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# Tanker Cargo calculations

## TANKER CARGO CALCULATIONS Complied by Capt.R.S.Raina

The volume of cargo on board can be determined by means of soundings or ullage measurements and
calibration tables (tank tables).

The purpose of the cargo calculations is to convert the observed volume into weight.

Calculation of trim, stability, freeboard, shear forces, bending moments is based on weights.

On the B/L the quantity of cargo is stated as a weight (Metric Tons , Long Tons, Short Tons, Pounds, etc. )

When making the stowage plan a lot of information has to be gathered, a lot of factors have to be taken into
account

Cargo calculations are important because they are the link between the available space and the weight to be

The relationship between the volume and the mass or weight can be expressed by the density (specific gravity,
litre weight, API, relative density etc.)

## Density and volume change is function of the temperature

The weight of a cargo is of course independent of the temperature but the weight in air (apparent weight) ≠ the
weight in vacuum (true weight)

Density

Fundamentally

## Apparant density: Weight per unit of volume in air

Mass is a measure of the quantity of material in a body and is constant regardless of geographical location,
altitude or atmospheric conditions

Weight is the force with which a body is attracted to the earth and varies from place to place with « g », the
acceleration of gravity

## Weight = Mass x 9,81m/sec2

All commodities are sold by weight and this means weight in air.

The term «weight» in general practice has been accepted as being the value secured when an object is weighed
in air
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This weight or «weight in air» is often converted to «weight in vacuum» by the application of an air buoyancy
correction (vacuum factor)

## Weight = volume x density

Only true if volume and density are known at the same temperature

3 solutions

## Use of ASTM Tables

Normally the density or API is provided by the terminal or surveyor in the load ports and what is used will be

For example in USA / Canada, Persian Gulf, API usage is prevalent, while entire of Europe and Asia uses Density
at 15C.

PROCEDURE OF CALCULATIONS

## 2) Observed Interface - apply corrections - get Corrected Interface

3) From Corrected Ullage, find Total Observed Volume TOV (in M³)

## 5) TOV - Water = Gross Observed Volume (GOV) of Cargo (in M³)

6) Use Density at 15C and Observed Temperature (oC) and find Volume Correction Factor (VCF) from Table 54

## 7) Gross Standard Volume (GSV) = GOV x VCF (cubic metres)

8) Weight Correction Factor (WCF) = Density at 15C in vacuum - 0.0011 (or the Density at 15C in air)

## 10) Weight in Vaccum (Metric Ton) = GSV x Density at 15C in vacuum

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TANKER CARGO CALCULATIONS

On board a Tanker ullage is measured either by an ullage tape, Ullage Temperature Interface, (UTI) / Sonic tape,

## This Ullage is to be corrected for Trim, & list

Correction depends the location of ullage port, its height , how far it is ford of aft bhd and by what distance it is
displaced from the C/L of tank.

## Use of the Whessoe Tank Gauge

The function of the gauge is to register the ullage of the tank at any given time, in particular when the liquid level

The gauge is designed to record the readings not only at the top deck level of the tank but also remotely at a
central cargo control room. A transmitter is fitted on the head of the gauge for just this purpose.

The unit is totally enclosed and various models manufactured are suitable for use aboard not only oil tankers,
but chemical and gas carriers as well .

This is a totally enclosed measuring system which can only be employed if the tank is fully inerted. Systems are
generally fitted with oxygen sensor and temperature sensor switches, so if the atmosphere in the tank is hot or
flammable the radar will not function.

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The main unit of the system is fitted on the deck with an inserted cable tube into the tank holding a transducer.
Cable then carries the signal to a control unit in the cargo control room where the signal is converted to give a
digital read-out for each tank monitored .

The transducer would be fitted as close to the centre of the tank area as was possible. Such siting tends to
eliminate errors due to trim and list.

Q 1 A crude oil tanker of LBP 228m has a box shaped tank of Dimensions 32 x 20 x 20 m. trimmed 1 m by stern.
Initial ullage of 0.60m is measured by Radar beam level gauge fitted 3 m ford of aft bhd on centerline of the tank.
Given the density of oil at 15°C = 0.810t/m³ and observed temp is 24.5°C. On completion of unloading v/l
trimmed 3.8 m by stern & ullage of tank was 19.88 m Calculate the Qty of oil discharged.

