be given to the downward
frictional forces, which may be imposed on the piles by the SECTION 307 - PILES - SPECIFIC
subsiding upper strata. REQUIREMENTS
Where the influence of subsiding fills is considered as
imposing loads on the pile, the allowable stresses specified 307.1 Round Wood Piles
in this chapter may be increased if satisfactory
substantiating data are submitted. 307.1.1 Material.
Except where untreated piles are permitted, wood piles
306.9 Jetting shall be pressure treated. Untreated piles may be used only
Installation of piles by water jetting shall not be used except when it has been established that the cutoff will be below
where and as specifically permitted by the building official. lowest groundwater level assumed to exist during the life of
When used, jetting shall be carried out in such a manner the structure.
that the carrying capacity of existing piles and structures
shall not be impaired. After withdrawal of the jet, piles 307.1.2 Allowable Stresses.
shall be driven down until the required resistance is
obtained. The allowable unit stresses for round woodpiles shall not
exceed those set forth in Chapter 6.

306.10 Protection of Pile Materials The allowable values listed in, for compression parallel to
Where the boring records of site conditions indicate the grain at extreme fiber in bending are based on load
possible deleterious action on pile materials because of soil sharing as occurs in a pile cluster. For piles which support
constituents, changing water levels or other factors, such their own specific load, a safety factor of 1.25 shall be

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
3-14 CHAPTER 3 – Excavations and Foundations

applied to compression parallel to the grain values and 1.30 307.3.3 Allowable Stresses.
to extreme fiber in bending values. Allowable stresses shall not exceed the values specified in
Section 307.2.2, except that the allowable concrete stress
307.2 Uncased Cast-In-Place Concrete Piles may be increased to a maximum value of 0.40f’c for that
portion of the pile meeting the following conditions:

307.2.1 Material. 1. The thickness of the metal casing is not less than 1.7
mm (No. 14 carbon sheet steel gage).
Concrete piles cast in place against earth in drilled or bored
holes shall be made in such a manner as to ensure the 2. The casing is seamless or is provided with seams of
exclusion of any foreign matter and to secure a full-sized equal strength and is of a configuration that will
shaft. provide confinement to the cast-in-place concrete.
3. The specified compressive strength f’c shall not exceed
The length of such pile shall be limited to not more than 30
35 MPa and the ratio of steel minimum specified yield
times the average diameter. Concrete shall have a specified
strength Fy to concrete specified compressive strength
compressive strength f’c of not less than 17.5 MPa.
f’c shall not be less than 6.
Exception: 4. The pile diameter is not greater than 400 mm.
The length of pile may exceed 30 times the diameter
provided the design and installation of the pile foundation
307.4 Precast Concrete Piles
is in accordance with an approved foundation investigation
report.
307.4.1 Materials.
307.2.2 Allowable Stresses. Precast concrete piles shall have a specified compressive
strength f’c of not less than 20 MPa, and shall develop a
The allowable compressive stress in the concrete shall not
compressive strength of not less than 20 MPa before
exceed 0.33f’c. The allowable compressive stress of
driving.
reinforcement shall not exceed 34 percent of the yield
strength of the steel or 175 MPa.
307.4.2 Reinforcement Ties.
307.3 Metal-Cased Concrete Piles The longitudinal reinforcement in driven precast concrete
piles shall be laterally tied with steel ties or wire spirals.
Ties and spirals shall not be spaced more than 75 mm apart,
307.3.1 Material. center to center, for a distance of 600 mm from the ends
Concrete used in metal-cased concrete piles shall have a and not more than 200 mm elsewhere. The gage of ties and
specified compressive strength f’c of not less than 17.5 spirals shall be as follows:
MPa.
1. For piles having a diameter of 400 mm or less, wire
shall not be smaller than 5.5 mm (No. 5 B.W.gage).
307.3.2 Installation. 2. For piles, having a diameter of more than 400 mm and
Every metal casing for a concrete pile shall have a sealed less than 500 mm, wire shall not be smaller than 6 mm
tip with a diameter of not less than 200 mm. (No.4 B.W.gage).

Concrete piles cast in place in metal shells shall have shells 3. For piles having a diameter of 500 mm and larger, wire
driven for their full length in contact with the surrounding shall not be smaller than 6.5 mm
soil and left permanently in place. The shells shall be (No.3 B.W. gage).
sufficiently strong to resist collapse and sufficiently
watertight to exclude water and foreign material during the
placing of concrete. 307.4.3 Allowable Stresses.
Precast concrete piling shall be designed to resist stresses
Piles shall be driven in such order and with such spacing as induced by handling and driving as well as by loads. The
to ensure against distortion of or injury to piles already in allowable stresses shall not exceed the values specified in
place. No pile shall be driven within four and one-half Section 307.2.2.
average pile diameters of a pile filled with concrete less
than 24 hours old unless approved by the geotechnical
engineer.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 3 – Excavations and Foundations 3-15

307.5 Precast Prestressed Concrete Piles (Pretensioned) 307.5.4 Splicing.


Where required, splicing for concrete piles shall be by use
307.5.1 Materials. of embedded and properly anchored thick steel plates at the
ends being joined which shall then be fully welded, or by
Precast prestressed concrete piles shall have a specified use of adequate sized dowel rods and steel receiving
compressive strength f’c of not less than 35 MPa and shall
sleeves. The dowels and the faces shall then be joined by
develop a compressive strength of not less than 27 MPa
structural epoxy. Metal splice cans are not allowed.
before driving.

307.6 Structural Steel Piles


307.5.2 Reinforcement

307.6.1 Material.
307.5.2.1 Longitudinal Reinforcement.
Structural steel piles, steel pipe piles and fully welded steel
The longitudinal reinforcement shall be high-tensile seven- piles fabricated from plates shall conform to one of the
wire strand conforming to ASTM Standards. Longitudinal
material specifications listed in Section 501.3.
reinforcement shall be laterally tied with steel ties or wire
spirals.
307.6.2 Allowable Stresses.
307.5.2.2 Transverse Reinforcement. The allowable axial stresses shall not exceed 0.35 of the
minimum specified yield strength Fy or 85 MPa, whichever
Ties or spiral reinforcement shall not be spaced more than is less.
75 mm apart, center to center, for a distance of 600 mm
from the ends and not more than 200 mm elsewhere.
Exception:
When justified in accordance with Section 306.12, the
At each end of the pile, the first five ties or spirals shall be allowable axial stress may be increased above 85 MPa and
spaced 25 mm center to center.
0.35Fy, but shall not exceed 0.5Fy.
For piles having a diameter of 600 mm or less, wire shall
not be smaller than 5.5 mm (No. 5 B.W.gage).
307.6.3 Minimum Dimensions.
For piles having a diameter greater than 600 mm but less Sections of driven H-piles shall comply with the following:
than 900 mm, wire shall not be smaller than 6 mm
(No. 4 B.W.gage). 1. The flange projection shall not exceed 14 times the
minimum thickness of metal in either the flange or the
For piles having a diameter greater than 900 mm, wire shall web, and the flange widths shall not be less than 80
not be smaller than 6 mm (No.3 B.W.gauge). percent of the depth of the section.
2. The nominal depth in the direction of the web shall not
307.5.3 Allowable Stresses. be less than 200 mm.
Precast prestressed piling shall be designed to resist stresses 3. Flanges and webs shall have a minimum nominal
induced by handling and driving as well as by loads. The thickness of 10 mm.
effective prestress in the pile shall not be less than 2.5 MPa
for piles up to 10 meters in length, 4 MPa for piles up to 15 Sections of driven pipe piles shall have an outside diameter
meters in length, and 5 MPa for piles greater than 15 meters of not less than 250 mm and a minimum thickness of not
in length. less than 6 mm.

The compressive stress in the concrete due to externally


applied load shall not exceed: 307.7 Concrete-Filled Steel Pipe Piles

f c = 0.33 f 'c −0.27 f pc (307-1)


307.7.1 Material.
where: The steel pipe of concrete-filled steel pipe piles shall
fpc = effective prestress stress on the gross section. conform to one of the material specifications listed in
Section 501.3. The concrete in concrete-filled steel pipe
Effective prestress shall be based on an assumed loss of 200 piles shall have a specified compressive strength f’c of not
MPa in the prestressing steel. The allowable stress in the less than 17.5 MPa.
prestressing steel shall not exceed the values specified in
Section 418.5.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
3-16 CHAPTER 3 – Excavations and Foundations

307.7.2 Allowable Stresses. 308.4 Foundation-Soil Interface.


The allowable axial stresses shall not exceed 0.35 of the For regular structures, the force Ft as provided in Section
minimum specified yield strength Fy of the steel plus 0.33 208.5.5 may be omitted when determining the overturning
of the specified compressive strength f’c of concrete, moment to be resisted at the foundation-soil interface.
provided Fy shall not be assumed greater than 250 MPa for
computational purposes.
308.5 Special Requirements for Piles and Caissons.
Exception:
When justified in accordance with Section 306.12, the 308.5.1 General.
allowable stresses may be increased to 0.50 Fy. Piles, caissons and caps shall be designed according to the
provisions of Chapter 2, including the effects of lateral
307.7.3 Minimum Dimensions. displacements. Special detailing requirements as described
in Section 308.5.2 shall apply for a length of piles equal to
Driven piles of uniform section shall have a nominal
120 percent of the flexural length. Flexural length shall be
outside diameter of not less than 200 mm.
considered as a length of pile from the first point of zero
lateral deflection to the underside of the pile cap or grade
SECTION 308 - FOUNDATION beam.

CONSTRUCTION-SEISMIC ZONE 4
308.5.2 Steel Piles, Nonprestressed Concrete Piles and
Prestressed Concrete Piles.
308.1 General
In Seismic Zones 4, the further requirements of this section
308.5.2.1 Steel Piles.
shall apply to the design and construction of foundations,
foundation components and the connection of Piles shall conform to width-thickness ratios of stiffened,
superstructure elements thereto. See Section 421.9 for unstiffened and tubular compression elements as specified
additional requirements for structural concrete foundations in Chapter 5.
resisting seismic forces.
308.5.2.2 Nonprestressed Concrete Piles.
308.2 Soil Capacity Piles shall have transverse reinforcement meeting the
The foundation shall be capable of transmitting the design requirements of Section 421.5
base shear and overturning forces prescribed in Chapter 2
from the structure into the supporting soil. The short term Exception:
dynamic nature of the loads may be taken into account in Transverse reinforcement need not exceed the amount
establishing the soil properties. determined by Equation 421-2 for spiral and circular hoop
reinforcement, or by Equation 421-4 for rectangular hoop
reinforcement.
308.3 Superstructure to Foundation Connection.
The connection of superstructure elements to the foundation
308.5.2.3 Prestressed Concrete Piles.
shall be adequate to transmit to the foundation the forces for
which the elements were required to be designed. Piles shall have a minimum volumetric ratio of spiral
reinforcement no less than 0.021 for 350 mm square and
smaller piles and 0.012 for 600 mm square and larger piles
unless a smaller value can be justified by rational analysis.
Interpolation may be used between the specified ratios for
intermediate sizes.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 3 – Excavations and Foundations 3-17

SECTION 309 - SPECIAL


FOUNDATION, SLOPE
STABILIZATION AND MATERIALS
OF CONSTRUCTION

309.1 Special Foundation Systems


Special foundation systems or materials other than specified
in the foregoing Sections may be introduced provided that
such systems can be supported by calculations and theory to
be providing safe foundation systems and when approved
by the engineer-of-record. Materials for incorporation into
the foundation should have proven track record of
successful usage in similar applications.

