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- Application for Erection of Raised Structure
- Thumb Rules for Structural Design
- Principles of Home DecorationWith Practical Examples by Wheeler, Candace, 1827-1923
- Field Report
- Guideline_SI_Works.pdf
- Method Statement - Cleaning of Stairs, Landings, Balustrades Etc
- Structure
- Staircase
- Internship report civil
- Boq
- Comment Letter to Client.
- Seismic Micro Zonation Aap Phd
- finaloututofliteraturestudy-180214033655
- Slipform Rate Analysis
- Session 6 Dar5
- Stairs
- staircases.pdf
- 20180208WPR-084
- Bc Ppt on Stairs by Umesh Indoriya
- Staircase

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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Site investigation and soil exploration:

conditions in the area of proposed construction.

Site inspection or say geotechnical inspection is very important in understanding the physical

properties of soil and the rocks beneath. This is required to ascertain the type of foundation

required for the proposed construction.

1. Reconnaissance

2. Study of maps

3. Aerial photography

1. Reconnaissance:

Reconnaissance involves an inspection of the site and study of the topographical features.

This will yield useful information about the soil and ground water conditions.

2. Study of Maps:

form of maps. The primary purpose of such a study is to establish the nature of deposits

underlying the site. The types of soil and rock likely to be encountered can be determined,

and the method of exploration of most suited to the situation may be selected.

3. Aerial Photography:

conducted for any major project. Air photo interpretation is the estimation of underground

conditions by relating land for development and plant growth to geology as reflected in

aerial photographs.

Determining engineering properties of the soils at a site for a proper design and successful

construction of any structure at the site, this is carried out both in field and laboratory to

obtain the necessary data for the soil for this purpose are collectively called soil

exploration.

Dept of Civil Engg,RYMEC, Bellary 1

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

2. Semi direct methods-( borings)

3. Indirect method-(penetration tests and geo physical methods)

SBC of soil is defined as the maximum pressure intensity that the soil will safely

transmit without the risk of shear failure irrespective of settlement that may occur.

1. Collection of undisturbed samples from trail pits in the field. the number and depth of

trail pits depend upon the project.

3. For that actual water content of soil sample tri axial test is conducted. Tests results give

shear parameters (cohesion and internal friction of so).

4. The SBC of soil is obtained from the relevant table given in IS:1904-1986.

RCC design of buildings in being carried out mainly by three methods of design. They

are namely

The limit state method is now in vogue in all Design offices and premier private

consulting firms. The BIS has published IS 456 – 2000 incorporating the use of limit state

method of design, hence one should therefore get well verse with the theory of Limit state

method of design.

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Use over decades, this method is now practically outdated in many advanced of world,

because of its inherent limitations.

The IS 456 – 2000 code gives emphasis on Limit State Method, which is the modified form

of Ultimate Load Method.

It is judicious amalgamation of Working Stress Method and Ultimate Load Method, which

makes use of optimum material strength and loads by increasing the same with partial safety

factors removing the drawbacks of both of the methods but retaining their good points. It is

also based on sound scientific principles and backed.

By 25 years of research, the Limit State Method has proved to have edge over the Working

Stress Method from the economic and strength point of view. Consequently we need not

stick to Working Stress Method any more.

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER-2

PLANNING

In this project we have made an attempt to design a modern apartment building with

all minimum facilities and meeting all requirements for present generalities.

The plan of the site proposed for the building is shown in drawing 1 with the

prevailing site condition. We have made around three plans and we have selected the

best out of three plans

One of the plans we rejected is shown in plan 2 we have rejected that plan for the

following reasons

The open deck is provided between the bathrooms.

Too much projection is there for balcony.

In the Revised plan we have overcome the above points and made new one.

Hall/Living room

Kitchen room cum Dining room

Bed room

Pooja room

Store room

Sanitary blocks

Balconies have been provided in each flat and we have provided for each bed

room.

The floor area ratio for residential buildings and types of construction are as given below

(CL: III, 9.2 National Building Code)

Occupancy

Classification Type I Type II Type III Type IV

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

The details of requirement with reference to National Building Code (NBC) are

follows:

Provided height of rooms=3.0m

Provided area of master bed room =4.15X4=16.6m2

Provided area of other bed room =3.15X4=12.6m2

The height all rooms for human habitation shall not be less than 2.75m, measured

from the floor to the lowest point of the ceiling (bottom of slab) (CL; III 12.2.1)

where there two rooms the area of one of these shall

Not be less than 9.5m2 and other shall not be less than 7.5m2 (CL; III 12.2.2).

Provided height of room =3.0m

Provided area =4X3=12m2

The height of kitchen for a human habitation shall not be less than 2.75m, measured

from the floor to the lowest point of the ceiling (bottom of slab) (CL; III 12.3.1).

The area of kitchen including dining area also, shall have floor area of not less than

7.5m2 with minimum width of 2.1m.

Provided height of Bathroom and water closets =3m

Provided area =1.85X2.85= 5.27m2

The height bath room and WC for human habitation shall not be less than 2.0m,

measured from the floor to the lowest point of the ceiling (bottom of slab) (CL; III

12.4.1).

The size of bath room and WC shall not less than 2.7m2 with minimum

1.2m.

Provided height of parapet Wall =1m

Parapet wall and hand rails on the edges of roof terrace shall not be less than 1.05m

and not more 1.20m in the height from the finished floor level (CL; III 12.1).

2.2.5 Staircase:

Provided width of the staircase =3m

The minimum width of staircase shall not be less than 1.5m (CL; III 12.18.12)

Provided width of tread without nosing =30 cm

The minimum width of tread without nosing shall be 25 cm (CL; III 12.18.1.2)

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Provided size of window =W=2.4X1.8

W1=1.8x1.3

W2=1.2x1

V = 0.8X0.6

Lighting and Ventilation for rooms shall be at least one tenth of the floor area for dry

hot climate (CL; III 14.1.2)

Every bathroom and water closet shall be so suited that at least one of its wall

shall open to external atmosphere. (cl III 12.4.3)

The building has been analyzed by assuming the frames to be two dimensional

the method used for analysis is kani‟s method, as it is more practical and

unerring.

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER 3

SLABS

One way slab

Two way slab

3.2 Loads on beams supporting one way and two way slab

In case of beams supporting two ways slabs, the load distribution is trapezoidal on

long beams and triangular on short beams with base

Angle of 45 as shown in figure. The ordinate of trapezoidal and triangular load= .

The triangular and trapezoidal loads are converted into equivalent uniformly distributed loads

by using the equivalence factors.

The load on the short beam is triangular. The equivalent UDL for BM is .

