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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Site investigation and soil exploration:

1.1.1 Site Investigation:

Site investigation refers to the procedure of determining surface &subsurface


conditions in the area of proposed construction.

Site inspection or say geotechnical inspection is very important in understanding the physical
properties of soil and the rocks beneath. This is required to ascertain the type of foundation
required for the proposed construction.

Site investigations may be conducted by the following steps:

1. Reconnaissance
2. Study of maps
3. Aerial photography

1. Reconnaissance:

Reconnaissance involves an inspection of the site and study of the topographical features.
This will yield useful information about the soil and ground water conditions.

2. Study of Maps:

Information on surface and subsurface condition in an area is frequently available in the


form of maps. The primary purpose of such a study is to establish the nature of deposits
underlying the site. The types of soil and rock likely to be encountered can be determined,
and the method of exploration of most suited to the situation may be selected.

3. Aerial Photography:

Aerial photography is a newly developed method by which Site investigation may be


conducted for any major project. Air photo interpretation is the estimation of underground
conditions by relating land for development and plant growth to geology as reflected in
aerial photographs.

1.1.2 Soil exploration:

Determining engineering properties of the soils at a site for a proper design and successful
construction of any structure at the site, this is carried out both in field and laboratory to
obtain the necessary data for the soil for this purpose are collectively called soil
exploration.
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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Methods of site exploration:

1. Direct method-( test pits , trail pits)


2. Semi direct methods-( borings)
3. Indirect method-(penetration tests and geo physical methods)

Safe bearing capacity of soil:

SBC of soil is defined as the maximum pressure intensity that the soil will safely
transmit without the risk of shear failure irrespective of settlement that may occur.

Steps carried out in determining the SBC of soil:

1. Collection of undisturbed samples from trail pits in the field. the number and depth of
trail pits depend upon the project.

2. Determination of actual water content of collected soil sample in the laboratory

3. For that actual water content of soil sample tri axial test is conducted. Tests results give
shear parameters (cohesion and internal friction of so).

4. The SBC of soil is obtained from the relevant table given in IS:1904-1986.

In our project we have assumed SBC of soil as 250 kN/m2.

1.2 Design Philosophy:

RCC design of buildings in being carried out mainly by three methods of design. They
are namely

1. Working stress method

2. Ultimate stress method

3. Limit state method

The limit state method is now in vogue in all Design offices and premier private
consulting firms. The BIS has published IS 456 – 2000 incorporating the use of limit state
method of design, hence one should therefore get well verse with the theory of Limit state
method of design.

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

1.2.1 Working Stress method:

Use over decades, this method is now practically outdated in many advanced of world,
because of its inherent limitations.

The IS 456 – 2000 code gives emphasis on Limit State Method, which is the modified form
of Ultimate Load Method.

1.2.2 Limit State method:

It is judicious amalgamation of Working Stress Method and Ultimate Load Method, which
makes use of optimum material strength and loads by increasing the same with partial safety
factors removing the drawbacks of both of the methods but retaining their good points. It is
also based on sound scientific principles and backed.

By 25 years of research, the Limit State Method has proved to have edge over the Working
Stress Method from the economic and strength point of view. Consequently we need not
stick to Working Stress Method any more.

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER-2
PLANNING

2.1 Introductory Remarks:


In this project we have made an attempt to design a modern apartment building with
all minimum facilities and meeting all requirements for present generalities.

The plan of the site proposed for the building is shown in drawing 1 with the
prevailing site condition. We have made around three plans and we have selected the
best out of three plans
One of the plans we rejected is shown in plan 2 we have rejected that plan for the
following reasons
 The open deck is provided between the bathrooms.
 Too much projection is there for balcony.
In the Revised plan we have overcome the above points and made new one.

Requirements of a residential building are as follows


 Hall/Living room
 Kitchen room cum Dining room
 Bed room
 Pooja room
 Store room
 Sanitary blocks
Balconies have been provided in each flat and we have provided for each bed
room.
The floor area ratio for residential buildings and types of construction are as given below
(CL: III, 9.2 National Building Code)

Floor area Ratio


Occupancy
Classification Type I Type II Type III Type IV

Residential Unlimited 2.0 1.4 1.0

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

2.2 General Requirements:


The details of requirement with reference to National Building Code (NBC) are
follows:

2.2.1 Habitable Rooms:


Provided height of rooms=3.0m
Provided area of master bed room =4.15X4=16.6m2
Provided area of other bed room =3.15X4=12.6m2
The height all rooms for human habitation shall not be less than 2.75m, measured
from the floor to the lowest point of the ceiling (bottom of slab) (CL; III 12.2.1)
where there two rooms the area of one of these shall
Not be less than 9.5m2 and other shall not be less than 7.5m2 (CL; III 12.2.2).

2.2.2 Kitchen cum Dining:


Provided height of room =3.0m
Provided area =4X3=12m2
The height of kitchen for a human habitation shall not be less than 2.75m, measured
from the floor to the lowest point of the ceiling (bottom of slab) (CL; III 12.3.1).
The area of kitchen including dining area also, shall have floor area of not less than
7.5m2 with minimum width of 2.1m.

2.2.3 Bath room and water closets:


Provided height of Bathroom and water closets =3m
Provided area =1.85X2.85= 5.27m2
The height bath room and WC for human habitation shall not be less than 2.0m,
measured from the floor to the lowest point of the ceiling (bottom of slab) (CL; III
12.4.1).
The size of bath room and WC shall not less than 2.7m2 with minimum
1.2m.

2.2.4 Parapet Wall:


Provided height of parapet Wall =1m
Parapet wall and hand rails on the edges of roof terrace shall not be less than 1.05m
and not more 1.20m in the height from the finished floor level (CL; III 12.1).

2.2.5 Staircase:
Provided width of the staircase =3m
The minimum width of staircase shall not be less than 1.5m (CL; III 12.18.12)
Provided width of tread without nosing =30 cm
The minimum width of tread without nosing shall be 25 cm (CL; III 12.18.1.2)

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

2.2.6 Lighting and Ventilation:


Provided size of window =W=2.4X1.8
W1=1.8x1.3
W2=1.2x1
V = 0.8X0.6
Lighting and Ventilation for rooms shall be at least one tenth of the floor area for dry
hot climate (CL; III 14.1.2)

2.2.7 Other Requirements:


Every bathroom and water closet shall be so suited that at least one of its wall
shall open to external atmosphere. (cl III 12.4.3)
The building has been analyzed by assuming the frames to be two dimensional
the method used for analysis is kani‟s method, as it is more practical and
unerring.

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER 3
SLABS

3.1 Types of slabs:


 One way slab
 Two way slab

3.2 Loads on beams supporting one way and two way slab
In case of beams supporting two ways slabs, the load distribution is trapezoidal on
long beams and triangular on short beams with base
Angle of 45 as shown in figure. The ordinate of trapezoidal and triangular load= .
The triangular and trapezoidal loads are converted into equivalent uniformly distributed loads
by using the equivalence factors.
The load on the short beam is triangular. The equivalent UDL for BM is .
The load on long beam is trapezoidal. The equivalent UDL for BM is
( ) .

