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EA 4

The Campana Collection


at the Royal Museum of Art and History (Brussels)

Susanna Sarti

ÉTUDEs D’ARCHÉOLOGIE 4

CReA

T he C am pa n a C ollectio n

9 789461 360250
Études d’archéologie 4

THE CAMPANA COLLECTION


at the Royal Museum of Art and History (Brussels)

Susanna Sarti

Bruxelles
CReA-Patrimoine

2012
Contents

Acknowledgements  3
introduction  5
Catalogue  15
Etruscan bucchero and impasto ware  16
Corinthian  42
Etrusco-Corinthian  46
Attic black-figure  48
Attic red-figure  62
Attic White Ground  84
Attic black glaze with impressed decoration  86
Attic black glaze  88
South Italian red-figure  90
Gnathia and added colour  104
Italiote and other black glaze  118
Canosa  164
Plastic vases  166
Plastic animal-head vases  174
Pastiche  180
Appendix : (De-)Restoration project  183
Abbreviations and Bibliography  187
Acknowledgements

I was able to complete this project thanks to the generous assistance of many people.
I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Didier Viviers, Rector of the Université
libre de Bruxelles (ULB), and to Laurent Bavay, Director of the CreA-Patrimoine. It
is during my stay in Brussels as a post-doctoral Fellow of the Ph. Wiener - M. Anspach
Fondation at ULB that I undertook the study of the Campana vases. Their support
made possible for me to complete this research.
I am most grateful to the Keepers of the Department of Antiquities of the Musées
royaux d’Art et d’Histoire du Cinquantenaire, to Eric Gubel and Cécile Evers for
suggesting that I study the Campana Collection in Brussels and to Natacha Massar
for her kindness and help during all the time of my work. I owe special thanks to John
Boardman, Donna Kurtz and Dyfri Williams for their advice and precious help, and
to Michele Benucci with whom I share a common interest in the Marquis Campana.
Many thanks are due to the staff of the MRAH-KMKG, especially to Isabella Rosati,
restorator at the Museum, for discussing conservation matters with me, and to Françoise
Roloux, archaeological illustrator at the Museum, for her drawings of the vases.
I am also happy to acknowledge the talent and expertise of Anja Stoll and Nathalie
Bloch, archaeological draughtswomen and infographists at the CreA-Patrimoine
(ULB), for their help in preparing the plates and the publication of the volume.
I am much indebted to my friends and colleagues Melanie Mendonça and Judith Toms:
they have corrected and improved the English version of the text with great patience
and care. Remaining mistakes are mine.
Athena Tsingarida deserves a special mention for her longtime friendship and
stimulating discussions.
Finally, I wish to thank my husband, Riccardo, for being so patient and supportive at
every stage of this work.
introduction

The Marquis Giovanni Pietro Campana (fig. 1) is


renowned for creating one of the most important
19th century collections of art in Rome, which was
dispersed after his fraudulent activity against the
Pontifical pawnshop, of which he was the director.1
The so-called Campana Museum was taken as
indemnity by the Pontifical State and from 1861
sold off. After the acquisitions made by the South
Kensington Museum (now the V&A) in London
and the Hermitage in St. Petersburg, France acquired
a huge number of objects, which is today shared
between the Musée du Louvre and the French
provincial museums.2 The French acquisition
should have completed the sale, but it is clear that
several objects remained in Rome, so that further
acquisitions followed, among which were those made
by Belgium.3
At the beginning of the 20th century, the French
scholar, Salomon Reinach, affirmed that the purchase
by the Belgian government was fraudulent, since
“l’acquisition belge de 1862 est postérieure à la vente
faite à la France sans réserve ni retenue aucune”.4
Reinach also mentions “un volumineux dossier
Campana” given by the Belgian Département des
Beaux-Arts to Jean De Mot, Keeper of the Musées Fig. 1. Portrait of Giovanni Pietro Campana
Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire, who argued that the (after Cappelli-Salvagni 2006, 251).
Belgian purchase was made from a “réserve”.5 Copies
of documents from the original Campana dossier,6
which was probably destroyed during the Second held in the Départment des Antiquités du Musée du
World War, were made in 1904 (fig. 2-4) by De Mot, Cinquantenaire; this material was largely utilized by
probably in order to prepare a text, which is now S. Reinach for his Histoire de la collection Campana
published in Revue Archéologie in 1904-5,7 as De Mot
explains:
1  For Giovanni Pietro Campana and his collection
see Sarti 2001, Gaultier-Metzger 2005 e Cappelli- “En 1863, une bonne fortune inespérée mit
Salvagni 2006. le Musée en possession d’une série de 77 vases
2  Nadalini 1998. antiques, dont quelques uns peuvent actuellement
3  For the dispersal of the Campana Collection see encore compter parmi ses trésors les plus précieux.
Sarti 2001, 119-124. Il s’agit de l’acquisition de vases provenant
de la collection Campana, acquisition dont
4   Rome, Accademia Belgica, AB III/7, letter written by
M. Salomon Reinach a fait l’historique au moyen
Salomon Reinach to Franz Cumont.
de documents que nous avons pu lui fournir”.
5  CVA Bruxelles 3 (1949), “Historique de la collection”.
6   The complete copy of the Campana dossier, of which
only a few documents were known (see Sarti 2009a),
has been found in the archives of the MRAH-KMKG by
Cécile Evers and Natacha Massar. 7  Reinach 1905, 347.

5
The Campana Collection

2 3

The Campana dossier begins with a letter (dated 4


3  December 1862) written by the Belgian painter
Louis Brüls from Rome, where he was looking for
objets d’art to buy for Belgium, to Jean Portaels,
Membre de la Commission du Musée de Peinture et
Directeur de l’Académie des Beaux Arts de Bruxelles. Fig.  2-4. Bruxelles, Musées royaux d’Art et d’Histoire, list of
Brüls writes that after Campana’s arrest, some of his copies of documents from the Campana dossier made in 1904.
friends hid several objects which Brüls went to see,
together with an art dealer interested in acquiring the
remains of the Campana collection: sont d’une beauté parfaite, d’autres vases sont
restés encore couverts de tartre comme ils sont
“Quand le malheureux Campana fut emprisonné sortis des fouilles, d’autres sont nettoyés et
ses amis dévoués ont sauvé le plus possible des restaurés, ensuite il y a aussi des vases ordinaires
objets que Campana conservait chez lui et dans qu’il faudrait écarter”.
ses magasins; jusqu’ici on les tient cachés pour
les sauver du séquestre des créanciers, mais on After learning that Campana had refused the offer
voudrait les vendre”. (1200 piastre, approximately 6500 Frs.) made by the
dealer, Brüls asked to see the objects again. In the letter,
During the visit, Brüls particularly appreciated the the painter describes some pieces and the way they were
collection of vases: exhibited in the rooms, which at that time were almost
empty. He mostly liked two vases, both decorated in
“elle se compose de plusieurs centaines de pièces, the red-figure technique: one with Apollo fighting
de quelque grands vases grecs fort beaux ; les vases Herakles for the tripod, the location of which is today
que Campana conservait dans ses appartements unknown, and the stamnos now in Brussels. Then, he

6
Introduction

describes the kantharos by Douris (A719 catalogue “Mi sono subito recato alla Villa Strozzi per
no. 22) which Campana wanted to keep for himself. osservarvi i settantacinque vasi di argilla,
Eventually Brüls notes the presence of several rhyta denominati etruschi, che il Sig. Ministro del
“dans les formes les plus variées”. Of Campana’s Belgio ha richiesto all’E.V. di estrarre da Roma.
huge museum,8 only four “armoires” still contained Nessuno di essi vasi, molti dei quali sono neri
objects, and the last one “n’offrira je croie rien de e senza pittura di sorta, è di tale merito per
bien remarquable”. Brüls ends the letter saying l’erudizione e o per l’arte, che richieda eccezione o
that M. Carolus, Envoyé extraordinaire et ministre rimarco. Può quindi l’E.V. far rilasciare senz’altro
plenipotentiaire at Rome, was on the point of viewing il consueto permesso a forma della domanda”.11
the objects.
After the visit, Carolus, in a letter dated 6 December In the letter dated 20 December 1862, the Minister
1862 and addressed to Alphonse van den Peereboom, also said that Brüls was trying to buy two additional
the Belgian Minister of the Interior, asked for 8000 very interesting vases, one of which was the small
Frs., writing: Attic kantharos (A741 catalogue no.  29) depicting
the decapitation of the Gorgon by Perseus. This fine
“Ce chiffre ne serait probablement pas atteint; le vase, published in 1855 in Annali dell’Instituto by
cas échéant M. Brüls et moi nous ne négligerions Emil Braun12 (fig. 5), had been admired by Samuel
rien pour obtenir les meilleures conditions Birch and Charles Newton in a room in via del
possibles. Je connais le négociant qui a offert 1200 Babuino at Rome in 1856:
écus (environ Frs 6500) pour la collection dont il
s’agit; c’est un homme très habile et qui connait “The Campana Collection contains an unique
à fond la valeur des vases étrusques et grecs; s’il a specimen in which an entire Mythical composition
offert 1200 écus, c’est que la collection en vaut au is represented in intaglio, the several figures
moins le double à ses yeux”. being impressed from separate stamps. This is a
small two-handled cup. no.  1,* (*Stamped and
The Minister approved the purchase and issued the Embossed ware, Rhyton Rooms, Via Babuino) 5
credit. On 20 December, the Minister of Belgium in high. Round the body is a frieze in intaglio,
announced to his government: “l’acquisition de representing Perseus flying from the two
75  vases et ustensiles choisis dans une collection surviving Gorgons, after the death of Medusa…
réservée de Campana trois fois plus considérable au this composition is in a late but good style, and in
moins”. The total cost of the purchase was 1116 ecus very fine condition. As far as we know this is the
romani, i.e. 6000 Frs. only example of so continuous a composition in
A document concerning the requirement for an export Fictile Intaglio”.13
permit, necessary for bringing the objects to Brussels,
dated 24 December 1862, mentions “settantacinque The fact that this vase was so well known made
vasi ed utensili etruschi” located at that time at Villa Reinach have doubts about proceeding with the
Strozzi in Roma,9 which from 1859 belonged to the French purchase, and he was puzzled why the vase
Belgian Monsignore Francesco Saverio de Merode.10 was not part of the acquisition. However, it is clear
Pietro Ercole Visconti, Commissario delle antichità, that Campana had the opportunity to keep some
considered the objects unimportant, as we read in his objects, a few of which were held in high esteem. De
report dated 24 December 1862, addressed to P.D. Mot writes:
Costantini Baldini Ministro del Commercio e Lavori
Pubblici: “M. Salomon Reinach semble peu fondé à
venir parler de négociations frauduleuses et
de soustractions faites au détriment de l’État
pontifical … La thèse de M. Reinach est que la
8  For Campana’s museum before the dispersal, see France s’était rendue acquéreur de l’entièreté de
Sarti 2001, 61-100.
9   Rome, Archivio di Stato, Ministero Lavori Pubblici,
sez. 5, tit. 1, art. 5b, B. 416, fasc. 1.
11  Rome, Archivio di Stato, Ministero dei Lavori
10   Villa Strozzi was destroyed around 1878 in order to Pubblici, sez. 5, tit. 1, art. 5b, B 416, fasc. 1.
build the Theatre Costanzi which opened in 1890, and is
12  Annali dell’Instituto 1855, 17-20, pl. II.
now the Teatro dell’Opera: Marseglia 1998, 155. On the
villa, see also Guerrieri Borsoi 2004, 69-82. 13  Birch-Newton 1856, 40.

7
The Campana Collection

soit plus question du grand vase avec la dispute du


Trepied, dont parle Brüls dans sa lettre et dont je n’ai
pas retrouvé la trace”.
In conclusion, the total amount for the Belgian
purchase, “pour l’acquisition & la restoration de 77
vases étrusques et grecs”,15 was 1304.07 ecus and 07
baiocchi, i.e. 7.041.98 Frs.
The documents concerning the restauration of the
objects refer to three names: Giovanni Tedeschi,
Luigi Gregori and Domenico Capella. The last is not
otherwise known.
Giovanni Tedeschi is also mentioned in the documents
of Campana’s trial, where he is accused of having
taken part in the fraud committed by the Marquis,
of which Tedeschi was “Maestro di casa” and “sotto-
cassiere”.16 In a letter dated 4 May 1859, written
by Giovanni Arcangeli to the antiquarian Ottavio
Gigli, who asked news of his friend, we read that “Il
giorno 2 furono giudicati il Seni, il Canestrelli ed il
Tedeschi: i due primi furono dichiarati innocenti,
l’altro fu dimesso in libertà provvisoria”, and after a
short time Campana was also released.17 The Marquis
went to Naples in exile and later to several European
cities including Paris, Dresden and Geneva, until he
went to Florence and finally to Rome.
The painter Luigi Gregori was a very close friend
Fig.  5. Kantharos A741 (catalogue no.  29), drawing in Annali of Campana. He was often a guest in the Campana
dell’Instituto1855, pl. II.
palace, and for this reason he was interviewed during
the trial against the Marquis.18 The close relationship
la Collection Campana et que par conséquent la between them is confirmed by the fact that Gregori
réserve de Bruxelles lui appartenait de droit. Bien made drawings of the Etruscan tomb discovered by
que ce point n’ait plus qu’un intérêt académique, the Marquis in 1843 at Veii with wall-paintings, urns,
qu’il me soit permis de constater que les vases de vases and other objects (fig. 6-7). Nevertheless, it
Bruxelles ne sont pas décrits dans les catalogues
Campana (V. Volume Vases peints) publiés en
1858. Or ce sont ces catalogues qui ont servi de 15   Letter dated 31st January 1863, Dossier Campana
base à l’acquisition française- La réserve n’était no. 8a.
donc pas comprise dans celle ci ”.14
16  In nome di Sua Santità Papa Pio IX. Il Primo turno
del Tribunale Criminale di Roma. Sentenza. 5 Luglio 1858,
Indeed, even the Attic black-glazed kantharos (A741, 5: “pagatore Giovanni Tedeschi ch’era anco addetto al
catalogue no.  29) with impressed decoration does Campana come Maestro di Casa …”.
not appear to be in the Cataloghi Campana. This
17  Florence, Archivio Storico dell’Agenzia Nazionale
vase was one of the two mentioned by the Minister
per lo Sviluppo dell’Autonomia Scolastica (ex-Indire),
Carolus, which were eventually acquired by Belgium, Fondo O. Gigli, letter dated 4th May 1859 written by
as we know from De Mot, who also regrets that “ne Giovanni Arcangeli to Ottavio Gigli.
18  Rome, Archivio di Stato, Tribunale Criminale di
Roma, B. 2149, 193-195. Luigi Gregori (Bologna 1819-USA
14  In CVA Bruxelles 1, IIIC pl. 5,4 (Belgique 10), the 1896), painter, in 1840 went to Rome, where he became a
authors thought that the description of no.  8 of the 2nd friend of Monsignor de Merode and he worked as restorer
series (“vasi di arte e paleografia corinzia”) referred to the for the Pontifical State. In 1874 he became a professor
krater A710, but the detail of the lyrai hanging on the wall and artist-in-residence at the University of Notre Dame
described in the Cataloghi Campana, and missing on the (USA). See Garibaldi 1982, 102 no. 3.3.6; see also Meyers
vases, led to believe that the described vase is rather Louvre 2011. I warmly thank Michele Benucci for the information
inv. no. E630. on Luigi Gregori and his relation with Campana.

8
Introduction

Fig.  7. Campana Tomb in Veii, lithograph with


watercolour by Luigi Gregori (after Canina 1847,
pl. XXXI).

“J’ai reçu de M. Sebastien Cornu, administrateur


provisoire du musée Napoléon III, la somme
de mille francs à titre d’indemnité pour le soins
que je donne au classement et à l’expédition des
collections Campana. Rome, le 19 Octobre 1861.
Dr Henry Brunn”.21

The important role played by Brunn in the Belgian


purchase is evident from the words written by
Carolus from Rome to the Belgian Minister, on
14th February 1863, when he announced the shipping
Fig. 6. Entrance of Campana Tomb in Veii, lithograph by Luigi of the vases via Civitavecchia and Marseille, and sent
Gregori (after Canina 1847, pl. XXVIII). the catalogue of the collection, written in Italian by
Heinrich Brunn22 and translated by Brüls:
has been demonstrated that the collection of objects
found in this tomb (called the Campana Tomb) was “Je puis enfin vous annoncer l’envoi des 3 colis
placed there by Campana himself, who must have renfermant les 77 vases étrusques et grecs que
assembled them from other sources, in order to j’ai achetés pour le compte du Gouvernment du
perpetrate a deliberate deception.19 It is clear that this Roi… ils quitteront, la semaine prochaine, la
enhanced Campana’s reputation. However, in such a porte de Civita Vecchia pour Marseille d’où ils
situation it is obvious that Campana had used very seront dirigés, par le chemin de fer, à Bruxelles.
close friends who did not abandon him even after he -  Je vous prie Monsieur le Ministre, de vouloir
was disgraced. bien ordonner que le déballage soit fait avec le plus
grand soin et, si possible, dans la localité même
Two well-known archaeologists and scholars were où les vases seront placés. Je joins à la présente
protagonists in the acquisition of the Campana le catalogue de la collection  ; il a été rédigé en
Collection in Belgium: Heinrich Brunn and Jean- italien par M. Brunn, Secrétaire de l’Institut
Joseph-Antoine-Marie de Witte. archéologique de Rome et traduit par notre
Heinrich Brunn, secretary of the Deutsches compatriote M. Brüls qui, en cette circostance, a
Archaelogisches Institut in Rome, who had good voulu donner une nouvelle preuve de dévouement
relations with Belgium and particularly with Luis au Gouvernement du Roi. -  M.  Brunn s’est
Brüls,20 chose the vases in Rome for Belgium. He employé chez moi, plusieurs jours à la rédaction
had already taken part in the French acquisition, as is du catalogue, c’est un très savant archéologue et
testified by the following receipt: un homme fort estimable et digne, sous tous les

19  Delpino 1985, 120-123.


21   Paris, Archives Nationales, F/21/572, comptabilité.
20  In Bullettino dell’Instituto 1858, Brunn describes the
collection of antiquities formed by L. Brüls, which was 22  For the work of H. Brunn in cataloguing the
eventually bought by the Museum of Würzburg. Campana collection in Rome, see Sarti 2001, 28 and 62.

9
The Campana Collection

rapports, de la bienveillance de Votre Excellence; Moreover, in 1862 the Belgian scholar was in France
qu’Elle me permette de l’invoquer en sa faveur, in order to classify the Campana Collection:
en la priant de faire obtenir à ce savant modeste
et zélé la décoration de l’Ordre de Léopold; “il prend part à l’arrangement et au classement de
j’ajouterai que déjà souvent, M.  Brunn a été à la Collection Campana (Musée Napoléon III),
même de rendre d’autres services à des savants acquise par l’Empereur et exposée alors au Palais
belges, et qu’il l’a toujours fait avec le plus grand de l’Industrie. Il est ensuite nommé membre de
empressement”.23 la commission instituée par le Ministre d’État
et présidée par le comte de Nieuwerkerke,
Indeed, in recognition of the assistance given in pour la répartition des objets d’art de cette
the purchase of the Campana objects, the German collection entre le Musée de Louvre et le musées
scholar became Chevalier de l’ordre de Léopold .24 départementaux”.27

Eventually, the catalogue manuscript was sent De Witte received the catalogue, written by Brunn
by Théodore Juste, Conservateur du Musée Royal and translated by Brüls, and complained because it
d’antiquités, d’armure et d’artillerie de la Porte de was full of mistakes and “Tout était à refaire”. On
Hal, to Jean-Joseph-Antoine-Marie de Witte in the 25 May 1863, after seeing the Belgian acquisition,
Chateau de Wommelghen close to Anvers.25 Jean de Witte sent his congratulations to Juste on the
De Witte had known the Campana Collection since purchase, writing that many objects :
1841, when he visited it in Rome. In his report, to
the Minister J.-B. Nothomb, dated 26 May 1842, “tiendraient une place distinguée dans les plus
he wrote: riches collections” and “les vases achetés à
Rome, réunis a ceux que le Musée possédait déjà
“Plusieurs collections particulières de Rome constituent une masse assez importante pour
devenir un jour une collection céramique digne
méritent encore d’être signalées. Celle de M. le
de la capitale de la Belgique”.28
chevalier P. Campana est certainement une des
plus riches en monuments de plastique et en
bijoux d’or  : on y remarque une foule de terres Thédore Juste was ready to exhibit the vases in
cuites tirées des excavations de l’Étrurie, toutes the Musée de la Porte de Hal, and described the
remarquables, soit sous le rapport de l’art, soit Campana objects in Brussels in the catalogue of
sous celui de l’érudition. La collection de bijoux the museum dated 1867;29 he catalogued them
est d’une richesse éblouissante. Les colliers, les using the letter H with numbers up to 76 (which
bracelets, les bagues, les couronnes sont sans replaced the ancient inventory numbers of 2183-
nombre. J’ai surtout remarqué une magnifique 2257). Eventually the Museum assigned the
tête de Bacchus tauriforme en or et deux supports inventory numbers from A710 to A784, and most
pour porter des fioles en verre de couleur ou en of the objects were published in the three volumes
matière précieuse. Le propriétaire, qui connaît à of the Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum of the Musée
fond les œuvres de l’art ancien, est sur le point du Cinquantenaire. According to the evidence, the
de publier sa riche collection. Déjà M. Campana number of objects bought by the Belgian agents
a fait connaître le deux columbaria qu’il a
découverts, il y peu d’années, près de la porte
Latine. Ces monuments funéraires sont encore
de l’Intérieur”, Académie Royal de Bruxelles, extrait du Tome
aujourd’hui tels qu’ils étaient à l’époque de leur
IX n. 7 des Bulletins, 13.
découverte, avec leurs urnes remplies de cendres,
leurs stucs, leurs peintures, etc.”.26 27   Le Baron Jean-Joseph-Antoine-Marie de Witte, in :
Annuaire de l’Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des
Beaux-Arts 1907, 76. For the Decree of Vichy, dated 12
July 1862, which assigned parts of the collection to the
23   Dossier Campana no. 8b.
French provincial museums, see Nadalini 1998, 183-225.
24  See the letter written by W. Henzen, dated 12
28   Th. Juste wrote a report in the Moniteur of 13 June
December 1863, published in Kolbe 1984, 294.
and 2 July, and in Bulletin des commissions royales d’art et
25   For J. de Witte, see Warmenbol 2002. d’archeologie 1864, 235.
26  J. de Witte, “Rapport sur un voyage archéologique 29  Juste 1867, 125-136, nos.  2183-2257. See also
fait en Italie et en Grèce adressé a M. Nothomb, Ministre Reinach 1905, 353-355.