The load on long beam is trapezoidal. The equivalent UDL for BM is

( ) .

Trapezoidal load

Triangular load

While designing the beams, following important rules must be kept in mind:

This is decided by the positions of supporting beams or walls. When the supports are

only o opposite sides or only direction, then the slab should be design as a one-way slab when

the slab is supported on more than two supports, it should be design as a two way slab.

However, the two way action of slab does not depend only on manner in which it supported

but also aspect ratio „Ly/Lx‟ (the ratio of long span Ly to short span Lx), the ratio

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

reinforcement the two direction (Astx/Asty or mux/muy) and the boundary conditions. This

decision may be taken by considering the following points

(1) If the aspect ratio Ly/Lx is greater than 2, the slab acts as one way slab.

(2) If the aspect ratio Ly/Lx is less than or equal 2, the slab acts as two way slab.

(3) Two way action is advantageous essentially for large span (greater than 2) and live

loads

Greater than 3Kn/m2. For short spans and light loads, steel required for two way slab

does not differ appreciably as compared steel for one way slab because of the

requirement of minimum steel.

(4) Spanning of slab is also decided by necessity of continuity of adjacent slab.

(5) While designing any slab as continuous slab, it is utmost importance to see whether

adequate anchorage to the same is available or not.

a) Simply supported beam of slab – the effective span of member that is not built

integrally with its supports shall be taken as clear span plus the effective depth of slab

or beam or centre to centre of supports which ever is less.

b) Continuous beam of slab – in the case of continuous beam or slab, if the width of the

support is less than 1/12 of the clear span, the effective span shall be in 22.2(a). If the

supports are wider than 1/12th of the clear span or 600mm whichever is less, the

effective span shall be taken under:

1. For end span with one end fixed and other end continuous or for intermediate

spans, the effective span shall be the clear span between supports.

2. For end span with one end is free and other end is continuous, the effective span

shall be equal to the clear span plus half of effective depth of beam or slab or the

clear span plus half the width of discontinuous support, whichever is less.

3. In case of spans with roller rocker bearings, the effective span shall always be the

distance between centers of bearings.

c) Cantilever – the effective length of the cantilever shall be taken as its length to face of

the support plus half the effective depth except where it forms the end of a continuous

beam where the length to the centre of support shall be taken.

The deflection of a structure or part there of shall not adversely affect the appearance

or efficiency of the structure or finishes or partitions. The shall generally be limited

to following:

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

a) The deflection due to all loads including effects of temperature, creep and

measure from the as-cast level of the floors, roofs and all other horizontal

members should not normally exceed span/250.

b) The deflection including effects of temperature, creep and shrinkage occurring are

after erection of partitions and the applications of finishes should normally

exceed span/350 or20mm whichever is less.

NOTE:

1. For slabs spinning between two directions, the shorter of two spans should be used

for calculating the span to effective depth ratios.

2. For two-way slabs of shorter spans (up to 3.5m) with mild steel reinforcement, the

span to over all depth ratios given below may generally be assumed to satisfy

vertical deflection limits for loading up to 3 kn/m2.

Simply supported slabs 32

Continuous slabs 40

For high strength deformed bars of grade Fe 415, the values given above should

be multiplied by 0.8

The horizontal distance between parallel main reinforcement bars shall not be more

that 3 times the effective depth of the solid slab or 300mm whichever is smaller.

The horizontal reinforcement between parallel reinforcement bars provided against

shrinkage and temperature shall not be more than 5 times effective depth of solid slab

450mm whichever is smaller.

The mild steel reinforcement in either direction in slabs shall not be less than 0.15

percent of the total cross sectional area. However, this value can be reduced to 0.12

percent when high strength deformed bars or welded wire fabrics are used.\

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

3.9.1DESIGN OF SLAB – 1

Size of the slab is 5.3×4.3

Since lx >3.5

Take l÷d= 25, ie d=l÷25

d=4300/25= 172mm

d=180mm

D=d+d’=180+20=200mm

2. Effective span:

Now lx=4.3+0.18=4.48m

Ly=5.3+0.18=5.48m

ly÷lx =5.48/4.48=1.22<2

3. Loads:

Self weight=0.2×1×1×25=5 kn/m2

Live load=3kn/m2

Finishing=1 kn/m2

Total load= 9kn/m2

Factored load= 1.5×9=13.5kn/m2

The slab is 2 adjacent sides discontinuous. Hence the moment co-efficient are

obtained from the table 7.1 (table 26 IS 456) case 4

(-ve ) αx =0.061

(+ve) αx= 0.053

(-ve) αy =0.047

(+ve) αy =0.035

Mux= αx×Wu× αx2

=0.061×13.5×4.482

=16.53kn/m2

Muy= αy×Wu× αx2

=0.047×13.5×4.482

=12.73kn/ m2

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Mulim=0.36×fck×b×xulim×(d-0.42×xulim)

=0.36×20×1000×0.48×(180-0.42×0.48)

=62.14kn-m

Since the Mu<Mulim.

Hence the section is under reinforced.

TO FIND AST:

AT EDGE:

(Ast)x= Ptbd/100

= (0.134X1000X180)/100

= 241.2 mm2

(Ast)y= Ptbd/100

= (0.085X1000X180)/100

= 153 mm2

AT CENTRE:

(Ast)x= Ptbd/100

= (0.114X1000X180)/100

= 205.20 mm2

(Ast)y= Ptbd/100

= (0.102X1000X180)/100

= 183.60 mm2

AT EDGE

X-axis 0.470 0.134 241.200 208.292 200mm c/c

Y-axis 0.270 0.085 153.000 328.366 300mm c/c

AT MIDSPAN

X-axis 0.408 0.114 205.200 244.834 240mm c/c

Y-axis 0.362 0.102 183.600 273.638 250mm c/c

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Size of the slab is 7.3X3.3

Since lx >3.5

Take l÷d= 25, ie d=l÷25

d=4300/25= 172mm

d=180mm

D=d+d’=180+20=200mm

2. Effective span:

Now lx=3.3+0.16=3.46m

Ly=7.3+0.16=7.46m

ly÷lx =7.46/3.46=2.22<2

3. Loads:

Self weight=0.2×1×1×25=5 kn/m2

Live load=3kn/m2

Finishing=1 kn/m2

Total load= 9kn/m2

Factored load= 1.5×9=13.5kn/m2

MU = (W*lx2)/2

= (13.5*3.462)/8

= 20.20 Kn-m

Mulim=0.36×fck×b×xulim×(d-0.42×xulim)

=0.36×20×1000×0.48×(160-0.42×0.48)x160

=88.36kn-m

Since the Mu<Mulim.