Trapezoidal load

Triangular load

Distribution of loads in two-way slab

Basic rules for design


While designing the beams, following important rules must be kept in mind:

3.4 Spanning of slabs:


This is decided by the positions of supporting beams or walls. When the supports are
only o opposite sides or only direction, then the slab should be design as a one-way slab when
the slab is supported on more than two supports, it should be design as a two way slab.
However, the two way action of slab does not depend only on manner in which it supported
but also aspect ratio „Ly/Lx‟ (the ratio of long span Ly to short span Lx), the ratio

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

reinforcement the two direction (Astx/Asty or mux/muy) and the boundary conditions. This
decision may be taken by considering the following points
(1) If the aspect ratio Ly/Lx is greater than 2, the slab acts as one way slab.
(2) If the aspect ratio Ly/Lx is less than or equal 2, the slab acts as two way slab.
(3) Two way action is advantageous essentially for large span (greater than 2) and live
loads
Greater than 3Kn/m2. For short spans and light loads, steel required for two way slab
does not differ appreciably as compared steel for one way slab because of the
requirement of minimum steel.
(4) Spanning of slab is also decided by necessity of continuity of adjacent slab.
(5) While designing any slab as continuous slab, it is utmost importance to see whether
adequate anchorage to the same is available or not.

3.5 Effective span (IS-456 clause 22.2)

Unless otherwise specified, effective span of a member is as follows:


a) Simply supported beam of slab – the effective span of member that is not built
integrally with its supports shall be taken as clear span plus the effective depth of slab
or beam or centre to centre of supports which ever is less.
b) Continuous beam of slab – in the case of continuous beam or slab, if the width of the
support is less than 1/12 of the clear span, the effective span shall be in 22.2(a). If the
supports are wider than 1/12th of the clear span or 600mm whichever is less, the
effective span shall be taken under:
1. For end span with one end fixed and other end continuous or for intermediate
spans, the effective span shall be the clear span between supports.
2. For end span with one end is free and other end is continuous, the effective span
shall be equal to the clear span plus half of effective depth of beam or slab or the
clear span plus half the width of discontinuous support, whichever is less.
3. In case of spans with roller rocker bearings, the effective span shall always be the
distance between centers of bearings.
c) Cantilever – the effective length of the cantilever shall be taken as its length to face of
the support plus half the effective depth except where it forms the end of a continuous
beam where the length to the centre of support shall be taken.

3.6 Control of deflection (IS-456 clause 23.2)

The deflection of a structure or part there of shall not adversely affect the appearance
or efficiency of the structure or finishes or partitions. The shall generally be limited
to following:

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

a) The deflection due to all loads including effects of temperature, creep and
measure from the as-cast level of the floors, roofs and all other horizontal
members should not normally exceed span/250.
b) The deflection including effects of temperature, creep and shrinkage occurring are
after erection of partitions and the applications of finishes should normally
exceed span/350 or20mm whichever is less.

NOTE:

1. For slabs spinning between two directions, the shorter of two spans should be used
for calculating the span to effective depth ratios.
2. For two-way slabs of shorter spans (up to 3.5m) with mild steel reinforcement, the
span to over all depth ratios given below may generally be assumed to satisfy
vertical deflection limits for loading up to 3 kn/m2.
Simply supported slabs 32
Continuous slabs 40
For high strength deformed bars of grade Fe 415, the values given above should
be multiplied by 0.8

3.7 Maximum distance between bars in tension (IS-456 Clause 26.3.3)

 The horizontal distance between parallel main reinforcement bars shall not be more
that 3 times the effective depth of the solid slab or 300mm whichever is smaller.
 The horizontal reinforcement between parallel reinforcement bars provided against
shrinkage and temperature shall not be more than 5 times effective depth of solid slab
450mm whichever is smaller.

3.8 Minimum reinforcement (IS-456 26.5.2.1)

The mild steel reinforcement in either direction in slabs shall not be less than 0.15
percent of the total cross sectional area. However, this value can be reduced to 0.12
percent when high strength deformed bars or welded wire fabrics are used.\

Load distribution on slab as shown in fig below.

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

3.9.1DESIGN OF SLAB – 1
Size of the slab is 5.3×4.3

1. Thickness of the slab:


Since lx >3.5
Take l÷d= 25, ie d=l÷25
d=4300/25= 172mm
d=180mm
D=d+d’=180+20=200mm

2. Effective span:
Now lx=4.3+0.18=4.48m
Ly=5.3+0.18=5.48m
ly÷lx =5.48/4.48=1.22<2

hence two way slab is to be designed.

3. Loads:
Self weight=0.2×1×1×25=5 kn/m2
Live load=3kn/m2
Finishing=1 kn/m2
Total load= 9kn/m2
Factored load= 1.5×9=13.5kn/m2

The slab is 2 adjacent sides discontinuous. Hence the moment co-efficient are
obtained from the table 7.1 (table 26 IS 456) case 4
(-ve ) αx =0.061
(+ve) αx= 0.053
(-ve) αy =0.047
(+ve) αy =0.035

Calculation of moments at support:


Mux= αx×Wu× αx2
=0.061×13.5×4.482
=16.53kn/m2
Muy= αy×Wu× αx2
=0.047×13.5×4.482
=12.73kn/ m2

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

DESIGN OF MAIN REINFORCEMENT AT SUPPORT:


Mulim=0.36×fck×b×xulim×(d-0.42×xulim)

=0.36×20×1000×0.48×(180-0.42×0.48)
=62.14kn-m
Since the Mu<Mulim.
Hence the section is under reinforced.

TO FIND AST:

AT EDGE:
(Ast)x= Ptbd/100
= (0.134X1000X180)/100
= 241.2 mm2

(Ast)y= Ptbd/100
= (0.085X1000X180)/100
= 153 mm2

AT CENTRE:
(Ast)x= Ptbd/100
= (0.114X1000X180)/100
= 205.20 mm2

(Ast)y= Ptbd/100
= (0.102X1000X180)/100
= 183.60 mm2

POSITION Mu/bd^2 Pt% Pt*bd/100 SPACING(using#8bar) SPACING(using#8bar)

AT EDGE
X-axis 0.470 0.134 241.200 208.292 200mm c/c
Y-axis 0.270 0.085 153.000 328.366 300mm c/c
AT MIDSPAN
X-axis 0.408 0.114 205.200 244.834 240mm c/c
Y-axis 0.362 0.102 183.600 273.638 250mm c/c

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

3.9.2 DESIGN OF SLAB – 1


Size of the slab is 7.3X3.3

1. Thickness of the slab:


Since lx >3.5
Take l÷d= 25, ie d=l÷25
d=4300/25= 172mm
d=180mm
D=d+d’=180+20=200mm

2. Effective span:
Now lx=3.3+0.16=3.46m
Ly=7.3+0.16=7.46m
ly÷lx =7.46/3.46=2.22<2

hence one way slab is to be designed.

3. Loads:
Self weight=0.2×1×1×25=5 kn/m2
Live load=3kn/m2
Finishing=1 kn/m2
Total load= 9kn/m2
Factored load= 1.5×9=13.5kn/m2

Calculation of moments at support:


MU = (W*lx2)/2
= (13.5*3.462)/8
= 20.20 Kn-m

DESIGN OF MAIN REINFORCEMENT AT SUPPORT:

Mulim=0.36×fck×b×xulim×(d-0.42×xulim)
=0.36×20×1000×0.48×(160-0.42×0.48)x160
=88.36kn-m
Since the Mu<Mulim.
Hence the section is under reinforced.

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

TO FIND AST:

Ast=

= 79.45mm2

TO FIND SPACING:

BY USING 8mm Ø

Sv = ast*1000/Ast
= 600mm2

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER-4 ANALYSIS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

Structural engineering projects may be divided in to three phases: planning,


design and constructions. The planning phase involves a consideration of the various
requirement and factors which affect the general layout and dimension of the structure and
leads to the choice of one or perhaps several alternative types of structures. The design phase
involves a detailed consideration of the alternative solution evolved in the planning phase,
analyzing and designing of various structural components for several combinations of loads.
The construction phase involves procurements of materials equipment and personnel,
fabrication, erection and finally the overall construction of the building.
The real responsibility of the structural engineer to ensure to that the structure
transmits the several service loads safely and efficiently. For this clear understand of the
fundamental is essential. STAAD PRO 2006 easily facilitates one to understand the structural
response under the action of loads.