309.2 Acceptance and Approval.


Structure support on improved ground using such special
systems or proprietary systems may be approved subject to
submittal of calculations and other proof of acceptance and
successful usage.

309.3 Specific Applications


Specialty foundation systems may be applied or used
specifically to address any or combinations of the
following: bearing capacity improvement, liquefaction
mitigation, slope stability enhancement, control and/or
acceleration of consolidation settlements or immediate
settlements, increase in soil shear capacity, increased
pullout or overturning capacity, special anchors in soil and
rock and other beneficial effects. Controlled low strength
materials (CLSM) to reduce fill loads may be allowed for
use where applicable.

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
CHAPTER 4 - Concrete 4-1

Table of Contents
SECTION 401 - GENERAL .......................................... 7 405.9 Mixing .................................................................. 25
401.1 Scope ..................................................................... 7 405.10 Conveying .......................................................... 25
401.1.7 Concrete on Steel form Deck ...................... 7 405.11 Depositing .......................................................... 25
401.1.8 Special Provisions for Earthquake Resistance 405.12 Curing ................................................................ 26
..................................................................................... 7 405.12.3 Accelerated Curing..................................... 26
SECTION 402 - DEFINITIONS .................................... 7 405.13 Hot Weather Requirements .............................. 26
SECTION 403 - SPECIFICATIONS FOR TESTS SECTION 406 - FORMWORK, EMBEDDED PIPES
AND MATERIALS ........................................................ 12 AND CONSTRUCTION JOINTS ................................ 26
403.1 Notation ............................................................... 12 406.11 Design of Formwork .......................................... 26
403.2 Tests of Materials .............................................. 12 406.2 Removal of Forms, Shores and Reshoring ....... 26
403.3 Cement ................................................................. 12 406.2.1 Removal of Forms. ........................................ 26
403.4 Aggregates ........................................................... 13 206.2.2 Removal of Shores and Reshoring. ............... 26
403.5 Water ................................................................... 13 406.3 Conduits and Pipes Embedded in Concrete ..... 27
403.6 Steel Reinforcement............................................ 13 406.4 Construction Joints .............................................. 27
403.6.3 Deformed Reinforcements ......................... 13 SECTION 407 - DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT
403.6.4 Plain Reinforcement .................................... 14 ........................................................................................... 28
403.6.5 Headed Shear Stud Reinforcement .............. 14 407.1 Notations .............................................................. 28
403.6.6 Prestressing Tendons ................................... 14 407.2 Standard Hooks ................................................... 28
403.6.7 Structural Steel, Steel Pipe or Tubing ...... 14 407.3 Minimum Bend Diameters ................................. 28
403.7 Admixtures .......................................................... 15 407.4 Bending of Reinforcement ................................. 28
403.8 Storage of Materials ........................................... 15 407.5 Surface Conditions of Reinforcement ............... 28
403.9 Standards Cited in this Chapter ....................... 15 407.6 Placing Reinforcement ........................................ 29
SECTION 404 - DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS ... 18 407.7 Spacing Limits for Reinforcement ..................... 29
404.1 Notation ............................................................... 18 407.7.6 Bundled Bars ................................................ 29
404.2 Definitions ........................................................... 18 407.7.7 Prestressing Tendons and Ducts .................. 30
404.3 General ................................................................ 18 407.8 Concrete Protection for Reinforcement ............. 30
404.4 Exposure Categories and Classes ........................ 19 407.8.1 Cast-in-Place Concrete (non-prestressed) ..... 30
404.5 Special Exposure Conditions ............................. 19 407.8.2 Precast Concrete (manufactured under plant
404.6 Requirements for Concrete Mixtures ................... 19 control conditions) ..................................................... 30
404.7 Alternative Cementitious Materials for Sulphate 407.8.3 Cast-In-Place Concrete (Prestressed) ............ 30
Exposure ........................................................................ 19 407.8.4 Bundled Bars ................................................. 31
404.9 Water-Cementitious Materials Ratio .................. 19 407.8.5 Corrosive Environments................................ 31
404.10 Corrosion Protection Of Reinforcement .......... 20 407.8.6 Future Extensions .......................................... 31
SECTION 405 - CONCRETE QUALITY, MIXING 407.8.7 Fire Protection ............................................... 31
AND PLACING .............................................................. 21 407.9 Special Reinforcement Details for Columns .... 31
405.1 Notations.............................................................. 21 407.9.1 Offset Bars .................................................... 31
405.2 General ................................................................ 21 407.9.2 Steel Cores .................................................... 31
405.3 Selection of Concrete Proportions ..................... 21 407.10 Connections ........................................................ 32
405.4 Proportioning on the Basis of Field Experience 407.11 Lateral Reinforcement for Compression
and Trial Mixtures, or Both ........................................ 21 Members ........................................................................ 32
405.4.1 Sample Standard Deviation ......................... 21 407.11.4 Spirals. ........................................................ 32
405.4.2 Required Average Strength ......................... 22 407.11.5 Ties.............................................................. 32
405.4.3 Documentation of Average Strength. ........... 22 407.12 Lateral Reinforcement for Flexural Members 33
405.5 Proportioning without Field Experience or Trial 407.13 Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement ..... 33
Mixtures ......................................................................... 23 407.14 Requirements for Structural Integrity............... 33
405.6 Average Strength Reduction .............................. 23 SECTION 408 - ANALYSIS AND DESIGN-
405.7 Evaluation and Acceptance of Concrete .......... 23 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS................................... 36
405.7.2 Frequency of Testing .................................. 23 408.1 Notations .............................................................. 36
405.7.3 Laboratory-Cured Specimens ...................... 23 408.2 Design Methods .................................................. 36
405.7.4 Field-Cured Specimens ................................ 24 408.3 Loading ................................................................ 36
405.7.5 Investigation of Low-Strength Test Results 408.4 Methods of Analysis .......................................... 36
................................................................................... 24 408.5 Redistribution of Negative Moments in
405.7.6 Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete .................. 24 Continuous Nonprestressed Flexural Members ........... 37
405.8 Preparation of Equipment and Place of Deposit 408.6 Modulus of Elasticity ......................................... 37
....................................................................................... 25 408.7 Lightweight Concrete ........................................... 37
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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
4-2 CHAPTER 4 - Concrete

408.8 Stiffness ............................................................... 37 410.16 Transmission of Column Loads through Floor


408.9 Effective Stiffness to Determine Lateral System ............................................................................ 52
Deflections ..................................................................... 38 410.17 Composite Compression Members ................... 52
408.10 Span Length ...................................................... 38 410.17.6 Structural Steel-Encased Concrete Core ... 53
408.11 Columns ............................................................. 38 410.17.7 Spiral Reinforcement Around Structural Steel
408.12 Arrangement of Live Load .............................. 38 Core. ........................................................................... 53
408.13 T-beam Construction......................................... 38 410.17.8 Tie Reinforcement Around Structural Steel
408.14 Joist Construction.............................................. 39 Core. ........................................................................... 53
408.15 Separate Floor Finish ....................................... 39 410.18 Bearing Strength ................................................ 53
SECTION 409 - STRENGTH AND SECTION 411 - SHEAR AND TORSION ................ 54
SERVICEABILITY REQUIREMENTS ...................... 40 411.1 Notations .............................................................. 54
409.1 Notations .............................................................. 40 411.2 Shear Strength ..................................................... 55
409.2 General ................................................................. 40 411.3 Lightweight Concrete .......................................... 56
409.3 Required Strength ............................................... 41 411.4 Shear Strength Provided by Concrete for
409.4 Design Strength ................................................... 41 Nonprestressed Members ............................................... 56
409.4.2 Strength-Reduction Factor. ........................... 41 411.4.1 Simplified Calculation for Vc ........................ 56
409.5 Design Strength for Reinforcement ................... 42 411.4.2 Detailed Calculation for Vc. ........................ 56
409.6 Control of Deflections ........................................ 42 411.4.3 Circular Members. ........................................ 57
409.6.2 One-Way Construction (Non-Prestressed) .. 42 411.5 Shear Strength Provided by Concrete for
409.6.3 Two-Way Construction (non-prestressed) .. 43 Prestressed Members ..................................................... 57
409.6.4 Prestressed Concrete Construction .............. 44 411.5.3.2 Shear strength Vcw shall be computed by .... 57
409.6.5 Composite Construction ............................... 45 411.6 Shear Strength Provided by Shear
409.6.5.1 Shored Construction................................... 45 Reinforcement ................................................................ 57
409.6.5.2 Unshored Construction. ............................. 45 411.6.1 Types of Shear Reinforcement. .................. 57
SECTION 410 - FLEXURE AND AXIAL LOADS 45 411.6.5 Spacing Limits for Shear Reinforcement .. 58
410.1 Notations .............................................................. 45 411.6.6 Minimum Shear Reinforcement .................. 58
410.2 Scope.................................................................... 46 411.6.7 Design of Shear Reinforcement ......................... 58
410.3 Design Assumptions ........................................... 46 411.7 Design for Torsion.............................................. 59
410.4 General Principles and Requirements ............... 47 411.7.1 Threshold Torsion ......................................... 59
410.5 Distance between Lateral Supports of Flexural 411.7.2 Calculation of Factored Torsional Moment
Members ........................................................................ 48 .................................................................................... 59
410.6 Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members 411.7.3 Torsional Moment Strength ......................... 60
....................................................................................... 48 411.7.3.10 In Prestressed Beams: ............................ 61
410.7 Distribution of Flexural Reinforcement in Beams 411.7.4 Details of Torsional Reinforcement ............. 61
and One-way Slabs ...................................................... 48 411.7.5 Minimum Torsion Reinforcement ............... 61
410.8 Deep Flexural Members ..................................... 49 411.7.6 Spacing of Torsion Reinforcement ............. 61
410.9 Design Dimensions for Compression Members 411.7.7 Alternative Design For Torsion ..................... 62
....................................................................................... 49 411.8 Shear - Friction ..................................................... 62
410.9.1 Isolated Compression Member with Multiple 411.8.4 Shear-Friction Design Methods ................... 62
Spirals. ....................................................................... 49 411.9 Special Provisions for Deep Flexural Members
410.9.2 Compression Member Built Monolithically ........................................................................................ 63
with Wall. .................................................................. 49 411.10 Special Provisions for Brackets and Corbels . 63
410.9.3 Equivalent Circular Compression Member. .. 49 411.11 Special Provisions for Walls ........................... 64
410.9.4 Limits of Section. .......................................... 49 411.11.9 Design of Shear Reinforcement for Walls ... 64
410.10 Limits for Reinforcement of Compression 411.12 Transfer of Moments to Columns ....................... 65
Members .................................................................... 49 411.13 Special Provisions for Slabs and Footings..... 65
410.11 Slenderness Effects in Compression Members 411.13.6 Openings in Slabs ........................................ 67
....................................................................................... 50 411.13.7 Transfer of Moment in Slab-Column
410.12 Magnified Moments .......................................... 50 Connections ................................................................ 67
410.12.1 Nonlinear Second-Order Analysis .............. 50 SECTION 412 - DEVELOPMENT AND SPLICES
410.12.2 Elastic Second-Order Analysis ................... 50 OF REINFORCEMENT ................................................ 68
410.12.4 Moment Magnification Procedure .............. 51 412.1 Notations .............................................................. 68
410.13 Moment Magnification Procedure - Nonsway ... 51 412.2 Development of Reinforcement - General .......... 69
410.14 Moment Magnification Procedure - Sway ..... 51 412.3 Development of Deformed Bars and Deformed
410.15 Axially Loaded Members Supporting Slab Wire in Tension ............................................................ 69
System............................................................................ 52 412.3.5 Excess Reinforcement. .................................. 69