In Δ PTE

## PT / TE = tan ϴ also tanϴ = t/LBP

PT = 13 x 1/228 = 0.0570 m

## To establish if wedge exits

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To establish if DL ˂ 32 m (Wedge forms)

TM / ML = tan ϴ

Or ML = 7.2m

In Δ KDL

## Qty discharged = 12362.18 x Vcf x Wcf = 9915.78 MT

Q.2 A box shaped tank 28x18x16 m is to be loaded with crude oil at a temp of 24°C . The δat 15°C = 0.8250, if
2% of the vol of tank is to be left for expansion calculate Final obs ullage by the measuring tape at the ullage port
located 2m ford of aft bhd , 1m above and 3m to port of CL.Given LBP 240m, Trim 3m by stern, list ½°(s).

## Actual mean height of oil = 16 x 98/100=15.68

UT = 16 +1 -15.68 = 1.32m

In Δ PTE

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PT = 12 x 3/240

PT = 0.15 m

## UP = UT - PT = 1.32 – 0.15 = 1.17m

TAPE CORRECTION :-

In Δ UOP

UO / UP = Cos ϴ

UO = UP Cos ϴ

UO = 1.1699m

## OC = OE tanϴ = 3 x tan 0.5° = 0.02618

Therefore UC = UO + OC

UD = UC cosϴ

VCF = 0.9924

## GSV = 7902.2 x 0.9924 = 7842.659 m³

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Weight in air = 7842.659 x (0.8250 – 0.0011)

= 6461.5923 mt

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Q.3 A box shaped tank 35m x 24.3m x 15m had 83m³ of ballast on arrival at load port on a ship of LBP 219m .
This tank was then loaded with a) 5000m³ of oil at 27°C (δ15°c =0.8193) b) 5000 mt of oil (δ15°c =0.8867)
Calculate the final ullage by UTI gauge (temp 12°C, Trim zero, List 2.5°P) . Ullage port located 6m ford of aft
bulkhead & 4m to port of centre line and 88 cms above the tank top.

Parcel A

Obs Vol at 27°C = 5000m³, temp = 27°C, δ15°c =0.8193 Vcf at 27°C = 0.9897,

## Nov at 15°C = 5000 x 0.9897 = 4948.5 m³ Vcf at 12°C = 1.0026

Obs Vol at 12°C = Nov at 15°C / Vcf at 12°C = 4948.5 / 1.0026 = 4935.7 m³

Parcel B

Qty of oil = 5000 mt , temp = 27 deg, δ15°c =0.8867, WRF = 0.8867 – 0.0011 = 0.8856

## Vcf at 12°c = 1.0022

Obs Vol at 12°c = Nov at 15°c / Vcf at 12°c = 5645.9 /1.0022 = 5633.5 m³

## Therefore Corrected ullage at 12°c = (15 + 0.88) – 12.525 = 3.355 m

Therefore Obs ullage (corr’d for list only) = 3.355 – 0.175 ( list correction = b x Tan ϴ) = 3.180 m

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Q.4 A box shaped bunker tank 28 x 15 x 12 m was loaded at 40°C to 98% capacity. δ15°c (in vac) 0.8825. If this
fuel is now heated to 50°C and 20% of bunker is used, Calculate the ullage from tank radar gauge. Tank radar
gauge is fitted 5m ford of the aft bulkhead, 3m port of C/L, 1.5m above the deck, trim 4.19m, list 2 deg (s), LBP
200m. Also calculate Qty remaining now in metric tonnes.

## Gov = 5040 – 100.8 (2%) = 4939.2 m³

Mass of oil = Gov x Vcf (40°C) x Wcf = 4939.2 x 0.9812 x 0.8814 = 4271.564 t

## Gsv = Mass of oil / Wcf = 3417.25 / 0.8814 = 3877.07 m³

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Gov = Gsv / Vcf (50°C) = 3877.07 / 0.9738 = 3981.38 m³

## True ullage = 13.5 – 9.479 = 4.021 m

Now Trim Corr’n = (L/2 – a) x trim / LBP = (28/2 – 5) x 4.19 / 200 = 0.1885 m

List Corr’n = Dist off ullage port x Tan (list) = 3 x tan 2° = 0.1047 m

## Observed ullage = 3.9372 m

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Q.5 A rectangular slop tank 10 x 10 x 20 m upon arrival was found to have 1m of water at 20°c and 1m of Arabian
light at 20°c. Density of Arabian light δ15°c (in vac) 0.8750. Arabian heavy crude of δ15°c (in vac) 0.8950 has to be
loaded on top such that ullage of slop tank will not fall below 20 cm at a max voyage temp of 38 °c. Calculate the
ullage at load port if temp of both the oils is 12°c. Find the weight of Arabian heavy oil assuming (1) there is no
comingling (2) negligible change in vol of water with change in temp (3) No trim change

## Gov of water @12°c = 100 m³

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Total Gov of oil = Gov (A/L) + Gov (A/H) + Gov (water)

## Therefore ullage = 20 – 19.439 = 0.5607 m

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Recapitulate

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