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Ethnographic Research?

Anthropologists, ethnographers, and other social scientists may engage in something called ethnography. Ethnography, simply stated, is the
study of people in their own environment through the use of methods such as participant observation and face-to-face interviewing. As
anthropologist H. Sidky suggests, ethnography documents cultural similarities and differences through empirical fieldwork and can help with
scientific generalizations about human behavior and the operation of social and cultural systems (2004:9). Because anthropology as a
discipline is holistic (meaning it looks at the past, present and future of a community across time and space), ethnography as a first hand,
detailed account of a given community or society attempts to get a comprehensive understanding of the circumstances of the people being
studied. Ethnographers, then, look at and record a people’s way of life as seen by both the people and the anthropologist; they take
an emic (folk or inside) and etic (analytic or outside) approach to describing communities and cultures.

Contemporary ethnographic research has the added dimension of not only looking at people outside of the county of origin of the researcher,
but also seeks to better understand those who reside within the county of origin. Contemporary ethnographic research looks at what may be
considered ordinary or mundane to those living within a community, for example shopping malls, corporations, towns, cities, cyberspace,
garbage, libraries, parks, etc. Contemporary ethnographic research also differs from classic ethnographic research in that researchers may
have limited amounts of time in which to conduct research. This, however, does not detract from the quality of work produced.

Grounded Theory?
All research is "grounded" in data, but few studies produce a "grounded theory." Grounded Theory is an inductive methodology. Although
many call Grounded Theory a qualitative method, it is not. It is a general method. It is the systematic generation of theory from systematic
research. It is a set of rigorous research procedures leading to the emergence of conceptual categories. These concepts/categories are
related to each other as a theoretical explanation of the action(s) that continually resolves the main concern of the participants in a
substantive area. Grounded Theory can be used with either qualitative or quantitative data.

First published Sun Nov 16, 2003; substantive revision Mon Dec 16, 2013

Phenomenology is the study of structures of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view. The central structure of an
experience is its intentionality, its being directed toward something, as it is an experience of or about some object. An experience is directed
toward an object by virtue of its content or meaning (which represents the object) together with appropriate enabling conditions.

Phenomenology as a discipline is distinct from but related to other key disciplines in philosophy, such as ontology, epistemology, logic, and
ethics. Phenomenology has been practiced in various guises for centuries, but it came into its own in the early 20th century in the works of
Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty and others. Phenomenological issues of intentionality, consciousness, qualia, and first-person
perspective have been prominent in recent philosophy of mind.

Philosophical Research
Society, Inc. (P.R.S.) is an American nonprofit organization founded in 1934, by Manly Palmer Hall, to promote the study of the
world's wisdom literature. Hall believed the accumulated wisdom of mankind is the birthright of every individual, and built the
facility to serve the general public to this end.

Los Feliz headquarters in 2015 Its current president is Obadiah S. Harris, Ph.D. Under Dr. Harris, in 2000PRS created a subsidiary
which is doing business as the University of Philosophical Research. The University offers two nationally accredited Master’s
programs (M.A. in Consciousness Studies and M.A. in Transformational Psychology) and a newly approved (as of 2014) Bachelor
of Arts program in Liberal Studies. All degree programs are online.

It maintains a research library of over 50,000 volumes, and also sells and publishes metaphysical and spiritual books, mostly those
authored by Hall. Its headquarters are in Los Angeles, California. The building at 3910 Los Feliz Boulevard in the Los Feliz
neighborhood was designed by architect Robert Stacy-Judd and designated as a Los Angeles Historic Cultural Monument