10
Introduction

Fig. 8. Campana Palace in via del Babuino at Rome (da Cappelli-Salvagni 2006, 250).

should have been 77 (75+2), but the total number critical notice of this collection is, in itself, a sketch
of vases today in the museum is 75. One piece, a of the whole history of Greek Ceramography”.31
black-figure lekythos (H5), seems to have been lost at
the end of 19th century, after it had been described by In 1858 the French Doucet visited the museum:
Théodore Juste in his catalogue of the Musée royal.30
Item 77 is never mentioned in the catalogues of the “... sur des étagères fixées aux murs, les vases
Belgian museum. historiques de toutes les époques et de tous les
The vase collection in the Campana Museum in modèles, s’alignent sans lacune, depuis la poterie
Rome was very rich and admired by visitors and noire et grossière des époques les plus reculées,
scholars, such as Samuel Birch and Charles Newton jusqu’aux vases splendides trouvés à Nola et dans
who in their Report on the Campana Collection, les ruines de Cumes”.32
dated 1856 for the British Museum wrote:
The vases, kept mostly in the house in via del Corso
“The Collection of Vases formed by Signor and in the Campana Palace in via del Babuino at
Campana is certainly the finest ever made by Rome (fig. 8), were exhibited according to vase
a private individual, and will bear comparison shape and style of drawing, so that Campana
with the most celebrated Collections in public had grouped together the vases today known as
Museums, if indeed it does not surpass any of Tyrrhenian amphorae, the cups attributed to the
these, both in its extent and in the variety and Little Masters, the vases of the Leagros Group, the
beauty of individual specimens”, and “The South Italian and the black ware pottery. Campana’s
wonderful richness of the Campana Collection vase collection was a compendium of the history of
supplies so many instructive examples that a

31  Birch-Newton 1856, 3 and 36.


30  Juste 1867, see the list of the objects from the
Campana Collection. 32  Doucet 1859, 146.

11
The Campana Collection

and cups.34 We have already mentioned a few fine


Attic vases. There are, in addition, Attic black-figure,
red-figure and black-glazed vases. There are also the
most common South Italian productions: red-figure
vases, black-glazed and Gnathia vases. Finally the
acquisition included terracottas plastic vases and
rhyta, which were beloved by 19th century collectors,
who favoured completing or reproducing them.35
Campana had a very rich collection of plastic vases,
which was carefully described by Birch and Newton in
1856, when they affirmed that “It would be difficult
to point out another collection of equal extent”.36
Thus, the 75 vases in Brussels include coarse
ware, black ware, bucchero, Italiote and Etrusco-
Corinthian pottery, and Attic pottery, among which
are the well-known kantharos signed by Douris and
stamnos signed by Smikros. Many objects had been
reconstructed from fragments and often repainted,
as was the habit with Campana’s restorers:37 sherds
were often wrongly inserted, parts of different vases
joined together, damaged decoration was repainted
Fig. 9. Cataloghi Campana, classe I. to match the original parts and occasionally there
were more creative restorations, such as those on the
ancient Greek, Etruscan and South Italian pottery. vases A749 (catalogue no. 22 and appendix), A745,
As stated by De Mot, the vases obtained for Brussels A750 (fig. 10), and A751 (fig. 11) in Brussels. This
should not have been in the class I of the Cataloghi was common 19th century practice, so that in 1905
Campana, devoted to the “Vasi dipinti etruschi e H.B. Walters wrote:
italo-greci” (fig. 9), since they were acquired after the
sale to France which should have included everything “Almost all the vases in the museums of Europe
remaining from the Campana Collection listed in the have been mended, and the most skilful workmen
Cataloghi Campana, the museum inventory prepared at Naples and Rome were employed to restore
before its dispersal.33 them to their pristine perfection. Their defective
The objects acquired by the Belgians were a very parts were scraped, filed, joined, and supplied
small portion of the vase section from Campana’s with pieces from other vases…”.38
museum, as we can see from Class I (vases) of the
Cataloghi Campana, a class divided into fifteen series. Pastiches, known already by Campana’s
To the 1st and 2nd series belong the Corinthian krater contemporaries, are the “plates with modern
(A710) and the Etrusco-Corinthian cup (A711) insertions in centre” pointed out by Birch and
dated to the second half of the 6th century B.C. The Newton when they visited the Campana collection
3rd series comprised bucchero and impasto ware, most in Rome in 1856: usually black ware vases with an
of which were sold to France, and are now in the
Louvre and in several French provincial museums.
However, there are a few Etruscan bucchero vases
in Brussels, which include an oinochoe with a lion 34   For the Etruscan objects in Brussels see Balty 1992,
head dated from the Orientalizing period (A777), 366-369.
and vases dating from the 7th and 6th century B.C., 35  See Gualandi 1982, 750-761 and Lista 1996,
most of which were wrongly restored, such as the 181-188.
krateriskos with one modern plastic head and bronze
36  Birch-Newton 1856, 32-34.
handle, both of which do not belong (A778). There
are also some Etruscan black-glazed oinochoai, plates 37  See Devambez 1965, 275-277, von Bothmer
1977, 213-221, De la Genière 1979, 75-80, Pasquier
1981, 1-9, Bourgeois 1993, 141-146, Bourgeois-
Denoyelle-Merlin 1994, 66-69, Tsingarida 2007.
33  Sarti 2001, 62. 38  
Walter 1905, 39-40.

12
Introduction

inserted medallion. Examples are in the Louvre,39 in


St. Petersburg40 and in Brussels (A759a-b, A760a-b,
catalogue nos.  61 and 62). In 1863, the Belgian
Émile de Meester de Ravestein complained to his
German friend Heinrich Brunn:

“En Belgique les antiquités ont peu de succès.


Les belles acquisitions qu’a faites dernièrement
le gouvernement d’après vos sages conseils,
trouvent peu d’admirateurs. Nous n’avons ici que
M.J. Roulez qui s’y connaît”.

De Mot also ends his report on the Campana


Collection emphasizing how for such a long time
Belgium was uninterested in classical antiquities, and
that from 1863, the year of the acquisition of the
Campana Collection, to 1899 the classical antiquities
“ne sont enrichies que de 119 unités, lesquelles toutes
sont loin d’être notables”. However, the Campana
group of classical antiquities, and particularly objects
such as the stamnos by Smikros and the kantharos by
Douris, had a significant influence on the history of
taste of the country, where the national history had
always played the most important role.

Fig. 10. Plastic vase shaped in form of a pygmy carrying a swan


A745/A (catalogue no. 69) and plastic vase shaped in form of
a lying silen A750 (catalogue no.  71), before the restorations
carried out in MRAH-KMKG, under the direction of Professor
J. C. Balty.
Fig. 11. Bottle A751 (catalogue no. 41), before the restorations
carried out in MRAH-KMKG, under the direction of Professor
J. C. Balty.

39  CVA Louvre 15, 21.


40  Dulière 1979, 64 no. 173.

13
Catalogue

Catalogue

• Etruscan bucchero and impasto


• Corinthian
• Etrusco-Corinthian
• Attic black-figure
• Attic red-figure
• Attic White Ground
• Attic glaze with impressed figures
• Attic black glaze
• South Italian red-figure
• Gnathia and added colour
• Italiote and other black glaze
• Canosa
• Plastic vases
• Animal-head vases
• Pastiches

Many of the Campana vases were restored in the 1970s and 1980s, when J. C. Balty was head of the
Antiquities Department of the Musées royaux d’Art et d’Histoire - Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en
Geschiedenis (MRAH-KMKG). Some of them were only cleaned1. Others were taken apart and obvious
19th century additions were disposed of. The fragments were then cleaned, modern painted additions
removed, and the objects reassembled2. The pieces restored in the 1970s and 1980s, are marked with ◊ and
those restored in 2003-2004, with a ♦.

1   The following vases were only cleaned : Catalogue nos. 16, 21, 29, 30, 33, 34, 37, 39, 40, 42, 43, 45, 46, 49, 53,
59, 63, 64, 65, 66, 71
2   The following vases were taken apart, cleaned and reassembled : Catalogue nos. 5, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24,
26, 27, 28, 32, 36, 41, 57, 61 & 62 (these two vases were taken apart, but the medallion, which was alien, was not re-
inserted), 67, 68, 69

15
The Campana Collection

Etruscan bucchero and impasto ware

1. A772 (2245, H64) cup

H. 4; diam. of rim 7,4; diam. of foot 0,3


Surface slightly abraded, and traces of breaks or other damage at the two points
of attachment of the handle. Greyish brown impasto, burnished. Hand-shaped.
Rounded lip above a vertical neck. Distinct transition between neck and shoulder,
the latter decorated with shallow oblique grooves. Body lenticular. Base flat with
gentle transition to body. The vertical handle is attached at the lip and the widest
point of the body. It is composed of four round-sectioned ‘ropes’ plaited together
somewhat clumsily in comparison with the neat shaping of the body.

Impasto. 9th-8th century BC.

The fabric and shape with distinct neck and lenticular body are characteristic
of a well-known class of single-handled cups from the Early Iron Age and Early
Orientalizing periods found across much of peninsular Italy (see for example
Tovoli 1989, 240-241 pl. 110). However, the plaited handle is distinctly odd.
No parallels have been found for it, either on this cup form or any other handled
forms of the period. The only remotely similar handles are in the form of twisted
ropes, but they are not plaited and produce quite a different effect. For example,
the handle of a cup from Bologna made of four pairs of twisted ropes (Bologna,
Museo Civico Archeologico, inv. no. 17343, published in Principi Etruschi 2000,
348-349, no. 468), and the twisted rope handles of some kantharoi dating to the
7th century BC (see for example, Parise Badoni 2000, pl. XLI, 1-2 and Minetti
2004, 97, no. 22, 5-6-7). The lack of close parallels, the clumsy appearance, and
the fact that there are distinct traces of damage, maybe breaks, at both points of
attachment, suggest that the plaited handle on the Brussels cup might have been
a creation of the Campana restorers.

• CVA Bruxelles 2, IVB pl. 5,5 (Belgique 94).

5 cm

16
Catalogue

17
The Campana Collection

2. A765 (2238, H57) bowl

H. 5,3; diam. of rim 9,6; diam. of foot 0,2.


Intact, though slightly chipped rim and interior. Buccheroid impasto, grey at
breaks, black burnished surface.
Hemispherical bowl with omphalos at centre of base. Small holes below the rim.

Buccheroid impasto. 7th century BC.

This small bowl is close to an impasto example from Narce, now in Copenhagen
Museum inv. no. 4108 (CVA Copenhague 5, pl. 203,7). For holes in the wall,
see the Orientalizing cups discovered in the area of Chiusi (Minetti
2004, 131 no. 30.5).

• CVA Bruxelles 2, IVB pl. 4,30 (Belgique 95).

2 cm

18
Catalogue

19
The Campana Collection

3. A779 (2252, H71) pyxis

H. 13,1; diam. of rim 9,8; width max 14,6.


Intact. May have had a lid, now lost. Signs of repairs and modern paint on two
of the legs.
Upright lip. Body cylindrical with cordon at top and bottom. An angled section
between top cordon and lip. Base of body convex. The upper cordon is decorated
with a row of small stamped rosettes, and the lower with a row of diamond
notches. The body is supported by four short legs.

Bucchero. 7th century BC.

There are parallels in Orientalizing buccheroid impasto and bucchero for various
elements of A779. For example, the stamped rosettes are close to those on pyxides
from Caere (see Bonamici 1972, 101-102 and pl. XV). The diamond notches are
very common on various pot forms. There are also various well known types of
rounded pyxis. The Brussels pyxis body fits well with the known range. However,
no parallels have been found for the presence of four legs; all others have three
legs (e.g. Berkin 2003, 55-58 nos. 50-52). The legs of A779 are also unusually
short. It seems unlikely that the Campana restorers added four legs where there
were originally only three, so maybe the pyxis did originally have four legs.
• CVA Bruxelles 2, IVB pl. 4,15 (Belgique 95).

2 cm

20
Catalogue

21
The Campana Collection

4. A784 (2257, H76) shallow dish or lid

H. 4,2; length 31,9; diam. of foot 15,8.


Intact except for small restorations of the rim in grey plaster. Some encrustation,
mainly found on the convex side. Buccheroid impasto.
Shallow form halfway between elliptical and rectangular with rounded corners.
The concave side has no elaborations, but the convex side has a number of plastic
elements. These consist of an elliptical cordon at the centre, flanked on four sides
by round-sectioned ‘handles’. Each of these elements carries some encrustation.

Buccheroid impasto. 7th century BC (?).

This object is a curiosity. No parallels have been found, and its function is unclear.
The two most likely uses are as a shallow dish or as a lid. The size and shape of
the body find a rough parallel in the Faliscan tray of buccheroid impasto dated
to mid 7th century BC, in the G. Ortiz Collection in Geneva (Chamay 1993,
203 no. 103). Other 7th century trays also exist, for example from Narce (Parise
Badoni 2000, pl. LXX,2), but all have handles attached at the short ends. There
are no parallels for the peculiar array of projections on the convex side of A784.
The central elliptical cordon looks very much like a ring foot, and if this were the
only addition it would make sense to class A784 as a shallow dish. But the four
projections flanking the central cordon are baffling. They look more like handles
than additional feet. It is also peculiar that they are of two different shapes.

• CVA Bruxelles 2, IVB pl. 4,43 (Belgique 95).

5 cm

22
Catalogue

23
The Campana Collection

5. A773 (2246, H65) amphora with ribbed body

H. 19,4; diam. of mouth 8,8; diam. of foot 6,6.


Lip slightly restored. Rim and handles chipped; encrustation on handles and in
interior. Fine black bucchero. ◊
Round mouth with thinned out-turned lip. Truncated conical neck which flares
outwards just below the lip. Distinct join between neck and shoulder. Shoulder
marked, body globular, disc foot. Ribbon handles attached at lip and top of
shoulder. Body decorated with fine incised vertical lines, parallel but a little
irregular. On the neck there is a row of five vertical fans (9.11/12 rays) on each
side; on the handles, delimited by two parallel incised lines, three vertical fans
(6 rays).

Bucchero. Second half of the 7th century BC.

Classifiable as amphora type 1b (or 1d) Rasmussen 1979 (70-71 or 71-72),


common in Etruria, Latium and Campania (Rasmussen 1979, 70, 143-144),
A773 can be dated between the middle and the last quarter of the 7th century
BC by the ribbed body (Hirschland Ramage 1970, 21). For the shape, see
Cascianelli 2000, no. 16, the amphora in Regter 2003, cat. 49 no. 61 and
several examples belonging to the Campana Collection published in CVA
Louvre 20, pls. 10-11.

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IVB pl. 3,10 (Belgique 94); Beazley-Magi 1939, 119.

5 cm

24
Catalogue

25
The Campana Collection

6. A777 (2250, H69) oinochoe with mouth in the shape of a lion’s


head

H. 24,6; diam. of rim 2,5; diam. of foot 5,1.


Restored from a fragmentary and partially incomplete state. Some encrustation
on both internal and external surfaces. Fine black bucchero.
Mouth in the shape of a lion’s head. High conical neck, slightly concave. A ridge
at the join between neck and shoulder. Globular body and disc foot. Vertical
cylindrical handle attached to the back of the lion’s head and to the shoulder.
Handle splits in two at the shoulder. Details of the lion’s head are incised, and
there is incised decoration on the neck and body. On the neck are six open fans
alternating with five triangles filled with converging lines. The body is decorated
with a series of incised figures and floral motifs arranged between two horizontal
lines. From left: a deer facing left with a floral motif in the background; two
lions facing each other, each with the tail ending in a flower, and each with a
human leg in its mouth; a floral motif; and a bull with plaited tail facing left.

Bucchero. Middle of the 7th century BC.

The Brussels vase has been compared with the fragmentary oinochoe in the
Vatican Museums (Pareti 1947, no. 418 pl. 58) by Gran-Aymerich 1983, 81,
who has underlined the influences from the Near East in the shape as well as in
the decoration of the vase. See also CVA Copenhague 5, pl. 197,4, Rasmussen
1979, 75 and pl.  7 fig.  26 and Biella 2011, 43-44. For the oinochoai with
plastic mouth, see Sciacca 2004, 30.

• Giglioli 1935, pl.  LXI,5; CVA Bruxelles 3, IVB pl.  3,11 (Belgique 94);
Pareti 1947, 374 no. 418, pl. LVIII; Blanco Freijeiro 1956, 11, fig. 18;
Huls 1957, 163 note 3; Brown 1960, 37-38, pl. XVIII,1-2; Camporeale
1962, 65, pl. XLV,6; Hiller 1963, 31 note 15; Verhoogen-Balty 1963,
no. 4; Richardson 1964, pl. XIV,a; García Y Bellido 1964, 74; Hiller
1965, 22 note 22, 29 note 25; Camporeale 1965, 7, no. 44; De Juliis 1968,
56; Culican 1968, 277; Johansen 1971, 40 note 2; Gran-Aymerich
1972, 41 note 2; Bonamici 1974, 45 no. 55; Camporeale 1976, 102 fig. 7;
Grau-Zimmermann 1978, 172, pl.  42d; Gran-Aymerich 1983, vol. I,
80‑81, fig. 2 (drawing); Sciacca 2004, 30 note 3.

26
Catalogue

5 cm

27
The Campana Collection

7. A775 (2248, H67) oinochoe

H. 13,4, to top of handle 14,8; diam. of mouth 4,9; diam. of foot 3,8.
Intact. Many encrustations on the surface. Fine bucchero, lustrous surface in
places.
Trefoil mouth; long conical neck, slightly concave, flaring outwards at the top.
A raised cordon marks the transition between neck and shoulder. Ovoid body
on disc foot. Handle attached to lip and shoulder. The upper part is round-
sectioned, and it becomes a ribbon in the lower section. The only decoration is
a row of five incised horizontal closed fans (four rays) at the bottom of the neck.

Bucchero. Last quarter of the 7th century BC.

The form (oinochoe type 2a, Rasmussen 1979, 76-77) has bronze and silver
prototypes which were imported from the Cypro-phoenician area, and
deposited in princely tombs in Etruria, Palestrina and Pontecagnano. This form,
in bucchero, is characteristic of Southern Etruria, and is dated to the second half
of the 7th century BC: see, for instance, the oinochoe Hannover inv. no. 1977,16
from Veii (Gercke 1996, no. 50). Quite similar, except for the position of the
fans, is a vase in the Costantini Collection at Fiesole Museum (Salvianti 1985,
no. 32). See also the oinochoai inv. no. GR 1985.12-28.1 at the British Museum
(Perkins 2007, 58 no. 227), inv. no. C477bis of the Campana Collection at the
Louvre (CVA Louvre 21, pl. 5, 8-9) and inv. no. 56930 from Veii (van Kampen
2003, 89 no. 105).

• CVA Bruxelles 2, IVB pl. 4, 38 (Belgique 95); Perkins 2007, 58.

5 cm

28
Catalogue

29
The Campana Collection

8. A776 (2249, H68) jug

H. 16,2, to top of handle 20,1; diam. of rim 10,3; diam. of foot 5,4.
Intact, except for small chips on the foot. Quite fine bucchero. Firing not
perfect, colour grayish. Repainted with modern lustrous black varnish over the
whole body, except under the foot.
Round mouth with thickened lip. High conical neck flaring outwards at the top.
Distinct angle between neck and shoulder. Ovoid body and ring foot. Vertical
ribbon handle attached at the lip and shoulder. On the body are incised vertical
parallel lines, a little irregular. On the neck are three parallel horizontal grooves
and a row of seven incised horizontal fans.

Bucchero. End of the 7th century BC.

Classifiable as type 1a (Rasmussen 1979, 89-90), this form is common from


the end of the 7th century to the middle of the 6th, especially in Southern Etruria
(Cherici 1988, nos. 66-68). See also Camporeale 1991, no. 136 and, provided
with decoration, CVA British Museum 7, pl. 14,12, and Rizzo 1990, 59 no. 55.
Since the decoration on the form becomes simpler over time until it finally
disappears, and the vase becomes slimmer, A776 can probably be dated to the
end of the 7th century BC.

• CVA Bruxelles 2, IVB pl. 4,11 (Belgique 95); Perkins 2007, 42.