Hence the section is under reinforced.

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

TO FIND AST:

Ast=

= 79.45mm2

TO FIND SPACING:

BY USING 8mm Ø

Sv = ast*1000/Ast

= 600mm2

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER-4 ANALYSIS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

design and constructions. The planning phase involves a consideration of the various

requirement and factors which affect the general layout and dimension of the structure and

leads to the choice of one or perhaps several alternative types of structures. The design phase

involves a detailed consideration of the alternative solution evolved in the planning phase,

analyzing and designing of various structural components for several combinations of loads.

The construction phase involves procurements of materials equipment and personnel,

fabrication, erection and finally the overall construction of the building.

The real responsibility of the structural engineer to ensure to that the structure

transmits the several service loads safely and efficiently. For this clear understand of the

fundamental is essential. STAAD PRO 2006 easily facilitates one to understand the structural

response under the action of loads.

A structure is designed to perform a certain function. Among these functions are the

utility of the building for the intended use and occupancy, structural safety and compliance

with hygienic, sanitation, ventilation and daylight standards. To perform this functions

satisfactorily, it must have sufficient strength and rigidity. Economy and aesthetic wise are

further objectives of major importance in the structural design.

Structural design involves determining the most suitable proportions of a structure

and dimensioning and detailing the structural elements. Once the structure is analyzed and

designed it must have sufficient strength to withstand the maximum stresses to which it is

subjected. In short the specification of the required structure is the most important thing to

decide many aspect of the structure, such as functional safety and economic aspects.

Many classical methods are available for the analysis and the design of multistoried

framed structure. But as the time has become the major constraint, the invention of many

software packages has overcome this constraint with sufficiently considerable result.

shear, moments, and displacements) that are developed in the structure due to loading.

There are various methods for analysis of structures. There is hard and fast rule as to

whether a structure is to be analyzed by some specific method or some other method as each

of them has their own limitations. Some of methods of analysis of structures are

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

3. Column analogy method

4. Kani‟s method

5. Strain energy method

6. Finite element method

In this presentation the analysis is carried out using STAAD 2006 package developed by

research engineers.

This process of structural design involves the following stages:

Structural planning

Estimation of loads

This involves determination of the form of the structure, the material for the same, the

structural system, the layout of its components, the method of analysis, and the philosophy of

structural design.

The main elements of a R.C. building frame are:

Slabs

Beams to support slabs and walls

Columns to support beams, and

Footings to transmit column loads to the soil structure safety.

After preparation of architectural plans of the building, the structural planning of the building

frame is done. The involves the determination of the following:

Column positions

Beam locations

Spanning of slabs

Layout and planning of stairs

Type of footing

Following are some of the guiding principles which help in deciding the column

positions:

(1) Identify key location of columns that will form a well-knit system of frame work

(2) Columns should preferably be located at the junction of walls, meeting point of

main beams, manageable spans for beams, etc.

(3) Columns locations should be selected in such a way that they do not obstruct the

architectural utility of the building on each of the floors including movement of

vehicles in the parking area.

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

(4) As far as possible the columns should be concealed within the proposed mansonry

structure.

Following are some of the guiding principles for positioning of beams:

(1) Beams shall, normally, be provided under the walls or below concentrated loads

(2) Since beams are primarily provided to support the slabs, its spacing shall be

decided by the maximum desired spans of the slabs.

This is decided by the positions of supporting beams or walls. When the supports are only o

opposite sides or only direction, then the slab should be design as a one-way slab when the

slab is supported on more than two supports, it should be design as a two way slab. However,

the two way action of slab does not depend only on manner in which it supported but also

aspect ratio „Ly/Lx‟ (the ratio of long span Ly to short span Lx), the ratio reinforcement the

two direction (Astx/Asty or mux/muy) and the boundary conditions. This decision may be

taken by considering the following points

(6) If the aspect ratio Ly/Lx is greater than 2, the slab acts as one way slab.

(7) If the aspect ratio Ly/Lx is less than or equal 2, the slab acts as two way slab.

(8) Two way action is advantageous essentially for large span (greater than 2) and live

loads

Greater than 3Kn/m2. For short spans and light loads, steel required for two way slab

does not differ appreciably as compared steel for one way slab because of the

requirement of minimum steel.

(9) Spanning of slab is also decided by necessity of continuity of adjacent slab.

(10)While designing any slab as continuous slab, it is utmost importance to see whether

adequate anchorage to the same is available or not.

The type stair and its layout is governed essentially by the available size for accommodating

the staircase and the position its supports. Following are some guidelines in deciding the

layout of stairs:

1 Wherever possible landing beams may be provided at the end of flight to reduce the

span.

2 If the span of stair flight is greater than 4.5m the flight may be supported on a central

stringer beam spanning across the length of the staircase.

Classification of stairs:

The different forms of stairs may be classified under the following main heads:

Straight stairs

Dogged legged stairs

Dept of Civil Engg,RYMEC, Bellary 16

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Geometrical stairs

Circular stairs

Bifurcated stairs

Folded stairs

Stringer beam stairs

1 Straight stairs: The most obvious use of the straight stair is to form an access to

entrance , porch or portico. Straight stair cannot be avoided in places, where the stair

case hall is long and narrow. In this form of stairs, all the steps rise in the same

direction. If the ascending is steep, the straight flight may be broken at the

intermediate landing.

2 Dog-legged stairs: It consists of two straights flights of steps with abrupt turn between

them. Usually, a level landing is placed across the two flights at the change of

direction. This type of stair is useful where the width of the staircase hall is just

sufficient to accommodate two widths of stairs.

3 Open-newel stair: It consists of two or more flights arranged in such a manner that a

clear space called a “well” occurs between the back ward and the forward flights.

4 Geometrical stairs: This is similar to the open-newel stair with the different that the

open well between the forward and backward flight is curved. In this form of stairs,

the change in the direction is obtained through winders.

5 Circular stair: Circular is commonly provided at the back side of the building for

rendering access to its various floors for service purposes. The circular stair is

commonly constructed in R.C.C. cast iron or stone. In this form of stair all the steps

radiated from a newel post or well hole in the form of winders.

6 Bifurcated stair: This type of stair is suitably provided in modern aristocratic public

building. In this type of stair the flights are so arranged that there is wide flight at the

start which is sub-divided into narrow flights at the mid-landings. The two narrow

flights starts from either side of the mid-landing.

7 Folded stairs: Folded stair is a type of stair where the staircase is constructed in the

same form in which we climb up the step i.e. a concrete member of uniform thickness

folds and flows in the direction of the stairs. The detailing of reinforcement in the

folded stairs is in the form of a chain link.