A structure is designed to perform a certain function. Among these functions are the
utility of the building for the intended use and occupancy, structural safety and compliance
with hygienic, sanitation, ventilation and daylight standards. To perform this functions
satisfactorily, it must have sufficient strength and rigidity. Economy and aesthetic wise are
further objectives of major importance in the structural design.
Structural design involves determining the most suitable proportions of a structure
and dimensioning and detailing the structural elements. Once the structure is analyzed and
designed it must have sufficient strength to withstand the maximum stresses to which it is
subjected. In short the specification of the required structure is the most important thing to
decide many aspect of the structure, such as functional safety and economic aspects.
Many classical methods are available for the analysis and the design of multistoried
framed structure. But as the time has become the major constraint, the invention of many
software packages has overcome this constraint with sufficiently considerable result.

4.2 Analysis of structure

The structural analysis comprising of the computations of force (external reactions,


shear, moments, and displacements) that are developed in the structure due to loading.
There are various methods for analysis of structures. There is hard and fast rule as to
whether a structure is to be analyzed by some specific method or some other method as each
of them has their own limitations. Some of methods of analysis of structures are

1. Slope deflection method

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

2. Moment distribution method


3. Column analogy method
4. Kani‟s method
5. Strain energy method
6. Finite element method
In this presentation the analysis is carried out using STAAD 2006 package developed by
research engineers.

4.3 Stage in structural design:


This process of structural design involves the following stages:
 Structural planning
 Estimation of loads

4.3.1 Structural planning:


This involves determination of the form of the structure, the material for the same, the
structural system, the layout of its components, the method of analysis, and the philosophy of
structural design.
The main elements of a R.C. building frame are:
 Slabs
 Beams to support slabs and walls
 Columns to support beams, and
 Footings to transmit column loads to the soil structure safety.

4.3.1.1 Steps followed in structural planning:


After preparation of architectural plans of the building, the structural planning of the building
frame is done. The involves the determination of the following:
 Column positions
 Beam locations
 Spanning of slabs
 Layout and planning of stairs
 Type of footing

(a) Column positioning:


Following are some of the guiding principles which help in deciding the column
positions:
(1) Identify key location of columns that will form a well-knit system of frame work
(2) Columns should preferably be located at the junction of walls, meeting point of
main beams, manageable spans for beams, etc.
(3) Columns locations should be selected in such a way that they do not obstruct the
architectural utility of the building on each of the floors including movement of
vehicles in the parking area.

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

(4) As far as possible the columns should be concealed within the proposed mansonry
structure.

(b) Positioning of beams:


Following are some of the guiding principles for positioning of beams:
(1) Beams shall, normally, be provided under the walls or below concentrated loads
(2) Since beams are primarily provided to support the slabs, its spacing shall be
decided by the maximum desired spans of the slabs.

(c) Spanning of slabs:

This is decided by the positions of supporting beams or walls. When the supports are only o
opposite sides or only direction, then the slab should be design as a one-way slab when the
slab is supported on more than two supports, it should be design as a two way slab. However,
the two way action of slab does not depend only on manner in which it supported but also
aspect ratio „Ly/Lx‟ (the ratio of long span Ly to short span Lx), the ratio reinforcement the
two direction (Astx/Asty or mux/muy) and the boundary conditions. This decision may be
taken by considering the following points
(6) If the aspect ratio Ly/Lx is greater than 2, the slab acts as one way slab.
(7) If the aspect ratio Ly/Lx is less than or equal 2, the slab acts as two way slab.
(8) Two way action is advantageous essentially for large span (greater than 2) and live
loads
Greater than 3Kn/m2. For short spans and light loads, steel required for two way slab
does not differ appreciably as compared steel for one way slab because of the
requirement of minimum steel.
(9) Spanning of slab is also decided by necessity of continuity of adjacent slab.
(10)While designing any slab as continuous slab, it is utmost importance to see whether
adequate anchorage to the same is available or not.

(d) Layout of stairs:


The type stair and its layout is governed essentially by the available size for accommodating
the staircase and the position its supports. Following are some guidelines in deciding the
layout of stairs:
1 Wherever possible landing beams may be provided at the end of flight to reduce the
span.
2 If the span of stair flight is greater than 4.5m the flight may be supported on a central
stringer beam spanning across the length of the staircase.
Classification of stairs:

The different forms of stairs may be classified under the following main heads:
 Straight stairs
 Dogged legged stairs
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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

 Open newel stairs


 Geometrical stairs
 Circular stairs
 Bifurcated stairs
 Folded stairs
 Stringer beam stairs

1 Straight stairs: The most obvious use of the straight stair is to form an access to
entrance , porch or portico. Straight stair cannot be avoided in places, where the stair
case hall is long and narrow. In this form of stairs, all the steps rise in the same
direction. If the ascending is steep, the straight flight may be broken at the
intermediate landing.
2 Dog-legged stairs: It consists of two straights flights of steps with abrupt turn between
them. Usually, a level landing is placed across the two flights at the change of
direction. This type of stair is useful where the width of the staircase hall is just
sufficient to accommodate two widths of stairs.
3 Open-newel stair: It consists of two or more flights arranged in such a manner that a
clear space called a “well” occurs between the back ward and the forward flights.
4 Geometrical stairs: This is similar to the open-newel stair with the different that the
open well between the forward and backward flight is curved. In this form of stairs,
the change in the direction is obtained through winders.
5 Circular stair: Circular is commonly provided at the back side of the building for
rendering access to its various floors for service purposes. The circular stair is
commonly constructed in R.C.C. cast iron or stone. In this form of stair all the steps
radiated from a newel post or well hole in the form of winders.
6 Bifurcated stair: This type of stair is suitably provided in modern aristocratic public
building. In this type of stair the flights are so arranged that there is wide flight at the
start which is sub-divided into narrow flights at the mid-landings. The two narrow
flights starts from either side of the mid-landing.
7 Folded stairs: Folded stair is a type of stair where the staircase is constructed in the
same form in which we climb up the step i.e. a concrete member of uniform thickness
folds and flows in the direction of the stairs. The detailing of reinforcement in the
folded stairs is in the form of a chain link.
8 Stringer beam staircase: It is a staircase in which a beam running longitudinally along
the centre line of the stairs is provided with the steps cantilevering on either side.
Out of all these types of staircase we have provided DOG-LEGGED stair case
according to our convenience of plan.
The design and drawing of DOG-LEGGED staircase is discussed in chapter-9

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Type of footing:

Following are the types of footing that can be provided for a structure depending upon
the loads from the column, moments,safe bearing capacity of the soil and proximity of
adjacent columns.
 Spread footing
 Combined footing
 Strap or cantilever footing
 Mat or raft foundation
 Pile foundation

Spread footings: A spread footing or simply footing , is a type of shallow


foundation used to transmit the load of an isolated column, or that of a wall,
on the sub-soil. In the case of wall, the footing is continuous while in the case
of column, it is isolated.
Combined footing: A spread footing which supports two or more columns is
termed as a combined footing. Such a footing, is provided when the individual
footing are either very near to each other, or overlaps. Combined footing may
either be rectangular or trapezoidal.
Strap or cantilever footing: A strap footing consists of spread footing of two columns
connected by a strap beam. The strap beam does not remain in contact with
soil, and thus does not transfer any pressure to the soil. Such a footing is
generally used to combine the footing of outer column to the adjacent one so
that the former does not extend to the adjoining property.
Mat or raft foundation: A mat or raft is a combined footing that covers the
entire area beneath a structure and supports all the walls and columns. When the
available soil pressure low or the building loads are heavy, the use of spread
footing would cover more than one half of the area and it may prove more
economical to use mat or raft foundation.
Pile foundation: pile foundation is a deep foundation used where the top soil is
relatively weak. Piles transfer the load to a lower stratum of greater bearing
capacity, by way of end bearing, or to the intermediate soil through skin
friction. This is most common type of deep foundation generally used for
buildings where a group of piles transfer the load of a super-structure to the
sub-soil.