5 cm

30
Catalogue

31
The Campana Collection

9. A781 (2254, H73) chalice

H. 13,9; diam. of rim 14,4; diam. of foot 1,2.


Surface much worked and cracked. Bucchero with impressed cylinder decoration.
The bowl has oblique walls which are slightly convex. At the transition from
wall to base of bowl is a ridge decorated with diamond notches. The bowl is
supported on a high stem amd flaring foot. Between the bowl and the foot is a
plain ridge. On the lower stem is a set of three shallow horizontal grooves. The
bowl is decorated above the notched ridge with cylinder stamped scenes between
shallow horizontal grooves. Two figures, facing right, are seated on klismoi with
footstools; in front of them is a procession of four figures facing left. The first
(perhaps female) seems to offer a crown, the last two each carry a spear, and the
second might also carry a spear in the right hand. Immediately behind the seated
pair is a draped figure facing right. This figure holds its hand to its head.

Cylinder stamped bucchero from Chiusi. End of the 7th-6th century BC.

This particular chalice form is common in Chiusine bucchero production, for


example, see the chalice in Turin inv. no. C56 (Hayes 1985, 95, C56) and one
of the C.A. Collection (Camporeale 1991, no. 108). The figured decoration
with alternating groups of human figures either standing or seated on thrones
or klismoi, belongs to Scalia’s group XII of the Chiusine cylinder stamps (Scalia
1968).

• CVA Bruxelles 2, IVB pl. 3,2 (Belgique 94); Scalia 1968, 374 no. 96

5 cm

32
Catalogue

33
The Campana Collection

10. A778 (2251, H70) krateriskos

H. 13,1; diam. of rim 10,6; diam. of foot 6,3


Metal handle: a mobile semicircular handle in bronze, with pine-cone terminals,
has been added in the modern period. It is attached to metal pieces inserted
through the top of each handle of the krateriskos.
Krateriskos: some restoration, notably one of the male heads on the handles. The
same kind of grey plaster seems to have been used for the restorations of A784.
Grey bucchero, quite fine. Much encrustation all over.
Oblique neck; distinct angle between neck and shoulder. Body globular; low
flaring foot. Two short vertical handles attached at lip and shoulder, each
decorated with an outward facing human head. The body is decorated with
three rows of incised tear drops with the pointed ends facing downwards. Below
the tear drops are three horizontal, parallel grooves.

Bucchero. 6th century BC.

Larger krateriskoi are dated by De Puma (1974) to the first half of the 6th century
BC, and considered to be made at Vulci. There are also krateriskoi of similar
form but decorated with an animal frieze published by Camporeale 1972, 55
nos. 1-2. See also Gercke 1996, no. 83.
The metal handle was originally attached to an ancient bronze situla, and it
was presumably added to the krateriskos by the Campana restorers. For similar
handles, ending in a pine-cone, see Berti-Guzzo 1993, 303, 304 nos. 476 and
477.

• CVA Bruxelles 2, IVB pl. 4,13 (Belgique 95); Donati 1969, 459, no. 1; De
Puma 1974, 29 nos. 10, 32, 34, pl. VIc.

5 cm

34
Catalogue

35
The Campana Collection

11. A780 (2253, H72) chalice

H. 18,4; diam. of rim 16,6, diam. of foot 14,5; h. caryatid 12.


Restored from fragments with minor replacements. Some encrustation on the
surface. Black bucchero, lustrous in places.
Roughly hemispherical bowl, with horizontal ridge near the bottom. The ridge is
decorated with diamond notches. Between the ridge and the lip is a set of three
fine horizontal incised grooves. Below the ridge are four fine incised horizontal
grooves. Inside the bowl at the bottom are a central boss and radial incisions.
The bowl is supported by a high and complex foot. It consists of a base with
central stepped conical stem which does not reach the bottom of the bowl, and
around the outside, attached to both base and bowl, are two caryatids alternating
with two openwork plaques decorated with a sphinx with body facing right and
frontal face.

Bucchero. Beginning of the 6th century BC.

This is a typical bucchero type 1a chalice with caryatid supports (Rasmussen


1979, 95). See also Cristofani-Zevi 1965, 23-27 and Brady 1977, 42-29. The
caryatid type is class B2 of Cristofani-Zevi 1965. It is a female figure, wearing
a mantle and polos, her hands grasping her braids at her breasts. This caryatid
type was produced at Caere and Veii in the first third of the 6th century. There are
many similar examples to A780 (see Brady 1977, 50); some are from the C.A.
Collection (Camporeale 1991, nos. 116-118).

• CVA Bruxelles 2, IVB pl. 1,13 (Belgique 92); Capecchi-Gonnella 1975,
79 no. 39; Brady 1977, 50, 155.

5 cm

36
Catalogue

37
The Campana Collection

12. A782 (2255, H74) kyathos

H. 5,9, to top of handle 12,9; diam. of rim 9,8; diam. of foot 5,9.
Intact. Bucchero, grey fabric with lustrous black surface. Traces of modern
varnish on the body.
Deep body with oblique walls, and low foot. High ribbon handle with a bull
protome at the top; handle attached at base of body and at lip. Inside the kyathos
are two incised lines.

Bucchero. Second/third quarter of the 6th century BC.

This can be classified as kyathos type 1h of Rasmussen (1979, 113-114 and


pl. 35,195), found in Southern Etruria, especially at Vulci. A782 is close in form
and decoration to the two kyathoi published by Rendeli 1996, 83 no. FE 10 4,
pl. XXI fig. 20 and 83 no. FE 10 3, pl. XXXI fig. 21. See also the examples in
the C.A. Collection (Camporeale 1991, nos. 133-134), and the kyathos of the
Campana Collection, now at Lille inv. no. 20 (CVA Lille. Palais des Beaux-Arts,
Université Charles-de-Gaulle, pl. 35,5).

• CVA Bruxelles 2, IVB pl. 4,1 (Belgique 95); CVA J. Paul Getty Museum 6
(1996), 34, pl. 324,1-2.

5 cm

38
Catalogue

39
The Campana Collection

13. A774 (2247, H66) oinochoe

H. 22,1; diam. of mouth 9,4; diam. of foot 7,1.


Intact. Bucchero, with traces of modern varnish on the outside and below the
foot.
Trefoil mouth, cylindrical neck flaring towards the lip. Transition between neck
and shoulder marked by a sharp change in angle and a raised cordon. Globular
body and wide ring foot. Thick ribbon handle attached at lip and shoulder.
Handle decorated, on the upper spring of the handle next to the lip, with a
human head, Daedalic style, with incised details.

Bucchero. Second half of the 6th century BC.

This can be classified as Rasmussen type 7a 1979, 75-76, 84-85 pl. 15 no. 60)
and Hirschland Ramage type 9d (1970, 32-34, 36, fig. 22 no. 4). Common
in Etruria, generally in grey bucchero, and rarely with decoration, see Zampieri
1991, no. 337.

• CVA Bruxelles 2, IVB pl. 3,13 (Belgique 94); Donati 1967, 632 note 48;
Donati 1969, 459, i.

5 cm

40
Catalogue

41
The Campana Collection

Corinthian

14. A710 (2183, H1) column-krater

H. 33,1; diam. of rim 34,2; width max 45; diam. of foot 19,4.
Restored from numerous fragments with additions. The paint has mostly
disappeared; traces remain of added red and white. Interior black painted, but
with some reddish and brown patches. ◊
On the lip is a zig-zag; on the neck a row of rosettes with a red disc at the centre
and white petals. The rosettes are repeated on the foot. Tongues on the shoulder.
At the bottom of the body are rays and above these a horizontal line. On the
plaque of each handle is a siren, and under each handle are two facing panthers.
On the body are two registers divided by a line. The upper register, side A, shows
three male figures reclining on klinai with fringed mattress covers, and before
them are tables laden with food and footstools. Three kylikes and two kerata
hang on the wall. Side B shows three riders galloping to the left. Each has a
helmet, spear and shield, and leads a second horse. Rosettes above, and a bird to
the right of the horsemen. The lower register shows an animal frieze with grazing
goat facing right and panther facing left repeated three times, and a siren.
Under foot, graffito.

Detroit Painter (J.L. Benson); near the Detroit Painter (D.A. Amyx). Middle
Corinthian, 590-570 BC.

The column-krater is a form characteristic of Middle Corinthian, throughout


the first half of the 6th century, and widespread in Etruria where A710 was
probably found. The banquet and procession of horsemen are common themes
in Middle Corinthian production, and illustrate characteristic activities of an
aristocratic society (Cristofani-Martelli 1996, 10-11 and 18). The horsemen
procession appears on another vase which belonged to Marquis Campana, now
in the Louvre (Cp10479), see Greenhalgh 1973, 96-111; Maul-Manderlatz
1990, 39-48; Madigan 2008, 3-4 no.  3 and Kardianou 2009. Also see the
Würzburg krater published in Günter-Simon 1997, no. 1.
In the 1970s the restorers of MRAH-KMKG (Margos 1977, 233-236) removed
the 19th century repainting and additions. The poor state of preservation of the
decoration makes attribution difficult. Benson (1953, List 82 no. 4a) initially
attributed it to the so-called ‘Three Maidens Painter’, but later reattributed it to
the ‘Banquet Scene Painter’, also known as the Detroit Painter (Benson 1969,
115). In a letter of 1967 from Benson to J. C. Balty, preserved at the MRAH-
KMKG, Benson says he is convinced that it is by the Detroit Painter. In contrast,
Amyx (1988, 197) attributes A710 to the Detroit Painter’s Group, together with
the Leningrad krater inv. no. B4462 and Corinth fragment inv. no. CP.2559.

• Payne 1931, 317 cat. 1181c; Payne 1940, 153, note 1; CVA Bruxelles 1,
IIIC pl.  5,4 (Belgique 10); Benson 1953, List 82 no.  4a; Benson 1956,
227; MuM Auktion XXII, Basel 13 Mai 1961, 56; Amyx 1961, 11 note 31;
Kleinbauer 1964, 358, note 20; EAA VII (1966), s.v. “Scene di banchetto,
pittore di”, 93, fig.  126; Benson 1969, 115, 121 no.  D4, pl.  38 fig.  21;
Fehr 1971, 138 no. 9; Dentzer 1971, 248 note 2; Moore 1972, 162, B77;
Greenhalgh 1973, 108, 190, no. C19; Bakir 1974, 15, no. K38; Corinth
7, 54, 59; Margos 1977, 233-236, figs. 1-9; Dentzer 1982, 77 no. VC08;
Corinth 15, 135; Amyx 1988, 197 no. 2; Hofstetter 1990, 49 K70, 328
note 318; Cristofani-Martelli 1996, 22 no. 6; Günter-Simon 1997, 12.

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Etrusco-Corinthian

15. A711 (2184, H2) cup with human face

H. 8,4; diam. of rim 10,8; diam. of foot 4,7.


Intact apart from slight damage to the surface. Encrustations, and paint partly
lost. ◊
Lip quite deep, slightly convex, leans outwards. Body globular, small flaring
foot. Double-torus loop handle attached at bottom of lip and belly. Interior, lip,
lower body and handle painted black. Base reserved. On the body, opposite the
handle, is a human face modeled and with the features painted. Flanking the
face are two aquatic birds facing right, the feathers indicated with incised lines
(9 and 10). Various decorative motifs complete the field, and there are two lines
below the face.

“Gruppo a maschera umana”. 560-550 BC.

The “Gruppo a maschera umana”, late Etrusco-Corinthian, was identified and


named by Colonna (1959-60, 125-143). He includes A711 with the earliest
products of this painter, which he says are characterized by the use of more than
five incised lines to indicate the birds’ feathers. For the “Gruppo a maschera
umana”, active at Vulci and Caere during the third quarter of the 6th century, see
also Szilàgyi 1998, 588-596, and for the shape 380-381, Jucker 1991, nos. 264-
266; Moretti Sgubini 2001, 46-47, cat. I.F.1.5; Bellelli 2003, 95‑108.

• Greifenhagen 1936, 372; Mayence 1946, 372 with fig.; CVA Bruxelles
3, IIICb pl. 2,3 (Belgique 111); Colonna 1959-60, 127, no. 2; Trias de
Arribas 1967, 222; Szilàgyi 1998, 583, no. 108.

5 cm

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Attic black-figure

16. A715 (2188, H7) Tyrrhenian amphora

H. 37,4; diam. of rim 15,9; diam. of foot 11,1.


Intact, except for some chips in the rim. Encrustations on foot. Added white
faded, added red well preserved. ◊
Lip, foot and handles in black glaze. On neck, palmettes and lotus buds interlaced,
with detail in red and incisions. On the shoulder, below the plastic ring, red and
black tongues. At the base, rays. On the body, four friezes separated by pairs of
lines in dilute glaze. From the top, A1, four pairs of menads and satyrs dancing,
with nonsense inscriptions on the background; B1, eight hoplites running to
the left, with nonsense inscriptions on the background. The second frieze, A2,
panther to right, three sirens, panther to left; B2, he-goat to right, panther to
left, he-goat to right, panther to left. The third frieze, A3, ram to left, panther to
right, a deer-hunt, panther to left, ram to right; B3, panther to the left, ram to
the right, panther to the left, panther to the right. The fourth is an animal frieze,
a repeated scheme with a he-goat facing a panther.

Tyrrhenian Group. Kyllenios Painter (J. Kluiver). 560-550 BC.

In the 1950s, the restorers removed the 19th century repainting, as we read
in a letter dated from 18 September 1957, written by D. von Bothmer to V.
Verhoogen and kept in the MRAH-KMKG. A new restoration was carried out
in August 1977 (MRAH-KMKG, Restoration file).
The scene on side A, with ityphallic Satyrs and dancing Nymphs/Menads wearing
short belted dresses is common on Thyrrenian amphorae (Hedreen 1992, 149
note 101; Kluiver 2003, 98-100). Hoplites are also a common subject, but the
Brussels vase seems to be the only one on which the warriors are shown running
instead of marching (Kluiver 1992, 85). Also unusual is the scene of two men
hunting a deer on foot; they usually ride horses (Schnapp 1997, 220-222).
Both Beazley and von Bothmer knew of the Brussels amphora but neither
attributed it to a painter. Recently, it has been attributed to the Kyllenios Painter
by Kluiver (1992, 84-85). For this painter, recognizable in the slightly rigid
rendering of the warriors and the arrangement of animals in three registers
below the shoulder, see von Bothmer 1944, 165 and Kluiver 1996, 1-6, 31.
For the vessel shape used by the painter, see Kluiver 1993, 183-184, 189.
A careful analysis of the Brussels vase has been made by Baurain-Rebillard
(1998, 92-95) in a study of the use of alphabet letters and nonsense inscriptions
on Thyrrenian amphorae.

• Greifenhagen 1929, 79 no. 64; CVA Bruxelles 1, IIIHd pl. 1,2 (Belgique


12); von Bothmer 1944, 166 no. 8; ABV, 103 no. 109; Beazley 1958, 7;
CVA Altemburg 1 (1959), 17, pls. 13-14; Schauenburg 1973, 18, fig. 10;
Mayer-Emmerling 1982, 29-30, 118-119, cat. no. 11; Kurtz 1982, 165
no. 20; Add2, 27; Hedreen 1992, 143 no. 9, 149 no. 101; Kluiver 1992,
84-85 no.  5, figs. 17-22; Kluiver 1993, 183 no.  47; Kluiver 1996, 2
no. 118; Schnapp 1997, 222, 487 no. 98; Baurain-Rebillard 1997, 122,
123 no. 60, 146 figs. 35-36; Baurain-Rebillard 1998, 93, fig. 3; Isler-
Kerényi 2001, 138 no. 210; Kluiver 2003, 157 no. 118.

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17. A714/A (2187, H6) neck-amphora

H. 23,4; diam. of rim 14,1.


Restored from fragments. Several missing fragments on the rim and shoulder;
modern foot. ◊
On the rim, tongues. On the neck, a double row of antithetic palmettes linked
with a chain; on the shoulder, tongues, alternating plain and glazed, and a
palmette-lotus festoon. Upright lotus buds and a band of double rays above the
foot.
A-B: scene of warriors arming; on the background, nonsense inscriptions. Under
each handle, a winged figure.

Phrynos Painter (J.D. Beazley). 550-540 BC.

The amphora had been restored and completed, presumably by the restorers
working for Campana. They added the modern foot (A714), which was removed
during the restoration carried out by the team of the MRAH-KMKG under
the direction of Professor J.  C.  Balty in November 1977 (MRAH-KMKG,
Restoration file).
The vase belongs to the so called “Botkin Class”, a peculiar group of neck-
amphorae, of small dimensions and very elaborate ornament (Beazley 1931,
284; ABV, 169-170), for which the potter could have been Amasis (von
Bothmer 1985, 128, 132; Boardman 1987, 144-145). Mommsen (1997, 28)
has noted that A714/A has the same double ray pattern above the foot as the
amphora Cabinet des Médailles inv. no. 222, which carries the potter’s signature
(ABV, 152 no. 25; Para, 63; Add2, 43).
Beazley has attributed the Brussels vase to the Phrynos Painter, a member of the
so-called Little Masters, who was particularly fond of this kind of amphora as
well as of the more traditional cups (ABFV, 65). Stylistically the Brussels vase is
very close to the Würzburg amphora inv. no. L241 (ABV, 169 no. 5; Para, 70;
Add2, 48).
A close parallel for the iconography, which helps to complete the arming scene
on B, is the scene on a fragment in Milan inv. no. 4636 (ABV, 169 no. 2; Para,
71; Add2, 48). For the winged figure under the handles, see an amphora in Berlin
inv. no. F1714 (ABV, 169 no. 6; Para, 71; Add2, 48).

• Berchmans 1909, 38 no. 6; CVA Bruxelles 1, IIIHe pl. 1,1 (Belgique 14);


Jacobsthal 1927, 30 no. 45, 59 no. 98; Philippart 1928, 794; Beazley
1931, 284; Beazley 1932, 199; Homann-Wedeking 1938, 44; Beazley-
Magi 1939, 27; ABV, 169 no. 1, 169 no. 6; Para, 71; Mommsen 1975, 16,
20, 30, 39, 80, pl. 134; Canciani 1980, 152 no. 33; Gorbunova 1983,
37; von Bothmer 1985, 132 fig.  81; Add2, 48; Siurla-Theodoridou
1989, cat. 19 no. 3; Spiess 1992, 49, 199 B43; Killet 1996, cat. 3 no. 6;
Mommsen 1997, 28; Angiolillo 1997, 155; Baurain-Rebillard 1997,
124, 149 fig. 40; Mommsen 2009, 32 no. 1.

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18. A713 (2186, H4) amphora type B

H. 23,6; diam. of rim 11; diam. of foot 8,8.


Restored from fragments. Scratched surface, mainly on rim and handles. On the
foot, large red area misfired. ◊
The inside is black-glazed until halfway down the neck, except for a red line near
the rim. Outside, a red line on the neck and hanging lotus buds. Rays above the
foot.
A: Dionysos between a female figure on the right and Hermes on the left; a
dotted vine in the background. B: Amazon fighting with two warriors.

520-510 BC.

On the obverse of the amphora, cleaned of its 19th century repainting, Dionysos


holding a keras stands between Hermes and a female figure, possibly Ariadne.
For the identification of the figure, who is often represented together with the
wine god as well as Dionysos’ followers, satyrs, menads or nymphs, see Hedreen
1992, 36-44 and Isler-Kerényi 2001, 116-118.
With regard to side B, von Bothmer included the scene in a small group of vases
representing three figures, an Amazon and two warriors, for which there are
not enough details to provide a more precise identification, so that the image is
classified as a generic Amazonomachy scene.

• CVA Bruxelles 1, IIIHe pl.  11,4 (Belgique 24); von Bothmer 1957, 76
no.  59; Gericke 1970, 178 table 72 no.  31; Mommsen 1975, 36 and
no. 193; LIMC I (1981), s.v. “Amazones”, no. 270.

5 cm

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19. A712 (2185, H3) neck-amphora

H. 23; diam. of rim 11,4; diam. of foot 8,8.


Restored from fragments. Scratched surface in the interior, rim and handles.
Inside the neck, lip, exterior handles and foot black-glazed. ◊
On the neck, a double palmette lotus-chain, with details in red, and graffito. On
the shoulder, tongues alternating black and red. Below the scene, the ornament is
on two bands separated by two groups of three parallel lines: upright lotus buds
and broken key running left. At the base, rays. Under each handle, palmette
cross.
A: two hoplites fighting over the body of a dead warrior; at either side, a women
looking on. B: Herakles fighting Triton. On the left, an old man seated, and on
the right, a small winged figure is placed close to a palmette under the handle.

Three‑Line Group (J.D. Beazley). 520-510 BC.

On side A, two hoplites fighting in the presence of two women may indicate the
fight between Achilles and Memnon supported by their mothers, Thetis and Eos,
who according to the version of the myth in the Aithiopis (see Slatkin 1991,
23-26), are each present at her son’s side. Thus, the dead warrior could be either
Antilochos, following the literary tradition, or Melanippos, according to the pottery
tradition, a Greek hero murdered by Memnon (EAA IV, s.v. “Memnone-1”, 999-
1000; LIMC VI, s.v. “Memnon”, 448-450; LIMC I, s.v. “Antilochos I”, 830-831).
The small winged figure on B could be an allusion to the soul of Memnon, as one
version of the myth states that Eos obtains immortality for her son destined to die,
so that at the end of the fight, his soul was flown away by a god. For the winged
figure, stylistically very similar to the small figures on the amphora München inv.
no. 1493 (J153) with the labour of Sisyphus, attributed to the Bucci Painter by
Beazley (ABV, 316 no. 7; Para, 137; Add2, 85), see Bardel 2000, 140-160, with
bibliography.
With reference to the scene on side B, two other amphorae attributed to the
Three‑Line Group – in Rome, Villa Giulia inv. no. 30660 (ABV, 693 no. 8bis;
Para 140; Add2, 86) and in Munich inv. no. J1271 (CVA München 8, pls. 373,4,
377,1-2, 378,4) – show the fight between Herakles and Triton (Ahlberg-
Cornell 1984, 40). On this theme, which is not recorded in the literary sources,
but is common in 6th century vase painting, see LIMC VIII, s.v. “Triton”, 68-69,
72-73 and Wünsche 2003, 193-197.
For the rendering of the figures, especially the warrior and the seated old man, see
the amphora in Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität inv. no. 301675 (ABV, 320
no. 4). For the female figures, see also the amphorae in the Louvre inv. no. F224
(ABV, 320 no. 5; Para 140; Add2, 86) and in Berlin inv. no. F3996 (ABV, 320 no. 7;
Add2, 86; CVA Berlin 5, pl. 40,1-4). For the shape and the accessory decoration,
with the characteristic three parallel lines and the elaborate palmette-cross under
the handles, see Munich inv. no. 1502 (J478) (ABV, 321 no. 10; Add2, 86; CVA
München 8, pls. 378,6 and 379,1-2) and Malibu inv. no. 86.AE.76 (ABV, 140
no. 6bis; CVA J. Paul Getty Museum 1, pls. 30,1-2 and 34,1-2). On the Three‑Line
Group, see ABV, 320-321; Para 140 and CVA J. Paul Getty Museum 1, 30.