8 Stringer beam staircase: It is a staircase in which a beam running longitudinally along

the centre line of the stairs is provided with the steps cantilevering on either side.

Out of all these types of staircase we have provided DOG-LEGGED stair case

according to our convenience of plan.

The design and drawing of DOG-LEGGED staircase is discussed in chapter-9

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Type of footing:

Following are the types of footing that can be provided for a structure depending upon

the loads from the column, moments,safe bearing capacity of the soil and proximity of

adjacent columns.

Spread footing

Combined footing

Strap or cantilever footing

Mat or raft foundation

Pile foundation

foundation used to transmit the load of an isolated column, or that of a wall,

on the sub-soil. In the case of wall, the footing is continuous while in the case

of column, it is isolated.

Combined footing: A spread footing which supports two or more columns is

termed as a combined footing. Such a footing, is provided when the individual

footing are either very near to each other, or overlaps. Combined footing may

either be rectangular or trapezoidal.

Strap or cantilever footing: A strap footing consists of spread footing of two columns

connected by a strap beam. The strap beam does not remain in contact with

soil, and thus does not transfer any pressure to the soil. Such a footing is

generally used to combine the footing of outer column to the adjacent one so

that the former does not extend to the adjoining property.

Mat or raft foundation: A mat or raft is a combined footing that covers the

entire area beneath a structure and supports all the walls and columns. When the

available soil pressure low or the building loads are heavy, the use of spread

footing would cover more than one half of the area and it may prove more

economical to use mat or raft foundation.

Pile foundation: pile foundation is a deep foundation used where the top soil is

relatively weak. Piles transfer the load to a lower stratum of greater bearing

capacity, by way of end bearing, or to the intermediate soil through skin

friction. This is most common type of deep foundation generally used for

buildings where a group of piles transfer the load of a super-structure to the

sub-soil.

4.3.2 LOADS:

Loads and properties of material constitute the basic parameters affecting the design

of a R.C. Structure. the various types of loads acting on the structure which need

consideration in building design are as follows:

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Dead loads

Live loads

Seismic loads

Dead loads(DL)

It includes (a) self weight (b) weights of finishes (c) partitions, walls grills

etc. the dead load in a building shall comprise the weight of all walls, partition, floors

and roofs and shall include the weight of all other superimposed loads, which are

permanently attached to the structure. For such loads, which do not change their

position and so not vary in magnitude, and where self-weight of the structure is

unknown, preliminary section may be assumed by the design engineer using

experience, thumb rules and the formulae available.

On completion of design, total dead load is computed and compared with dead load

assumed for design and revised, if necessary.

Unit weight of some material are given below(from IS:875-Part-I)

Concrete-Plain = 24.00 kN/m3

Concrete-Reinforced = 25.00 kN/m3

Cement mortar = 20.40 kN/m3

Burnt Brick masonry(BBM) = 19.20 kN/m3

Plaster = 20.00 kN/m3

Steel = 78.50 kN/m3

Water = 10.00 kN/m3

Live Load(LL)

Live loads on roofs and on floors are taken according to IS:875-1987. Live load

comprises of those loads whose position or magnitude or both may change. Live load

is expressed as a uniformly distributed static load. In our country. Floors of various

types of buildings have been categor5ized into different classes and live loads

corresponding to these classes has been specified in the code IS:875-1987.

When earthquake forces are considered on a structure, these shall be combined as per 6.3.1.2

these shall be combined as per 6.3.1.2 where the terms DL, IL and EL stand for the response

quantities due to dead load, imposed load and designated earthquake load respectively.

Analysis is done by considering the Seismic loads hence the following load combinations

are done for the analysis .

1. EQX

2. EQZ

3. DL

4. LL

5. 1.5(DL+LL)

Dept of Civil Engg,RYMEC, Bellary 19

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

6. 1.5(DL+EQX)

7. 1.5(DL-EQX)

8. 1.5(DL+EQZ)

9. 1.5(DL-EQZ)

10. 1.2(DL+LL+EQX)

11. 1.2(DL+LL-EQX)

12. 1.2(DL+LL+EQZ)

13. 1.2(DL+LL-EQZ)

14. .9DL+1.5EQX

15. .9DL-1.5EQX

16. .9LL+1.5EQZ

17. .9DL-1.5EQZ

From the above load combinations the critical case will be the load combination

no 5 i.e. 1.5(DL+LL)

Hence the design is done for this load combination number 5

TO FIND FIXED END MOMENT

M=WXLXL/12

MFBA=0KN-m

MFBG=0KN-m

MFBC=-36.545KN-m

MFCB=36.545KN-m

MFGB=0KN-m

MFGJ=0KN-m

MFGH=-36.545KN-m

MFHG=36.545KN-m

MFJG=0KN-m

MFJM=0KN-m

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

MFJK=-36.545KN-m

MFKJ=36.545KN-m

MFMJ=0KN-m

MFMP=0KN-m

MFMN=-36.545KN-m

MFNM=36.545KN-m

MFPM=0KN-m

MFPQ=-36.545KN-m

MFQP=36.545KN-m

ROTATION FACTORS

K=EI/L STIFFNESS FACTOR

B BA 4EI/3 -0.172

BC 4EI/3 3.879EI -0.156

BG 4EI/3 -0.172

G GB 4EI/3 -0.172

GH 4EI/3 3.879EI -0.156

GJ 4EI/3 -0.172

J JG 4EI/3 -0.172

JK 4EI/3 3.879EI -0.156

JM 4EI/3 -0.172

M MJ 4EI/3 -0.172

MN 4EI/3 3.879EI -0.156

MP 4EI/3 -0.172

P PM 4EI/3 -0.172

PQ 4EI/3 3.879EI -0.156

PS 4EI/3 -0.172

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

B G J M P C

BA BC BG GB GH GJ JG JK JM MJ MN MP PM PQ CB

-0.172 -0.156 -0.172 -0.172 -0.156 -0.172 -0.172 -0.156 -0.172 -0.172 -0.156 -0.172 -0.262 -0.238 0

- - - - -

0 36.545 0 0 36.545 0 0 36.545 0 0 36.545 0 0 36.545 36.545

-36.545 -36.545 -36.545 -36.545 -36.545 36.545

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

5.367 4.868 5.367 5.342 4.845 5.342 5.488 4.977 5.488 4.639 4.207 4.639 9.575 8.698 0

5.502 4.990 5.502 4.555 4.131 4.555 4.695 4.259 4.695 3.904 3.541 3.904 8.359 7.594 0