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 4 - Concrete 4-3

412.4 Development of Deformed Bars in Compression 414.7 Non-Bearing Walls .............................................. 83


....................................................................................... 69 414.8 Walls as Grade Beams ......................................... 83
412.5 Development of Bundled Bars.......................... 70 414.9 Alternate Design of Slender Walls ....................... 83
412.6 Development of Standard Hooks in Tension ... 70 SECTION 415 - FOOTINGS .......................................... 84
412.7 Development of Headed and Mechanically 415.1 Notations .............................................................. 84
Anchored Deformed Bars in Tension ............................ 70 415.2 Scope .................................................................... 84
412.8 Development of Welded Deformed Wire 415.3 Loads and Reactions ............................................ 84
Reinforcement in Tension............................................. 71 415.4 Footings Supporting Circular or Regular Polygon-
412.9 Development of Welded Plain Wire Shaped Columns or Pedestals ........................................ 84
Reinforcement in Tension............................................. 71 415.5 Moment in Footings ............................................. 84
412.10 Development of Prestressing Strand ................ 71 415.6 Shear in Footings ................................................ 84
412.11 Development of flexural Reinforcement - General 415.7 Development of Reinforcement in Footings ........ 85
....................................................................................... 72 415.8 Minimum Footing Depth...................................... 85
412.12 Development of Positive Moment Reinforcement 415.9 Transfer of Force at Base of Column, Wall or
....................................................................................... 72 Reinforcement Pedestal.................................................. 85
412.13 Development of Negative Moment Reinforcement 415.10 Sloped or Stepped Footings ............................... 86
....................................................................................... 73 415.11 Combined Footings and Mats ............................ 86
412.14 Development of Web Reinforcement ................ 73 415.12 Plain Concrete Pedestals and Footings. .............. 86
412.15 Splices of Reinforcement ................................. 73 SECTION 416 – PRECAST CONCRETE ..................... 86
412.15.2 Lap Splices ................................................ 73 416.1 Notations .............................................................. 86
412.15.3 Mechanical and Welded Splices ................. 74 416.2 Scope .................................................................... 86
412.16 Splices of Deformed Bars and Deformed Wire 416.3 General ................................................................. 86
in Tension ..................................................................... 74 416.4 Distribution of Forces among Members ............... 87
412.17 Splices of Deformed Bars in Compression ..... 74 416.5 Member Design .................................................... 87
412.17.4 End-Bearing Splices ................................... 75 416.6 Structural Integrity ............................................... 87
412.18 Special Splices Requirements for Columns .... 75 416.7 Connection and Bearing Design ........................... 88
412.18.2 Lap Splices in Columns .............................. 75 416.8 Items Embedded After Concrete Placement ........ 88
412.18.3 Welded Splices or Mechanical Connectors in 416.9 Marking and Identification ................................... 88
Coumns ...................................................................... 75 416.10 Handling ............................................................. 88
412.18.4 End-bearing Splices in Columns................. 75 416.11 Strength Evaluation of Precast Construction...... 88
412.19 Splices of Welded Deformed Wire SECTION 417 - COMPOSITE CONCRETE
Reinforcement in Tension.............................................. 75 FLEXURAL MEMBERS ................................................ 89
412.20 Splices of Welded Plain Wire Reinforcement 417.1 Notations .............................................................. 89
in Tension ..................................................................... 75 417.2 Scope .................................................................... 89
SECTION 413 - TWO-WAY SLAB SYSTEMS ........... 76 417.3 General ................................................................. 89
413.1 Notations.............................................................. 76 417.4 Shoring ................................................................. 89
413.2 Scope ................................................................... 76 417.5 Vertical Shear Strength ........................................ 89
413.3 Definitions ........................................................... 77 417.6 Horizontal Shear Strength .................................... 89
413.4 Slab Reinforcement ............................................. 77 417.7 Ties for Horizontal Shear ..................................... 90
413.7 Factored Moments in Columns and Walls .......... 79 SECTION 418 – PRESTRESSED CONCRETE ........... 90
413.8 Equivalent Frame Method ................................... 79 418.1 Notations .............................................................. 90
413.8.2 Equivalent Frame .......................................... 79 418.2 Scope .................................................................... 91
413.8.3 Slab-Beams ................................................... 80 418.3 General ................................................................. 91
413.8.4 Columns ........................................................ 80 418.4 Design Assumptions ............................................ 91
413.8.5 Torsional Members ....................................... 80 418.5 Permissible Stresses in Concrete – Flexural
413.8.6 Arrangement of Live Load ........................... 80 Members ........................................................................ 92
413.8.7 Factored Moments ........................................ 80 418.6 Permissible Stress in Prestressing Tendons.......... 92
SECTION 414 - WALLS................................................. 81 418.7 Loss of Prestress................................................... 93
414.1 Notations.............................................................. 81 418.7.2 Friction Loss in Post-Tensioning Tendons ........ 93
414.2 Scope ................................................................... 81 418.8 Flexural Strength .................................................. 93
414.3 General ................................................................ 81 418.9 Limits for Reinforcement of Flexural Members .. 94
414.4 Minimum Reinforcement..................................... 82 418.10 Minimum Bonded Reinforcement ...................... 94
414.5 Walls Design as Compression Members ............. 82 418.11 Statically Indeterminate Structures .................... 94
414.6 Empirical Design Method .................................... 82 418.11.4 Redistribution of Negative Moments in
414.6.3 Minimum Thickness of Walls Designed by Continuous Prestressed Flexural Members .................... 95
Empirical Design Method .......................................... 82

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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
4-4 CHAPTER 4 - Concrete

418.12 Compression Members – Combined Flexural and 420.4.1 Load Arrangement ....................................... 105
Axial Loads ................................................................... 95 420.4.2 Load Intensity .............................................. 105
418.12.2 Limits for Reinforcement of Prestressed 420.5 Loading Criteria ............................................... 105
Compression Members .................................................. 95 420.6 Acceptance Criteria ............................................ 106
418.13 Slab Systems: ..................................................... 95 420.7 Provisions for Lower Load Rating ..................... 106
418.14 Post-Tensioned Tendon Anchorage Zones ........ 96 420.8 Safety.................................................................. 106
418.14.1 Anchorage Zone .......................................... 96 SECTION 421 – EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT
418.14.2 Local Zone .................................................. 96 STRUCTURES ............................................................... 106
418.14.3 General Zone ............................................... 96 421.1 Notations ............................................................ 106
418.14.4 Nominal Material Strengths ........................ 96 421.2 Definitions .......................................................... 107
418.14.5 Design Methods .......................................... 97 421.3 General Requirements ........................................ 109
418.14.6 Detailing Requirements............................... 97 421.3.1 Scope ........................................................... 109
418.15 Design of Anchorage Zones for Monostrand or 421.3.2 Analysis and Proportioning of Structural
Single 16 mm Diameter Bar Tendons ............................ 97 Members ................................................................... 110
418.15.1 Local Zone Design ...................................... 97 421.3.3 Strength-Reduction Factors ......................... 110
418.15.2 General-Zone Design for Slab Tendons ..... 97 421.3.4 Concrete in Special Moment Frames and
418.15.3 General-Zone Design for Groups of Special Structural Walls ........................................... 110
Monostrand Tendons in Beams and Girders .............. 98 421.3.5 Reinforcement in Special Moment Frames and
418.16 Design of Anchorage Zones for Multistrannd Special Structural Walls ........................................... 110
Tendons.......................................................................... 98 421.3.6 Mechanical Splices in Special Moment Frames
418.16.1 Local Zone Design ...................................... 98 and Special Structural Walls ........................................ 110
418.16.2 Use of Special Anchorage Devices ............. 98 421.3.7 Welded Splices in Special Moment Frames and
418.16.3 General-Zone Design .................................. 98 Special Structural Walls ........................................... 111
418.17 Corrosion Protection for Unbonded Prestressing 421.4 Intermediate Precast Structural Walls ................ 111
Tendons.......................................................................... 98 421.4.1 Scope ........................................................... 111
418.18 Post-Tensioning Ducts ....................................... 98 421.5 Flexural Members of Special Moment Frames .. 111
418.19 Grout for Bonded Prestressing Tendons ............ 98 421.5.1 Scope ........................................................... 111
418.19.3 Selection of Grout Proportions.................... 98 421.5.2 Longitudinal Reinforcement ........................ 111
418.19.4 Mixing and Pumping Grout ............................ 99 421.5.3 Transverse Reinforcement ........................... 112
418.20 Protection for Prestressing Tendons................... 99 421.5.4 Shear Strength Requirements ...................... 112
418.21 Application and Measurement of Prestressing 421.5.4.1 Design Forces ........................................... 112
Tendons.......................................................................... 99 421.5.4.2 Transverse Reinforcement ........................ 112
418.22 Post-Tensioning Anchorages and Couplers ....... 99 421.6 Special Moment Frame Subjected to Bending and
418.23 External post – Tensioning ................................ 99 Axial Load .................................................................... 112
SECTION 419 - SHELLS AND FOLDED PLATE 421.6.1 Scope ........................................................... 112
MEMBERS ..................................................................... 102 421.6.2 Minimum Flexural Strength of Columns ..... 112
419.1 Notations ............................................................ 102 421.6.3 Longitudinal Reinforcement ........................ 113
419.2 Scope And Definitions ....................................... 102 421.6.4 Transverse Reinforcement ........................... 113
419.2.3 Thin Shells .................................................. 102 421.6.5 Shear Strength Requirements ...................... 114
419.2.4 Folded Plates ............................................... 102 421.6.5.1 Design Forces ........................................... 114
419.2.5 Ribbed Shells .............................................. 102 421.7 Joints of Special Moment Frames ..................... 114
419.2.6 Auxiliary Members ..................................... 102 421.7.1 Scope ........................................................... 114
419.2.7 Elastic Analysis ........................................... 102 421.7.2 General Requirements ................................. 114
419.2.8 Inelastic Analysis ........................................ 102 421.7.3 Transverse Reinforcement ........................... 114
49.2.9 Experimental Analysis .................................. 102 421.7.4 Shear Strength ............................................. 115
419.3 Analysis and Design .......................................... 102 421.7.5 Development Length of Bars in Tension ..... 115
419.4 Design strength of Materials ............................. 103 421.8 Special Reinforced Concrete Structural Walls
419.5 Shell Reinforcement.......................................... 103 and Coupling Beams ................................................ 115
419.6 Construction ....................................................... 104 421.8.1 Scope ........................................................... 115
SECTION 420 - STRENGTH EVALUATION OF 421.8.2 Reinforcement ............................................. 115
EXISTING STRUCTURES .......................................... 104 421.8.3 Design Forces ............................................. 116
420.1 Notations ............................................................ 104 421.8.4 Shear Strength ............................................ 116
420.2 Strength Evaluation-General .............................. 104 421.8.5 Design for Flexural and Axial Loads .......... 116
420.3 Determination of Required Dimensions and 421.8.6 Boundary Elements of Special Reinforced
Material Properties ....................................................... 105 Concrete Structural Walls ........................................ 116
420.4 Load Test Procedure .......................................... 105 421.8.7 Coupling Beams .......................................... 117