rather it is the difference between approaches in which critique is an integral part of the process and those in which it is peripheral. 13-15. For what research process does not embody some notion of criticism? A critical facility is. but no concrete changes are made on the ground. or even architectural drawings. Knowledge is a dynamic process not a static entity. It is a research- based methodology. category drivers and motivations. What is activist research? Social Science Research Council. government records. or look at testimony in the trials of Nazi officers. and advocacy organizations. letters and diaries. C. R. at first sight. FOUNDATIONAL RESEARCH The scope of foundational research is across an entire industry. knowledge is critique. (2001). Knowledge is not a bucket into which grains of information are dropped in the hope that they somehow coalesce into some kind of explanation of the world. We highlight a broad array of opinions from journalism. examine Nazi propaganda. rather it denies the (literally) objective status of knowledge and concerns itself with the processural nature of knowledge. Indeed. seem to be creating an artificial distinction. Our intent is to illuminate and explore the complexity of some of the most vexing ethical questions of our time. There are several steps that someone like Stan has to go through to do historical research VISUAL ETHNOGRAPHY Ethnography is the study and interpretation of social organisations and cultures in everyday life. category or consumer group(s) and includes understanding things like: habits & practices. beliefs and values. unmet needs. attitudes. where texts are written with political conviction. such as birth and death certificates. Critical social research involves an epistemological perspective in which knowledge and critique are intertwined. 2(1-2). at least in theory. Because the nature of the data depends on the question being asked. video or film. newspapers articles. market. as important as an analytic facility when undertaking research. CRITICAL SOCIAL RESEARCH To distinguish critical social research from other forms of research practice may. we call attention to a wide range of issues with implications that may be personal. political. ETHICAL INQUIRY In this regular online series. A good reading for this is: Hale. The difference between critical approaches and noncritical approaches is not the difference between the presence and absence of critique. it is called visual ethnography 2 . We invite you to join us in "Ethical Inquiry. consumer segmentation and profiling. He could look at public records and archives. and when this research is conducted using photography. It is different than cultural critique.. Historical Research Historical method refers to the use of primary historical data to answer a question. Stan could interview former Nazis or read diaries from Nazi soldiers to try to figure out what motivated them. academia. A critical research process involves more than merely appending critique to an accumulation of ‘fact’ or ‘theory’ gathered via some mechanical process." Activist Research: Activist research is about using or doing research so that it changes material conditions for people or places. This is undeniable. data may include demographic records. even global. Historical research design involves synthesizing data from many different sources. it is arguable that for a critical methodologist.

The topics of VISUAL ETHNOGRAPHY cross visual anthropology. political. along with Basic research & Experimental Development. education. anthropology of the senses. museography. catalytic. digital and visual cultures. 8) bodies and places in an anthropological perspective. often state-. 3) contemporary art and anthropology. architecture and anthropology. anthropology. teams of researchers. for a specific. photography. and developing and implementing strategies that increase institutional competitiveness. 9) theories and methods in anthropology. history. Autoethnography is a self-reflective form of writing used across various disciplines such as communication studies. VISUAL ETHNOGRAPHY publishes two issues per year with articles in English. business and educational administration. and projects. anthropological theory. arts education and phsyiotherapy. social work. Spanish and Portuguese. 6) senses and culture. business-. Research Development professionals initiate and nurture critical partnerships and alliances throughout the institutional research enterprise and between institutions—and with their external stakeholders. With the goal of enabling competitive individual and team research and facilitating research excellence. cultural studies. For example. Applied research deals with solving practical problems[2] and generally employs empirical methodologies. and capacity-building activities designed to facilitate individual faculty members. it may be impossible to use a random sample. transparency in the methodology is crucial. performance studies.is a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to researches on 1) the production and use of images and audio-visual media in the socio-cultural practices. Research Development . psychology. creating relationships. Thus. 2) digital cultures. strict research protocols may need to be relaxed. and techniques. Research Development encompasses a set of strategic. 5) vision and gaze. film studies. French. Implications for interpretation of results brought about by relaxing an otherwise strict canon of methodology should also be considered. and social meanings and understandings. Applied research is a form of systematic inquiry involving the practical application of science. Italian. VISUAL ETHNOGRAPHY is indexed in Scopus and Web of Science Autoethnography is a form of qualitative research in which an author uses self-reflection and writing to explore their personal experience and connect this autobiographical story to wider cultural. It accesses and uses some part of the research communities' (the academia's) accumulated theories. knowledge. Applied research is contrasted with pure research (basic research) in discussion about research ideals. anthropology of media. and central research administrations in attracting extramural research funding. marketing. methods. proactive. or client-drivenpurpose. Because applied research resides in the messy real world. programs. sociology. VE is published in printed and online version. design. 7) objects. English literature. Since Applied Research has a provisional close to the problem and close to the data orientation it may also use a more provisional conceptual framework such as working hypothesis or pillar questions The OECD's Frascati Manual describes Applied Research as one of the three forms of research. methodologies. contemporary art. 4) anthropology of art.