4.3.2 LOADS:
Loads and properties of material constitute the basic parameters affecting the design
of a R.C. Structure. the various types of loads acting on the structure which need
consideration in building design are as follows:

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

 Dead loads
 Live loads
 Seismic loads

Dead loads(DL)
It includes (a) self weight (b) weights of finishes (c) partitions, walls grills
etc. the dead load in a building shall comprise the weight of all walls, partition, floors
and roofs and shall include the weight of all other superimposed loads, which are
permanently attached to the structure. For such loads, which do not change their
position and so not vary in magnitude, and where self-weight of the structure is
unknown, preliminary section may be assumed by the design engineer using
experience, thumb rules and the formulae available.
On completion of design, total dead load is computed and compared with dead load
assumed for design and revised, if necessary.
Unit weight of some material are given below(from IS:875-Part-I)
 Concrete-Plain = 24.00 kN/m3
 Concrete-Reinforced = 25.00 kN/m3
 Cement mortar = 20.40 kN/m3
 Burnt Brick masonry(BBM) = 19.20 kN/m3
 Plaster = 20.00 kN/m3
 Steel = 78.50 kN/m3
 Water = 10.00 kN/m3

Live Load(LL)
Live loads on roofs and on floors are taken according to IS:875-1987. Live load
comprises of those loads whose position or magnitude or both may change. Live load
is expressed as a uniformly distributed static load. In our country. Floors of various
types of buildings have been categor5ized into different classes and live loads
corresponding to these classes has been specified in the code IS:875-1987.

Seismic Load: Load Combinations


When earthquake forces are considered on a structure, these shall be combined as per 6.3.1.2
these shall be combined as per 6.3.1.2 where the terms DL, IL and EL stand for the response
quantities due to dead load, imposed load and designated earthquake load respectively.

Analysis is done by considering the Seismic loads hence the following load combinations
are done for the analysis .
1. EQX
2. EQZ
3. DL
4. LL
5. 1.5(DL+LL)
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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

6. 1.5(DL+EQX)
7. 1.5(DL-EQX)
8. 1.5(DL+EQZ)
9. 1.5(DL-EQZ)
10. 1.2(DL+LL+EQX)
11. 1.2(DL+LL-EQX)
12. 1.2(DL+LL+EQZ)
13. 1.2(DL+LL-EQZ)
14. .9DL+1.5EQX
15. .9DL-1.5EQX
16. .9LL+1.5EQZ
17. .9DL-1.5EQZ

From the above load combinations the critical case will be the load combination
no 5 i.e. 1.5(DL+LL)
Hence the design is done for this load combination number 5

KANIS METHOD OF ANALYSIS


TO FIND FIXED END MOMENT
M=WXLXL/12

MFAB = 0X3.3X3.3/12=0 KN-m

MFBA=0KN-m

MFBG=0KN-m

MFBC=-36.545KN-m

MFCB=36.545KN-m

MFGB=0KN-m

MFGJ=0KN-m

MFGH=-36.545KN-m

MFHG=36.545KN-m

MFJG=0KN-m

MFJM=0KN-m

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

MFJK=-36.545KN-m

MFKJ=36.545KN-m

MFMJ=0KN-m

MFMP=0KN-m

MFMN=-36.545KN-m

MFNM=36.545KN-m

MFPM=0KN-m

MFPQ=-36.545KN-m

MFQP=36.545KN-m

ROTATION FACTORS

JOINT MEMBER STIFFNESS TOTAL ROTATION


K=EI/L STIFFNESS FACTOR
B BA 4EI/3 -0.172
BC 4EI/3 3.879EI -0.156
BG 4EI/3 -0.172
G GB 4EI/3 -0.172
GH 4EI/3 3.879EI -0.156
GJ 4EI/3 -0.172
J JG 4EI/3 -0.172
JK 4EI/3 3.879EI -0.156
JM 4EI/3 -0.172
M MJ 4EI/3 -0.172
MN 4EI/3 3.879EI -0.156
MP 4EI/3 -0.172
P PM 4EI/3 -0.172
PQ 4EI/3 3.879EI -0.156
PS 4EI/3 -0.172

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

B-18 KANIS ANALYSYS

B G J M P C
BA BC BG GB GH GJ JG JK JM MJ MN MP PM PQ CB
-0.172 -0.156 -0.172 -0.172 -0.156 -0.172 -0.172 -0.156 -0.172 -0.172 -0.156 -0.172 -0.262 -0.238 0
- - - - -
0 36.545 0 0 36.545 0 0 36.545 0 0 36.545 0 0 36.545 36.545
-36.545 -36.545 -36.545 -36.545 -36.545 36.545
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5.367 4.868 5.367 5.342 4.845 5.342 5.488 4.977 5.488 4.639 4.207 4.639 9.575 8.698 0
5.502 4.990 5.502 4.555 4.131 4.555 4.695 4.259 4.695 3.904 3.541 3.904 8.359 7.594 0
5.510 4.997 5.510 4.512 4.092 4.512 4.813 4.365 4.813 4.007 3.634 4.007 8.552 7.769 0
5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.823 4.375 4.823 3.992 3.620 3.992 8.525 7.744 0
5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.529 7.748 0
5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0
5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0
5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0
5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0
5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0
5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0
5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0
5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0
5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0
5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0
5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0

- - - -
11.021 -26.550 15.529 14.527 28.367 13.841 14.157 27.794 13.637 12.802 29.309 16.507 21.048 21.048 36.545
26.550 28.367 27.794 29.309

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER-5

BEAMS

5.1 Introduction
A beam is one –dimensional (normally horizontal) member, which provides
support to the slab and the vertical walls. Bending effects load transferred. A reinforced
concrete . A reinforced concrete beam should be able to resist tensile, compressive and shear
stressed induced in it by the loads on the beam. Concrete is fairly strong in compression but
weak in tension. Plain concrete beams are thus limited in carrying capacity due to the low
tensile strength. Steel is very strong in tension. Thus, the tensile weakness of concrete is
overcome by the provision of reinforcing steel in the tension zone in the concrete to make a
reinforced concrete beam.

5.2 Balanced Section


A RC section in which maximum compressive strain in concrete reaches its
ultimate values εc=0.0035 and maximum tensile strain in reinforcement reaches its yield
value simultaneously is known as a balanced section or critical section. The percentage of
steel in this section is known as critical percentage of steel. In this case failure occurs by
yielding of steel in tension and crushing of concrete in compression simultaneously, causing
what is known as balanced or critical failure.

5.3 Under Reinforced Section


A section having percentage of steel less than the critical percentage is
known as under reinforced section. Since steel is insufficient to balance compression in
concrete, the tensile strain in steel reaches yield value while the maximum compressive strain
in concrete is less than its ultimate crushing value. The section undergoes large rotational
deformation from the initial stage (yielding of steel), to final stage (crushing) and impending
failure. Since the failure is initiated by yielding of steel in tension, it is known as primary
tension failure.

5.4 Over Reinforced Section


A section having percentage of tensile steel greater than the critical
percentage is known as over reinforced section. Since the concrete in this section is relatively
in sufficient to balance the tension in steel, the maximum compressive strain in concrete
reaches the ultimate crushing value before the tensile strain in steel reaches the yielding
value. This causes the sudden failure of the section due to crushing of concrete in
compression, without giving any warning. Since this failure is initiated by compression in
concrete, it is known as primary compression failure.