• Langlotz 1920, 23; CVA Bruxelles 1, IIIHe pl. 9,3 (Belgique 22); ABV, 320
no.  3, 693; Brommer 1973, 144 no.  A1, 348 no.  17; ABFV, 112 fig.  217;
Ahlberg-Cornell 1984, 8, 40 no. V 11, 42, pl. 124,V11; Korshak 1987, 59,
no. 148; CVA J. Paul Getty Museum 1(1988), 30; Add2, 86; Frontisi-Ducroux
1995, pl.  28; LIMC VIII (1997), s.v. “Triton”, 70; Muth 2008, 184-185,
fig. 103.

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Attic red-figure

20. A717 (2190, H9) stamnos + fragment New York, Metropolitan


Museum of Art 1985.60.I (1985 entry in MRAH-KMKG; permanent
deposit of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)

H. 37; diam. of rim 22,5; width max 3,6; diam. of foot 15,6.
Restored from fragments, with plaster additions. Remains of ancient restorations:
metal rivets.
On shoulder, tongues and row of palmettes. Palmette and volute complex around
each handle. Below pictures, palmettes; beneath, rows. Details in white and red.
A: symposium. Three young men reclining on klinai in the company of three
hetairai. Inscriptions in red: choro, pheidiades (retrogade), helike, smikros, rhode
(retrogade), ua[..] (retrogade), Smikros eg[r]aphsen. B: servants refilling the
mixing-bowl, pouring wine from amphorae. Inscriptions in red: Euarchos,
Euelthon (retrogade), [A]ntias kalos, E[u]alkides kalos (retrogade).
Under foot, graffito.

Smikros, 510-500 BC.

The Campana stamnos is known from the end of 19th century, mainly for
the inscriptions and, in particular, for the potter’s signature on side A, above
the central figure, which is labelled with the same name as the painter,
Smikros. Edmond Pottier knew of the stamnos in 1888 thanks to the notes
of Albert Dumont and a drawing sent to him by Jean de Witte (Pottier
1888, 177 note 1), but there is no mention that it belonged to the Campana
Collection. The modern paint, typical of the work of Campana’s restorers,
was removed after the publication of Gaspar (1902, 14-41, pl.  II, with
watercolors ordered by A. van Branteghem, today at MRAH-KMKG). As
Philippart (1930, 162) writes: “les repeints qui figurent sur la planche II des
Mon. Piot IX, 1902, ont été supprimés”. A further restoration was made in
MRAH-KMKG after D. von Bothmer recognized a fragment as belonging
to the shoulder of the stamnos and the Metropolitan Museum of New York
gave it to the Brussels Museum in 1985 (von Bothmer 1986, 18 note 22).
The vase shows an elaborate symposium, with the servants on the side
B. It is similar to the iconography on a fragmentary calyx-krater in
Munich, which has so many affinities with the Brussels stamnos that
Vermeule (1965, 34-35) has suggested that the latter is “an experimental
reflection made while the krater was still in the shop in Athens unsold”.
On the stamnos, the painter has represented, together with Pheidiades, another
young man, the hetairai Helike, Choro and Rhode, and the figure labelled as
Smikros. The latter could be a self-portrait of the painter, the only known
example in Attic pottery (Keuls 1997, 287-289), and it would be of an artisan
taking part in an aristocratic symposium, a rarity in the Greek world. The scene
is therefore important for the study of the social status of potters and painters
in Athens, for the presence of the signature (Cohen 1991, 49-95; Williams
1995, 139-160) as well as for the participation of an artisan in an aristocratic
practice (Mark 1995, 32), generally considered improbable, if not impossible.
Recently a new hypothesis has been suggested (Hedreen 2009): the painter
represents himself as a caricature in a humourous way, mocking himself and his
colleagues. An ironic way of communication, which would seem typical of the
Pioneer Group, to which Smikros belongs. They would have adopted this

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Catalogue

practice from iambic poetry, well known in the symposium environment,


achieving “the successful translation of a strategy of iambic poetic humor into
a visual medium” (Hedreen 2009, p. 239). The scene could be understood
not only by painters and potters, but also by the aristocrats at the symposium,
accustomed to iambic poetry.
For its exceptionality, Webster (1972, 42) has put the Brussels stamnos in the
chapter devoted to “special commissions”, writing: “This was clearly painted for
a special party and prompts the question, did he paint a whole set of drinking
vessels for this party?”.
For Smikros, see Peredolskaja 1958; Greifenhagen 1967b; Greifenhagen
1974; Ohly-Dumm 1974.

• Moniteur Belge 1863, 2784; Bulletin des Commissions Royales d’Art et


d’Archéologie 3 (1864), 236; AA 1865, 20 note 36; Pottier 1988, 177
note 1; Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift 1889, 778; Wernicke 1890, 30-
31 nos. 4 and 56; Klein 1890, 67, no. 1; Kretschmer 1894, 172 no. 150;
Cumont 1901, 56 no. 22; Gaspar 1901, 8; Gaspar 1902, 15-41, pl. 2; de
Mot 1903, 52; Pottier 1904, 17 fig. 3, 32; Walter 1905, vol. I, 440 and
vol. II, 260; Pottier 1906, 693; Berchmans 1909, 68 and 86; Jacobsthal
1912, 50, 62; Rizzo 1913, 148; Lamer 1914, 63 fig. 87; Radford 1915,
115 note 23; Nicole 1916, 408 no. 112,1; Perrot-Chipiez 1882-1914,
vol. IX, fig. 186; Hoppin 1917, 35 note 3; Hoppin 1919, II, 416-418 no. 1;
Studniczka 1919, 126 note 4; Galli 1920, 45 note 7; Albizzati 1920,
153, 159 fig.  160 note 7; Langlotz 1920, 51 note 5, 84, 114 note 4;
Ducati 1922, fig. 229; Pfuhl 1923, 444 § 476, fig. 388; Beazley 1925,
62; Nicole 1926, pl.  XXXI; Jacobsthal 1927, pl.  92b; RE (1927), s.v.
“Smikros”, col. 715; Beazley 1928, 62 note 4; Philippart 1930, 152 and
161-162, pl. IV; Furtwangler-Reichhold 1904-32, vol. II, 4, 10 note 2;
Kraiker 1931, 18 no. 51; Cloché 1931, pl. XXI,3; Picard 1935, pl. 27,1;
Hofkes-Brukker 1935, 50; Richter-Milne 1935, 9; CVA Bruxelles 2,
IIIic, pls. 12 and 13 (Belgique 65-66); Robinson-Fluck 1937, 78 no. 14;
Buschor 1940, 143 fig. 161/163; Musées royaux d’Art et d’Histoire, Album
(Brussels s.d.), 36 figs. 67-68; Beazley 1946, pl. I,4; Dinsmoor 1946, 117,
no. 94; Richter 1946, 57; CVA Copenhague 8 (s.d.), pl. 331; Verhoogen
1951, pl. XI; Rumpf 1953, pl. 20,8; ARV2, 20 no. 1, 1619; Dugas 1960,
146 note 1; Arias-Hirmer 1960, fig.  146; Wegner 1963, 97, fig.  61;
Vermeule 1965, 34-35, 38, pls. 13,2 and 14; Robertson 1964-65, 113
note 33; Bernhard 1966, fig. 226; EAA VII (1966), fig. 470; Philippaki
1967, 4-8; Greifenhagen 1967a, 452-453, 529; Mingazzini 1967-68,
337, 339 fig. 12; Krug 1968, 84 Liste 6B; Kyrieleis 1969, 152 no. 17;
Gericke 1970, 14 note 23, 88 note 568, 110 pl. 4 no. 42; Lullies 1971,
50, pl. 21.1; Para, 322; Charbonneaux - Martin-Villard 1971, fig. 381;
Green 1972, 14 note 49; Webster 1972, 42; Krauen 1973, 23 note 38;
Schauenburg 1973, 28, 40 note 52; Finkenstaedt 1974, 245; ARFV,
fig. 32.1,2; Ziomecki 1975, 37, fig. 9; Simon -Hirmer 1976, pls. 110-111;
Knigge 1976, 113 no. 98.2; Dover 1978, 212 R35; Johnston 1979, 111
no. 16C.1, fig. 6a; Berger-Lullies 1979, 221, fig. 5; Arrigoni 1981, 256,
pl. 64; Paul 1982, 195; Scheibler 1983, 128-129, fig. 115; Kurtz 1983,
52 note 199; Bérard et alii 1984, 15, fig. 17; Bažant 1985, 2, pls. 21,34
and 31,50; Keuls 1985, 212-213, fig. 185 Hurwit 1985, 267, fig. 114;
Browing 1985, 89; von Bothmer 1986, 18, fig. 18; Peschel 1987, pl. 1;
Lissarrague 1987a, 28, fig. 10; Duysinx 1988, ill. 1; Müller 1988, 139,
fig. 8; Noble 1988, fig. 109; Keuls 1988, 307, fig. 10; Add2, 154; Kurtz
1989, pl. 25,3-4; Reinsberg 1989, 98, fig. 47a-b; Bioul 1990, 5 and fig. 2;

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Immerwahr 1990, 68, no.  400; Stubbe 1991, 24, fig.  23; Robertson
1992, 96, 98 note 74; Martens 1992, fig. 45; Somville 1992, 173, 177,
180 fig. 1; Williams 1992, 88; Dierichs 1993, 68 fig. 120; Mathiesen
1993, 73; Wolf 1993, 112 note 578, 114 note 584; Fantham et alii 1994,
281, fig. 10.1; Mark 1995, 33-34, figs. 3.11 and 3.12; Oenbrink 1996,
87 note 45; Geyer 1996, 36 fig. 25; Settis 1996, 820, fig. 34; Sparkes
1996, 112, fig. IV.13; Tiverios 1996, 130-131, figs. 102-103; Valavanis-
Kourkoumelis 1996, 70-71; Keuls 1997, 240, 289, 390 fig.  29, 406
fig.  62; Paul 1997, 15, fig.  5; Mommsen 1997, 28; Angiolillo 1997,
106 and 112; Baurain-Rebillard 1997, 125-126, 152-157 figs. 44-53;
Osborne 1998, 140, fig. 72; Sparkes 1998, 227, pl. 13.5; Fehr 2000, 130
fig. 34; Grimm 2001, 185-186, fig. 6; Liebeskunst: Liebeslust und Liebesleid
in der Weltkunst (Museum Rietberg, Zürich 2002), 28-29 no. 8; Neer 2002,
87-93, figs. 41-43, 111; Brulé 2003, 206; Brijder 2003, 24 figs. 29-30;
Martin 2003, 168; Bundrick 2005, 114 fig. 68, 221 note 38; Stansbury-
O’Donnel 2006, 269; Moore 2008, 19; Catoni 2008, fig. 2; Tsingarida
2009, cover; Hedreen 2009, 200-213, 234-235.

5 cm

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21. A723 (2196, H15) kylix

H. 9,5; diam. rim 26,5; width with handles 33,7; diam. foot 10,9.
Restored from fragments. ◊
I: satyr holding a kantharos seated on a wineskin, which has the inscription
kra[te]s kalos in black. In the background, the inscription krates k[a]los in red. A:
five satyrs, three of which dancing, one playing pipes, one riding a phallos bird.
In the background, the inscription krates k[a]los ka[lo]s in red. B: komos: three
youths dancing, one with pointed amphora on which is the inscription krates in
black; on the right, a fourth komast has a ladle, and close to him an amphora on
a stand has the inscription ka[l]os in black. In the background, the inscription
krates kal[o]s krates in red.

Proto-Panaitian Group (J.D. Beazley). 500-490 BC.

In the 19th century, Hartwig (1893, 69) attributed the cup to Euphronios;
eventually Beazley, who made a drawing of the kylix, which is in the Beazley
Archive in Oxford, wrote: “This is a difficult piece to place exactly: the inside is
very Panaetian; the outside is less so, and it combines old-fashioned traits with
more modern ones” (ARV2, 317).
The iconography is typical of the Dionysiac world, with satyrs dancing,
playing pipes and riding a bird with head and neck in the form of a phallus,
Mischwesen, for which see Boardman 1992, 227-242; Dierichs 1993, 48-49
and Rickenbach 2002, 60. Lissarrague (1987a, 44) describes the scene as
an extraordinary komos, where the positions of the satyrs are so audacious, that
two of them walk on their hands, upside down, recalling an “inverted” world.
Moreover, the presence of the phallus-bird refers to erotism and sexual desire. On
side B, a komos of men dancing and drunk with wine, to which the amphorae,
one held by a youth and another on a stand, clearly refer. Inside, where the satyr
is playing askoliasmos, vases linked with wine are also represented. However, the
trait d’union between the scenes represented on the kylix is rather the acclamation
kalos krates which appears on the three images. Mitchell (2009, 192) describes
the mad komos as a parody.
For the Proto-Panaitian Group, see ARV2, 314-318 and CVA British Museum 9
(1993), 22.

• Hartwig 1891, 251; Hartwig 1893, 69 pl.  7; Cumont 1901, 60;


Wernicke 1890, 73; Klein 1898, 90 no. 1; Pottier 1903, 52; Berchmans
1909, 41-43 no.  I, fig.  10a-c; Perrot-Chipiez 1882-1914, vol. X, 808,
818; Rizzo 1913, 136; Hoppin 1919, vol. I, 408 no. 22; Lücken 1919,
99; Pfuhl 1923, 421 § 452; Beazley 1925, 167 no.16 (attributed to
Panaitios Painter); Levi 1928, 183-184 and note 58; Philippart 1932,
16; Beazley 1933, 11; CVA Bruxelles 2, IIIic pl. 11,1 (Belgique 64); CVA
Musei Comunali Umbri (1940), 5; ARV2, 317 no.  15, 1590; Brommer
1959, 82 no.  173; Scheibler 1962, 17 note 79; Greifenhagen 1967a,
451 note 5, 487, pl.  55,4; Gericke 1970, 110 pl.  4 no.  43, 130 pl.  24
no.  170; Seki 1985, 45 nos.  165, 72, 123, 134; Roberts 1986, 62-63,
pl.  16; Lissarrague 1987a, 44 fig.  26; Lissarrague 1987b, 84, fig.  11;
Korshak 1987, 53, no. 85; Lissarrague 1988, 342, fig. 5; Ferrari 1988,
22 note 12; Add2, 214; Bérard 1990, 80, fig. 5; Lissarrague 1990, 59, 74,
fig. 2.13; Boardman 1992, 231 no. 14, 236, fig. 9; Dierichs 1993, 128
note 121; LIMC VIII (1997), s.v. “Silenoi”, no. 121; Baurain-Rebillard
1997, 120 note 48; Mitchell 2009, 192, 291.

66
Catalogue

5 cm

67
The Campana Collection

22. A718 (2191, H10) kantharos

H. 12,9, with handle 18; diam. of rim 15,4; diam. of foot 8,1.
Reconstructed from a number of fragments and restored. Missing parts on the
rim; one handle and the attachment of the other are modern reconstructions. ◊
A: in the centre, Herakles strikes a fallen Amazon. He wears a lion skin and
carries a sword in his left hand, and a bow in his right. To the left of the hero,
an Amazon advances towards the centre; on the right, two Amazons, one of
whom is on one knee drawing her bow, while the other, equipped as a hoplite,
strides toward the hero. Inscription in red: Doris egraphsen : Doris ep[oiesen]. B:
in the centre, a hoplite (Telamon) lifts his sword to strike a fallen Amazon. On
either side are Amazons dressed as hoplites, with round shields, spears, cuirass,
and crested helmets. They stride to the centre towards the hero, spears and bows
upraised. Inscription in red, on two lines: Chairestratos kalos.

Douris. 490-480 BC.

Today the kantharos is without the 19th century restorations visible on the
photos published in the CVA; it had been reconstructed from fragments and
partly repainted, probably by the restorers working for Campana. The Marquis
admired this vase, as is clear from the letter written by Louis Brüls to Portaels
on 3rd December 1862, after the visit he paid to what remained of the Campana
Museum at Rome: “Dans la 1e armoire vitrée j’ai remarqué plusieurs vases de la
célèbre fabrique de Nola, ce qui m’a surpris le plus fut un vase à anses relevées
avec figures jaunes, d’un côté le combat d’Hercule contre les Amazones, de l’autre
le même combat avec Thésée. Ce vase est un des plus beaux que j’ai vus dans
ma vie; Campana, dans sa lettre de la non acceptation de l’offre du Marchand
d’antiquités, observe que ce vase, qu’il décrit dans tous ses détails sans oublier les
inscriptions, doit être conservé pour lui, j’ai répondu aux administrateurs que
si on l’ôtait je renoncerais au projet de présenter la collection au Gouvernement
Belge pour l’acquérir”.
Gerhard mentioned the kantharos in the Archäologische Zeitung of 1846 and it
has been published in several handbooks and articles on Attic ceramography,
because it is peculiar for its shape as well as its iconography, and for the presence
of a double signature. It is a kantharos type C, a rare shape from the so-called
“Transitional Period I (‘Rich’)” of Douris (Buitron-Oliver 1995, 74-76). It
bears the only known double signature of Douris as both painter and potter
(Buitron-Oliver 1995, 63). Moreover, it has the inscription Chairestratos
kalos, which is associated with the earlier period (“Periods 1 and 2”) of Douris’
production (CVA British Museum 9, 33).
About the iconography, showing Herakles’ Amazonomachy on one side and
Telamon’s Amazonomachy on the other, von Bothmer (1957, 139) noted that
Douris inverted the traditional direction of the figures, resulting in a drawing and
composition which is quite poor. Buitron-Oliver (Buitron-Oliver 1995, 19)
writes: “Since Douris made the kantharos himself, and it is an unusual model,
the placement of sturdy figures on a sturdy vase may be deliberate, suggesting
that it may have been a special commission”.
For Douris, see Buitron-Oliver 1995; CVA British Museum 9, 32; Tzachou-
Alexandri 2002, 69-90.

68
Catalogue

• Gerhard 1846, 287 no. 23; de Witte 1847, 408, 513; Panofka 1850,
39; Brunn 1857, vol. II, 668; Bulletin des Comissions Royales d’Art et
d’Archéologie 3 (1864), 236; Nuove Memorie dell’Instituto II (1865), 393
Pl. XI; AA 1865, 20 no. 36; Birch 1873, 338; Wiener Vorlegeblätter VII
(1875), pl. 4; Corey 1891, 31; Roscher 1884-86, col. 2203; Klein 1883,
68, no. 22; Michaelis 1886, 36, no. 1; Klein 1898, 100, no. 13; Wernicke
1890, 86, no. 5; Hartwig 1893, 215; Gaspar 1901, fig. 1, 8; Mot 1903,
52-53; Furtwangler-Reichhold 1904-32, vol. II, 85-87, pl. 74; Pottier
1904, 9 fig. 1, 15, 79; RE (1905), s.v. “Duris”, col. 1858 no. 11; Walter
1905, vol. I, 434; Perrot-Chipiez 1882-1914, vol. X, 543-545, figs. 311-
313; Hackl 1909, 45 no. 502; Frucht 1914, 398, no. 12; Radford 1915,
115 no. 23; Nicole 1916, 398, no. 31; Buschor 1916, 81; Hoppin 1917,
28; Beazley 1918, 97; Hoppin 1919, 232-233, no. 13; Reichhold 1919,
56-57, pl. 22,14, 130 fig. 28; Galli 1920, 45 no. 7; Reinach 1922, vol.
I, 353; Ducati 1922, figs. 236-237; Pfuhl 1923, 478, fig. 453; Beazley
1925, 208; CVA Bruxelles 1, IIIic Pls. 5-6 (Belgique 32); Musées royaux d’Art
et d’Histoire, Album (Brussels s.d.), 37 fig. 69; Philippart 1926-27, 102;
Philippart 1928, 794; Bossert 1930, 192 fig.; Karousos 1930-31, 58;
Richter-Milne 1935, 25-26, fig. 168; Peters 1942, 79 no. 123; Beazley
1946, 39-40; Richter 1946, 83; Byvanck 1948, 188, 196; Schnitzler
1948, pl. 41 no. 57; Verhoogen 1951, pls. 14-15; Rumpf 1953, pl. 25,7;
ARV2, 445 no.  256, 1569; Giglioli 1955, 425 no.  57, fig.  LVII; von
Bothmer 1957, 132, no.  10, 139-140, pl.  70,4; Arias-Hirmer 1960,
no.  105, fig.  146; Caskey-Beazley 1963, 11; EAA VII (1966), 667,
fig. 786; van der Grinten 1966, 25 no. 4; Wegner 1968, no. 256; CVA
Bryn Mawr College 1 (1971), 23, Pl. 15, 8-9; Para, 521; Greifenhagen
1972, 31 and no.  72; Webster 1972, 14; Brommer 1973, 23 no.  B17;
ARFV, fig.  298; Seki 1981, 49 no.  8; LIMC I (1981), s.v. “Amazones”,
no. 83*; Keuls 1985, 45-46, fig. 25; Lunsingh Scheurleer 1986, 22-23,
no. 19; Schefold-Jung 1988, 156-157, fig. 194; Keuls 1988, 306, 307
fig. 10; Add2, 241; Bioul 1990, fig.19; Immerwahr 1990, 86; Robertson
1991, 97 no. 69; Buitron-Oliver 1991, 70, 72, 73 no. 14, 95, 97 no. 69;
Martens 1992, 108, fig. 45; Robertson 1992, 92, fig. 84; CVA British
Museum 9 (1993), 32; Geroulanos 1994, fig. 34; LIMC VII (1994), s.v.
“Telamon”, no. 8; Reeder 1995, 17, 374-376, no. 120; Buitron-Oliver
1995, 1, 3, 19, 41, 63, 75-76, pls. 32-33, no.  48; Tiverios 1996, 130-
131, figs. 102-103; Baurain-Rebillard 1997, 116-117, 120, 138 fig. 22,
143 fig. 31; Agora 30, 100 no. 28 and no. 31; Tzachou-Alexandri 2002,
87; Künstlerlexikon der Antike I, s.v. “Duris”, 194; Wünsche 2003, 141
fig. 18.11; Torelli 2004, 218; Giuman 2005, 211, fig. 8.12; Muth 2008,
361-366, fig. 259a-b; Sarti 2009a, 181 fig. 1.