5.510 4.997 5.510 4.512 4.092 4.512 4.813 4.365 4.813 4.007 3.634 4.007 8.552 7.769 0

5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.823 4.375 4.823 3.992 3.620 3.992 8.525 7.744 0

5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.529 7.748 0

5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0

5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0

5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0

5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0

5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0

5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0

5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0

5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0

5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0

5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0

5.510 4.998 5.510 4.508 4.089 4.508 4.824 4.375 4.824 3.989 3.618 3.989 8.530 7.748 0

- - - -

11.021 -26.550 15.529 14.527 28.367 13.841 14.157 27.794 13.637 12.802 29.309 16.507 21.048 21.048 36.545

26.550 28.367 27.794 29.309

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER-5

BEAMS

5.1 Introduction

A beam is one –dimensional (normally horizontal) member, which provides

support to the slab and the vertical walls. Bending effects load transferred. A reinforced

concrete . A reinforced concrete beam should be able to resist tensile, compressive and shear

stressed induced in it by the loads on the beam. Concrete is fairly strong in compression but

weak in tension. Plain concrete beams are thus limited in carrying capacity due to the low

tensile strength. Steel is very strong in tension. Thus, the tensile weakness of concrete is

overcome by the provision of reinforcing steel in the tension zone in the concrete to make a

reinforced concrete beam.

A RC section in which maximum compressive strain in concrete reaches its

ultimate values εc=0.0035 and maximum tensile strain in reinforcement reaches its yield

value simultaneously is known as a balanced section or critical section. The percentage of

steel in this section is known as critical percentage of steel. In this case failure occurs by

yielding of steel in tension and crushing of concrete in compression simultaneously, causing

what is known as balanced or critical failure.

A section having percentage of steel less than the critical percentage is

known as under reinforced section. Since steel is insufficient to balance compression in

concrete, the tensile strain in steel reaches yield value while the maximum compressive strain

in concrete is less than its ultimate crushing value. The section undergoes large rotational

deformation from the initial stage (yielding of steel), to final stage (crushing) and impending

failure. Since the failure is initiated by yielding of steel in tension, it is known as primary

tension failure.

A section having percentage of tensile steel greater than the critical

percentage is known as over reinforced section. Since the concrete in this section is relatively

in sufficient to balance the tension in steel, the maximum compressive strain in concrete

reaches the ultimate crushing value before the tensile strain in steel reaches the yielding

value. This causes the sudden failure of the section due to crushing of concrete in

compression, without giving any warning. Since this failure is initiated by compression in

concrete, it is known as primary compression failure.

Dept of Civil Engg,RYMEC, Bellary 23

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

5.5.1 Introduction

Reinforced concrete beams provided with steel reinforcement in both the tension

and compression zones are called Doubly Reinforced Beams. It is essential to put steel in

compression zone also when the area of the concrete in the compression zone is inadequate to

develop full compression needed to resist the induced moments. This becomes necessary

under the following states:

1. Where the construction depth is restricted and the moment the beam has to carry is

greater than the moment capacity of the beam in concrete failure. Mu=K fck bd2

This usually occurs at supports of continuous beams and in beams where the depth

is controlled by architectural considerations.

2. Where the bending moment in the section can change in sign (as many occur in a

section in the span of a continuous beam with moving loads) so that the

compression zone with one sign of the moment become the tension zone with the

opposite sign of moment, as in continuous bridge girders.

3. Where the compression steel can substantially improve the ductility of the beam

and its use is therefore advisable in members when large amount of tension steel

becomes necessary for its strength.

4. Compression steel is always used in structures in earthquake regions to increase

their ductility.

5. Compression reinforcement will also aid significantly in reducing the long-term

deflections of beams.

While designing the beams, following important rules must be kept in mind:

Effective Span: (IS-456 Clause 22.2)

Unless otherwise specified, the effective span of a member shall be as follows:

Simply supported beam or slab –the effective span of member that is not built

integrally with its supports shall be taken as clear span + the effective depth of slab or

beam or c-c of supports, whichever is less.

Continuous beam or slab- in the case of continuous beam or slab, if the width of

support less than 1/12th of clear span or 600mm whichever is less, the effective span

shall be taken as under:

1. For end span with one end fixed and the other continuous or for

intermediate spans, the effective span shall be the clear span between the

supports.

2. For end span with one end free other end continuous, the effective span

shall be equal to the clear span + half the effective depth of the beam or

slab or the clear span + half of the width of discontinuous supports,

whichever is less.

3. In the case of span with roller rocker bearings, the effective span shall

always be the distance between centers of bearing.

Dept of Civil Engg,RYMEC, Bellary 24

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Cantilever – the effective length of cantilever span shall be taken as its length of face

of supports + half the effective depth except where it forms the end of a continuous

beam where the length to the center of the support shall be taken.

The deflection of structure or part thereof shall not adversely affect the appearance or

efficiency of the structure or finishes or partitions.

The vertical deflection limits may generally be assumed to be satisfied

provided that the span to depth ratios is not greater than the values obtained as below:

Basic values of span to effective depth ratios for spans up to 10m:

Cantilever 7

Simply supported 20

Continuous 26

For spans above 10m, the values in (a) may be multiplied by 10/span in meters,

except for cantilever in which case deflection calculations should be made.

Depending on the area and the stress of steel for tension reinforcement, the values in

(a) or (b) shall be modified by multiplying with the modification factor obtained as

per fig. 4 of IS 456 – 2000.

Depending on the area of compression reinforcement, the value of span to depth ratio

is further modified with the modification factor obtained as per fig.5 of IS 456 -2000.

Minimum reinforcement – the minimum area of tension reinforcement shall not be less than

that given by the following:

Where

As= minimum area of tension reinforcement,

b= breadth of beam or the breadth of web of T-beam,

d=effective depth, and

fy=characteristic strength of reinforcement in N/mm2

Maximum reinforcement – the maximum area of tension reinforcement shall not exceed

0.04bD.

The maximum area of compression reinforcement shall not exceed 0.04bD. Compression

reinforcement in beams shall not be enclosed by stirrups for effective lateral restraint.

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Where the depth of the web in a beam exceeds 750mm, side face reinforcement shall be

provided along the two faces. The total area of such reinforcement shall not be less than 0.1

percent of the web area and shall be distributed equally on two faces at a spacing not

exceeding 300mm 0r web thickness whichever is less.

The maximum spacing of shear reinforcement measured along the axis of the member shall

not exceed 0.75d for vertical stirrups and d for inclined stirrups at 45®, where d is the

effective depth of the section under consideration. In no case shall the spacing exceed

300mm.