5.5 Design of Doubly Reinforced Beams


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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

5.5.1 Introduction
Reinforced concrete beams provided with steel reinforcement in both the tension
and compression zones are called Doubly Reinforced Beams. It is essential to put steel in
compression zone also when the area of the concrete in the compression zone is inadequate to
develop full compression needed to resist the induced moments. This becomes necessary
under the following states:
1. Where the construction depth is restricted and the moment the beam has to carry is
greater than the moment capacity of the beam in concrete failure. Mu=K fck bd2
This usually occurs at supports of continuous beams and in beams where the depth
is controlled by architectural considerations.

2. Where the bending moment in the section can change in sign (as many occur in a
section in the span of a continuous beam with moving loads) so that the
compression zone with one sign of the moment become the tension zone with the
opposite sign of moment, as in continuous bridge girders.
3. Where the compression steel can substantially improve the ductility of the beam
and its use is therefore advisable in members when large amount of tension steel
becomes necessary for its strength.
4. Compression steel is always used in structures in earthquake regions to increase
their ductility.
5. Compression reinforcement will also aid significantly in reducing the long-term
deflections of beams.

5.5.2 Basic Rules for Design


While designing the beams, following important rules must be kept in mind:
Effective Span: (IS-456 Clause 22.2)
Unless otherwise specified, the effective span of a member shall be as follows:
 Simply supported beam or slab –the effective span of member that is not built
integrally with its supports shall be taken as clear span + the effective depth of slab or
beam or c-c of supports, whichever is less.
 Continuous beam or slab- in the case of continuous beam or slab, if the width of
support less than 1/12th of clear span or 600mm whichever is less, the effective span
shall be taken as under:
1. For end span with one end fixed and the other continuous or for
intermediate spans, the effective span shall be the clear span between the
supports.
2. For end span with one end free other end continuous, the effective span
shall be equal to the clear span + half the effective depth of the beam or
slab or the clear span + half of the width of discontinuous supports,
whichever is less.
3. In the case of span with roller rocker bearings, the effective span shall
always be the distance between centers of bearing.
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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

 Cantilever – the effective length of cantilever span shall be taken as its length of face
of supports + half the effective depth except where it forms the end of a continuous
beam where the length to the center of the support shall be taken.

Control of deflection (IS 456 Clause 23.2)


The deflection of structure or part thereof shall not adversely affect the appearance or
efficiency of the structure or finishes or partitions.
The vertical deflection limits may generally be assumed to be satisfied
provided that the span to depth ratios is not greater than the values obtained as below:
 Basic values of span to effective depth ratios for spans up to 10m:
Cantilever 7
Simply supported 20
Continuous 26
 For spans above 10m, the values in (a) may be multiplied by 10/span in meters,
except for cantilever in which case deflection calculations should be made.
 Depending on the area and the stress of steel for tension reinforcement, the values in
(a) or (b) shall be modified by multiplying with the modification factor obtained as
per fig. 4 of IS 456 – 2000.
 Depending on the area of compression reinforcement, the value of span to depth ratio
is further modified with the modification factor obtained as per fig.5 of IS 456 -2000.

Tension reinforcement (IS-456 Clause 26.5)


Minimum reinforcement – the minimum area of tension reinforcement shall not be less than
that given by the following:

Where
As= minimum area of tension reinforcement,
b= breadth of beam or the breadth of web of T-beam,
d=effective depth, and
fy=characteristic strength of reinforcement in N/mm2
Maximum reinforcement – the maximum area of tension reinforcement shall not exceed
0.04bD.

Compression Reinforcement (IS-456 Clause 26.5.1.2)


The maximum area of compression reinforcement shall not exceed 0.04bD. Compression
reinforcement in beams shall not be enclosed by stirrups for effective lateral restraint.

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Side face reinforcement (IS-456 Clause 26.5.1.3)


Where the depth of the web in a beam exceeds 750mm, side face reinforcement shall be
provided along the two faces. The total area of such reinforcement shall not be less than 0.1
percent of the web area and shall be distributed equally on two faces at a spacing not
exceeding 300mm 0r web thickness whichever is less.

Maximum spacing of shear reinforcement (IS-456 Clause 26.5.1.5)


The maximum spacing of shear reinforcement measured along the axis of the member shall
not exceed 0.75d for vertical stirrups and d for inclined stirrups at 45®, where d is the
effective depth of the section under consideration. In no case shall the spacing exceed
300mm.

Minimum shear reinforcement (IS-456 Clause 26.5.1.6)


Minimum shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups shall be provided such that:

Where
Asv= total cross – sectional area of stirrup legs effective in shear,
Sv = Stirrup spacing along the length of the member,
b= breadth of beam or the breadth of web of T-beam,
d=effective depth, and
fy=characteristic strength of reinforcement in N/mm2
Maximum reinforcement – the maximum area of tension reinforcement shall not exceed
0.04bD.
5.6

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

DESIGN DETAILS OF BEAM-1

127
107
70.6

A C
B
E
D 41.8
66.5

Depth of beam = 450mm

Width of beam = 300mm

Grade of concrete = M20

Grade of steel = fe415

fck= 20 N/mm2 fy= 415N/mm2

CALCULATION OF Ast AT SUPPORT :

MA = 107Kn-m

KA = M/bd2

= 107X106/300X4502

KA = 1.76N/mm2

Fro m Table-2 SP-16 the Pt value obtained

Pt = 0.547

Ast =( PtXbXd)/100

= 0.547X300X450/100

Ast = 738.45mm2

MB = 127Kn-m

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

KB = M/bd2

= 127X106/300X4502

KB = 2.1N/mm2

Fro m Table-2 SP-16 the Pt value obtained

Pt = 0.678

Ast =( PtXbXd)/100

= 0.678X300X450/100

Ast = 915.30mm2

MC = 70.6Kn-m

KC = M/bd2

= 70.6X106/300X4502

KC = 1.15N/mm2

Fro m Table-2 SP-16 the Pt value obtained

Pt = 0.343

Ast =( PtXbXd)/100

= 0.343X300X450/100

Ast = 463.05mm2

CALCULATION OF Ast AT MID SPAN :

MD = 66.5Kn-m

KD = M/bd2

= 66.5X106/300X4502

KD = 1.09N/mm2

Fro m Table-2 SP-16 the Pt value obtained

Pt = 0.327

Ast =( PtXbXd)/100

= 0.327X300X450/100

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Ast = 441.45mm2

ME =41.8 Kn-m

KE = M/bd2

= 41.8X106/300X4502

KE = 0.7N/mm2

Fro m Table-2 SP-16 the Pt value obtained

Pt = 0.203

Ast =( PtXbXd)/100

= 0.203X300X450/100

Ast = 274.05mm2

CALCULATION OF SHEAR REINFORCEMENT :

Vu= 143Kn

ῖ = Vu/bd

= 143X103/300X450

ῖ v= 1.06N/mm2

Pt =( 100Xast)/(bXd)

= 100X915.30/300X400

Pt = 0.67

From table-19 IS-456 2000 ῖc value is

ῖc = 0.56

ῖ v≥ ῖc

hence shear reinforcement is to be provided

Vus = Vu- ῖcXbXd

= 143X103-0.56X300X450

Vus = 67.4Kn

By using 2leggd 8mm φ stirrups

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Sv = (0.87XfyXAsvXd)/ Vus

= (0.87X415X2X(Π/4)X82X450)/(67.4X103)

Sv = 240mm c/c

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER-6 COLUMNS

Definition: Column or strut is a compression member, the effective length of which


exceeds three times the lateral dimension.(as per clause 25.1.1 of IS 456-2000)

6.1 Introduction:
Columns such as the external of framed building, columns carrying crane loads
through corbles of a column, are subjected not only to direct loads(P), but also to moments
(M) due to the eccentricity in application of the loads .in the above columns the eccentricity
is with respect to one axis only and these columns are said to be under uniaxial bending. On
the other hand, a corner column of a building is subjected to eccentric load along both the X
and Y axes. Such columns are said to be under biaxial bending.