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 4 - Concrete 4-5

421.8.8 Construction Joints ..................................... 118 423.2 Scope ................................................................. 129


421.8.9 Discontinous Walls ..................................... 118 423.3 General Requirements ....................................... 130
421.9 Structural Diaphragms and Trusses ................... 118 423.4 General Requirements for Strength Anchors ..... 130
421.9.1 Scope .......................................................... 118 423.5 Design Requirements for Tensile Loading ......... 131
421.9.2 Design Forces ............................................. 118 423.5.1 Steel Strength of Anchor in Tension ........... 131
421.9.3 Seismic Load Path ..................................... 118 423.5.2 Concrete Breakout Strength of Anchor in
421.9.4 Cast-in-Place Composite-Topping Slab Tension..................................................................... 132
Diaphrams................................................................ 118 423.5.3 Pullout Strength of Anchor in Tension........ 133
421.9.5 Cast-in-Place Topping Slab Diaphragms .... 118 423.5.4 Concrete Side-Face Blowout Strength of a
421.9.6 Minimum Thickness of Diaphragms .......... 118 Headed Anchor in Tension....................................... 133
421.9.7 Reinforcement ............................................ 118 423.6 Design Requirements for Shear Loading ........... 134
421.9.6 Flexural Strength ........................................ 119 423.6.1 Steel Strength of Anchor in Shear ............... 134
421.9.9 Shear Strength............................................. 119 423.6.2 Concrete Breakout Strength of Anchor in
421.9.10 Construction Joints ................................... 119 Shear ........................................................................ 134
421.9.11 Structural Trusses .................................... 119 423.6.3 Concrete Pryout Strength of Anchor in Shear
421.10 Foundations ..................................................... 120 ................................................................................. 136
421.10.1 Scope ........................................................ 120 423.7 Interaction of Tensile and Shear Forces ............. 136
421.10.2 Footings, Foundation Mats, and Pile Caps 120 423.8 Required Edge Distances, Spacings, and
421.10.4 Piles, Piers, and Caissons .......................... 120 Thicknesses to Preclude Splitting failure ..................... 136
421.11 Members not Designated as Part of the Seismic- 423.9 Installation of Anchors ....................................... 136
Force-Resisting System ............................................... 121 SECTION 424 - ALTERNATE DESIGN METHOD . 137
421.11.1 Scope ........................................................ 121 424.1 Notation.............................................................. 137
421.12 Requirements for Intermediate Moment Frames, 424.2 Scope .................................................................. 137
Seismic Zone 2 ............................................................ 122 424.3 General ............................................................... 137
421.12.4 Beams ....................................................... 122 424.4 Permissible service Load Stresses ...................... 137
421.12.5 Columns .................................................... 122 424.5 Development and Splices of Reinforcement ...... 138
421.12.6 Two-Way Slabs without Beams ............... 123 426.6 Flexure ............................................................... 138
421.13 Special Moment Frames Using Precast Concrete 424.7 Compression Members With or Without Flexure
..................................................................................... 123 ..................................................................................... 138
421.13.1 Scope ........................................................ 123 424.8 Shear and Torsion .............................................. 138
421.14 Ordinary Moment Frames ................................ 124 424.8.4 Shear Stress Carried by Concrete ................ 139
421.14.1 Scope ........................................................ 124 424.8.5 Shear Stress Carried by Shear Reinforcement
421.15 Special Structural Walls Contructed Using ................................................................................. 139
Precast Concrete .......................................................... 124 424.8.5.1 Types of Shear Reinforcement ................. 139
421.15.1 Scope ........................................................ 124 424.8.5.4 Spacing Limits for Shear Reinforcement . 139
SECTION 422 - STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE 424.8.5.5 Minimum Shear Reinforcement ............... 140
......................................................................................... 124 424.8.5.6 Design of Shear Reinforcement ............... 140
422.1 Notations............................................................ 124 424.8.6 Shear-Friction.............................................. 140
422.2 Scope ................................................................. 124 424.8.7 Special Provisions for Slabs and Footings .. 140
422.3 Limitations ......................................................... 125 424.8.8 Special Provisions for Other Members ....... 141
422.3.4 Minimum Specified Strength ...................... 125 424.8.9 Composite Concrete Flexural Members .......... 141
422.4 Joints .................................................................. 125 SECTION 425 – ALTERNATIVE PROVISIONS FOR
422.5 Desing Method .................................................. 125 REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
422.6 Strength Design ................................................. 125 FLEXURAL AND COMPRESSION MEMBERS ...... 141
422.6.6 Lightweight Concrete ................................. 126 425.1 Scope .................................................................. 141
422.7 Walls .................................................................. 126 425.2 Redistribution of Negative Moments in Continuos
422.7.5 Empirical Design Method ........................... 126 Non-Prestressed Flexural Members ............................. 141
422.7.6 Limitations .................................................. 127 425.410.4 General Principles and Requirements ..... 142
422.8 Footing ............................................................... 127 425.418.2 Scope ....................................................... 142
422.8.6 Shear in Plain Concrete Footing ................. 127 425.418.9 Limits for Reinforcement of Flexural
422.9 Pedestals ............................................................ 127 Members .................................................................. 142
422.10 Precats Members .............................................. 128 425.418.11 Statically Indeterminate Structures ....... 142
422.11 Plain Concrete in Earthquake-Resisting 425.418.11.4 Redistribution of Negative Moments in
Structures ..................................................................... 128 Continuous Prestressed Flexural Members .............. 142
SECTION 423 - ANCHORAGE TO CONCRETE .. 128 SECTION 426 - ALTERNATIVE LOAD AND
423.1 Definitions ......................................................... 128 STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTORS ...................... 143

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426.409.1 Scope....................................................... 143


426.409.2 Required Strength ................................... 143
426.409.3 Design Strength ....................................... 143
SECTION 427 STRUT AND TIE MODELS ............... 144
427.1 Definitions ......................................................... 144
427.1.1 Discontinuity ............................................... 145
427.1.2 D-region ...................................................... 145
427.1.4 Nodes .......................................................... 148
427.1.5 Strut............................................................. 148
427.2 Strut-and-Tie Model Design Procedure ............. 149
427.3 Strength of Struts ............................................... 149
427.4 Strength of Ties .................................................. 150
427.5 Strength of Nodal Zones .................................... 150

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 4 - Concrete 4-7

SECTION 401 - GENERAL


401.1.7.2 This chapter does not govern the design of
structural concrete slabs cast on stay-in-place, composite
401.1 Scope steel form deck. Concrete used in the construction of such
slabs shall be governed by Sections 401 to 406 of this
401.1.1 This chapter provides minimum requirements for chapter, where applicable. Portions of such slabs designed
the design and construction of structural concrete elements as reinforced concrete are governed by this Chapter.
of any building or other structure under requirements of the
National Building Code of the Philippines of which this
Section of the National Structural Code of the Philippines, 401.1.8 Special Provisions for Earthquake Resistance
Volume I, forms a part of. This Section also covers the
strength evaluation of existing concrete structures. 401.1.8.1 In regions of moderate (seismic zone 2) or high
seismic risk (seismic zone 4), provisions of Section 421
For structural concrete, f'c shall not be less than 17 MPa. shall be satisfied. See Section 421.3.1.
No maximum value of f'c shall apply unless restricted by a
specific code provision. 401.1.8.2 This Chapter does not govern design and
construction of tanks and reservoirs.
401.1.2 This chapter shall govern in all matters pertaining to
the design, construction, and material properties of
structural concrete elements wherever this chapter is in
SECTION 402 - DEFINITIONS
conflict with requirements contained in other standards
referenced in this chapter. The following terms are defined for general use in this
chapter. Specialized definitions appear in individual
401.1.3 Design and construction of one- and two-family sections.
dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings
(townhouses) and their accessory structures will be covered ADMIXTURE is material other than water, aggregate, or
by provisions of the National Structural Code of the hydraulic cement used as an ingredient of concrete and
Philippines, Volume III, Housing. added to concrete before or during its mixing to modify its
properties.
401.1.4 For unusual structures, such as arches, tanks,
reservoirs, bins and silos, blast-resistant structures, and AGGREGATE is granular material, such as sand, gravel,
chimneys, provisions of this chapter shall govern where crushed stone and iron blast-furnace slag, and when used
applicable. See also 422.2.3. with a cementing medium forms a hydraulic cement
concrete or mortar.
401.1.5 This chapter does not govern design and installation
of portions of concrete piles and drilled piers embedded in AGGREGATE, LIGHTWEIGHT, is aggregate with a
ground except for structures in regions of high seismic risk dry, loose weight of 1120 kg/m3 or less.
or assigned to high seismic performance or design
categories. See Section 421.10.4 for requirements for AIR-DRY WEIGHT is the unit weight of a lightweight
concrete piles, drilled piers, and caissons in structures in concrete specimen cured for seven days with neither loss
regions of high seismic risk or assigned to high seismic nor gain of moisture at 15° C to 27° C and dried for 21 days
performance or design categories.. in 50 ± 7 percent relative humidity at 23° C ± 1.1° C.