69
The Campana Collection

5 cm

70
Catalogue

71
The Campana Collection

23. A721 (2194, H13) neck-amphora with double handles

H. 32,1; diam. of rim 13; width max 20,3; diam. of foot 8,6.
Intact. ◊
On the neck, an elaborate floral palmette pattern and a row of stopped meanders
with cross-squares underneath. On the shoulder, tongues. On the body, below
the picture a row of facing lyre palmettes; in the middle, a row of stopped
meanders with cross-squares. Under the handles, an elaborate arrangement of
palmettes and lotus buds.
A: an athlete, moving to right and looking back, holds an akontion. On right,
an akontion leaning against the wall, and on the ground a diskos decorated with
a silhouette owl and letters (kalos). On left, various objects (a strigil, an aryballos
and a sponge) on the wall. B: an athlete running to the left, holding an horizontal
akontion. On right, a dikella, on left an akontion leaning on the wall.

Eucharides Painter (J.D. Beazley). 480 BC.

The amphora was restored in February 1980 (MRAH-KMKG, Restoration file).


The athletes represented on both sides of A721 are akontists, javelin throwers.
Javelin throwing was one of the competitions of pentathlon, which also included
the jump, footrace, discus (diskos), throwing and wrestling: see Kyle 1987, 180-
181, Waddele 1991, 99-106; for the javelin, see Sweet 1987, 52-55; for the
pentathlon, see Miller 2005, 60-74. The objects hanging on the wall allude to a
palaestra, where athletes exercised. For the owl on the discus, see Beazley 1908,
316-318, Shapiro 1993, 216-218 and Valavanis 2005.
Beazley attributed the amphora to the Eucharides Painter, who worked in
both the black- and red-figure techniques (ABV, 395-398; ARV2, 226-232;
Langridge 1993; Agora 30, 93-94); for the rendering of anatomical details and
the use of dilute glaze, see Beazley 1911-12, 228-232.
Among the red-figure neck-amphorae attributed to the Eucharides Painter, the
Brussels vase is small, with double handles ending in two circular convex reel
shapes, like the amphora Naples inv. no. Stg. 249 (ARV2, 226, no. 6; Add2, 199).
Langridge (1993, 115-116) compares these two vases to the amphora in the
Louvre, inv. no. G202 (ARV2, 226, no. 4; Add2, 199), suggesting that they were
all made by the same potter. The amphora Louvre inv. no. G202, formerly in the
Campana Collection (Cataloghi Campana, Classe I serie VIII no. 75; ARV2, 226,
no. 4; Langridge 1993, 360-361, no. E46) has an elaborate neck pattern on the
obverse which is very similar to that of the Brussels amphora.
For the Eucharides Painter see ARV2, 226-232 and Langridge 1993. For the
shape, see Kurtz 1983, 77, Euwe 1988 and Langridge 1993, 112-120.

• Beazley 1908, 316; Beazley 1911-12, 223 no. 4, 228-232; Hoppin 1919,
vol. I, 356 no. 3; Beazley 1925, 94; Jacobsthal 1927, pl. 74a; Beazley
1928, 16 no.  1; Furtwangler-Reichhold 1904-32, vol. III, fig.  126,
pl.  162.2; Philippart 1930, 149, 160, Pl.  III,1; Philippart 1935, 206;
CVA Bruxelles 2, IIIic, pl.  14 (Belgique 67); Schnitzler 1948, Pl.  44;
ARV2, 226 no. 5; CVA Athens 2 (1954), IIIic 10, pl. 12,6-7; MuM Auktion
XXII, Basel 13 Mai 1961, 85 no. 160; Stähler 1967, 51; Jüthner 1968,
pl. 100a-b; ARFV, fig. 164; Kurtz 1975, 126 no. 9; Lezzi-Hafter 1976,
42 no.  174; Kurtz 1983, 77; Euwe 1988, 151 no.  5 and no.  14; Add2,
199; Langridge 1993, 112 nos. 14, 115, 228, 277, 360 E45; Goossens-
Thielemans 1996, 65; Vanhove 1996, no. 37bis, 4; Baurain-Rebillard
1997, 114, 136 fig. 18; Arte y Olimpismo 1999, no. 57; Miller 2005, 69
fig. 131; Verbanck-Piérard-Massar-Frère 2008, 395 no. IV.B.8.

72
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5 cm

73
The Campana Collection

74
Catalogue

75
The Campana Collection

24. A719 (2192, H11) oinochoe

H. 19,1; diam. of foot 7.


Mouth reconstructed and slightly restored. ◊
Oval body with a offset neck, a spout extending upwards and a handle. Lacking
all subsidiary ornament, except for a reserved line at the base of the neck and an
incised line below the picture.
A: a bearded men, nude except for a clamys and two headbands (one reserved
and the other in white), advances to right while leaning on a stick. He carries
a barbiton on this shoulders and holds a plektron in his left hand. B: a bearded
komast, nude except for a clamys and headbands (one reserved and one in red),
in frontal view but looking to the left, is playing krotala. The inscription kalos is
painted in red, placed horizontally between the two figures.

Painter of the Brussels Oinochoai (J.D. Beazley). Second quarter of the 5th
century BC.

It is the eponymous vase attributed, together with the oinochoe A720, by Beazley
to a painter working during the second quarter of the 5th century BC (ARV2,
775; Add2, 288).
The two figures look towards each other and are related; on similarly shaped
vases the two sides are usually connected. Such a shape is rare in Attica, but
quite common in Etruria, so that it has been suggested that it was made for
export (J. Neils, in Shapiro 1981, no. 47 and Donati 1993, 262-263). On
the Brussels vase the two komasts walk in the same direction and it is the krotala
player who is looking back which creates a clear link between the two figures, a
link emphasized by the kalos inscription.
For the Painter of the Brussels Oinochoai, see Robertson 1992, 218 and
Puritani 2009, 50-53.
For the shape, called oinochoe type VII by Beazley (ARV2, 775), see Schauenburg
1975, 97-102; Green 1972, 8; Lezzi-Hafter 1976, 12-13 and Puritani 2009.
In the middle of 19th century in Rome, the Campana Museum exhibited in
room K (see Cataloghi Campana, classe I, serie 11 no. 51 and no. 53) two further
similar oinochoai both attributed to the Painter of the Brussels Oinochoai, today
in the Louvre (inv. nos. G243 and G439).

• Beazley 1918, 133; Hoppin 1919, vol. I, 104 no.  2; Beazley 1925,
289; Philippart 1933, 62; CVA Bruxelles 2, IIIid pl.  5,1 (Belgique 74);
Dugas 1940, 128; ARV2, 775 no. 2; CVA Genève 1 (1962), 22, pl. 17,1-3;
Schauenburg 1975, 99 no.  17; Hommes et dieux 1982, 253; Paquette
1984, 177, B2; Add2, 288; Duysinx 1988, ill. 11; Maas-Snyder 1989, 131,
fig. 6; Bioul 1990, fig. 24; Baurain-Rebillard 1997, 121 no. 54; Dons des
Muses 2003, 193, no. 82; Puritani 2009, cat. A.5.

76
Catalogue

5 cm

77
The Campana Collection

25. A720 (2193, H12) oinochoe

H. 19; diam. of foot 6,9.


Intact, but with a chipped mouth.
Oval body with an offset neck, a spout extending upwards and a handle. Lacking
all subsidiary ornament, except for a reserved line at the base of the neck and an
incised line below the picture.
A: Nike advancing to the right, but looking to the left, holds a kerykeion in her
left hand. B: a bearded man, draped and with a headband, with a walking stick.
The man is in frontal view but looking to the right.

Painter of Brussels Oinochoai (J.D. Beazley). Second quarter of the 5th century
BC.

See oinochoe A719.

• Beazley 1918, 133; Hoppin 1919, vol. I, 104 no. 3; Beazley 1925, 289;
Philippart 1933, 62; CVA Bruxelles 2, IIIid Pl.  5,2 (Belgique 74); CVA
Genève 1 (1962), 22, pl. 17,1-3; ARV2, 775 no. 3; Lezzi-Hafter 1976, 12
fn. 63 and 65, 37 fn. 153; Hommes et dieux 1982, 253; LIMC V (1990), s.v.
“Iris I”, no. 173*; Puritani 2009, cat. A.6.

5 cm

78
Catalogue

79
The Campana Collection

26. A722 (2195, H14) lekythos

H. 30,8; diam. of mouth 6,5; max width 9,7; diam. of foot 6,1.
Restored from fragments. Inside encrustations. ◊
On the shoulder, palmettes in silhouette. On the body, at the top a band of
meander to the left and a cross square; below the picture, a reserved line.
A woman, wearing a himation over a chiton and a sakkos in her hair, walking to
the right and looking to the left, holding a sash in the left hand. Fillet suspended.

Dessypri Painter (J.D. Beazley). Middle of the 5th century BC.

Beazley attributed the Brussels vase to the Dessypri Painter, after a Greek
collector. The lekythos is of standard shape and shows a subject much loved by
the painter: a woman running with sash (cfr. ARV2, 1197-1198). Compare the
lekythos inv. no. 810 in the Collection of the Banco di Sicilia (Giudice-Tusa-
Tusa 1992, vol. II, 178 no. E80; for the painter, vol. I, 270).

• CVA Bruxelles 2, IIIid pl.  8,6 (Belgique 77); Beazley 1939, 150; ARV2,
1197 no. 1; Giudice-Tusa-Tusa 1992, 178-179.

2 cm

80
Catalogue

81
The Campana Collection

27. A726/A (2199, H18) pelike

H. 24,3; diam. of rim 15; diam. of foot 12,8.


Restored from fragments; one handle missing; surface chipped and worn.
Reddish patches from imperfect firing. ◊
Ionic kyma along the rim, and above and below the scene.
A: pygmy with club and pelta fighting against two cranes. B: two draped youths.

The Helbig-Reverse Group (J.D. Beazley). Middle of the 4th century BC.

The vase had been completed with the addition of a handle, probably in the
19th century to make it more marketable. The handle was removed during the
restoration carried out in October 1976 (MRAH-KMKG, Restoration file).
Beazley included the Brussels pelike in his Helbig-Reverse Group, so called
after an example today in Copenhagen, and formerly in the Helbig collection
(ARV2, 1474, 1708). Similarities in shape and decoration among the nine pelikai
attributed to the Group have been outlined by Klinger (1997, 38-39).
On side A of the Brussels vase is a fight between a pygmy and two cranes, a
frequent theme on pelikai dated to the 4th century BC, together with the
Amazonomachy and Gryphomachy (CVA Moscow 6, 25). For pygmies, see
Sparkes 2000a, 79-80 and Harari 2004, 163-190. The representation of two
draped youth on side B is also typical of the Group. Beazley has compared side
B of the Brussels vase to the drawing of the pelikai in Prague (ARV2, 1474 no. 2)
and Faenza (ARV2, 1474 no. 11).

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IIIie pl. 4,12 (Belgique 133); ARV2, 1474 no. 3; CVA Vienna
2 (1959), 24-25, pl. 85,1; Brommer 1973, 547 no. B1; Bohác 1958, 141;
Margos 1978; Des animaux et des hommes 1988, 200 no. 245; Hollein
1988, 390 no. 874, 400; Dasen 1993, 302 no. 85, pl. 69.2; Klinger 1997,
42; CVA Moscow 6 (2003), 25, pl. 14.

5 cm

82
Catalogue

83
The Campana Collection

Attic White Ground

28. A716 (2189, H8) Lekythos

H. 22; diam. of mouth 4,5; max. width 7,7; diam. of foot 5,3.
Intact. Chips on the surface. Paint partly faded on the mouth and handle. On
the base, a reddish patch. ◊
Chimney mouth, slim offset neck, sloping shoulder, cylindrical body, band
handle from neck to shoulder; tall disc base with concave edge. The mouth
is painted, except the top; on the shoulder, one row of black strokes and one
of rays; outer surface of the handle painted; two narrow black lines below the
shoulder; below this, a meander to the right, between black lines; at about mid-
body, an ivy branch with leaves and berries, one narrow black line and one
lattice band above and below; on lower body four incised lines; lowest part of
body and top of the foot are painted.

Second quarter of the 5th century BC.

It is one of the pattern lekythoi, produced during the first half of the 5th century
BC in Athens together with the palmette and the black-bodied lekythoi, for
the internal market as well as for export (Kurtz 1975, 131, 143). For their
production, associated with the Haimon Painter and the Beldam Painter, see
Kurtz 1975,152-155 and Brownlee 1995, 338-340 and 359-361.
The Brussels lekythos is very similar to the vases in Frankfurt inv. nos. 2688 and
2689 (CVA Frankfurt am Main 4, pls. 52,5-6 and 52,7-8); and the meander
decoration on the shoulder is very close to that on the lekythoi in Nantes inv.
no. D974-2-31 (CVA Nantes Musée Dobrée, pl. 22,9) and in Corinth (Corinth
13, 165). For further comparisons, see De Ruyt-Hackens 1974, no. 19 and
Zampieri 1991, 90-91 no. 28.

• CVA Bruxelles 2, IIIJa pl.  1,13


(Belgique 62); CVA Karlsruhe
1 (1951), 40, pl.  32,5;
Charitonidou 1958, 87;
CVA Torino 2 (1969), IIIH 10,
pl.  18,7; De Ruyt-Hackens
1974, 83; CVA Leiden 3 (1983),
9-10, pl. 112,7; Sassatelli 1993,
107.

2 cm

84
Catalogue

85
The Campana Collection

Attic black glaze with impressed decoration

29. A741 (2214, H33) kantharos

H. 11,9; diam. of rim 12; diam. of foot 6,7.


Intact. Chipped and worn surface. ◊
Glazed, with impressed figures. Deep oval body with short concave neck and
two vertical double handles from shoulder to rim. A border of ovules just below
the junction of neck and body; below the main scene, a border of sloping double
palmettes linked by spirals. Two grooves around the side of the foot.
A: two Gorgons running left and on the right Medusa, beheaded. Above her
Pegasus and at the foot of an Ionic sphinx column the baby Chrysaor. B: on the
left, Athena facing Hermes followed by Perseus.

About 430 BC. From Cumae.

The vase was published in Annali dell’Istituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica


(Braun 1855, 18), with its provenance originally thought to be Cumae, but
eventually scholarly literature, with the exception of Gaspar (1902, 15), mentions
the provenance as Nola. The confusion is due to the interpretation given to the
adjective Nolan in the 19th century, when Nolan vases were “celebrated for the
extraordinary lustre and depth of colour of the black glaze which forms the
ground of the picture, and for the grace and refinement of the drawing”. The
adjective ‘Nolan’ therefore does not indicate the provenance, but a category of
objects considered particularly beautiful because of the lustrous glaze.
The association of the Brussels kantharos with four other Attic vases with
impressed decoration has led to the hypothesis of the existence of an Attic
workshop which employed incised decoration, a technique already known at
the beginning of the 5th century BC, but employed at the end of the 5th century
BC in order to represent human figures and not only floral motives (Sparkes
1968, 3).
The Brussels kantharos seems to have been produced together with a very similar
one today in Boston, both defined by Sparkes as the “Perseus shape” and dated to
about 430 BC. As regards the decoration, the use of clay stamps for single figures
allowed variation of the subject or/and the number and position of the figures,
so that there are slight differences between the two vases, for which the same
stamps were used. Such a technique was complex, and therefore soon replaced
with a simpler technique which allowed a whole scene to be impressed (Sparkes
1968, 4, 6-7, 11, 15).

• Braun 1855, 17-21, pl.  2 (drawing); Archäologischer Anzeiger December


1855, 97-98; Bulletin des Commissions Royales 3 (1864), 236; Knatz 1893,
21 no. 21; Walter 1896, 250; Gaspar 1901, 9; Gaspar 1902, 15; Robinson
1902, 131; Reinach 1905, 352; Roscher 1897-1909, s.v. “Perseus”, col.
2038; Cook 1925, 718-720, fig. 659; Sechan 1926, 25; Philippart 1928,
806; Beazley 1928, 71 no.  8; CVA Bruxelles 3, IIIL pl.  1,2 (Belgique
136); Merlin 1932, 604-605; Fairbanks 1948, 48 fig. 46; Schauenburg
1960, 46; Beckel 1961, 134; Dunbabin 1962, 358 no. 4; Sparkes 1968,
5, fig.  3, pl.  2,3; Agora 12, 27 no.  60, 76 no.  37; Brommer 1973, 283
no. E2; Robinson 1990, 254; LIMC VII (1994), s.v. “Perseus”, no. 167b*;
Boardman 2006, fig. 142.

86
Catalogue

5 cm

87
The Campana Collection

Attic black glaze

30. A763 (2236, H55) stemmed plate

H. 6,2; diam. of rim 19,3; diam. of foot 7,8. ◊


Broad rim, reserved except for a black band along the lip, shallow plate glazed in
lustrous black paint but a reserved band on the exterior, reserved high stem. On
the reserved parts, traces of dilute paint.

End of 5th century BC.

The stemmed plate was not published in the Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum because
it was considered a pastiche, as the vase description of that time (file in MRAH-
KMKG) suggests: “Assiette à bord plat, montée sur pied (de coupe?) terre rosée,
surface orangée-noir lustré passant à l’olivâtre. Rebord plat intérieur, large bande
extérieure, partie du pied: réservés. Pied recollé. Pièce remaniée?”.
Now, however, it may be included in a group of Attic plates (Agora 12, 143)
which have been discovered in great quantity in North Italy, especially in the
area of Spina. See, for Spina cemeteries, Massei 1978, 220 no. 7, pl. LI,3, 231
no. 3, pl. LIV,1 and, for the Numana area, Fabrini 1984, 80-81 no. 84. It is the
group of the “stemmed plates” classified in ARV2, 1305-1311; see also Sparkes
2000b, 320-329.

• Agora 12, 143 note 5.

2 cm

88
Catalogue

89
The Campana Collection

South Italian red-figure

31. A724 (2197, H16) bell-krater

H. 29,3; diam. of rim 31,4; width max 32,3; diam. of foot 15,1.
Intact. Surface chipped. Encrustation in the interior. ◊
Interior black-glazed, except for two reserved lines on the lip. Outer side of
the foot and area between the handles reserved. Under the lip, a continuous
branch of laurel leaves. Below the scene, a border of meanders broken with
cross squares.
A: woman offering a fillet to a herm, behind which is a silen with a thyrsus. B:
three draped youths, one of which has a rhabdos.

Lucanian. Amykos Painter (A.D. Trendall). “Painter A” of the Karneia Painter


(M. Denoyelle). 420-400 BC.

A.D. Trendall attributed A724 to the Amykos Painter, initator, together with
the Pisticci Painter, of Lucanian ceramography. See Trendall 1973, 3, 5-7;
LCS, 29-50; LCS Suppl. II, 156-157; Magi 1935, 119-137; Bertocchi 1958,
193-198; Trendall 1989, 17-18, 20-21, 55; Giambersio 1989; Jircik
1991, 37-66; Schauenburg 1999, 169-173; Kossatz-Deissman 2000, 260-
264; CVA Dresden 1 (2003), 83; Schmidt 2002, 262-263; Roubis 2005;
Castoldi 2006b; Denoyelle-Iozzo 2009, 100-107.
Trendall (LCS, 34 no.118) has compared side B, on which the three draped
youths follow the scheme A1+C1+C (cf. LCS, 11-12), to side B of the krater
in Taranto inv. no. 6999 (LCS, 35 no. 133); he considered both late works of
the Amykos Painter. More recently, M. Denoyelle (CVA Louvre 25, 23) has
attributed the Brussels vase, together with nine other vases of different shapes,
to the so-called “Painter A” of the Karneia Painter, responsible for decorating
the Dionysiac side of the Karneia krater in the National Archaeological
Museum of Taranto. Moreover, the scholar has compared it, in the rendering
of the woman, to the pelike in Naples inv. no. H2911 (LCS, 41 no. 188) and
to the column-krater at the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne inv.
no. D 150/1977 (LCS Suppl. III, 15 no. 180a). For the mantle-figures, see
Langner 2012, 14-20.
For the development of the bell-krater, a shape characteristic of the Italiote
workshops in the second half of 5th century BC, see Reho-Bumbalova 1979,
61-86 and Roubis 2005.