Minimum shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups shall be provided such that:

Where

Asv= total cross – sectional area of stirrup legs effective in shear,

Sv = Stirrup spacing along the length of the member,

b= breadth of beam or the breadth of web of T-beam,

d=effective depth, and

fy=characteristic strength of reinforcement in N/mm2

Maximum reinforcement – the maximum area of tension reinforcement shall not exceed

0.04bD.

5.6

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

127

107

70.6

A C

B

E

D 41.8

66.5

MA = 107Kn-m

KA = M/bd2

= 107X106/300X4502

KA = 1.76N/mm2

Pt = 0.547

Ast =( PtXbXd)/100

= 0.547X300X450/100

Ast = 738.45mm2

MB = 127Kn-m

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

KB = M/bd2

= 127X106/300X4502

KB = 2.1N/mm2

Pt = 0.678

Ast =( PtXbXd)/100

= 0.678X300X450/100

Ast = 915.30mm2

MC = 70.6Kn-m

KC = M/bd2

= 70.6X106/300X4502

KC = 1.15N/mm2

Pt = 0.343

Ast =( PtXbXd)/100

= 0.343X300X450/100

Ast = 463.05mm2

MD = 66.5Kn-m

KD = M/bd2

= 66.5X106/300X4502

KD = 1.09N/mm2

Pt = 0.327

Ast =( PtXbXd)/100

= 0.327X300X450/100

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Ast = 441.45mm2

ME =41.8 Kn-m

KE = M/bd2

= 41.8X106/300X4502

KE = 0.7N/mm2

Pt = 0.203

Ast =( PtXbXd)/100

= 0.203X300X450/100

Ast = 274.05mm2

Vu= 143Kn

ῖ = Vu/bd

= 143X103/300X450

ῖ v= 1.06N/mm2

Pt =( 100Xast)/(bXd)

= 100X915.30/300X400

Pt = 0.67

ῖc = 0.56

ῖ v≥ ῖc

= 143X103-0.56X300X450

Vus = 67.4Kn

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Sv = (0.87XfyXAsvXd)/ Vus

= (0.87X415X2X(Π/4)X82X450)/(67.4X103)

Sv = 240mm c/c

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER-6 COLUMNS

exceeds three times the lateral dimension.(as per clause 25.1.1 of IS 456-2000)

6.1 Introduction:

Columns such as the external of framed building, columns carrying crane loads

through corbles of a column, are subjected not only to direct loads(P), but also to moments

(M) due to the eccentricity in application of the loads .in the above columns the eccentricity

is with respect to one axis only and these columns are said to be under uniaxial bending. On

the other hand, a corner column of a building is subjected to eccentric load along both the X

and Y axes. Such columns are said to be under biaxial bending.

Concrete being very strong in compression should not theoretically require any

reinforcement. However,because it is week in tension, all circumstances leading to

development of tension need to be examined, and reinforcement provided for resisting the

same. Tension is likely to develop in columns due to accidental transverse loads, eccentric

loads and the end moments, which cause bending in the member. This forms the longitudinal

reinforcement. For short members, there is a possibility of failure by longitudinal splitting

due to development of transverse tension or failure by shear, i.e. a diagonal tension. This

therefore requires transverse reinforcement.

It is required-

1. To resist any tension that might develop due to bending caused by transverse loads,

eccentric loads or the moments.

2. To assist concrete in the resulting compression so as to reduce the overall size of the

column.

3. To reduce the effect of creep and shrinkage due to sustained loading.

4. To impart necessary ductility to the column.

5. To prevent or delay sudden brittle collapse.

6. To hold the transverse reinforcement.

It is required

1. To prevent buckling of individual bars.

2. To resist diagonal tension due to transverse splitting of concrete.

3. To confine the concrete.

4. To hold the longitudinal bars in position.

5. To prevent or delay sudden collapse and impart ductility to concrete.

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

6.3 Basic Rules for Design: Clause 25.1.2 Short and slender compression members

compression member may be considered as short when doth the slenderness ratios (l ex/D) and

(ley/b) are less tha12.

Where, lex= effective length in respect of the major axis,

D=depth in respect of the major axis.

ley=effective length in respect of the minor axis, and

b=width of the member.

It shell otherwise be considered as a slender compression member.

25.3.1. The unsupported length between end restraints shall not exceed 60 times the least

lateral dimension of a column.

25.3.2. If, in any given plane, one end of a column is unrestrained, its unsupported length L

shall not exceed .

Where b=width of the cross-section, and

D=depth of the cross=section measured in the plane under consideration.

All columns shall be designed for minimum eccentricity, equal to the unsupported to the

length of column/500 plus lateral dimension/30, subjected to a minimum of 20mm. where bi-

axial bending is considered, it is sufficient to ensure that eccentricity exceeds the minimum

about one axis at a time.

26.4.2.1:

For a longitudinal reinforcement bar in a column nominal cover shall in any case not be less

than 40mm, or less than the diameter of such bar. In the case of columns of minimum

dimension of 200mm or under, whose reinforcing bars do not exceed 12mm, a nominal cover

of 25 mm may be used

26.5.3 Columns

26.5.3.1 Longitudinal reinforcement

a) The cross-sectional area of longitudinal reinforcement shall not be less than 0.8

percent not more than 6 percent of the gross cross-sectional area of the column.

Note: the use of 6 percent reinforcement may involve practical difficulties in placing

and compacting of concrete; hence lower percentage is recommended. Where bars

from the columns below have to be lapped with those in the column under

consideration, the percentage of steel shall usually not exceed 4 percent.

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

b) In any column that has a larger cross-sectional area than that required supporting the

load, the minimum percentage of steel shall be based upon the area of concrete

required to resist the direct stress and not actual area.

c) The minimum number of longitudinal bars provided in a column shall be four in

rectangular columns and six in circular columns.

d) The bars shall not be less than 12 mm in diameter.

e) A reinforced concrete column having helical reinforcement shall have at least six bars

of longitudinal reinforcement with in the helical reinforcement.

f) In a helically reinforced column, the longitudinal bars shall be in contact with the

helical reinforcement and equidistant around its inner circumference.

g) Spacing of longitudinal bars measured along the periphery of the column shall not

exceed 300 mm.

h) In case of pedestals in which the longitudinal reinforcement is not taken in account in

strength calculations, nominal longitudinal reionforcement not less than 0.15 percent

of the cross-sectional area shall be provided.