6.2 Constituents of column:


Concrete being very strong in compression should not theoretically require any
reinforcement. However,because it is week in tension, all circumstances leading to
development of tension need to be examined, and reinforcement provided for resisting the
same. Tension is likely to develop in columns due to accidental transverse loads, eccentric
loads and the end moments, which cause bending in the member. This forms the longitudinal
reinforcement. For short members, there is a possibility of failure by longitudinal splitting
due to development of transverse tension or failure by shear, i.e. a diagonal tension. This
therefore requires transverse reinforcement.

6.2.1 Longitudinal reinforcement:


It is required-
1. To resist any tension that might develop due to bending caused by transverse loads,
eccentric loads or the moments.
2. To assist concrete in the resulting compression so as to reduce the overall size of the
column.
3. To reduce the effect of creep and shrinkage due to sustained loading.
4. To impart necessary ductility to the column.
5. To prevent or delay sudden brittle collapse.
6. To hold the transverse reinforcement.

6.2.2 Transverse Reinforcement:


It is required
1. To prevent buckling of individual bars.
2. To resist diagonal tension due to transverse splitting of concrete.
3. To confine the concrete.
4. To hold the longitudinal bars in position.
5. To prevent or delay sudden collapse and impart ductility to concrete.

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6.3 Basic Rules for Design: Clause 25.1.2 Short and slender compression members
compression member may be considered as short when doth the slenderness ratios (l ex/D) and
(ley/b) are less tha12.
Where, lex= effective length in respect of the major axis,
D=depth in respect of the major axis.
ley=effective length in respect of the minor axis, and
b=width of the member.
It shell otherwise be considered as a slender compression member.

Clause 25.3: Slenderness limits for columns


25.3.1. The unsupported length between end restraints shall not exceed 60 times the least
lateral dimension of a column.
25.3.2. If, in any given plane, one end of a column is unrestrained, its unsupported length L
shall not exceed .
Where b=width of the cross-section, and
D=depth of the cross=section measured in the plane under consideration.

Clause 25.4: Minimum eccentricity


All columns shall be designed for minimum eccentricity, equal to the unsupported to the
length of column/500 plus lateral dimension/30, subjected to a minimum of 20mm. where bi-
axial bending is considered, it is sufficient to ensure that eccentricity exceeds the minimum
about one axis at a time.

Clause 26.4 Nominal cover to reinforcement:


26.4.2.1:
For a longitudinal reinforcement bar in a column nominal cover shall in any case not be less
than 40mm, or less than the diameter of such bar. In the case of columns of minimum
dimension of 200mm or under, whose reinforcing bars do not exceed 12mm, a nominal cover
of 25 mm may be used

Clause 26.5:Requirements of reinforcement for structural members


26.5.3 Columns
26.5.3.1 Longitudinal reinforcement
a) The cross-sectional area of longitudinal reinforcement shall not be less than 0.8
percent not more than 6 percent of the gross cross-sectional area of the column.
Note: the use of 6 percent reinforcement may involve practical difficulties in placing
and compacting of concrete; hence lower percentage is recommended. Where bars
from the columns below have to be lapped with those in the column under
consideration, the percentage of steel shall usually not exceed 4 percent.

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b) In any column that has a larger cross-sectional area than that required supporting the
load, the minimum percentage of steel shall be based upon the area of concrete
required to resist the direct stress and not actual area.
c) The minimum number of longitudinal bars provided in a column shall be four in
rectangular columns and six in circular columns.
d) The bars shall not be less than 12 mm in diameter.
e) A reinforced concrete column having helical reinforcement shall have at least six bars
of longitudinal reinforcement with in the helical reinforcement.
f) In a helically reinforced column, the longitudinal bars shall be in contact with the
helical reinforcement and equidistant around its inner circumference.
g) Spacing of longitudinal bars measured along the periphery of the column shall not
exceed 300 mm.
h) In case of pedestals in which the longitudinal reinforcement is not taken in account in
strength calculations, nominal longitudinal reionforcement not less than 0.15 percent
of the cross-sectional area shall be provided.
Note: pedestal is a compression member, the effective length of which does not exceed
three times the lateral dimension.

Clause 26.5.3.2 Transverse reinforcement


a) General-a reinforced concrete compression member shall have transverse or helical
reinforcement so disposed that every longitudinal bar nearest to the compression face
has effective lateral support against buckling subject to provision in (b). The effective
lateral support is given by the transverse reinforcement either in the form of circular
rings capable of taking up circumferential tension or by polygonal links reinforcement
shall be properly anchored.

b) Arrangement of transverse reinforcement


1. If the longitudinal bars are not spaced more than 75mm on either side,
transverse reinforcement need only to go round corner and alternate bars for
the purpose of providing effective lateral supports
2. If the longitudinal bars spaced at a distance of not exceeding 48 times the
diameter of the tie are effectively tied in two directions, additional
longitudinal bars in between those bars need to be tied in one direction by
open ties
3. Where the longitudinal reinforcing bars in a compression member are placed
in more than one row, effective lateral support to the longitudinal bars in the
inner rows any be assumed to have been provided if:
I. Transverse reinforcement is provided for the outer-most row in
accordance with 26.5.3.2. and
II. No bar of the inner row is closer to the nearest compression face
than three times the diameter of the largest bar in the inner row.
4. Where the longitudinal bars in a compression member are grouped (not in
contact) and each group adequately tied with transverse reinforcement in accordance

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

with 26.5.3.2, the transverse reinforcement for the compression member as a whole
may be provided on the assumption that each group is a single longitudinal bar for
purpose of determining the pitch and diameter of the transverse reinforcement in
accordance with 26.5.3.2. The diameter of such transverse reinforcement need not,
however, exceed 20mm
c) pitch and diameter of lateral ties
1. Pitch-the pitch of transverse reinforcement shall be not more than the
least of the following:
i. The least lateral dimension of the compression members.
ii. Sixteen times the smallest diameter of the longitudinal
reinforcement bar to be tied: and
iii. 300 mm.
2. Diameter-the diameter of the polygonal links or lateral ties shall be not less
than one-fourth of the diameter of the largest longitudinal bar, and in no case
less than 6mm.
d) Helical reinforcement.
e) pitch- helical reinforcement shall be of regular formation with the turns of the helix
spaced evenly and its ends shall be anchored properly by providing one and a half extra turns
of the spiral bar. Where an increased load on the column on the strength of the helical
reinforcement is allowed for, the pitch of helical turns shall be not more than 75mm, nor less
then one-sixth of the core diameter of the column, nor less than 25mm, nor less than three
times the diameter of the steel bar forming the helix. In other cases, the requirements of
26.5.3.2. shall be compiled with.
i. The diameter of the helical reinforcement shall be in accordance with 26.5.3.2

Clause 39.4 compression members with helical reinforcement


The strength of compression members with helical reinforcement satisfying the requirement
of 39.4.1 shall be taken as 1.05 times the strength of similar member with lateral ties.