• Lullies 1931, 29 no.  53; CVA Bruxelles 2, IVDb pl.  4,3 (Belgique
85,3); Trendall 1938, 33 no. 78 (A2167); Beazley 1939, 150; LCS, 34
no. 118; Trendall 1973, 31 no. A129; LIMC V (1990), s.v. “Hermes”,
no. 135; De Cesare 1997, no. 337; Rückert 1998, 263, no. 155; CVA
Louvre 25 (1998), 23; CVA The State Hermitage Museum 1 (2005), 18,
pl.  12,1-2; Auktion. Kunstwerke der Antike 22 September 2006 (Basel
2006), 219.

90
Catalogue

5 cm

91
The Campana Collection

92
Catalogue

93
The Campana Collection

32. A725 (2198, H17) bell-krater

H. 20,5; diam. of rim 21,8; width max 22,9; diam. of foot 9,9.
Restored from fragments. Surface slightly chipped and worn. ◊
Reserved area between the handles, two reserved bands on the outer side of the
foot. On the reserved base of the foot, remains of dilute paint. Ionic kyma under
the rim and below the scene.
A: Eros flies towards a herm and an altar, bearing a dish of offerings and a fillet.
B: two draped youths.

Apulian. Related to the Eton-Nika Painter (A.D. Trendall). 380-370 BC.

Despite the following statement “D’après la lettre de H. Metzger, Prof. à la


Faculté des Lettres de Lyon, ce vase serait attique (26.6.54); il cite à l’appui
un classement (inédit) de J.D. Beazley” (MRAH-KMKG archives), there is no
reference to the possibility that A725 could be an Attic vase in the review of CVA
Bruxelles 3 by Beazley (1950, 88).
The Brussels krater has been compared by A.D. Trendall to the work of a follower
of the Tarporley Painter, the Eton-Nika Painter, who preferred painting bell-
kraters. For Apulian pottery, see more recently Castoldi 2006a.

• Tylliard 1923, 10; CVA Bruxelles 3, IVE pl. 2,1 (Belgique 146); Boardman
1954, 187 no. 41; Schauenburg 1957, 202 no. 46; Metzger 1965, 83,
no. 20, pl. XXXI/1; RVAp I, 4/94; LIMC III (1986), s.v. “Eros”, no. 462;
LIMC V (1990), s.v. “Hermes”, no.  111; De Cesare 1997, no.  336;
Rückert 1998, 266, no. 176; Papanastasiou 2004, 29 Kr. 71, pl. 40,1.

5 cm

94
Catalogue

95
The Campana Collection

33. A727 (2200, H19) bell-krater

H. 23,4; diam. of rim 20,7; max width 21,8; diam. of foot 9,4.
Intact, except for the chipped rim and a crack on the foot. ◊
Under the lip, a continuous branch of laurel leaves. Below the handles, a palmette
between two florals with added white. The base of the foot is reserved with black
concentric circles.
A: a draped man with a white wreath on the head, standing and holding a
stick (in white). On the background, two circular elements on the top, and two
volutes at the bottom. B: male figure sitting, wearing a himation and a white
wreath, and holding a sceptre (?) added in white. On the right, a decorative
motif with four volutes and details in added white.

Campanian. Ixion Painter (J.D. Beazley). 330-320 BC.

The Brussels krater has been attributed by J.D. Beazley to the Ixion Painter,
a follower of the school of the Cassandra Painter. Active in Campania during
the last third of the 4th century BC, the Ixion Painter is fond of monumental
vases with complex mythological scenes. The krater A727 shows some stylistic
features typical of the Ixion Painter, such as the characteristic white wreath on
the head of the figures and the subsidiary decoration. A.D. Trendall included it
in the third section of the Ixion Group, devoted to minor vases.
For the Ixion Painter and his Group, see Beazley 1943, 93-95; LCS, 335-346;
EAA IV, “Issione, Pittore di”, 245; LCS Suppl.  I, 58-60; LCS Suppl.  II, 205-
206; LCS Suppl.  III, 156-164; Trendall 1989, 161; Pasquier 1992, 13-39;
Denoyelle-Iozzo 2009, 198.

• Tylliard 1923, 19 no. 4; CVA Bruxelles 3, IVE pl. 2,16 (Belgique 146);


Beazley 1950, 88; LCS, 343 no. 837.

5 cm

96
Catalogue

97
The Campana Collection

34. A728 (2201, H20) skyphos

H. 15,7; diam. of rim 15,3; max width 23,5; diam. of foot 10,8.
Intact.
Black-glazed in the interior. Along the rim, Ionic kyma interrupted at the
handles. The base of the foot is reserved with black concentric circles. Below the
handles, palmette between florals.
A: woman wearing a chiton, with belt, earring and bracelet in white, sits on a
rock, holding a white fillet and a white wreath. B: draped male figure standing
to the left.

Campanian. Errera Painter (J.D. Beazley). 340-320 BC.

Beazley attributed the Brussels skyphos to the Errera Painter, a follower of the
Cassandra Painter’s school. The female figure with the visible flesh in white,
the white wreaths as well as the rock are all characteristic of the Errera Painter
(Trendall 1989, 160-161).
For the painter see also Beazley 1943, 83 and LCS, 321-322. For the shape, see
Reho-Bumbalova 1979, 171-182.

• Tylliard 1923, 19 no. 4; Beazley 1943, 83, no. 5; CVA Bruxelles 3, IVE
pl. 2,17 (Belgique 146); LCS, 323 no. 720; Trias de Arribas 1967, 234
no. 7.

5 cm

98
Catalogue

99
The Campana Collection

35. A729 (2202, H21) amphora

H. 71,8; diam. of rim 22,1; diam. of foot 16.


Intact, with small additions on rim and body.
Round the lip, a white laurel-wreath; on the neck, on both sides, palmette and
egg-moulding (in white on A and in black on B), tongue-pattern; below the
handles, palmettes; below, maeander and cross squares.

A: a youth with chlamys, pilos and a spear seated with a shield beside him inside
an heroon (an Ionic naiskos); on the top left, a white crown hangs. Outside the
naiskos, on the right, a woman with a mirror and a wreath; on the left, a youth
with a chlamys on his shoulders, holds a white stick and offers a plate. On the
background, a fillet. B: at either side of a stele with a tied ribbon, a draped youth
with a white wreath on the head.

Apulian. The Patera Painter (A.D. Trendall). 340-330 BC.

A.D. Trendall, in a letter dated 2nd September 1974, noted that this was an
amphora typical of the late phase of the Patera Painter, together with the vases
in Würzburg inv. no. 856 (RVAp II 23/98) and inv. no. 854 (RVAp II 23/100),
in the Villa Giulia inv. nos. 50654 and 50664 (RVAp II 23/96), in the British
Museum inv. no. F334 (RVAp II 23/101), in Milan inv. no. H.A. 221 (RVAp II
23/103), “and many other similar and unpublished vases”.
The Patera Painter, a contemporary of the Darius Painter, owes his name to the
characteristic long-handled patera which is often represented on his vases. He is
a very prolific painter who favours funerary scenes, generally a naiskos on one
side and a stele on the reverse of large vases. For the painter, see RVAp II, 721-
747; Trendall 1989, 94-96 and Schauenburg 1992, 414-431; Denoyelle-
Iozzo 2009, 156.
For the shape, see Reho-Bumbalova 1979, 99-103.

• CVA Bruxelles 1, IVDb pl. 2,2a-b


(Belgique 46); White 1956, 35
no. 2; Damevski 1976, 2; RVAp
Suppl. II, 23/102; McPhee 1979,
39 no. 17; Lohmann 1979, 194
no. A 170; Andreassi 1979, 51;
Lohmann 1982, 216 table 2.

5 cm

100
Catalogue

101
The Campana Collection

36. A730 (2203, H22) volute-krater

H. 46,1 and 53,4 (including handles); diam. of rim 24,2; diam. of foot 13,5.
Handles partly modern. ◊
On side B, a reddish patch due to inaccurate firing. On the lip, egg-moulding
below which a wave-pattern. On A, on the neck, a winged female bust to left; on
the shoulder a Ionic kyma. On B, on the neck, a palmette between spirals. Above
each design, an egg-and-tongue pattern; below, a border; below the handles,
palmettes. The handles terminate below in swans’ heads, and above in heads (on
A) and florals (on B).
A: inside a distyle Ionic heroon (naiskos) painted white, with acroteria on the
tympanon of the pediment and a meander at the base, a nude youth with
chlamys on the shoulder, running left. At the top, two circular elements, below
on the left an object. On the right of the naiskos, a woman richly dressed, with
fillets and a thyrsos (in white), leaning her left arm on a small pilaster. On the
left, a youth, with chlamys and a band on his head. B: two female figures wearing
chitons, a wreath on the hair which is tied up at the nape, jewels, standing at
either side of a stele with fillets; both carry a wreath.

Apulian. Group of Copenhagen 4223 (A.D. Trendall). 340-330 BC.

A.D. Trendall included the Brussels vase in the Group of the Painter of Copenhagen
4233, a forerunner of the Darius Painter (Aellen-Cambitoglou-Chamay
1986, 85-94): see RVAp II, 462-470; RVAp Suppl. I, 62-67; RVAp Suppl. II, 119-
136; Aellen-Cambitoglou-Chamay 1986, 89-107; Schauenburg 1989, 119-
149; Trendall 1989, 86-87; Hurschmann 1992-93, 32-36; Zampieri 1996,
84-95 no. 15; Schauenburg 1996-97, 7-30.
For the funerary scene with offerings at a heroon on the obverse and offerings at a
stele on the reverse, a common theme on Apulian red-figure pottery, see RVAp I,
186-188 and Pontrandolfo 1988. On the naiskos or heroon see Söldner 2009,
with earlier bibliography.
For the volute-krater with handles which terminate below in swans’ heads, and
above in Gorgons, introduced during the second quarter of the 4th century BC
and which become typical of the Apulian style, see Trendall 1966, 32; Reho-
Bumbalova 1979, 94-98; CVA J. Paul Getty Museum 3, 1-2; Isler-Kerényi
2008.

• CVA Bruxelles 2, IVDb pl. 3,1 (Belgique 84); White 1956, 35 no. 2; RVAp
I, 17/64; Lohmann 1979, 194 no. A 171, pl. 36,2.

102
Catalogue

5 cm

103
The Campana Collection

Gnathia and added colour

37. A770 (2243, H62) skyphos

H. 9,3; diam. of rim 9,2; diam. of foot 5,1.


Intact. Encrustation on the surface, mainly on the handles and interior. ◊
Covered inside and outside with a dull black glaze with greenish sheen, except
for a reserved band between body and foot. A deep cup resting on a ring foot,
with two horizontal round handles below a plain rim. Added colour (white and
yellow) decoration. Under the rim, a series of dots and a reserved band, between
a pair of incised lines, filled with oblique ‘S’s and dots. On the obverse, a garland
between two wreaths; on the reverse, a wreath between a garland and a fillet. On
both sides, crosses with dots on the background.

Etruscan. Second half of the 4th century BC.

Classified as Gnathia pottery in the Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum, the skyphos


A770 seems rather an Etruscan product, imitating the Gnathia style. It resembles
the example inv. no. RC 2611 published in Pianu 1982, 111 no. 211, as well
as the Campana skyphoi in the Louvre Cp 462 and Cp 463 (Denoyelle-Iozzo
2009, 212 fig. 299).

• CVA Bruxelles 1, IVDc pl. 2,16 (Belgique 48).

5 cm

104
Catalogue

105
The Campana Collection

38. A732 (2205, H24) oinochoe

H. 46, with protome 47,4; diam. of foot 13,4.


Handle lost.
The points of attachment of the handle both have a head of a silen with the eyes,
eyebrows and beard in yellow. Black-glazed except for a reserved band between
the body and foot, and underside the foot. The ribbed body has a band between
white lines, filled with an incised ziz-zag and painted in red and yellow, with ivy
leaves and white dots around the body. On the neck, a male figure in Phrygian
dress and cap (in white and yellow) seated on a rock; above, a grape vine (in
white and yellow) interrupted at the handle and hanging vertically, with two red
and white fillets at either side of the figure; below, a white line.

Gnathia style. Last quarter of the 4th century BC.

In Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum the Brussels oinochoe is published with a handle,


ancient but not belonging, which was removed by the conservators of the
MRAH-KMKG under the direction of Professor J. C. Balty.
The trefoil oinochoe is a common vessel shape in Gnathia pottery. At the end
of the 4th century and during the 3rd century BC, it had developed a long and
narrow neck with a distinctive decoration of ivy branches, grapes alternating
with tendrils and leaves, sometimes with the addition of objects such as a bird
or a mask (Lippolis 1994, 244-246). The oinochoai A732 and A733, rather
large and with a good quality glaze, can be dated to the last quarter of the 4th
century BC (phase B1 of Taranto). A similar example is the vase published in
Mayo-Hamma 1983, 274-275 no. 135. For the Gnathia style see, more recently,
Denoyelle-Iozzo 2009, 207-212.

• CVA Bruxelles 1, IVDc


pl.  1,2 (Belgique 47);
Bulle 1930, 35 no.  62,
36 no.  65; Langlotz
1932, 150; Beazley
1947, 211; Forti 1965,
107-108 no.  21, 166
no.  19; Webster 1968,
31, no.  5; Schauenburg
1990-91, 31.

5 cm

106
Catalogue

107
The Campana Collection

39. A733 (2206, H25) oinochoe

H. 38,1, with protome 40,4; diam. of foot 11,1.


Intact, with mended handle. Rim, handle and foot chipped. Added paint partly
lost. ◊
Covered in black, quite lustrous, glaze except for a band between the body and
foot, and the standing surface. On the neck, a mask (in white) between red fillets
with white fringes, hanging from a branch (in white and yellow), interrupted
at handle. At the mid-point of the ribbed body, a reserved band between white
lines, filled with alternating white and red rosettes. Where the top of the handle
is attached is the head of a satyr painted in white.

Gnathia style. End of the 4th century BC.

The restoration carried out by the team of the MRAH-KMKG under the
direction of Professor J. C. Balty, resulted in the removal of the paint probably
added by the restorers of Marquis Campana: the images published in Corpus
Vasorum Antiquorum show a complete mask.
The oinochoe was classified as shape 5 by Webster (1968, 4), who attributed it
to the Ribbed Group. The introduction of ribbing in the decoration of Gnathia
vases is dated to the end of 4th century BC. Because of the reduced space available
for decoration, fixed motives, such as birds and female heads between floral
elements, developed on very limited parts of the vase (Green 1989, 223). For
the decoration on the neck, see oinochoe inv. no. 20888 of G. Chierici Museum
in Reggio Emilia (Pedrazzi 1998, 58 cat. 4.04). For a discussion on production
and chronology of the Italiote ribbed vases, see Puritani 2002, 396-399.

• CVA Bruxelles 1, IVDc


pl.  1,4 (Belgique
47); Bulle 1930, 36
no.  64; Langlotz
1932, 150; Webster
1951, 223 nos.  15,
224, 229; Webster
1960, 31; Webster
1968, 25, no.  17;
Webster 1969, 63,
GV25a; Curti 1998,
43-44.

5 cm

108
Catalogue

109
The Campana Collection

40. A734 (2207, H26) lekythos

H. 42; diam. of rim 12,6; diam. of foot 13,1.


Intact. Interior of mouth and surface slightly chipped. ◊
Black-glazed except for a band between the body and foot, and underside the
foot. Flaring mouth, neck with concave profile, ovoid ribbed body with, at mid-
point, a reserved band between red lines, filled with decoration in white and
yellow. On the shoulder, a female head in profile, with hair tied at the nape (in
white and yellow), facing left, between branches. White and yellow tongues on
the neck under the double handle, with the knot of Herakles at top.

Gnathia style. End of the 4th century BC.

The Brussels vase is similar to lekythos from Rudiae, which however has a protome
at the lower point of attachment of the handle (series 5419b1 of Morel 1981),
and to one from Francavilla Fontana (Marinazzo 1979, 27-39 pl. II). See also
the lekythos, a little later as it has a slimmer body and the decoration is coarser, in
Andreassi et alii 1995, 57 no. 1.3.6, and an example with the knot of Herakles
on the handle in Madrid (Pérez Ballester 2002, 53 no.  2). For the type,
common in the Messapian area, see Bernardini 1961, pl. 51,1-7.
For handles with the knot of Herakles, quite frequent in Gnathia pottery at the
end of the 4th and during the 3rd century BC, see Green 1989, 224.

• CVA Bruxelles 1, IVDc pl. 2,7 (Belgique 48); Winckelman 1972-73, 159


fig. 2.

5 cm

110
Catalogue

111
The Campana Collection

41. A751 (2224, H43) bombylios/bottle

H. 10; diam. of foot 4,2.


Restored from fragments. Mouth missing. Foot chipped. ◊
Lustrous black glaze. The outer side and underside of foot is reserved with added
miltos. Added colours only partly preserved. Tall moulded foot, globular body
and slim neck. Decoration incised and painted in yellow-white and some red.
On the neck, white tongues, a Ionic kyma, and a series of white dots. On the
body, between pairs of incised lines and a series of dots in white, is a protome
of winged female facing left and wearing a sakkos (in yellow-white). Next to the
right wing (in red with white details) are the remains of a white rosette.

Gnathia style. End of the 4th century BC.

Campana’s restorers created a pastiche, using the body of a bombylios and a mouth
(diam. 4,1) which is ancient but does not belong; the vase was covered with a
black varnish and a painted female figure (see the image in Corpus Vasorum
Antiquorum) for which they obviously took inspiration from ancient vases. In
the restoration carried out in 1974 in MRAH-KMKG the mouth and modern
paint were removed (MRAH-KMKG, Restoration file).
The Brussels bombylios is a product of phase B of Taranto, dated between 325
and 275 BC (Lippolis 1994, 254-256). In the subsidiary decoration, it is similar
to an example in Stockholm inv. no.  NM299 (Webster 1968, 1-32 pl.  Ic),
whereas in shape and decoration, it is very similar to the bottle from Taranto in
Heidelberg University inv. no. U68 (CVA Heidelberg 2, pl. 86,6) and to the vase
at the Musée A. Dubouche in Limoges inv. no. 79-04 (CVA Musée de Limoges,
IVD pl. 33,4 and 6).
For the peculiar shape, closer in use and decoration to the more common lekythos,
see Bernardini 1961, pl. XLVI, K, Lippolis 1994, 254-256 and Andreassi et
alii 1995, cat. 1.3.9.
The decorative scheme of a female head between floral elements and branches
is typical of Middle Gnathia until the end of 4th century BC, when the use
of ribbing begins; see Green 1989, 221-223 and Andreassi et alii 1995, cat.
1.3.2.

• CVA Bruxelles 1, IVDe pl. 2,20 (Belgique 48).

2 cm

112
Catalogue

113
The Campana Collection

42. A735 (2208, H27) oinochoe

H. 22,7, with handle 23,2; width of mouth 8,4; diam. of foot 7,7.
Intact, with a lustrous smooth surface. ◊
Black-glazed except for the underside of the foot. A red wash covers the rim and
a reserved area at the joint of the body and foot. The globular body is covered in
vertical ribbing, with a white incised line separating it from the smooth tapered
shoulder. A short concave neck flares into a trefoil mouth and gently arches down
to the shoulder. At the base of the neck, a reserved band, between horizontal
lines in white and in red, is filled with a grape vine in white and yellow, which
ends at the back near the base of the handle.

Gnathia style. 300-270 BC.

The oinochoe or choes of type 3 (Webster 1968, 2) belongs to a group of vases


dated to the late phase of the Gnathia style, when the oinochoai are smaller and
have poor quality decoration, limited to a vine-branch, and there is a prevalence
of ribbons on the body. For shape and decoration, the Brussels vase resembles
the oinochoe in Toronto inv. no. 923.13.119 (Hayes 1984, 144-145 no. 239),
the oinochoe in Faenza inv. no. 2128 (Sassatelli 1995, 147-148 no. 251) and
the oinochoai in Geneva inv. nos.  12907 and MF279 (Curti 1998, nos.  26
and 27), dated to end of 4th or beginning of 3rd century BC. The oinochoe in
Mannheim inv. no. Cg 354 (CVA Mannheim 2, pl. 49,1-5), belonging to the
Group D of Webster “ribbed with fruited ivy” and dated to the last quarter of
the 4th century, has larger measurements and a more elaborate decoration, of
which the Brussels oinochoe only maintains the horizontal vine-branch.

• CVA Bruxelles 1, IVDc pl.  2,1 (Belgique 48); CVA Edinburgh (1990),
pl. 49,14; CVA Mannheim 2 (2003), pl. 49, 1-5.

5 cm

114
Catalogue

115
The Campana Collection

43. A731 (2204, H23) pelike

H. 46,9; diam. of rim 20,1; diam. of foot 15,4.


Restored from fragments. Surface eroded.
Covered in black metallic glaze, except for a band between body and foot, the
outer side and underside of the foot. Flaring mouth, long neck with concave
profile, globular body on a high flaring foot, vertical ribbon handles under the
rim and on the shoulder.

Gnathia style. Second/third quarter of the 3rd century BC.