Note: pedestal is a compression member, the effective length of which does not exceed

three times the lateral dimension.

a) General-a reinforced concrete compression member shall have transverse or helical

reinforcement so disposed that every longitudinal bar nearest to the compression face

has effective lateral support against buckling subject to provision in (b). The effective

lateral support is given by the transverse reinforcement either in the form of circular

rings capable of taking up circumferential tension or by polygonal links reinforcement

shall be properly anchored.

1. If the longitudinal bars are not spaced more than 75mm on either side,

transverse reinforcement need only to go round corner and alternate bars for

the purpose of providing effective lateral supports

2. If the longitudinal bars spaced at a distance of not exceeding 48 times the

diameter of the tie are effectively tied in two directions, additional

longitudinal bars in between those bars need to be tied in one direction by

open ties

3. Where the longitudinal reinforcing bars in a compression member are placed

in more than one row, effective lateral support to the longitudinal bars in the

inner rows any be assumed to have been provided if:

I. Transverse reinforcement is provided for the outer-most row in

accordance with 26.5.3.2. and

II. No bar of the inner row is closer to the nearest compression face

than three times the diameter of the largest bar in the inner row.

4. Where the longitudinal bars in a compression member are grouped (not in

contact) and each group adequately tied with transverse reinforcement in accordance

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

with 26.5.3.2, the transverse reinforcement for the compression member as a whole

may be provided on the assumption that each group is a single longitudinal bar for

purpose of determining the pitch and diameter of the transverse reinforcement in

accordance with 26.5.3.2. The diameter of such transverse reinforcement need not,

however, exceed 20mm

c) pitch and diameter of lateral ties

1. Pitch-the pitch of transverse reinforcement shall be not more than the

least of the following:

i. The least lateral dimension of the compression members.

ii. Sixteen times the smallest diameter of the longitudinal

reinforcement bar to be tied: and

iii. 300 mm.

2. Diameter-the diameter of the polygonal links or lateral ties shall be not less

than one-fourth of the diameter of the largest longitudinal bar, and in no case

less than 6mm.

d) Helical reinforcement.

e) pitch- helical reinforcement shall be of regular formation with the turns of the helix

spaced evenly and its ends shall be anchored properly by providing one and a half extra turns

of the spiral bar. Where an increased load on the column on the strength of the helical

reinforcement is allowed for, the pitch of helical turns shall be not more than 75mm, nor less

then one-sixth of the core diameter of the column, nor less than 25mm, nor less than three

times the diameter of the steel bar forming the helix. In other cases, the requirements of

26.5.3.2. shall be compiled with.

i. The diameter of the helical reinforcement shall be in accordance with 26.5.3.2

The strength of compression members with helical reinforcement satisfying the requirement

of 39.4.1 shall be taken as 1.05 times the strength of similar member with lateral ties.

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Width of column = 400mm

Pu = 1.5X1477.36

= 2216.04Kn

Mu = 1.5X81.1

= 121.65Kn-m

Mu/(fckXbXd2) = 121.65X106/(20X400X3002)

= 0.17

Pu/(fckXbXd) = 2216.04X103/(20X300X400)

= 0.92

Pt/fck = 0.26

Pt = 0.26 X 20

Pt = 5.2%

Ast = PtXbXd/100

= 5.2X400X300/100

Ast = 6240mm2

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

= 6240/(π/4)X322

= 8#

LATERAL TIES

a) Ø/4 = 32/4

= 8mm

b) 5mm

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

As =

M Mu

P Pu (Pt Reinforcement

column (in Kn- (in Kn- Pu/fck bd Mu/fck bd^2 Pt

(in Kn) (in Kn) bd)/(1 details

m) m)

00)

G-10, G- 279.62 419.44 23.9 35.85 0.174 0.0373 0.2 240

12 12 mm dia@ 4 no

D-2, A-5 667.28 1000.93 178 267 0.417 0.2781 4.4 5280 30mm dia @ 8 no

D-6, F-6 2213.36 3320.04 466 699 1.38 0.7281 5.2 6240 32mm dia @ 8 no

D-7, F-7 2443.76 3663.64 779 1168.5 1.52 1.2171 5.2 6240 32mm dia @ 8 no

F-5, E-5 1378.2 2067.3 421 631.5 0.86 0.6578 5.2 6240 32mm dia @ 8 no

E-4, D-4, 1519.32 2278.98 776 1164 0.94 1.2125 5.2 6240

A-3, C-3,

C-7, C-

15, E-

7, E-15 32mm dia @ 8 no

A-1,C-1, 874.86 1312.3 987 1480.5 0.54 1.5421 5.2 6240

A-7,A-15 32mm dia @ 8 no

F-4,I-6, 978.78 1468.18 202 303 0.61 0.3156 5.2 6240

E-6 32mm dia @ 8 no

C-5, F-9 , 1283.46 1925.2 779 1168.5 0.8 1.2171 5.2 6240

F-13 32mm dia @ 8 no

D-5, D-8, 1576.92 2365.39 421 631.5 0.98 0.6578 5.2 6240

D-14 32mm dia @ 8 no

B-6 1590.32 2385.49 196 294 0.99 0.3062 5.2 6240 32mm dia @ 8 no

A-8, A- 1830.63 2745.95 641 961.5 1.14 1.0015 5.2 6240

14 32mm dia @ 8 no

C-8, C- 3038.38 4557.57 105 157.5 1.89 0.164 5.2 6240

14 32mm dia @ 8 no

A-11, 2078.74 3118.11 142 213 1.29 0.2218 5.2 6240 32mm dia @ 8 no

D-10, D- 1098.67 1648.01 23.9 35.85 0.68 0.0373 2 2400

12, F-10,

F-12 20 mm dia @ 8 no

E-9, E- 2022.13 3033.2 779 1168.5 1.26 1.2171 5.2 6240

13, D-

15, F-15 32mm dia @ 8 no

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER: 7

FOOTINGS

7.1 DESIGN DETAILS OF FOOTING D-4

Safe bearing capacity of soil = 200Kn/m2

= 7.4m2

= 2.72m

Q = 1477.36/7.4

Hence safe

DEPTH OF FOOTING

VU = QUXBX((B-b)/2-d)

= 0.299X2720X((2720-400)/2-d)

VU = 813.28X(1160-d)

0.32X2720Xd = 813.28X(1160-d)

d= 560mm

D = 560+40

D = 600mm

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

= 0.138X20X2720X5602

Mumax = QU X((B-b)/8)2

= 0.299X((2720-400)/8)2

CALCULATION OF Ast

Ast = 2814.125mm2

Sv = 2720X(ast/Ast)

Sv = 190mm c/c

Vu= 487.97Kn

ῖ = Vu/bd

= 487.97X103/2720X400

ῖ v= 0.32N/mm2

Pt =( 100Xast)/(bXd)