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

6.4 DESIGN DETAILS OF COLUMN D-4


Width of column = 400mm

Thickness of column = 300mm

Grade of concrete = M20

Grade of steel = fe415

fck= 20 N/mm2 fy= 415N/mm2

load on column P = 1477.36Kn

Pu = 1.5X1477.36

= 2216.04Kn

Moment on column M = 81.1Kn-m

Mu = 1.5X81.1

= 121.65Kn-m

Mu/(fckXbXd2) = 121.65X106/(20X400X3002)

= 0.17

Pu/(fckXbXd) = 2216.04X103/(20X300X400)

= 0.92

From sp16 for fy= 415N/mm2 and d‟/d = 0.1

Pt/fck = 0.26

Pt = 0.26 X 20

Pt = 5.2%

Ast = PtXbXd/100

= 5.2X400X300/100

Ast = 6240mm2

By using 32mm diameter rods

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Number of rods = Ast/ast

= 6240/(π/4)X322

= 8#

Provide 8# of 32mm dia rods

LATERAL TIES

Diameter of ties is given by

a) Ø/4 = 32/4
= 8mm
b) 5mm

From above 2 whichever is greater that has to be taken as tie dia

Therefor provide 8mmØ @ 300mmc/c

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Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

REINFORCEMENT DETAILS OF COLUMN

As =
M Mu
P Pu (Pt Reinforcement
column (in Kn- (in Kn- Pu/fck bd Mu/fck bd^2 Pt
(in Kn) (in Kn) bd)/(1 details
m) m)
00)
G-10, G- 279.62 419.44 23.9 35.85 0.174 0.0373 0.2 240
12 12 mm dia@ 4 no
D-2, A-5 667.28 1000.93 178 267 0.417 0.2781 4.4 5280 30mm dia @ 8 no
D-6, F-6 2213.36 3320.04 466 699 1.38 0.7281 5.2 6240 32mm dia @ 8 no
D-7, F-7 2443.76 3663.64 779 1168.5 1.52 1.2171 5.2 6240 32mm dia @ 8 no
F-5, E-5 1378.2 2067.3 421 631.5 0.86 0.6578 5.2 6240 32mm dia @ 8 no
E-4, D-4, 1519.32 2278.98 776 1164 0.94 1.2125 5.2 6240
A-3, C-3,
C-7, C-
15, E-
7, E-15 32mm dia @ 8 no
A-1,C-1, 874.86 1312.3 987 1480.5 0.54 1.5421 5.2 6240
A-7,A-15 32mm dia @ 8 no
F-4,I-6, 978.78 1468.18 202 303 0.61 0.3156 5.2 6240
E-6 32mm dia @ 8 no
C-5, F-9 , 1283.46 1925.2 779 1168.5 0.8 1.2171 5.2 6240
F-13 32mm dia @ 8 no
D-5, D-8, 1576.92 2365.39 421 631.5 0.98 0.6578 5.2 6240
D-14 32mm dia @ 8 no
B-6 1590.32 2385.49 196 294 0.99 0.3062 5.2 6240 32mm dia @ 8 no
A-8, A- 1830.63 2745.95 641 961.5 1.14 1.0015 5.2 6240
14 32mm dia @ 8 no
C-8, C- 3038.38 4557.57 105 157.5 1.89 0.164 5.2 6240
14 32mm dia @ 8 no
A-11, 2078.74 3118.11 142 213 1.29 0.2218 5.2 6240 32mm dia @ 8 no
D-10, D- 1098.67 1648.01 23.9 35.85 0.68 0.0373 2 2400
12, F-10,
F-12 20 mm dia @ 8 no
E-9, E- 2022.13 3033.2 779 1168.5 1.26 1.2171 5.2 6240
13, D-
15, F-15 32mm dia @ 8 no

Dept of Civil Engg,RYMEC, Bellary 37


Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER: 7

FOOTINGS
7.1 DESIGN DETAILS OF FOOTING D-4
Safe bearing capacity of soil = 200Kn/m2

Load on footing = 1477.36Kn

Grade of concrete = M20

Grade of steel = fe415

Area of footing = P/S.B.C = 1477.36/200

= 7.4m2

SQUARE FOOTING OF EACH SIDE = sqrt(7.4)

= 2.72m

Q = 1477.36/7.4

Q = 199.64Kn/m2 < 200Kn/m2

Hence safe

Qu= 1.5X 199.64

= 299.46Kn/m2 = 0.299 N/mm2

DEPTH OF FOOTING

VU = QUXBX((B-b)/2-d)

= 0.299X2720X((2720-400)/2-d)

VU = 813.28X(1160-d)

Assuming 0.2% steel for M20 concrete

0.32X2720Xd = 813.28X(1160-d)

d= 560mm

over all depth = d+d‟

D = 560+40

D = 600mm

Dept of Civil Engg,RYMEC, Bellary 38


Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHECK FOR BENDING

Mulim = 0.36XfckXbXd2X(xulim/d)X(1-0.42X xulim/d)

= 0.138X20X2720X5602

Mulim = 2354.26 Kn-m

Mumax = QU X((B-b)/8)2

= 0.299X((2720-400)/8)2

= 547.17Kn-m < 2354.26 Kn-m Hence safe

CALCULATION OF Ast

Mumax = 0.87X AstXfyXdX(1-((AstXfy)/fckXbXd))

Ast = 2814.125mm2

To find spacing by using 16mm dia rods

Sv = 2720X(ast/Ast)

Sv = 190mm c/c

CHECK FOR SHEAR

Vu= 487.97Kn

ῖ = Vu/bd

= 487.97X103/2720X400

ῖ v= 0.32N/mm2

Pt =( 100Xast)/(bXd)

= 100X2814.125/2720X400

Pt = 0.20

From table-19 IS-456 2000 ῖc value is

ῖc = 0.36

ῖ v <K ῖc Hence safe against shear failure

Dept of Civil Engg,RYMEC, Bellary 39


Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER-8
9.1 DESIGN OF STAIRCASE:

Total height of stories =3.300m

Height of each flight =3.300/2 = 1.650m

Assuming 150mm riser,

Number of riser required = (1.650*103)/150 = 11

Provide 11 steps

No of each treads in each flight = 11-1 = 10

Let width of the thread is 300mm

Total width required 10*300 = 3000mm

Available landing =4350-3000 =1350

Effective span:

Effective span = (10*300) + 400 = 3400 mm

Thickness of waist slab 30 to 50 mm/m

50*3.4 =170 mm

LOAD CALCULATION :

a) Landing slabs:

Self weight = D*25 = 0.170*25 = 4.25KN/m2

Floor finish= 1 KN/m2

Live load = 3KN/m2

Total load = 8.25 KN/m2

b) Load on waist slab:

Dept of Civil Engg,RYMEC, Bellary 40


Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Weight of projected horizontal span = w *(√ )/ (T)

= 4.25*(√ )/ (0.3)

= 4.75 KN/m2

Weight of one step =( rise* thread* 25)/2

= ( 0.150*0.3*25)/2

= 0.562 KN/m2

Weight of step/m run = 1000* weight of one step / thread

= ( 1000* 0.5625)/ 300

= 1.9 KN/m2

Live load = 3 KN/m2

Total load = ( 4.75+ 1.9+1+3) =10.65 KN/m2

Ultimate load = 10.65*1.5 = 15 975 KN/m2

BENDING MOMENTS AND SHEAR FORCES :

Max BM = 0.125 *Wu L2 = ( 0.125* 15.975*3.42 ) =23.08 KN –m

Max SF = 0.5* WU l = ( 0.5 *15.975*3.4) = 27.15 KN

CHECK FOR DEPTH :

M = 0.138 * fck *bd2

23.08*106 = 0.138*20*1000*d2

d = 91.44< 170mm

therefore using 20mm cover with 12mm dia bars

deff =170 -26 =144mm

Mu /bd2 = (23.08*106 )/(1000*1442 ) = 1.113

AST =(0.343*1000*144/100) = 493.92 mm2

Provide 12mm dia bars@ 220 mm c/c

Dept of Civil Engg,RYMEC, Bellary 41


Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Distribution steel = 0.0012*1000*170 = 204 mm2