The restoration carried out after the publication of the Corpus Vasorum
Antiquorum, showed that the added colour decoration was modern. J.D. Beazley,
when discussing the image of the Hellenistic type of child Eros on Gnathia vases,
had already hypothesized that the Brussels pelike had been repainted, noticing
that the Eros with elongated wings was more typical of the non-ribbed vases,
whereas it was identical to the Eros represented on red-figure Apulian pottery
(Beazley-Magi 1939, 70 no. 1). It is possible that the Apulian vases were the
iconographic model for Campana’s restorers, while vases of the Gnathia style
(Webster 1969, 63) suggested the idea for the female between spirals which was
represented on the central band on the body (see the image in Corpus Vasorum
Antiquorum).
The Brussels pelike, which Webster included in the Ribbed Group, is typical,
mainly because of the high foot, of late production when the use of ribbing was
widespread, and used either to cover the whole body or with only a band (plain
or with decoration) at the widest point. It is the so-called Phase C of Taranto,
dated from 275 to 225 BC
(Lippolis 1994, 262 and
fig.  197). For the type,
common in the Messapian
area, see Bernardini 1961,
pls. 30-35 and Forti 1965,
71-72. Similar, except for
the smaller measurements
and the shorter foot, are
the pelike in Naples inv.
no.  80858 (CVA Napoli 2,
IVE pl. 21,2), and the pelike
in Geneva inv. no.  13196
(Curti 1998, 31-32 no. 9).

• CVA Bruxelles 1, IVDc


pl.  1,3 (Belgique 47);
Bulle 1930, 32 no. 56;
Lunsingh Scheurleer
1936, col. 293;
Beazley-Magi 1939,
70, no.  1; Webster
1951, 223, no.  16;
Forti 1965, 107-
108 no.  21; Webster
1969, 63 GV25b;
Winckelman 1972-73,
155-156, pl. IV. 5 cm

116
Catalogue

117
The Campana Collection

Italiote and other black glaze

44. A783 (2256, H75) mug

H. 7,3; diam. of rim 8,1; diam. of foot 8,1.


Restored from fragments. Surface chipped.
Interior and exterior covered with a lustrous black glaze, underfoot reserved.
Cylindrical mug with straight sides articulated by six horizontal fillets, a flat
base, vertical ring handle.

South Italian. End of the 5th century BC.

J.D. Beazley included the Brussels mug in the list of comparanda for a similar mug
in Oxford (Ashmolean 1966.345), forming part of a group of vases produced
in Attica as well as in Southern Italy during the second half of the 5th century
BC. More recently, A783 has been assigned to the South Italian production of
black-glaze mugs with aris-fluting (Williams 2000, 265-266, fig.  9). To the
comparable examples mentioned by Williams (2000, 268 note 10), we add the
mug in Cleveland inv. no. 1991.167 (CVA The Cleveland Museum of Art 2, 61
pl. 105,5).

• Beazley Gifts 1967, 106; Williams 2000, 265-266, fig. 9.

2 cm

118
Catalogue

119
The Campana Collection

45. A740 (2213, H32) mug-olpe

H. 12,4; diam. of rim 10,5; width max 13,5; diam. of foot 6,6.
Intact. ◊
Black-glazed with a slight metallic sheen. Worn surface. Slight foot, offset
neck and lip, ribbed body, double handle with the knot of Herakles at top and
dividing at the lip.

Apulian. End of the 5th -first half of the 4th century BC.

A740 was considered to be Campanian (CVA Bruxelles 3, IVE pl. 3,31), like the
vases published in CVA Capua 3, IVEg pl. 8 no. 6; CVA Fiesole 2, 30 pl. 38 no. 5;
CVA Napoli 2, IVE pls. 11,1, 12,9 and 17,5; CVA Braunschweig, pl. 45, 4-5;
CVA Musée Scheurleer 2, IVE pl. 3 no. 2; CVA Copenhague 7, pl. 286 no. 5; CVA
Stuttgart 1, pls. 74,15, 54,15, 74,1-2, 65,1.2; CVA Zürich-Faszikel 1, 73 no. 17,
pl. 53; and the olpe inv. no. 376 in the Museo Civico di Bassano del Grappa
(Andreassi et alii 1995, no. 2.1.11). However, the type (both versions with a
ribbed or plain body) is common in Apulia, and can be associated with series
5331 and 5335 of Morel (1981, 352-353, pl. 163) which include the products
of Northern Apulia dated to the first half of the 4th century BC. Ribbed examples
come from Ordona, Bari, Silbion, Canosa, Lavello and Fratte: Iker 1971, 54
no. 33; Andreassi-Radina 1988, 333 no. 717; Ciancio 1997, 209 no. 235;
De Juliis 1990, 44 no. 29, 73 no. 29, 95-97 nos. 29-38; Cassano 1992, 121
no. 10, 250 no. 13, 357 no. 29, 369 no. 29, 566 no. 19; Bottini-Fresa 1988,
pl. 82 fig. 42, 86 fig. 64; Bottini-Fresa 1991, pl. XVI, pl. XXXIV; Baldoni
1993, 105 nos.  99-102; Greco-Pontrandolfo 1990, 274, fig.  466, no.  3;
see also Zampieri 1996, no. 103; Beazley Gifts 1967, 139 no. 538, pl. LXXI;
Andreassi et alii 1995, 107 no. 2.1.11; Depalo 1977, 78 no. 96.
Although the shape was very popular in South Italy, there are not many black-
glazed vases with the knot of Herakles on the handle: see the olpe in Leiden
inv. no. K.94/9,23 found in Nola and considered to be Athenian (CVA Leiden
3, pl.  157,1-2). The mugs with the knot on the handle are more typical of
Apulian red-figure pottery: see, for instance, the example in the Akademisches
Kunstmuseum at Bonn, inv. no. 2666 (CVA Bonn 3, pl. 26,1-4).
For the oinochoe of shape VIII, the so-called “Pheidias” shape (Agora 12, 72-74),
which begins in Attica from about 480 BC; see Schauenburg 1983b, 95-104;
Schauenburg 1985, 429-443.
For the knot of Herakles, see Schauenburg 1983a, 259-284.

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IVE pl.  3,31


(Belgique 147); Schauenburg
1983, 278 no. 18.

5 cm

120
Catalogue

121
The Campana Collection

46. A771 (2244, H63) squat lekythos

H. 6,6; diam. of rim 2,7; diam. of foot 4,2.


Intact. Chipped rim; surface worn. ◊
Metallic black glaze over the whole vase, except for the flat rim of the mouth and
the foot which have a red wash. Wide, ribbed body, thick bell-shaped mouth,
ring foot, and a ribbon handle from body to neck.

South Italian. 4th century BC.

The Brussels lekythos can be associated with series 5411 of Morel 1981. Such
a shape with a ribbed body is known from the Taranto area during the 4th
century BC. Similar comparanda are listed in Hayes 1984, 59 no. 96; Greco-
Pontrandolfo 1990, 272-273 no. 1, fig. 464,1; Dell’Aglio-Lippolis 1992,
145 no. 52.81; Andreassi et alii 1995, cat. 2.1.15; D’Amicis et alii 1997, 372
no. 148.3.

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IVE pl. 3,25 (Belgique 147); Merzagora 1971, 13 no. 62

2 cm

122
Catalogue

123
The Campana Collection

47. A757 (2230, H49) pyxis

H. 5,6, to top of handle 9; diam. of rim 4,5; diam. of foot 9,5.


Intact, but the handles are mended. Lid missing. Base chipped. ♦
Black lustrous glaze over the whole surface except for the outside of the foot which
has a red wash. A white line between the shoulder and body. Four projections on
the shoulder. Round elevated handles, with a projection on the top.

Apulian. Middle of the 4th century BC.

Associated with series 4470 (stamnoid pyxis) and 4471 of Morel 1981, the
Campana pyxis, of small dimensions, resembles a vase in the Polish Collection
Branicki (CVA Pologne. Collections diverses, pl. 4,13), which has projections on
the shoulder and on the elevated handles. In addition, the Brussels vase is similar
to a black-glaze pyxis from Metaponto inv. no. PY2 (Carter 1998, 675-676),
which also has plastic elements on the shoulder, and was discovered in a context
dated to the middle of the 4th century BC. See also the pyxis in Tübingen inv.
no.  S./10 1445 (CVA Tübingen 7, pl.  40,1-2) which, however, has a ribbed
shoulder; the pyxis in Prague inv. no.  20.46 (CVA Prague Université Charles
2, pl. 85, 4-7); and the pyxis with lid in Cremona inv. no. D127 (Lambrugo
2002, 236 no. 362). Similar vases, but without the plastic additions and with
a reserved body, dated to the end of the 4th or beginning of the 3rd century BC,
are in Toronto inv. no. 923.13.154 (Hayes 1984, 61 no. 99) and in Bari inv.
no. 37162 (Cassano 1992, 474 no. 36).

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IVE pl. 3,32 (Belgique 147).

2 cm

124
Catalogue

125
The Campana Collection

48. A753 (2226, H45) squat lekythos

H. 13; diam. of mouth 5,4; diam. of foot 6,6.


Intact. Surface worn.
Lustrous black glaze, except for the outside of the foot which is reserved, where
fingermarks from dipping are visible. Burnt red on neck, shoulder and body.
Flaring rim, cylindrical neck, squat ribbed body, ring foot, and a vertical handle
on neck and shoulder.

South Italian. Second half of the 4th century BC.

Such a lekythos, either with a ribbed or a plain body, is quite common in several
variants in Southern Italy, especially in funerary contexts. The Brussels vase is
very similar to 5413c 1 of Morel (1981, 360 pl.  167). Further comparanda
can be found in CVA Capua 3, pl. 7,3 and 5-6, CVA Genova 1, pl. 1,2 and CVA
Napoli 2, pl. 15,6 and 12.

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IVE pl. 3,29 (Belgique 147).

2 cm

126
Catalogue

127
The Campana Collection

49. A754 (2227, H46) guttus

H. to top of spout 17,5; width of disk 3,5; diam. of foot 7,8.


Intact. Metallic black glaze, slightly worn on the surface. ◊
High foot in two degrees, the upper part reserved; the rest of the vase is black
except for the reserved underside which has a large red cross dipinto. Convex
body with grooved ribs interrupted by crosses. On top of the body, a relief
medallion with a Medusa head, turned slightly to the left. Ring handle, fairly
tall spout.

Apulian. Second half of the 4th century BC.

Jentel (1976, 175-197) included the Brussels guttus in the “Groupe de l’anneau
noir”, an Apulian, perhaps Canosian, production dated to the second half of the
4th century BC. It resembles the examples published in Depalo 1977, 81-82
no. 109.

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IVE pls. 3,37 and 4,13 (Belgique 147); Jentel 1976, 175-
176, 178, 190, AP I,17a; Gilotta 1985, 14 T26, 28-29, fig. 20.

2 cm

128
Catalogue

129
The Campana Collection

50. A768 (2241, H60) cup

H. 4,7; diam. rim 8,7; width max 15,6; diam. foot 4,8.
Restored from fragments. Warped rim. Missing piece on one handle.
Encrustations on the surface.
Covered in black glaze with a blue metallic sheen, except for a reserved band
between the body and foot and the underside of the foot. Straight rim, shallow
bowl, ring foot, and round horizontal handles at rim.

Apulian. Second half of the 4th century BC.

Numerous two-handled cups, often associated with oinochoai, have been


discovered in the rich Hellenistic tombs of Taranto. The Brussels cup belongs
to Phase B1, between 325 and 300 BC (Lippolis 1994, 246, 247 fig.  184).
See the cups in Taranto inv. nos.  199.315 and 199.316 (Dell’Aglio 1996,
330 nos. 320-321), a very similar cup from a votive depot of Taranto (Lippolis
2005, 178 no.  I.163) and the cup belonging to the Banca Intesa Collection,
inv. no. 571 (T52) (Sena Chiesa-Slavazzi 2006, 788 no. 394). See also the
cups inv. nos. D120 and D133 of the Dordoni Collection at the Archaeological
Museum in Cremona inv. nos.  D120, D131, D133 (Lambrugo 2002, 239
nos. 373, 374 and 375). Very similar also are the cups inv. nos. 9E and 93 in
Verona (CVA Verona, Museo del Teatro Romano 1, IV, pl. 3.4-5).

• Unpublished.

2 cm

130
Catalogue

131
The Campana Collection

51. A761 (2234, H53) plate

H. 4,3; diam. of rim 22; diam. of foot 7.


Intact, but slight restoration on the rim. Encrustation on surface.
Dull black glaze. Shallow bowl with a rim that turns in slightly, ring foot. Incised
and impressed decoration on the tondo: within concentric circles four stamps in
combination with two lotus buds and two palmettes.

Campanian. Second half of the 4th century BC.

The plate is associated with the shape 4241b 1 of Morel 1981. The impressed
motif resembles that on cups from Bolsena (Balland 1969, 39-40 no. 59, 47
no. 84).

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IVE pl. 3,3 (Belgique 147).

2 cm

132
Catalogue

133
The Campana Collection

52. A739 (2212, H31) oinochoe

H. 28,7, to top of handle 31,6; width mouth 9,4; diam. foot 7.


Minor lacunas on the rim and shoulder. Surface encrusted and worn.
Dull black glaze. Elongated ovoid body with a trefoil mouth and a distinct
shoulder, elevated handles with projections. At the upper point of the handle
attachment a human protome, at the lower a bearded protome. On the body,
pairs of vertical grooves.

Southern Etruria. Second half of the 4th century BC.

Mingazzini (1971) listed comparanda for the Brussels vase, examples with
and without ribbing on the body, and considered them to be produced at
Taranto, while Beazley (1947), Montagna Pasquinucci (1972, shapes 144
and 146) and Morel (1981, series 5611) believed them to be Etruscan. A closer
comparison for A739 is the oinochoe from the Castellani Collection in the Villa
Giulia (inv. no. 50373) which corresponds to 5611f of Morel 1981.

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IVD pl.  1,12 (Belgique 143); Mingazzini 1971, 236,
no. 1.

5 cm

134
Catalogue

135
The Campana Collection

53. A736 (2209, H28) oinochoe

H. 22,6, to top of handle 23,4; width mouth 10,7; diam. foot 8,6.
Small surface chips. Lustrous black glaze with a blue sheen. ◊
Interior of the neck glazed. Trefoil mouth, globular ribbed body, ring foot.
Elevated handle with a scale decoration; a ram’s protome for the upper handle
terminal, with incised fleece at the base, and a human protome with beard and
long hair at the lower handle terminal. Painted ivy with white stems and leaves,
red berries on the shoulder. Alternate red and white dots between the upper ends
of ribs.

Volterra D, Malacena Group. Group of Vienna 0.565 (J.D. Beazley). Last


quarter of the 4th century BC.

The trefoil and ribbed oinochoe (shape III), with elevated handle and protome at
the attachments, is very similar to a vase from Nola in the Museum of Edinburgh
inv. no.  1881.44.25 (CVA Edinburgh, pl.  50,1-3). See also the oinochoe in
Volterra inv. no. 532, an imitation of Type Volterra D (shape 145 Montagna
Pasquinucci 1972; type 5646a1 of Morel 1981), a shape common in the
Gnathia style (Forti 1965, 65, 71; Bernardini 1961, pls. 41-44), with variants
in the profile of handle and body. Similar to the Brussels vase also is an oinochoe
in Kassel, which is however considered to be Apulian (Yfantidis 1990, 270-271
no. 196).

• CVA Bruxelles 1, IVDc pl.  2,5 (Belgique 48); Beazley 1947, 256 no.  6;
CVA Edinburgh (1990), pl. 50,1-3.

5 cm

136
Catalogue

137
The Campana Collection

54. A737 (2210, H29) oinochoe

H. 21,8, to top of handle 24,1; width mouth 9,5; diam. of foot 7,2.
Intact. Encrusted and worn surface.
Glossy metallic black glaze. Ribbed body, horizontal grooves on shoulder,
elevated handle with a human male protome at the lower attachment and a
female protome at the upper attachment, both youthful heads.

Volterra D, Malacena Group. Group of Vienna 0.565 (J.D. Beazley). Last


quarter of 4th century BC.

The oinochoe (shape III) belongs to the same group as A736, but it shows a slight
difference in the profile of body, in the rendering of the handle and in the two
protomes at the handle attachments. For the latter, see Montagna Pasquinucci
1972, 279.

• CVA Bruxelles 1, IVDc pl. 2,4 (Belgique 48); Beazley 1947, 256 no. 5.

5 cm

138
Catalogue

139
The Campana Collection

55. A756 (2229, H48) guttus

H. 4,8, to top of handle 6,7; diam. rim of spout 4; diam. of foot 5,5.
Intact.
Covered in glossy black glaze with a blue metallic sheen, except for the underside
which is reserved. Fingermarks from dipping around the base. Grooved ribs on
the body, disk foot, ring handle. Five holes inside the circle on the medallion.

Campanian. End of the 4th century BC.

The Brussels guttus has several comparanda: examples in the Loiudice Collection
(Depalo 1977, 80 nos.  103-104), one in Faenza (Sassatelli 1995, 165-166
no. 290), the guttus inv. no. 34331 of the Collection of San Martino delle Scale
in Palermo (Equizzi 2006, 507-508 no.  350) and the Campanian guttus in
Chicago inv. no. WHM 22.1.241 (CVA University of Illinois 1, pl. 64,9), and a
guttus in the Lagioia Collection (Cortinovis 2004, 365-366 no. 329). For the
shape, see the series 8162 of Morel 1981.

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IVE pl. 3,12 (Belgique 147).

2 cm

140
Catalogue

141
The Campana Collection

56. A758 (2231, H50) lekane

H. 6,4; diam. of rim 16,9; width with handles 22,7; diam. of foot 7,4.
Intact, but with the lid missing. Surface chipped and worn. ♦
Dull black glaze all over except for the outside and underside of foot, where
fingermarks from dipping are visible. Shallow bowl with a moulded rim,
horizontal ribbon handles, with small rectagular projections at the sides. Inside
are six divisions: five rectangular divisions around a circular section.

Campanian. End of the 4th century BC.

It is a small lekane with peculiarly shaped handles, similar to those of the example
in Museo Gregoriano Etrusco inv. no. 39603 (Buranelli 1997, no. 190). For
such ribbon handles, which come from Athenian prototypes, see Agora 12, 164-
173. For the shape, see series 4711 of Morel 1981, the Campanian lekane in
Prague (CVA Prague Université Charles 2, pl. 92, 3-4) dated to the end of the 4th
century BC, which is decorated. See also Lippolis 1994, 262 fig. 198.
An example of a lekane with divisions in the interior is published in Pianu 1990,
26 no. 2, pl. IX,1-2, but it is in red-figure and it has only four sections inside.

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IVE pl. 3,38 (Belgique 147).

5 cm

142
Catalogue

143
The Campana Collection

57. A767 (2240, H59) cup

H. 4,9; diam. of rim 10,7; width with handles 18,8; diam. of foot 5.
Restored from fragments. ◊
Black glaze over the whole surface, except for the outside of the foot. Shallow
hemispherical bowl, ring foot, round up-turned handles. In the interior, three
impressed palmettes.

Campanian. End of the 4th century BC.

A767 is similar to two cups in Zurich inv. nos. 2746 and 2747 (CVA Zurich,
Offentliche Sammlugen, pls. 55.14.17 and 55.15.20) and to the example in the
Museo Hetjens of Düsseldorf inv. no.  1979-2 (CVA Nordrhein-Westfalen 1,
pl. 30,5-6), although the latter has a more elaborate decoration in the interior.
See also CVA Copenhague Musée National 7, pl. 288.6-7 and CVA Capua, Museo
Campano 3, IV.E.G. 21, pl. 16,1-3,8,10.

• Unpublished.

5 cm

144
Catalogue

145
The Campana Collection

58. A738 (2211, H30) oinochoe

H. 24,7, to top of handle 28,4; width mouth 11,5; diam. of foot 6,9.
Restored from fragments.
Black glaze with slightly metallic sheen all over, except for the underside of the
foot where the the glaze is of a different black and much worn. The varnish
on the body was probably applied by Campana’s restorers to make the vase
appear more uniform. Around the middle of the neck and on the shoulder is a
horizontal groove; vertical grooves on the body. Handle with a moulding on the
exterior; a bearded head at the lower point of the handle attachment, and a head
in a poor state of conservation at the upper point.

Volterra. End of the 4th century BC.

The Brussels vase resembles the ribbed oinochoe inv. no.  15614 (Caliò 2000,
no.  899), mainly the handle with a moulding and a silen head at the lower
attachment and a youth head on the upper. Several examples have the elevated
handle, classified as shape 144 of Volterra and dated from the end of the 4th to
the first half of the 3rd century BC (Montagna Pasquinucci 1972, 438-445)
and as series 5611 of Morel 1981: see, for instance, the oinochoe of the Museo
Gregoriano Etrusco inv. no. 39591 (Buranelli 1997, no. 188). The Brussels vase
can be also associated with a non-ribbed oinochoe inv. no. 2056 from the Tomb
995 in Spina (Poggio 1974, no.  118), with a male head at the lower handle
attachment attributed to the Group of Vienna 0.565 (Beazley 1947, 256).

• CVA Bruxelles 1, IVDc pl.  2,2


(Belgique 48); Beazley 1947, 255-
256; Mingazzini 1971, 237 no. 15.

5 cm

146
Catalogue

147
The Campana Collection

59. A755 (2228, H47) askos

H. 3,2, to top of handle 8,7; diam. of rim 4,2; base11,5.


Intact. Chipped surface. ◊
Matt black glaze all over, except for the base. Ring body, with a groove; spout
with three mouldings, double handle with a knot of Herakles.

South Italian. End of the 4th -beginning of the 3rd century BC.

The ring askos, which has Athenian prototypes (Agora 12, 158 nos.  1166-
1168), belongs to the series 8331 of Morel (1981, 431). See the example in
Faenza (Sassatelli 1995, 177 no. 317) and two askoi formerly belonging to the
Campana Collection and today at the Musée de Tours (inv. nos. 863.2.79 and
863.2.80, CVA Tours et Bourges, Tours IV, pls. 24,1 and 24,3). For a group of
ring askoi see Greco 1993, 191, fig. 5.
For the knot of Herakles on the handle, see Schauenburg 1983a, 259-284.