401.1.6 This chapter does not govern design and ANCHORAGE DEVICE in post-tensioning is a device
construction of soil-supported slabs, unless the slab used to anchor tendons to concrete member; in
transmits vertical loads from other portions of the structure pretensioning, a device used to anchor tendons during
to the soil. hardening of concrete.

401.1.7 Concrete on Steel form Deck ANCHORAGE ZONE in post-tensioned members is the
portion of the member through which the concentrated
401.1.7.1 Design and construction of structural concrete prestressing force is transferred to the concrete and
slabs cast on stay-in-place, noncomposite steel form deck distributed more uniformly across the section. Its extent is
are governed by this chapter. equal to the largest dimension of the cross section. For
intermediate anchorage devices, the anchorage zone
includes the disturbed regions ahead of and behind the
anchorage devices.
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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
4-8 CHAPTER 4 - Concrete

BASE OF STRUCTURE level at which the horizontal COMPOSITE CONCRETE FLEXURAL MEMBERS
earthquake ground motions are assumed to be imparted to a are concrete flexural members of precast and cast-in-place
building. This building does not necessarily coincide with concrete elements, or both, constructed in separate place-
the ground level. See Section 421. ments but so interconnected that all elements respond to
loads as a unit.
BASIC MONOSTRAND ANCHORAGE DEVICE is
an anchorage device used with any single strand or a single COMPRESSION-CONTROLLED SECTION is a cross
16 mm or smaller diameter bar that satisfies Section section in which the net tensile strain in the extreme tension
418.22.1 and the anchorage device requirements of the Post- steel at nominal strength is less than or equal to the
Tensioning Institute's "Specification for Unbonded Single compression-controlled strain limit.
Strand Tendons".
COMPRESSION-CONTROLLED STRAIN LIMIT is
BASIC MULTISTRAND ANCHORAGE DEVICE is the net tensile strain at balanced strain conditions. See
an anchorage device used with multiple strands, bars or Section 410.4.2.
wires, or single bars larger than 16 mm diameter, that
satisfies Section 418.22.1 and the bearing stress and CONCRETE is a mixture of portland cement or any other
minimum plate stiffness requirements of AASHTO hydraulic cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and
Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 17th Edition, water, with or without admixtures.
2002, Division I, Sections 9.21.7.2.1 through 9.21.7.2.4.
CONCRETE, NORMALWEIGHT, is concrete containing
BONDED TENDON is a prestressing tendon that is bonded only aggregate that conforms to ASTM C33.
to concrete either directly or through grouting.
CONCRETE, SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT, is lightweight
BOUNDARY ELEMENT portion along structural wall concrete containing only normal weight aggregate that
and structural diaphragm edge strengthened by longitudinal conforms to ASTM C33 and only lightweight aggregate that
and transverse reinforcement. Boundary elements do not conforms to ASTM C330.
necessarily require increase in the thickness of wall or
diaphragm. Edges of opening within walls and diaphragms CONCRETE, SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE
shall be provided with boundary elements as required by STRENGTH OF (f'c), is the compressive strength of
Section 421.8.6.2 or 421.8.6.3. See Section 421. concrete used in design and evaluated in accordance with
provisions of Section 405, expressed in megapascals (MPa).
CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS are materials as Whenever the quantity f'c is under a radical sign, square
specified in Section 403 which have cementing value when root of numerical value only is intended, and result has units
used in concrete either by themselves, such as portland of megapascals.
cement, blended hydraulic cements and expansive cement,
or such materials in combination with fly ash, raw or other CONCRETE, STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT, is
calcined natural pozzolans, silica fume, or ground concrete containing lightweight aggregate that conforms to
granulated blast-furnace slag. Section 403.4 and has an air-dry unit weight as determined
by "Test Method for Unit Weight of Structural Lightweight
COLLECTOR ELEMENT is an element that acts in axial Concrete" (ASTM C 567) not exceeding 1840 kg/m3. In
tension or compression to transmit earthquake-induced this code, a lightweight concrete containing only lightweight
forces between a structural diaphragm and a vertical coarse and fine aggregates that conform to ASTM C330 is
element of the seismic-force-resisting system. See Section termed "concrete, all-lightweight'', and lightweight concrete
421. containing lightweight aggregate and an equilibrium
density, as determined by ASTM C567, between 1440
COLUMN is a member with a ratio of height-to-least- kg/m3 and 1840 kg/m3, is termed "concrete, lightweight.''
lateral dimension of 3 or greater used primarily to support
axial compressive load. For a tapered member, the least CONNECTION a region that joins two or more members.
lateral dimension is the average of the top and bottom In Section 421, a connection also refers to a region that joins
dimensions of the smaller side. members of which one or more is precast, for which the
following more specific definitions apply:

DUCTILE CONNECTION a connection that experiences


yielding as a result of the earthquake design displacements.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 4 - Concrete 4-9

STRONG CONNECTION a connection that remains DUCT a conduit (plain or corrugated) to accommodate
elastic while adjoining members experience yielding as a prestressing steel for post-tensioned installation.
result of the earthquake design displacements. Requirements for post-tensioning ducts are given in Section
418.18.
CONTRACT DOCUMENTS are documents, including
the project drawings and project specifications, covering the EFFECTIVE DEPTH OF SECTION (d) is the distance
required Work. measured from extreme compression fiber to centroid of
tension reinforcement.
CONTRACTION JOINT is a formed, sawed, or tooled
groove in a concrete structure to create a weakened plane EFFECTIVE PRESTRESS is the stress remaining in
and regulate the location of cracking resulting from the prestressing tendons after all losses have occurred,
dimensional change of different parts of the structure. excluding effects of dead load and superimposed load.

COVER, SPECIFIED CONCRETE the distance between EMBEDMENT LENGTH is the length of embedded
the outermost surface of embedded reinforcement and the reinforcement provided beyond a critical section.
closest outer surface of the concrete indicated on design
drawings or in project specifications. EQUILIBRIUM DENSITY is the density of lightweight
concrete after exposure to a relative humidity of 50 ± 5
CROSSTIE a continuous reinforcing bar having a seismic percent and a temperature of 23.00 ± 2.00° C for a period of
hook at one end and a hook not less than 90-degree hooks time sufficient to reach constant density (see ASTM C567).
with at least six-diameter extension at the other end. The
hooks shall engage peripheral longitudinal bars. The 90- EXTREME TENSION STEEL is the reinforcement
degree hooks of two successive crossties engaging the same (prestressed or non-prestressed) that is the farthest from the
longitudinal bars shall be alternated end for end. See extreme compression fiber.
Sections 407, 421.
HEADED DEFORMED BARS deformed reinforcing bars
CURVATURE FRICTION is friction resulting from bends with heads attached at one or both ends. Heads are attached
or curves in the specified prestressing tendon profile. to the bar end by means such as welding or forging onto the
bar, internal threads on the head mating to threads on the bar
DEFORMED REINFORCEMENT is deformed end, or a separate threaded nut to secure the head of the bar.
reinforcing bars, bar and rod mats, deformed wire, welded The net bearing area of headed deformed bar equals the
smooth wire fabric and welded deformed wire fabric gross area of the head minus the larger of the area of the bar
conforming to Section 403.6.3. and the area of any obstruction.

DESIGN DISPLACEMENT is the total lateral HEADED SHEAR STUD REINFORCEMENT is a


displacement expected for the design-basis earthquake, as reinforcement consisting of individual headed studs, or
required by the governing code for earthquake-resistant groups of studs, with anchorage provided by a head at each
design. See Section 421. end or a common base rail consisting of a steel plate or
shape.
DESIGN LOAD COMBINATIONS combination of
factored loads and forces in Section 409.3. HOOP a closed tie or continuously wound tie. A closed tie
can be made up of several reinforcement elements each
DESIGN STORY DRIFT RATIO relative difference of having hooks at both ends. A continuously wound tie shall
design displacement in between the top and bottom of a have a seismic hook at both ends. See Section 421.
story, divided by the story height. See Section 421.
ISOLATION JOINT is a separation between adjoining
DEVELOPMENT LENGTH is the length of embedded parts of a concrete structure, usually a vertical plane, at a
reinforcement required to develop the design strength of designed location such as to interfere least with performance
reinforcement at a critical section. See Section 412. of the structure, yet such as to allow relative movement in
three directions and avoid formation of cracks elsewhere in
DROP PANEL a projection below the slab used to reduce the concrete and through which all or part of the bonded
the amount of negative reinforcement over a column or the reinforcement is interrupted.
minimum required, and to increase the slab shear strength.
See Section 413.4.7. JACKING FORCE is the temporary force exerted by
device that introduces tension into prestressing tendons in
prestressed concrete.
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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
4-10 CHAPTER 4 - Concrete

JOINT a portion of structure common to intersecting PLAIN CONCRETE is structural concrete with no
members. The effective cross-sectional area of a joint of a reinforcement or with less reinforcement than the minimum
special moment frame, Af , for shear strength computations is amount specified for reinforced concrete.
defined in Section 421.7.4.1.
PLAIN REINFORCEMENT is reinforcement that does
LOAD, DEAD, is the dead weight supported by a member, not conform to definition of deformed reinforcement.
as defined by Section 204 (without load factors).
PLASTIC HINGE REGION Length of frame element
LOAD, FACTORED, is the load, multiplied by appropriate over which flexural yielding is intended to occur due to
load factors, used to proportion members by the strength earthquake design displacements, extending not less than a
design method of this chapter. See Sections 408.2.1 and distance h from the critical section where flexural yielding
409.3. initiates. See Section 421.

LOAD, LIVE, is the live load specified by Section 205 POST-TENSIONING is a method of prestressing in which
(without load factors). tendons are tensioned after concrete has hardened.

LOAD, SERVICE, is the load specified by Sections 204 to PRECAST CONCRETE is a structural concrete element
207 (without load factors). cast in other than its final position in the structure.