Philosophy begins in the human’s experience of reality. wisdom (-sophia). the page never empty. or so we assume. grant/contract proposal development. discipline provides the conduit through which creative engagement grows and develops freely. or values. being the most ancient of all intellectual disciplines. including: funding opportunity identification and targeted dissemination. is used in ten different contexts. most artists will tell you that creativity is something that must be practiced—exercised. and unruly material has been disciplined into a coherent narrative). The Art of Discipline There is often an assumption made that creativity is an unbounded force. In fact. and structure.” Since both science and education deal with creating coherence from confused and unruly material (whether chemicals or children). interaction with funding agencies and institutional research administration and leadership. research team building.professionals build and implement strategic services and collaborative resources that span across disciplinary and administrative barriers within their organizations and beyond. philosophy is the mother of the human and natural sciences. Philosophy is more than just knowledge. according to Websters International Dictionary.” that set science education apart from other fields of inquiry and application? Because these do not readily com DISCIPLINE OF PHILOSOPHY From the Greek: philosophia: love of (philo-). What then are the behaviors. seeking to open its students’ minds to critically become aware of illusions. once said that “an artist has to train his responses more than other people do.. fmally.g. the clay never unformed. rather than relying purely on empirical investigation. knowledge. Discipline is not a restriction but an aid to freedom. Philosophy is the pursuit of wisdom through the critical investigation of the nature. a verb form seems appropriate for examining science education as a discipline. In contrast. as it were. flowing freely and continually to the artist.” and “rules to be obeyed (military discipline). causes.”(1) Thiebaud insists that rather than being opposed to creativity. and a tireless commitment to practice. a method or actions “to impose order and measure upon: to bring into order (e. He has to be as disciplined as a mathematician. The canvas is never blank. Wayne Thiebaud. Seven of these are nouns with contexts such as “punishment. confused. enormous. just like any muscle. The painter. but instead experiences the effortless flow of creative energy each and every day. and. making ourselves relevant to the changing socio-cultural environment of our continent. Research Development includes a broad spectrum of activities that vary by institution. As the love of wisdom. 4 . creativity achieves its greatest potential when bounded by discipline. the “rules of the game. fraudulent claims. The artist never experiences boredom or tedium with regards to her craft.Philosophy at UNISA attempts to explore wisdom in both the African and Western intellectual traditions. routine. or foundations of reality. and outreach activities and training. interaction with institutional federal relations.” The transitive verbs include “knowing and applying rules of evidence” (science differing from history). and flawed reasoning. THE SCIENCE OF DISCIPLINE The term discipline. There is little need for discipline or structure in the artist’s world.

these departments are designated with the asterisk (*). or theater arts). Students are advised about a discipline’s suitability as a major or are prepared for advanced course work in the field. Note: Transfer courses designated as IH from English departments are considered “literature” for general education purposes 5 . and Introduction to Social Sciences (IS code). prepare students effectively for advanced classes. And only one literature course may be used to satisfy the IH requirement. Most of these courses are required of majors. or both. The three categories are Introduction to Humanities and Arts (IH code). Introduction to Natural Sciences (IN code). Only one language course may be used to satisfy the IH requirement. music.THE DISCIPLINE OF HUMANITIES These courses inform students of a discipline’s scope or methodology. film and digital media. Only one IH requirement can be satisfied with a course (equivalent to 5 credits) from the Arts Division (art. Most do not require prerequisites. history of art and visual culture.