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Areas of Sociology

1. Social Organization – study of various social institutions, groups, stratification & etc
2. Social Psychology – human nature as an outcome of group life (man’s reference to
group life)
3. Social Change and Social Disorganization – study of the change in culture and relations
and the disruption that may occur in society – current social problems
4. Human Ecology – nature and behavior of a given population and its relationships to the
group’s present social institutions
5. Population or demography – Concerned with the study of population number,
composition, change and quality as it influences economic, political and social system
6. Sociological theory and method – applicability and usefulness of the principles and
theories of group life as bases for the regulation of man’s social environment
7. Applied Sociology – utilizes findings of pure sociological research


- Logos (study) & anthropos (man)

- Branch of knowledge which deals with the scientific study of man, his works, his body,
his behavior and values in time and space
- Physical, social and cultural development and the appearance of human beings on earth
- Central concern is the study of man

Branches of General Anthropology

1. Physical Anthropology – Also known as biological Anthropology (man’s physical

characteristics and processes in biological changes) eg. Racial history, paleontology
2. Cultural Anthropology – or Social Anthropology, study of culture, technology, religion,
family life and etc
i. Ethnography – pure description of the culture of a people or an ethnic group
(customs) general patterns of their life
ii. Ehtnology – analysis, comparison and contrast of cultures of people – why
people today differ in the past (evolution/development of culture) uses
observation – archaeologists work with fragmentary remains
iii. Social Anthropology – higher level of abstraction than ethnology, evolves
generalizations about social life
iv. Cultural Anthropology – total life of man in time and space
3. Archaeology – study of man’s culture and society in the past – evaluating using fossils
(remnants with organic life) and artifacts (man-made) study cultural changes
a. Historical Archaeology – remains of recent people who left written records
4. Linguistics – refers to the systematic study of recorded and unrecorded languages all
over the world – relationship of language and culture