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY is the ratio of normal stress PRECOMPRESSED TENSILE ZONE a portion of a
to corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses
below proportional limit of material. See Section 408.6. prestressed member where flexural tension, calculated using
gross section properties, would occur under unfactored dead
MOMENT FRAME a frame in which members and joints and live loads if the prestress force was not present.
resist forces through flexure, shear, and axial force. Moment
frames designated as part of the seismic-force-resisting PRESTRESSED CONCRETE is structural concrete in
system shall be categorized as follows: which internal stresses have been introduced to reduce
potential tensile stresses in concrete resulting from loads.
ORDINARY MOMENT FRAME a cast-in-place or
precast concrete frame complying with the requirements of PRESTRESSING STEEL a high-strength steel element
Sections 401 to 418, and, in the case of ordinary moment such as wire, bar, or strand, or a bundle of such elements,
frames assigned to areas with low seismic risk, also used to impart prestress forces to concrete.
complying with Section 421.2.
PRETENSIONING is a method of prestressing in which
INTERMEDIATE MOMENT FRAME a cast-in-place tendons are tensioned before concrete is placed.
frame complying with the requirements of Section 421.3 in
addition to the requirements for ordinary moment frames. REINFORCED CONCRETE is structural concrete
reinforced with no less than the minimum amounts of
SPECIAL MOMENT FRAME a cast-in-place frame prestressing tendons or nonprestressed reinforcement
complying with the requirements of Section 421.3.4 through specified in this chapter.
421.3.7, 421.5 through 421.7, or a precast frame complying
with the requirements of Section 421.3.4 through 421.3.7, REINFORCEMENT is material that conforms to Section
421.5 through 421.8. In addition, the requirements for 403.5.1, excluding prestressing tendons unless specifically
ordinary moment frames shall be satisfied. included.

NET TENSILE STRAIN is the tensile strain at nominal RESHORES are shores placed snugly under a concrete slab
strength exclusive of strains due to effective prestress, or other structural member after the original forms and
creep, shrinkage and temperature. shores have been removed from a larger area, thus requiring
the new slab or structural member to deflect and support its
PEDESTAL is an upright compression member with a ratio own weight and existing construction loads applied prior to
of unsupported height to average least lateral dimension not the installation of the reshores.
exceeding of 3. For a tapered member, the least lateral
dimension is the average of the top and bottom dimensions SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY a classification
of the smaller side. assigned to a structure based on its occupancy category and
the severity of the design earthquake ground motion at the
site, as defined by the legally adopted general building code.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 4 - Concrete 4-11

SEISMIC-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM a portion of STRENGTH, DESIGN, is the nominal strength multiplied


the structure designed to resist earthquake design forces by a strength-reduction factor, φ. See Section 409.4.
required by the legally adopted general building code using
the applicable provisions and load combinations. STRENGTH, NOMINAL, is the strength of a member or
cross section calculated in accordance with provisions and
SEISMIC HOOK a hook on a stirrup, or crosstie having a assumptions of the strength design method of this chapter
bend not less than 135 degrees, except that circular hoops before application of any strength-reduction factors. See
shall have a bend not less than 90 degrees. Hooks shall have Section 409.4.1.
a 6db, (but not less than 75mm) extension that engages the
longitudinal reinforcement and projects into the interior of STRENGTH, REQUIRED, is the strength of a member or
the stirrup or hoop. See Section 407.2.4 and Section 421. cross section required to resist factored loads or related
internal moments and forces in such combinations as are
SHEAR CAP a project below the slab used to increase the stipulated in this chapter. See Section 409.2.1.
slab shear strength. See Section 413.3.6.
STRESS is the intensity of force per unit area.
SHEATHING is a material encasing a prestressing tendon
to prevent bonding the tendon with the surrounding STRUCTURAL CONCRETE is all concrete used for
concrete, to provide corrosion protection, and to contain the structural purposes, including plain and reinforced concrete.
corrosion inhibiting coating.
STRUCTURAL DIAPHRAGM a structural member,
SHORES are vertical or inclined support members such as a floor or roof slab, that transmits forces acting in
designed to carry the weight of the formwork, concrete and the plane of the member to the vertical elements of the
construction loads above. seismic-force-resisting system. See Section 421 for
requirements in the earthquake-resisting structures.
SPAN LENGTH. See Section 408.8.
STRUCTURAL TRUSS is an assemblage of reinforced
SPECIAL ANCHORAGE DEVICE is an anchorage concrete members subjected primarily to axial forces.
device that satisfies Section A 418.20.1 and the
standardized acceptance tests of AASHTO "Standard STRUCTURAL WALL a wall proportioned to resist
Specifications for Highway Bridges", 17th Edition, 2002, combinations of shears, moments, and axial forces. A shear
Division II, Section 10.3.2.3. wall is a structural wall. A structural wall designated as part
of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be categorized as
SPECIAL BOUNDARY ELEMENT a boundary element follows:
required by Sections 421.8.6.2 or 421.8.6.3.
ORDINARY STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE
SPIRAL REINFORCEMENT is continuously wound WALL a wall complying with the requirements of Section
reinforcement in the form of a cylindrical helix. 422.

SPLITTING TENSILE STRENGTH (fct) is the tensile ORDINARY REINFORCED CONCRETE


strength of concrete determined in accordance with ASTM STRUCTURAL WALL a wall complying with the
C 496 as described in "Specifications for Lightweight requirements of Sections 401 through 418.
Aggregate for Structural Concrete" (ASTM C 330). See
Section 405.2.4. INTERMEDIATE PRECAST STRUCTURAL WALL a
wall complying with all applicable requirements of Sections
STEEL FIBER-REINFORCED CONCRETE Concrete 401 through 418 in addition to 421.
containing dispersed randomly oriented steel fibers.
SPECIAL STRUCTURAL WALL a cast-in-place or
STIRRUP is reinforcement used to resist shear and torsion
stresses in a structural member; typically bars, wires, or precast wall complying with the requirements of Sections
welded wire fabric (plain or deformed) bent into L, U or 421.3.3 through 421.3.7, 421.8 and 421.15 as applicable, in
rectangular shapes and located perpendicular to or at an addition to the requirements for ordinary reinforced concrete
angle to longitudinal reinforcement. (The term "stirrups'' is structural walls.
usually applied to lateral reinforcement in flexural members
and the term "ties'' to those in compression members.) See TENDON is a steel element such as wire, cable, bar, rod or
also "tie." strand, or a bundle of such elements, used to impart
prestress forces to concrete.
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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
4-12 CHAPTER 4 - Concrete

TENSION-CONTROLLED SECTION is a cross section


rin which the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel at
nominal strength is greater than or equal to 0.005. SECTION 403 - SPECIFICATIONS
FOR TESTS AND MATERIALS
TIE is a loop of reinforcing bar or wire enclosing
longitudinal reinforcement. A continuously wound bar or
wire in the form of a circle, rectangle or other polygon 403.1 Notation
shape without re-entrant corners is acceptable. See "stirrup." fy = specified yield strength of nonprestressed
reinforcement in megapascals (MPa).
TRANSFER is the act of transferring stress in prestressing
tendons from jacks or pretensioning bed to concrete
member. 403.2 Tests of Materials

TRANSFER LENGTH length of embedded pre-tensioned 403.2.1 The engineer may require the testing of any
strand required to transfer the effective prestress to the materials used in concrete construction to determine if
concrete. materials are of quality specified.

UNBONDED TENDON is a tendon that is permanently 403.2.2 Tests of materials and of concrete shall be made in
prevented from bonding to the concrete after stressing. accordance with the standards listed in Section 403.9.

WALL is a member, usually vertical, used to enclose or 403.3.3 Complete record of tests of materials and of
separate spaces. concrete shall be available for inspection during progress of
work and for two (2) years after completion of the project,
WELDED WIRE REINFORCEMENT reinforcing or as required by the implementing agency and shall be
elements consisting of carbon-steel plain or deformed wires, preserved by the engineer for that purpose.
conforming to ASTM A82 or A496, respectively, fabricated
into sheets or rolls in accordance with ASTM A185 or
403.3 Cement
A497, respectively; or reinforcing elements consisting of
stainless-steel plain or deformed wires fabricated into
403.3.1 Cement shall conform to one of the following
sheets or rolls conforming to ASTM A1022.
specifications:
WOBBLE FRICTION in prestressed concrete, is friction
"Specifications for Portland Cement" (ASTM C150).
caused by unintended deviation of prestressing sheath or
duct from its specified profile.
"Specifications for Blended Hydraulic Cements" (ASTM C
595M), excluding Types S and SA which are not intended
WORK the entire construction or separately identifiable
as principal cementing constituents of structural concrete.
parts thereof that are required to be furnished under the
contract documents.
"Specifications for Expansive Hydraulic Cement" (ASTM
C 845).
YIELD STRENGTH is the specified minimum yield
strength or yield point of reinforcement in megapascals
Fly ash and natural pozzolan: ASTM C618.
(MPa). Yield strength or yield point shall be determined in
tension according to applicable ASTM standards as
modified by Section 403.6 of this code. Ground-granulated blast-furnace slag: ASTM C989.

Silica fume: ASTM C1240.

403.3.2 Cement used in the work shall correspond to that on


which selection of concrete proportions was based. See
Section 405.3.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 4 - Concrete 4-13

tested in accordance with "Test Method for Compressive


Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (using 50-mm Cube
403.4 Aggregates Specimens)" (ASTM C 109).
403.4.1Concrete aggregates shall conform to one of the
following specifications: 403.6 Steel Reinforcement