Provide 8 mm dia bars @ 250 mm c/c

CHECK FOE SHEAR :

Vu = 27.15 KN

ῖ U = VU /bd = (27.15*103 )/(1000*144) = 0.188 Mpa

(100* Ast / bd) = ( 100 * 493.92 / 1000* 144) = 0.343

From IS 456, table 19 → ῖc =0.40 Mpa

Permissible shear stress = ( KS ῖc )= ( 1* 0.40) = 0.40 Mpa > ῖ v

Hence the shear stress is with.in permissible limit

Dept of Civil Engg,RYMEC, Bellary 42


Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER:9 ESTIMATION

Total
Sl .no Description Unit nos L B D
Quantity
1 Earth work excavation m3 1 60.2 24.1 3 4352.46
For footing m3 44 2.7 2.7 0.6 192.456
Total 4544.916
Earth work filling for
m3 44 2.7 2.7 0.2 64.152
2 footing

3 cement concrete layer 1:4:8


m3 1 60.2 24.1 0.1 145.082
Total 209.234
4 Brick masonry
For GF,FF,SF,TF,FF m3 5 570.9 0.3 3 2569.05
For parapet wall m3 1 168.6 0.2 1 33.72
Total 2602.77
Deductions
Ventilators m3 12 0.8 0.3 0.6 1.728
Window m3 6 2.4 0.3 1.8 7.776
Window 1 m3 26 1.8 0.3 1.3 18.252
Window 2 m3 6 1.2 0.3 1 2.16
Entrance Door m3 6 1.5 0.3 2.1 5.67
Main entrance m3 1 3 0.3 2.1 1.89
Door m3 18 1.2 0.3 2.1 13.608
Door 1 m3 14 1.2 0.3 2.1 10.584
Door 2 m3 4 1.35 0.3 2.1 3.402
Door 3 m3 12 0.8 0.3 2.1 6.048
-70.978
Total 2531.792

5 RCC 1:1.5:3
For slab GF,FF,TF,FF m3 1 60.2 24.1 0.15 217.623
RCC beam m3 30 23 0.3 0.45 93.15
RCC column m3 44 0.3 0.4 15.6 82.368
Footing m3 44 2.7 2.7 0.6 192.456
Total 585.597

6 STEEL
For beams(0.8%) 0.745
For column (4%) 3.29
For slabs (1%) 2.17
For footings(1%) 1.92

Dept of Civil Engg,RYMEC, Bellary 43


Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Total 8.125

7 Flooring
Tile flooring(0.2*0.2) m2 5 60.2 24.1 7254.1
Total 7254.1

8 Plastering
Ceiling m2 5 60.2 24.1 7254.1
Outside plastering m2 4 60.2 15.6 3756.48
Inside plastering m2 1 1300.8 3.4 4422.72
Total 15433.3
Deductions
Ventilators m2 12 0.8 0.6 5.76
Window m2 6 2.4 1.8 25.92
Window 1 m2 26 1.8 1.3 60.84
Window 2 m2 6 1.2 1 7.2
Entrance Door m2 6 1.5 2.1 18.9
Main entrance m2 1 3 2.1 6.3
Door m2 18 1.2 2.1 45.36
Door 1 m2 14 1.2 2.1 35.28
Door 2 m2 4 1.35 2.1 11.34
Door 3 m2 12 0.8 2.1 20.16
-237.06
Total 15196.24

9 White washing& painting


Inside walls m2 1 1300.8 3.4 4422.72
Outside walls m2 4 60.2 15.6 3756.48
Ceiling m2 5 60.2 24.1 7254.1
Total 15433.3
Deductions
Ventilators m2 12 0.8 0.6 5.76
Window m2 6 2.4 1.8 25.92
Window 1 m2 26 1.8 1.3 60.84
Window 2 m2 6 1.2 1 7.2
Entrance Door m2 6 1.5 2.1 18.9
Main entrance m2 1 3 2.1 6.3
Door m2 18 1.2 2.1 45.36
Door 1 m2 14 1.2 2.1 35.28
Door 2 m2 4 1.35 2.1 11.34
Door 3 m2 12 0.8 2.1 20.16
-237.06
Total 15196.24

Dept of Civil Engg,RYMEC, Bellary 44


Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

10 Wood work
Panel door m2 55 1.5 2.1 173.25
Glazed window m2 50 2.4 1.8 216
Total 389.25

ABSTRACT ESTIMATION

SI
Description Quantity Rate Total amount
no
1 Earth work excavation for footing 4544.916m3 Rs111 /m3 Rs 504485.676
2 Earth work filling for footing 64.152m3 Rs111/m3 Rs 7120.872
3 C C Bed layer 1:4:8 209.234m3 Rs4626/m3 Rs 967916.484
4 Brick masonry 2531.792m3 Rs4285/m3 Rs 10848728.72
5 RCC 1:1.5:3
For slab GF,FF,TF,FF 217.623m3 Rs4626/m3 Rs 1006723.998
RCC beam 93.15m3 Rs4626/m3 Rs 430911.9
RCC column 82.368m3 Rs4626/m3 Rs 381034.368
Footing 192.456m3 Rs4626/m3 Rs 890301.456
6 Steel
For beams(0.8%) 134.1kg Rs52 /kg Rs 6973.2
For column (4%) 592.2kg Rs52 /kg Rs 30794.4
For slabs (1%) 390.6kg Rs52 /kg Rs 70308
For footings(1%) 345.6kg Rs52 /kg Rs 62208
7 Flooring
Tile flooring(0.2*0.2) 7254.1m2 Rs673 /m2 Rs 4882009.3
8 Plastering 15196.24m2 Rs110/m2 Rs 1671586.4
9 White washing& painting 15196.24m2 Rs66 /m2 Rs 1002951.84
10 Wood work 389.25m2 Rs1076 /m2 Rs 418833

TOTAL Rs 2,31,82,887.61

Add 4% for plumbing and sanitation =Rs 9,27,315.50


Add 6% for electric charges =Rs13,90,973.25
Add 10% for lift charges =Rs23,18,288.761
Total estimated cost of the project =2,78,19,465.13

ESTIMATED COST = “TWO CRORE SEVENTYEIGHT LAKH NINTEEN THOUSAND


FOURHUNDREDEN SIXTYFIVE”

Dept of Civil Engg,RYMEC, Bellary 45


Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER:10

CONCLUSION:

The preparation of the project has provided an excellent opportunity to emerge ourselves in
planning and designing of MULTI-STOREYED RESIDENTIAL APPARTMENT
structure covering all civil engineering aspects.

While planning care has to be taken to provide better ventilation and provide better approach
for the structure.

Being at under graduate level we have tried to our best to make this project a success.

This project has given an opportunity to re-collect and co-ordinate the various methods of
designing and engineering principles which we have learnt in our lower classes. A methodical
way of planning analysis and designing.

In consult with an architect the proposal can suitable altered to yield better utilization and
aesthetic view of the project.

Dept of Civil Engg,RYMEC, Bellary 46


Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER:11

REFERENCES:

 IS:456 -2000 Plain and reinforced concrete- code of


Practice (4th Revision)

 SP:16 Design aids for reinforced concrete to IS456

 IS:875(part1)-1987 Code of practice for design loads (other


Than earthquake) for building and structures

 IS:875(part2)-1987 Code of practice for design loads (other


Than earthquake) for building and structures
 SP:34-1977 handbook on concrete reinforcement and

detailing

 Design of RCC structural By Dr.S.S.Bhavikatti

Elements

 Geotechnical engineering By C.Venkataramaiah

Dept of Civil Engg,RYMEC, Bellary 47