= 100X2814.125/2720X400

Pt = 0.20

ῖc = 0.36

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER-8

9.1 DESIGN OF STAIRCASE:

Provide 11 steps

Effective span:

50*3.4 =170 mm

LOAD CALCULATION :

a) Landing slabs:

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

= 4.25*(√ )/ (0.3)

= 4.75 KN/m2

= ( 0.150*0.3*25)/2

= 0.562 KN/m2

= 1.9 KN/m2

23.08*106 = 0.138*20*1000*d2

d = 91.44< 170mm

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Vu = 27.15 KN

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER:9 ESTIMATION

Total

Sl .no Description Unit nos L B D

Quantity

1 Earth work excavation m3 1 60.2 24.1 3 4352.46

For footing m3 44 2.7 2.7 0.6 192.456

Total 4544.916

Earth work filling for

m3 44 2.7 2.7 0.2 64.152

2 footing

m3 1 60.2 24.1 0.1 145.082

Total 209.234

4 Brick masonry

For GF,FF,SF,TF,FF m3 5 570.9 0.3 3 2569.05

For parapet wall m3 1 168.6 0.2 1 33.72

Total 2602.77

Deductions

Ventilators m3 12 0.8 0.3 0.6 1.728

Window m3 6 2.4 0.3 1.8 7.776

Window 1 m3 26 1.8 0.3 1.3 18.252

Window 2 m3 6 1.2 0.3 1 2.16

Entrance Door m3 6 1.5 0.3 2.1 5.67

Main entrance m3 1 3 0.3 2.1 1.89

Door m3 18 1.2 0.3 2.1 13.608

Door 1 m3 14 1.2 0.3 2.1 10.584

Door 2 m3 4 1.35 0.3 2.1 3.402

Door 3 m3 12 0.8 0.3 2.1 6.048

-70.978

Total 2531.792

5 RCC 1:1.5:3

For slab GF,FF,TF,FF m3 1 60.2 24.1 0.15 217.623

RCC beam m3 30 23 0.3 0.45 93.15

RCC column m3 44 0.3 0.4 15.6 82.368

Footing m3 44 2.7 2.7 0.6 192.456

Total 585.597

6 STEEL

For beams(0.8%) 0.745

For column (4%) 3.29

For slabs (1%) 2.17

For footings(1%) 1.92

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

Total 8.125

7 Flooring

Tile flooring(0.2*0.2) m2 5 60.2 24.1 7254.1

Total 7254.1

8 Plastering

Ceiling m2 5 60.2 24.1 7254.1

Outside plastering m2 4 60.2 15.6 3756.48

Inside plastering m2 1 1300.8 3.4 4422.72

Total 15433.3

Deductions

Ventilators m2 12 0.8 0.6 5.76

Window m2 6 2.4 1.8 25.92

Window 1 m2 26 1.8 1.3 60.84

Window 2 m2 6 1.2 1 7.2

Entrance Door m2 6 1.5 2.1 18.9

Main entrance m2 1 3 2.1 6.3

Door m2 18 1.2 2.1 45.36

Door 1 m2 14 1.2 2.1 35.28

Door 2 m2 4 1.35 2.1 11.34

Door 3 m2 12 0.8 2.1 20.16

-237.06

Total 15196.24

Inside walls m2 1 1300.8 3.4 4422.72

Outside walls m2 4 60.2 15.6 3756.48

Ceiling m2 5 60.2 24.1 7254.1

Total 15433.3

Deductions

Ventilators m2 12 0.8 0.6 5.76

Window m2 6 2.4 1.8 25.92

Window 1 m2 26 1.8 1.3 60.84

Window 2 m2 6 1.2 1 7.2

Entrance Door m2 6 1.5 2.1 18.9

Main entrance m2 1 3 2.1 6.3

Door m2 18 1.2 2.1 45.36

Door 1 m2 14 1.2 2.1 35.28

Door 2 m2 4 1.35 2.1 11.34

Door 3 m2 12 0.8 2.1 20.16

-237.06

Total 15196.24

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

10 Wood work

Panel door m2 55 1.5 2.1 173.25

Glazed window m2 50 2.4 1.8 216

Total 389.25

ABSTRACT ESTIMATION

SI

Description Quantity Rate Total amount

no

1 Earth work excavation for footing 4544.916m3 Rs111 /m3 Rs 504485.676

2 Earth work filling for footing 64.152m3 Rs111/m3 Rs 7120.872

3 C C Bed layer 1:4:8 209.234m3 Rs4626/m3 Rs 967916.484

4 Brick masonry 2531.792m3 Rs4285/m3 Rs 10848728.72

5 RCC 1:1.5:3

For slab GF,FF,TF,FF 217.623m3 Rs4626/m3 Rs 1006723.998

RCC beam 93.15m3 Rs4626/m3 Rs 430911.9

RCC column 82.368m3 Rs4626/m3 Rs 381034.368

Footing 192.456m3 Rs4626/m3 Rs 890301.456

6 Steel

For beams(0.8%) 134.1kg Rs52 /kg Rs 6973.2

For column (4%) 592.2kg Rs52 /kg Rs 30794.4

For slabs (1%) 390.6kg Rs52 /kg Rs 70308

For footings(1%) 345.6kg Rs52 /kg Rs 62208

7 Flooring

Tile flooring(0.2*0.2) 7254.1m2 Rs673 /m2 Rs 4882009.3

8 Plastering 15196.24m2 Rs110/m2 Rs 1671586.4

9 White washing& painting 15196.24m2 Rs66 /m2 Rs 1002951.84

10 Wood work 389.25m2 Rs1076 /m2 Rs 418833

TOTAL Rs 2,31,82,887.61

Add 6% for electric charges =Rs13,90,973.25

Add 10% for lift charges =Rs23,18,288.761

Total estimated cost of the project =2,78,19,465.13

FOURHUNDREDEN SIXTYFIVE”

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER:10

CONCLUSION:

The preparation of the project has provided an excellent opportunity to emerge ourselves in

planning and designing of MULTI-STOREYED RESIDENTIAL APPARTMENT

structure covering all civil engineering aspects.

While planning care has to be taken to provide better ventilation and provide better approach

for the structure.

Being at under graduate level we have tried to our best to make this project a success.

This project has given an opportunity to re-collect and co-ordinate the various methods of

designing and engineering principles which we have learnt in our lower classes. A methodical

way of planning analysis and designing.

In consult with an architect the proposal can suitable altered to yield better utilization and

aesthetic view of the project.

Analysis and Design of Multi-storied Residential Building 2012

CHAPTER:11

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