"Specifications for Concrete Aggregates" (ASTM C 33); 403.6.1 Reinforcement shall be deformed reinforcement,
except that plain reinforcement may be used for spirals or
"Specifications for Lightweight Aggregates for Structural tendons, and reinforcement consisting of structural steel,
Concrete" (ASTM C 330). steel pipe or steel tubing may be used as specified in this
chapter.
Aggregates failing to meet the above specifications but
which have been shown by special test or actual service to 403.6.2 Welding of reinforcing bars shall conform to
produce concrete of adequate strength and durability may be "Structural Welding Code - Reinforcing Steel", ANSI/AWS
used where authorized by the engineer-of-record. D1.4 of the American Welding Society. Type and location
of welded splices and other required welding of reinforcing
403.4.2 The nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate bars shall be indicated on the design drawings or in the
shall not be larger than: project specifications. ASTM reinforcing bar specifications,
except for ASTM A 706M, shall be supplemented to require
1. One fifth (1/5) the narrowest dimension between sides a report of material properties necessary to conform to
of forms; or requirements in ANSI/AWS D1.4.
2. One third (1/3) the depth of slabs; or
3. Three fourths (3/4) the minimum clear spacing between 403.6.3 Deformed Reinforcements
individual reinforcing bars or wires, bundles of bars, or
prestressing tendons or ducts. 403.6.3.1 Deformed reinforcing bars shall conform to one of
the following specifications, except as permitted by Section
These limitations may be waived if, in the judgment of the 403.6.3.3:
engineer, workability and methods of consolidation are such 1. "Specifications for Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel
that concrete can be placed without honeycomb or voids. Bars for Concrete Reinforcement" (ASTM A 615M)
for seismic resisting members.
403.5 Water 2. "Specifications for Low-Alloy Steel Deformed Bars for
Concrete Reinforcement" (ASTM A 706M) for
403.5.1 Water used in mixing concrete shall be clean and members resisting earthquake induced forces.
free from injurious amounts of oils, acids, alkalis, salts,
organic materials or other substances deleterious to concrete 403.6.3.2 Deformed reinforcing bars shall conform to one
or reinforcement. of the ASTM specifications listed in Section 403.6.3.1,
except that for bars with fy exceeding 420 MPa, fy shall be
403.5.2 Mixing water for prestressed concrete or for taken as the stress corresponding to a strain of 0.35 percent.
concrete that will contain aluminum embedments, including See Section 409.5.
that portion of mixing water contributed in the form of free
moisture on aggregates, shall not contain deleterious 403.6.3.3 Deformed reinforcing bars conforming to ASTM
amounts of chloride ions. See Section 404.6.1. A1035 shall be permitted to be used as transverse
reinforcement in Section 421.6.4 or spiral reinforcement in
403.5.3 Non-potable water shall not be used in concrete Section 410.10.3.
unless the following are satisfied:
403.6.3.4 Bar mats for concrete reinforcement shall conform
403.5.3.1 Selection of concrete proportions shall be based to "Specifications for Fabricated Deformed Steel Bar Mats
on concrete mixes using water from the same source. for Concrete Reinforcement" (ASTM A 184M).
Reinforcing bars used in bar mats shall conform to one of
403.5.3.2 Mortar test cubes made with nonpotable mixing the specifications listed in Section 403.6.3.1.
water shall have 7-day and 28-day strengths equal to at least
90 percent of strengths of similar specimens made with 403.6.3.5 Deformed wire for concrete reinforcement shall
potable water. Strength test comparison shall be made on conform to "Specifications for Steel Wire, Deformed, for
mortars, identical except for the mixing water, prepared and Concrete Reinforcement" (ASTM A 496M). except that
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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
4-14 CHAPTER 4 - Concrete

wire shall not be smaller than size MD25 or larger than size intersections shall not exceed 300 mm for plain welded wire
MD200 unless as permitted in Section 403.6.3.7. For wire and 400 mm for deformed welded wire in direction of
with a specified yield strength fy exceeding 420 MPa, fy calculated stress, except for welded wire reinforcement used
shall be the stress corresponding to a strain of 0.35 percent. as stirrups in accordance with Section 412.14.2.

403.6.3.6 Welded plain wire fabric for concrete


403.6.4 Plain Reinforcement
reinforcement shall conform to "Specifications for Steel
Welded Wire, Fabric, Plain for Concrete Reinforcement"
403.6.4.1 Plain bars for spiral reinforcement shall conform
(ASTM A 185M), except that for wire with a specified yield
to one of the following specification: ASTM A615M or
strength fy exceeding 420 MPa, fy shall be taken as the
A706M.
stress corresponding to a strain of 0.35 percent. Welded
intersections shall not be spaced farther apart than 300 mm
403.6.4.2 Plain wire for spiral reinforcement shall conform
in direction of calculated stress, except for wire fabric used
to "Specifications for Steel Wire, Plain, for Concrete
as stirrups in accordance with Section 412.14.2.
Reinforcement" (ASTM A 82M), except that for wire with
a specified yield strength fy exceeding 420 MPa, fy shall be
403.6.3.7 Welded deformed wire fabric for concrete
the stress corresponding to a strain of 0.35 percent.
reinforcement shall conform to "Specifications for Steel
Welded Wire Fabric, Deformed, for Concrete
Reinforcement" (ASTM A 497M), except that for wire 403.6.5 Headed Shear Stud Reinforcement
with a specified yield strength fy exceeding 420 MPa, fy
shall be the stress corresponding to a strain of 0.35 percent. 403.6.5.1 Headed studs and headed stud assemblies shall
Welded intersections shall not be spaced farther apart than conform to ASTM A1044M.
400 mm in direction of calculated stress, except for wire
fabric used as stirrups in accordance with Section 412.14.2.
Deformed wire larger than MD200 is permitted when used 403.6.6 Prestressing Tendons
in welded wire reinforcement conforming to ASTM
A497M, but shall be treated as plain wire for development 403.6.6.1Tendons for prestressed reinforcement shall
and splice design. conform to one of the following specifications:
1. Wire conforming to "Specifications for Uncoated
403.6.3.8 Galvanized reinforcing bars shall comply with Stress-Relieved Steel Wire for Prestressed Concrete"
"Specifications for Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Steel Bars for (ASTM A 421M).
Concrete Reinforcement" (ASTM A 767M). Epoxy-coated
reinforcing bars shall comply with "Specification for 2. Low-relaxation wire conforming to "Specifications for
Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing Steel Bars" (ASTM A 775M) or Uncoated Stress-Relieved Steel Wire for Prestressed
with "Specifications for Epoxy-Coated Prefabricated Steel Concrete" including Supplement "Low-Relaxation
Reinforcing Bars" (ASTM A 934M). Galvanized or epoxy- Wire" (ASTM A 421M)
coated reinforcement shall conform to one of the 3. Strand conforming to "Specifications for Steel Strand,
specifications listed in Section 403.6.3.1. Uncoated Seven-Wire for Prestressed Concrete"
(ASTM A 416M).
403.6.3.9 Epoxy-coated wires and welded wire fabric shall
comply with "Standard Specification for Epoxy-Coated 4. Bar conforming to "Specifications for Uncoated High-
Steel Wire and Welded Wire Fabric for Reinforcement" Strength Steel Bar for Prestressing Concrete" (ASTM
(ASTM A 884M). Epoxy-coated wires shall conform to A 722M)
Section 403.6.3.5 and epoxy-coated welded wire fabric shall
conform to Section 403.6.3.5 or 403.6.3.6. 403.6.6.2 Wire, strands, and bars not specifically listed in
ASTM A 416M, A 421M and A 722M are allowed,
403.6.3.10 Deformed stainless-steel wire and deformed and provided they conform to minimum requirements of these
plain stainless-steel welded wire for concrete reinforcement specifications and do not have properties that make them
shall conform to ASTM 1022M, except deformed wire shall less satisfactory than those listed in these specifications.
not be smaller than size MD25 or larger than size MD200,
and the yield strength for wire with fy exceeding 420 MPa 403.6.7 Structural Steel, Steel Pipe or Tubing
shall be taken as the stress corresponding to a strain of 0.35
percent. Deformed wire larger than MD200 is permitted 403.6.7.1 Structural steel used with reinforcing bars in
where used in welded wire reinforcement conforming to
composite compression members meeting requirements of
ASTM A1022M, but shall be treated as plain wire for
Section 410.17.7 or 410.17.8, shall conform to one of the
development and splice design. Spacing of welded
following specifications:

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 4 - Concrete 4-15

1. "Specifications for Carbon Steel" (ASTM A 36M). place galvanized steel forms. See Sections 404.6.1 and
406.3.2.
2. "Specifications for High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural
Steel" (ASTM A 242M).
403.7.5 Fly ash or other pozzolans used as admixtures shall
3. "Specifications for High-Strength Low-Alloy conform to "Specifications for Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined
Columbium-Vanadium Steels of Structural Quality" Natural Pozzolan for Use as a Mineral Admixture in
(ASTM A 572M). Portland Cement Concrete" (ASTM C 618).
4. "Specifications for High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural
403.7.6 Ground granulated blast-furnace slag used as an
Steel with 345 MPa (ASTM A 588M).
admixture shall conform to "Specifications for Ground
5. "Specifications for Structural shapes” (ASTM A992M). Granulated Blast-furnace Slag for Use in Concrete and
Mortars" (ASTM C 989).
403.6.7.2 Steel pipe or tubing for composite compression
members composed of a steel-encased concrete core 403.7.7 Admixtures used in concrete containing ASTM
meeting requirements of Section 410.17.6 shall conform to C845 expansive cements shall be compatible with the
one of the following specifications: cement and produce no deleterious effects.
1. Grade B of "Specifications for Pipe, Steel, Black and
403.7.8 Silica fume used as an admixture shall conform to
Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated Welded and Seamless"
"Specification for Silica Fume for Use in Hydraulic-Cement
(ASTM A 53M).
Concrete and Mortar" (ASTM C 1240).
2. "Specifications for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless
Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds and Shapes"
(ASTM A 500M). 403.8 Storage of Materials

3. "Specifications for Hot-Formed Welded and Seamless 403.8.1 Cementitious materials and aggregate shall be
Carbon Steel Tubing" (ASTM A 501M). stored in such manner as to prevent deterioration or
intrusion of foreign matter.
403.6.8 Steel discontinuous fiber reinforcement for concrete
shall be deformed and conform to ASTM A820M. Steel 403.8.2 Any material that has deteriorated or has been
fibers have a length-to-diameter ratio not smaller than 50 contaminated shall not be used for concrete.
and not greater than 100.

403.6.9 Headed deformed bars shall conform to ASTM 403.9 Standards Cited in this Chapter
A970M and obstructions or interruptions of the bar
deformations, if any, shall not extend more than 2db from 403.9.1 In the absence of the Philippine National Standard
the bearing face of the head. (PNS), Standards of the American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM) referred to in this chapter listed below
with their serial designations, including year of adoption or
403.7 Admixtures revision, are declared to be part of this code as if fully set
forth herein:
403.7.1 Admixtures for water reduction and setting time
modification shall conform ASTM C494M. Admixtures for A36/A36M-05 Standard Specifications for Carbon
use in producing flowing concrete shall conform ASTM Structural Steel
C1017M.
A-53/A53-07Standard Specifications for Pipe, Steel, Black
403.7.2 Air-entraining admixtures shall conform to and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated Welded and Seamless
"Specifications for Air-Entraining Admixtures for Concrete"
(ASTM C 260). A82/A82-07 Standard Specifications for Steel Wire, Plain,
for Concrete Reinforcement
403.7.3 Admixtures to be used in concrete that do not
conform to Sections 403.7.1.and 403.7.2 shall be subject to A184/A184-06 Standard Specifications for Fabricated
prior approval by the engineer. Deformed Steel Bar Mats for Concrete Reinforcement

403.7.4 Calcium chloride or admixtures containing chloride A185/A185-07 Standard Specifications for Steel Welded
from other than impurities from admixture ingredients shall Wire Fabric, Plain, for Concrete Reinforcement
not be used in prestressed concrete, in concrete containing
embedded aluminum, or in concrete cast against stay-in-
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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
4-16 CHAPTER 4 - Concrete

A242/A242M-04a Standard Specifications for High- A955/A955M-07a Standard Specifications for Deformed
Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel and Plain and Stainless Steel Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement
A307/A307-07a Standard Specification for Carbon
Steel Bolts and Studs, 420 MPa Tensile Strength. A970/A970M-06 Standard Specifications for Headed Steel
Bars for Concrete Reinforcement
A416/A416M-06 Standard Specifications for Steel Strand,
Uncoated Seven-Wire for Prestressed Concrete A992/A992M-06a Standard Specifications for Structural
Steel Shapes
A421/A421-05 Standard Specifications for Uncoated Stress-
Relieved Steel Wire for Prestressed Concrete A996/A996M-06a Standard Specifications for Rail-Steel
and Axle Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete
A496/A496-07 Standard Specifications for Steel Wire, Reinforcement
Deformed, for Concrete Reinforcement
A1022/A1022M-07 Standard Specification for Deformed
A497/A497-07 Standard Specifications for Steel Welded and Plain Stainless Steel Wire and Welded Wire for
Wire Fabric, Deformed, for Concrete Reinforcement Concrete Reinforcement
A500/A500-07 Standard Specifications for Cold-Formed
A1035/A1035M-07 StandardSpecification for Deformed
Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in
Rounds and Shapes and Plain, Low-Carbon, Chromium, Steel Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement
A501/A501-07 Standard Specifications for Hot-Formed
Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing A1044/A1044M-05 Standard Specification for Steel Stud
Assemblies for Shear Reinforcement of Concrete
A572/A572-07 Standard Specifications for High-Strength
Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Structural Steels C29/C29M-03 Standard Method for Bulk Density (Unit
Weight) and Voids in Aggregate
A588/A588M-05 Standard Specifications for High-
Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel with 345 MPa C31/C31M-06 Standard Practice for Making and Curing
minimum yield point to 100 mm thick Concrete Test Specimens in the Field

A615/A615M-07 Standard Specifications for Deformed and C33-03 Standard Specifications for Concrete Aggregate
Plain Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement
C39/C39M-05 Standard Test Method for Compressive
A706/A706M-06a Standard Specifications for Low-Alloy Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete Reinforcement
C42/C42M-04 Standard Method of Obtaining and Testing
A722/A722-07 Standard Specifications for Uncoated High- Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete
Strength Steel Bar for Prestressing Concrete
C94/C94M-06 Standard Specifications for Ready-Mixed
A767/A767M-05 Standard Specifications for Zinc-Coated Concrete
(Galvanized) Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement
C109/C109M-05 Standard Test Method for Compressive
A775/A775M-07 Standard Specifications for Epoxy-Coated Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 50-mm Cube
Reinforcing Steel Bars Specimens)

A820/A820M-06 Standard Specifications for Steel Fibers C144-04 Standard Specifications for Aggregate for Masonry
for Fiber Reinforced Concrete Mortar

A884/A884M-06 Standard Specifications for Epoxy-Coated C150-05 Standard Specifications for Portland Cement
Steel Wire and Welded Wire Fabric for Reinforcement
C172-04 Standard Method of Sampling Freshly Mixed
A934/A934M-07 Standard Specifications for Epoxy-Coated Concrete
Prefabricated Steel Reinforcing Bars

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 4 - Concrete 4-17

C192/C192M-06 Standard Method of Sampling Freshly C1602/C1602M-06 Standard Specifications for Mixing
Mixed Concrete Water used in the Production of Hydraulic Cement
Concrete
C231-04 Standard Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed
Concrete by the Pressure Method C1609/C1609M-06 Standard Test Method for Flexural
Performance of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (Using Beam
C260-06 Standard Specifications for Air-Entraining With Third-Point Loading)
Admixtures for Concrete
403.9.2. "Structural Welding Code - Reinforcing Steel"
C330-05 Standard Specifications for Lightweight (ANSI/AWS D1.4/D1.4M:2005) of the American Welding
Aggregates for Structural Concrete Society is declared part of this code as if fully set forth
herein.
C494/C494M-05a Standard Specifications for Chemical
Admixtures for Concrete 403.9.3 Section 203.3 Combining Loads Using Strength
Design, or Load and Resistance Factor Design of this code
C496/C496M-04 Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile as if fully set forth herein, for the purposes cited in Sections
Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens 409.3.3 and 426.

C567-05a Standard Test Method for Unit Weight of 403.9.4 "Specification for Unbonded Single Strand Tendon
Structural Lightweight Concrete Materials, “ACI 423.7-07” is declared to be part of this
Code as if fully set forth herein.
C595M-07 Standard Specifications for Blended Hydraulic
Cements 403.9.5 Sections 9.21.7.2 and 9.21.7.3 of Division I and
Section 10.3.2.3 of Division II of AASHTO "Standard
C618-05 Standard Specifications for Fly Ash and Raw or Specification for Highway Bridges" (AASHTO 17th Edition,
Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use as a Mineral Admixture 2002) are declared to be part of this code as if fully set forth
on Portland Cement Concrete herein for the purpose cited in Section 418.16.1.

C685/C685M-01 Standard Specifications for Concrete 403.9.6 “Qualification of Post-Installed Mechanical


Made by Volumetric Batching and Continuous Mixing Anchors in Concrete (ACI 355.2-07)” is declared to be part
of this Code as if fully set forth herein, for the purpose cited
C845-04 Standard Specifications for Expansive Hydraulic in Section 423, Anchoring to Concrete.
Cement
403.9.7 “Structural Welding Code Steel (AWS
C989-06 Standard Specifications for Ground Granulated D1.1/D1.1M:2006)” of the American Welding Society is
Blast-Furnace Slag for Use in Concrete and Mortars declared to be part of this Code as if fully set forth herein.

C1012-04 Test Method for Length Change of Hydraulic- 403.9.8 “Acceptance Criteria for Moment Frames Based on
Cement Mortars Exposed to a Sulfate Solution Structural Testing (ACI 374.1-05)” is declared to be part of
this Code as if fully set forth herein.
C1017/C1017M-03 Standard Specifications for Chemical
Admixtures for Use in Producing Flowing Concrete 403.9.9 “Acceptance Criteria for Special Unbonded
Post-Tensioned Precast Structural Walls Based on
C1116-06 Standard Specifications for Fiber-Reinforced Validation Testing (ACI ITG-5.1-07)” is declared to be part
of this Code as if fully set forth herein.
Concrete and Shotcrete

C1157-03 Standard Performance Specifications for

Hydraulic Cement

C1218/C1218M-99 Standard Test Method for Water


Soluble Chloride in Mortar and Concrete

C1240-05 Standard Specifications for Silica Fume for Use


in Hydraulic-Cement Concrete and Mortar
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National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1
4-18 CHAPTER 4 - Concrete

Exposure Category P is subdivided into two exposure


classes:
SECTION 404 - DURABILITY
REQUIREMENTS Exposure Class P0 Structural members should be assigned
to when there are no specific permeability requirements.

404.1 Notation Exposure Class P1 is assigned on the basis of the need for
f'c = specified compressive strength of concrete, (MPa). concrete to have a low permeability to water when the
permeation of water into concrete might reduce durability or
affect the intended function of the structural member.
404.2 Definitions Exposure Class P1 should typically be assigned when other
exposure classes do not apply. An example is an interior
The Section addresses three exposure categories that affect water tank.
the requirements for concrete to ensure adequate durability:
Exposure Category C is subdivided into three exposure
Exposure Category S applies to concrete in contact with classes:
soil or water containing deleterious amounts of watersoluble
sulfate ions as defined in Section 404.4.1. Exposure Class C0 is assigned when exposure conditions
do not require additional protection against the initiation of
Exposure Category P applies to concrete in contact with corrosion of reinforcement.
water requiring low permeability.
Exposure Classes C1 and C2 are assigned to reinforced
Exposure Category C applies to reinforced and prestressed and prestressed concrete members depending on the degree
concrete exposed to conditions that require additional of exposure to external sources of moisture and chlorides in
protection against corrosion of reinforcement. Severity of service.
exposure within each category is defined by classes with
increasing numerical values representing increasingly severe Examples of external sources of chlorides include concrete
exposure conditions. A classification of “0” is assigned in direct contact with deicing chemicals, salt, salt water,
when the exposure severity has negligible effect or does not brackish water, seawater, or spray from these sources.
apply to the structural member.

Exposure Category F is subdivided into four exposure 404.3 General


classes. However only Exposure Class F0 applies to
Philippine condition; Exposure Class F1, Exposure Class 404.3.1 The value of fc′ shall be the greatest of the values
F2, Exposure Class F3 do not apply as it involve concrete required by Section 404.3.1, for durability in Section 404,
exposed to cycles of freezing and thawing, in continuous and for structural strength requirements and shall apply for
contact with moisture, and where exposure to deicing mixture proportioning in Section 405.4 and for evaluation
chemicals is anticipated: and acceptance of concrete in Section 405.7. Concrete
mixtures shall be proportioned to comply with the
Exposure Class F0 is assigned to concrete that will not be maximum water-cementitious material ratio (w/cm) and
exposed to cycles of freezing and thawing. other requirements based on the exposure class assigned to
the concrete structural member. All cementitious materials
Exposure Category S is subdivided into four exposure specified in Section 403.3.1 and the combinations of these
classes: materials shall be included in calculating the w/cm of the
concrete mixture.
Exposure Class S0 is assigned for conditions where the
water-soluble sulfate concentration in contact with concrete 404.3.2 The maximum w/cm limits in Section 404 do not
is low and injurious sulfate attack is not a concern. apply to lightweight concrete.

Exposure Classes S1, S2, and S3 are assigned for


structural concrete members in direct contact with soluble
sulfates in soil or water. The severity of exposure increases
from Exposure Class S1 to S3 based on the more critical
value of measured water-soluble sulfate concentration in
soil or the concentration of dissolved sulfate in water. Sea
water exposure is classified as Exposure Class S1.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 4 - Concrete 4-19

Table 404-1 Exposure Categories And Classes


404.4 Exposure Categories and Classes

Category

Severity

Class
404.4.1The engineer-of-record shall assign exposure classes
based on the severity of the anticipated exposure of Condition
structural concrete members for each exposure category
according to Table 404-1. Water-soluble Dissolved
sulfate (SO4) in sulfate
soil, percent by (SO4) in
404.5 Special Exposure Conditions weight water, ppm
Concrete that will be subject to the exposure given in Table N/A
S0 SO4 < 0.10 SO4 < 150

SULFATE
404-2 shall conform to the corresponding maximum water-
cementitious materials ratios and minimum specified

S
150 ≤ SO4 <1500
Moderate 0.10 ≤ SO4 < 0.20
concrete compressive strength requirements of that table.