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IVE pl.  3,16-17 (Belgique 147); Schauenburg 1983a,


280 no. 61.

2 cm

148
Catalogue

149
The Campana Collection

60. A752 (2225, H44) lebes or stamnoid pyxis

H. 16,6, to top of handle 23,5; diam. of rim 11; diam. of foot 6,7.
Both handles mended from fragments. Surface encrusted and worn. ♦
Metallic black glaze, but the inside is reserved. Ovoid body with flaring rim, a
central groove on shoulder and vertical ribbon handles.

Campanian. 4th-3rd century BC.

A752 has been cleaned of the dull varnish with which Campana’s restorers
covered the vase in order to make it look uniform. The shape is rare, but it is
close to the example in Geneva inv. no. MF 210 (CVA Genève 1, IVE pl. 37,1).
For the lebes, or stamnoid pyxis, see Lippolis 1994, 262; Cassimatis 1993,
23‑26; Carter 1998, 659-663.

• Unpublished.

2 cm

150
Catalogue

151
The Campana Collection

61. A760 a-b (2233, H52) medallion inserted in a plate

A760a: h. 3,3; diam. of rim 16,9; diam. of foot 6,8.


Black-glazed plate. The centre has been cut and the margins rasped in order
to insert the medallion A760b. Surface encrusted and chipped, mostly on the
outside. Burnt red on the surface. ◊
In the interior, three rings of roulette-hatching.
A760b: diam. 5,6.
Tondo rasped. Black-glazed. Surface much chipped and worn. A female wolf, in
relief, to the left with the head turned towards the twins; behind the animal, a
tree and two birds; on right, on the top of the wolf, a cartouche with retrogade
inscription.

Plate: Apulian. Second half of the 4th century BC.


Medallion: Campanian. Second half of 3rd century BC.

The vase was restored in 1978, when the medallion was separated from the plate
(MRAH-KMKG, Restoration file).
A760, associated with series 2237 of Morel 1981, an Italic production probably
of Central Apulia, is close to a plate found in the Tomb 3/1981 from Bitonto
(Riccardi 2003, 123 no. 48).
The scene on the medallion, which belongs to the earlier Calenian production
(Dulière 1979, 71, note 194), represents the female wolf suckling the twins;
behind the animal, the ficus ruminalis and two birds, which played an important
role in saving the founders of Rome (Dulière 1979, 69-70), are represented.

• Bulletin des Commissions Royales d’Art et d’Archéologie 3 (1864), 236; BullInst


1867, 130; Froehner 1873, 51; Pagenstecher 1909, 33, no. 19a; Beazley
1947, 274; CVA Bruxelles 3, IVE pl. 4,3 (Belgique 148); Dulière 1979, 64
no. 171, 69-75, 244-245.

2 cm

152
Catalogue

153
The Campana Collection

62. A759 a-b (2232, H51) medallion inserted in a plate

A759a: h. 4,1; diam. of rim 20,3; diam. max 26,2; diam. of foot 7,9.
Black-glazed plate. The centre has been cut and the margins rasped in order to
insert the medallion A759b. Surface chipped. ◊
Matt black glaze. Large round rim, shallow bowl, ring foot.
A759b: diam. 6,1.
Tondo rasped. Lustrous black glaze. Chipped surface. In relief, a female wolf
with the twins; behind the animal, a tree on which are two birds.

Plate: Campanian. 2nd century BC.


Medallion: Campanian. Second half of the 3rd century BC.

The black glaze plate is associated with series 1443 of Morel 1981, a Campanian
production dated to the 2nd century BC. Comparanda can be seen on a plate
in Tours inv. no. 863.2.90 (CVA Tours et Bourges, Tours IV, pl. 24,2), formely
belonging to the Campana Collection.
Like several Campana plates in the Louvre (CVA Louvre 15), the two vases
in Brussels are pastiches created by Campana’s restorers by inserting a relief
medallion into a black-glaze plate, generally of Italic production, which was
specifically cut.
To the medallion with the female wolf and twins in Brussels, British Museum,
Heidelberg University and San Petersburg, mentioned by Dulière (1979, 68,
nos. 173-175), we add the example published in Pedroni (1968, no. 673). The
Brussels medallions are smaller than the others. Moreover, Dulière emphasises
the high quality of A759, about which she writes: “il pourrait avoir été moulé
directement sur un modèle métallique et non, comme les autres, sur un précédent
moulage” (Dulière 1979, 69).

• Bulletin des Comissions Royales d’Art et d’Archéologie 3 (1864), 236; GBA


19 (1865), 158; BullInst 1867, 130; Benndorf 1868, 114; Froehner
1873, 51; Pagenstecher 1909, 33, no. 19b; CVA Bruxelles 3, IVE pl. 4,2
(Belgique 148); Dulière 1979, 64 no. 172, 69-75, 244-245.

2 cm

154
Catalogue

155
The Campana Collection

63. A766 (2239, H58) cup

H. 5,1, to top of handle 6,8; diam. of rim 12,1; width with handles 19,2; diam.
of foot 7,3.
Minor restoration on the rim and near the point of the handle attachment. One
handle is modern. Chips in the interior and on the handle. ◊
Metallic black glaze all over, except for the underside of the foot where fingermarks
from dipping are visible. Straight rim, hemispherical bowl, ring moulded foot,
round up-turned handles. Inside, a head of Athena in relief facing left. On the
Corinthian helmet, the letter A. The goddess carries a spear and a shield. Around
the head is an impressed motif combining ten palmettes, alternating groups of
two circles and four rings of roulette-hatching. An incised line all round in the
middle of the bowl.

Campanian. 3rd century BC.

The cup on a low moulded foot with the characteristic up-turned handles and
the impressed and incised decoration in the middle of the bowl is associated
with the shape 4241b1 of Morel 1981. It is similar to the so-called Arethusa
cups, with the representation of the head of the nymph inspired from the
iconography of Sicilian coins. For such productions, known also as Calenian
vases, frequent in Campania (CVA Louvre 15, 19), see more recently Pedroni
2001. The Brussels cup presents the image of the goddess Athena, instead of the
more frequent head of Arethusa, for which, for instance, see CVA Louvre 15, IV
E, pl. 2,1-2, CVA Copenhague, Musée National 7, pl. 289.1, and CVA Tubingem
Ebergard-Karls-Univ., Arch.Inst, pl. 44, 4-6 and 7-9.

• Pagenstecher 1909, 23 no. 4, pl. 6,4; Watzinger 1910, col. 726; CVA


Bruxelles 3, IVE pl. 4,1 (Belgique 148).

5 cm

156
Catalogue

157
The Campana Collection

64. A762 (2235, H54) plate

H. 3,2; diam. rim 18,8; diam. foot 8,8.


Surface chipped. ◊
Covered in glossy black glaze, except for the underside of foot which is reserved
with concentric circles in black and red. In the interior, five rings of roulette-
hatching, within pairs of incised circles, five impressed palmettes, two circles,
impressed rosette. Outside, a groove beneath the rim, and incised lines on the
body.

Central and South Etruria. Middle of the 3rd century BC.

In the Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum, A762 was considered to be Campanian, but


Morel (1981, 129 F1644a 1) has shown that it is an Etruscan black-glaze vase
dated to the middle of the 3rd century BC.

• Pagenstecher 1909, 17, no.  1; CVA Bruxelles 3, IVE pl.  3,5 (Belgique
147); Morel 1981, 129 F1644a 1.

2 cm

158
Catalogue

159
The Campana Collection

65. A764 (2237, H56) patera

H. 3,5; diam. of rim 17,9; diam. of navel 4,6.


Intact. Surface worn and chipped. ◊
Black-glazed. Shallow bowl, central navel (hollow). Impressed decoration: in the
interior, around the navel, four stamps with palmettes within rings of roulette-
hatching.

South Etruria. Second half of the 3rd century BC.

The patera shape 63 (Montagna Pasquinucci 1972, 351; Morel 1981, espèce
2170 series 2172) is a characteristic production of Southern Etruria. Montagna
Pasquinucci 1972 mentioned two principal types and make a link between the
Brussels patera and that with the rim slightly turning inwards and the navel quite
squeezed. A764 has only four stamps, whereas generally they have more or none
at all (Hayes 1984, no. 142). The Campana patera resembles an example in the
Guglielmi collection, produced in Southern Etruria and dated to the second half
of the 3rd century BC (Buranelli 1997, no. 186), one in Parma (CVA Parma 2,
pl. 2,1), two in Faenza (Sassatelli 1995, 172-173 no. 306), and two phialai of
Malacena pottery from Spina (Maggiani 1985, 192 nos. 260.1-260.2).

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IVE pl.  3,2 (Belgique 147); Hayes 1984, 82, no.  143;
Sassatelli 1995, 173.

2 cm

160
Catalogue

161
The Campana Collection

66. A769 (2242, H61) kantharos or cup

H. 7,2; diam. of rim 12,1; width max 16,8; diam. of foot 4,8.
Intact. Encrustations on the outside. Handles and foot slightly chipped. ◊
Lustrous black glaze. Right rim, with a groove inside. Shallow bowl on a moulded
foot, vertical handles with projection.

Northern or Central Etruria. End of 3rd century BC.

Published in Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum as a South Italian vase, Beazley (1947,


236) considered it Etruscan and eventually Morel (1981, 254) recognized it as
a vase made in Northern or Central Etruria. It is a shape widespread during
the last decades of the 3rd century and during the 2nd century BC: see Balland
1969, 127-150.

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IIIL pl. 3,4 (Belgique 138); Beazley 1947, 236; Beazley
1950, 88; Morel 1981, 254 F3171a 1.

5 cm

162
Catalogue

163
The Campana Collection

Canosa

67. A748 (2221, H40) vessel fixture

H. 10,4; diam. 5,5.


Encrustations on surface. Remains of white slip and red colour. ◊ ♦
Moulded terracotta protome in the form of the forequarters of a horse; forelegs
incomplete.

Canosan. 4th -3rd century BC.

The forelegs and the hoofs of the horse’s protome were removed as modern
by the restorers of the MRAH-KMKG under the direction of Professor J.‑C.
Balty, as we read in the file of A748 at the Museum: “Le nettoyage de la pièce
a montré que le vase est composé de deux parties qui ne s’appartiennent pas et
sont réunies par des fragm. modernes”.
The piece was part of the sculpted decoration of a Canosan vase, like another
horse’s protome from the Campana Collection, now in the Louvre (inv. no. Cp
4726, Besques 1986,145, pl. 157,7 no. D4125, Cp 4726). They are appliques for
the characteristic Canosan askoi, rich in plastic and polychromatic decoration.
See also the two horse’s protomes of the Lagioia Collection (Giacobello 2004,
406 nos. 395-396).
Canosan vases were possibly acquired by the Marquis through the antiquarians
and dealers who dealt with objects coming from 19th century excavations in
Canosa (see Sarti 2001, 78-79).
For Canosan pottery, see RVAp Suppl.  II, 544-553 “Appendix 1”; van der
Wielen 1992, 520-529.

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IVD pl. 1,8 (Belgique 143); Des animaux et des hommes
1988, 204 no. 254.

2 cm

164
Catalogue

165
The Campana Collection

Plastic vases

68. A743/A (2216, H35) double-headed drinking vessel (kantharos)

H. 11; diam. 5,7; max width 9; diam. of foot 6,7.


Restored from fragments. Surface worn and encrustated. The tip of the left ear
of the Satyr is broken. Remains of black glaze. ◊
The kantharos was created in the shape of two heads back-to-back: the head of a
woman with her hair tied up with a tainia and the head of a Satyr with a comic
mask.

South Italian. 4th century BC.

The fragments, ancient but not belonging, such as the neck and the handles,
visible in the images published in Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum, were removed
under the direction of Professor J. C. Balty.
It is a plastic vase common in Southern Italy and Etruria during the 4th century
BC: see De Caro 1996, 211 no. 2, Riccardi 1980, passim, Harari 1980, pls.
XLI-XLIII and Di Palo 1987, 204-205.
For the rendering of the satyr, see the plastic oinochoe in Czartoryski Museum
inv. no. 121 (CVA Goluchów, pl. 49,5), considered to be Apulian.

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IVD pl. 1,1 (Belgique 144).

2 cm

2 cm

166
Catalogue

167
The Campana Collection

69. A745/A (2218, H37) vase in the form of a pigmy

H. 18,5; diam. of rim 3,9; diam. of foot 9,6.


Restored from fragments. Terracotta, hollow interior, made at the potter’s wheel
and from a mould. Glaze almost entirely lost, but a few traces of black paint
remain on the mouth, the hair of the pygmy and on the base; remains of white
on the bird. ◊
Pygmy carrying a bird (crane or swan) over the shoulder.

South Italian. 4th century BC.

The restoration of the 1970s resulted in the removal of some sherds, ancient but
not belonging, such as the mouth and the base (fig. 10).
A745/A is very similar to the Apulian vase Naples inv. no. Stg. 51, dated to the
beginning of the 4th century BC (Lista 1996, 186 no. 13.16), which preserves
the black glaze on the pygmy and “U” motives and small dots on the feathers of
the crane. The bird represented on the Brussels vase seems rather to be a swan
(Hoffmann 1997, 158), as the traces of white colour suggest. This kind of vase,
together with rhyta in the form of a negro attacking a crocodile (RVAp II, 614,
74,21/4), were made in Southern Italy in imitation of the Attic vases by the
potter Sotades, for which see Hoffmann 1997.

• Buschor 1919, 18; CVA Bruxelles 3, IVD pl.  1,3 (Belgique 144); Des
animaux et des hommes 1988, 208 no.  270; Dasen 1993, 304, no.  103,
pl. 70,2; LIMC VII (1994), s.v. “Pygmaioi”, no. 36; Hoffmann 1997, 158,
no. 3; Harari 2004, 173.

2 cm

168
Catalogue

169
The Campana Collection

70. A742 (2215, H34) satyr-head vase

Head: h. 13,6; diam. of rim 6,2; diam. of foot 8,3.


Neck: h. 7; diam. of rim 8,3; diam. of foot 6,5.
Head: rim rasped; traces of paint on the rim of the base which is rasped and
without the standing surface. White on the beard and hair.
Small horns on the forehead, and pointed ears. Part of the nape, which was the
point of attachment of the handle, is rasped. The ribbon, black-glazed handle is
restored from fragments.
Neck: restored from fragments, traces of rasping on the rim of the base. Black
glaze on the exterior and in the interior in the middle. Traces of white on the
surface. Amazon fighting a griffin.

Head: Etruscan. Second half of the 4th century BC.


Neck: South Italian (Taranto). Middle of the 4th century BC.

The 1960s restoration showed that the Campana vase (see the image in Corpus
Vasorum Antiquorum) was a 19th century pastiche, created by combining the neck
of a Tarantine vessel and an Etruscan head (Zervoudaki 1968, 46).
The neck, decorated in relief with an Amazon attacking a griffin, can be added to
the list compiled by H. Hoffmann, which includes a rhyton in the Louvre (H96,
Hoffmann 1966, 101, no.  86), which belonged to the Campana Collection
and mentioned in the Cataloghi Campana (serie IX-X sala G no. 11). However,
its cup, with a relief representing two warriors attacking a gryph, is modern.
The Brussels vase resembles a neck decorated in relief belonging to a rhyton in
the form of a head from the Santangelo Collection in Naples inv. no. Stg. 66,
of Apulian production, dated to the middle of the 4th century BC (Lista 1996,
186 no. 13.18).
For plastic vases made in Etruria, see the so-called “head-kantharoi” in Harari
1980, 63-74 and 159-176.

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IVD pl.  1,2 (Belgique 144); Lullies 1962, 40;
Greifenhagen 1963, 45; Zervoudaki 1968, 46 no.  118, 79; Besques
1982, 250 no. 14.

2 cm

170
Catalogue

171
The Campana Collection

71. A750 (2223, H42) plastic vase in the form of a reclining silen

H. 7,1; length 13,3.


Mouth missing; remains of the point of attachment on the back. Remains of
black glaze on the boots. ◊
Bearded figure, nude save for boots, reclining, with the right arm over the head
and holding a ribbed mug, in which is a hole for pouring liquid. With the left
he grasps the neck of a goatskin on which he rests.

Apulian. Second half of the 4th century BC.

The mouth and handle, both ancient but not belonging, were additions of
Campana’s atelier (fig.  10). The 1970s restoration also removed the modern
varnish, the purpose of which was probably to make the surface of the vase more
uniform.
The small vase in the form of a nude Silen who reclines on a goatskin, carries
a mug with the right and the neck of the goatskin with the left, is very similar
to the Apulian plastic vase in the Santangelo Collection Naples inv. no. Stg. 52
(Lista 1996, 188 no. 13.30), dated to middle of the 4th century BC. The latter
has very similar features, mainly in the details of the face, to the Brussels vase,
both representing a Silen, bearded and with incipient baldness, nude except for
the boots.
Close comparisons can also be made with the sitting Silen in Toronto inv.
no. 983.123.11 (Hayes 1992, 85, no. 90), who however holds a small figure,
perhaps the child Dionysos; the sitting Silen of Copenhague inv. no. 8 (CVA
Copenhague 7, pl. 294,2), represented in the act of drinking from the goatskin
which he holds between his legs; a sitting Silen, as well as a reclining Silen
(Sichtermann 1966, nos. 118-119, pl. 160); a kneeling Silen from Metaponto
dated to the end 4th – beginning 3rd century BC (De Siena 2002, 32 no. 140);
and the plastic vase inv. no.  B89 in Karlsruhe (CVA Karlsruhe 3, pl.  48,3-
4). See also the example found in tomb no.  19 of the Lucanian cemetery of
Roccagloriosa/LaScala (Gualtieri 2006, 102 and fig. III.2).

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IVD pl. 1,8 (Belgique 144).

2 cm

172
Catalogue

173
The Campana Collection

Plastic animal-head vases

72. A749 (2222, H41) ram’s head vase

Length 13,4; width max 5,9.


Mended from fragments, rasped on the rear. Fragmentary right ear. Encrustations
on the face, white for the hair rendered à la barbotine, traces of brown paint on
the horns. ♦

Apulian (?). 4th century BC.

The vase published in Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum is one of the numerous


pastiches of the Campana Collection, created by Campana’s restorers by joining
various ancient pieces. It combines a ram’s head, a mouth, a round handle and a
foot of different South Italian vases (see Appendix).
The Brussels ram bears close comparison with an Apulian example in Kassel,
from the collection of Dr Munk (Hoffmann 1966, 31 no. 57, pl. 55,1), which
also has a neck which does not belong. See also the Apulian ram of the collection
of Kostka Potocki (Dobrowolski 2007, 263 no. 77). Despite the comparanda,
the openings of the Brussels head suggest that it could be a bent-rhyton, which
is known only in Athenian production: Hoffmann 1961, 21-26; Guy 1981,
2-15; Shapiro 1981, no. 32.

• De Mot 1903, 6-7, no. 3 fig.; Buschor 1919, 19; CVA Bruxelles 3, IVD
pl. 1 (Belgique 144); Musées royaux d’Art et d’Histoire. Album (Brussels s.d.),
42 fig. 80a; Tuchelt 1962, 136 no. 13; Sarti 2009a, 187 fig. 4.1-4.2.

2 cm

174
Catalogue

175
The Campana Collection

73. A747 (2220, H39) dimidiating animal-head cup

Length 21; diam. rim 8,9.


Intact, except for the boar’s ear. White chalky slip inside and outside, added
colour for the purple laurel wreath on the neck.
Modelled from the two halves of a boar’s and a hound’s head; a cylindrical
wheel-made neck ends in a gently flaring mouth. A flat strap handle is attached
at the back. The hound’s and boar’s ears, and the details of the boar’s head (thick,
flat snout, tusks, short crest) are hand-modelled and added. The mouth is not
pierced.

Daunian (Canosa). Last quarter of the 4th century BC.

The vase is a rare example of dimidiating animal-head cups, which display a


combination of animals, two semi-heads of animals, here a boar and a hound,
for which see Hoffmann 1966, 81 nos.  484-485, 101. The Brussels vase is
similar to the Apulian red-figure vase inv. no. 1241 in the Bibliothèque Nationale
in Paris (Hoffmann 1966, 81 no. 485). Although the two vases differ in the
rendering of neck, handles and decoration, they probably shared the prototype
for the animal heads.
Numerous examples of animal-head cups exist in terracotta, sometimes with a
white slip on the surfaces: Hayes 1992, nos. 175-177; Depalo 1977, no. 189;
Froning 1982, no. 139; Padgett et alii 1993, no. 31; Vickers 1999, no. 53.
The use of a white slip and of unfired colours suggest that the Brussels vase could
be a Canosa production, for which see De Juliis 1997, 141-146.

• Sarti 2009b.

2 cm

176
Catalogue

177
The Campana Collection

74. A746 (2219, H38) deer-head vase

Neck: h. 7; diam. of rim 11.


Restored from fragments.
Black glaze inside. Female sitting to left carries a fan in the right hand and a box
in the left; she wears a chiton and the hair is tied up in a ornamented sakkos. In
front of the woman, a long sash hangs.
Head: length 17,1; diam. of rim 6,6; max width 14,2.
Ears glued. Rim polished. On the rear, traces of the handle attachment. Traces
of black glaze. Deer with horns emerging.

Apulian (Taranto). End of the 4th century BC.

In the Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum only the neck was published as the deer’s
head was considered a fake. However, Robinson (1930, 262 no.  605) had
mentioned it in his catalogue of the Toronto museums as comparison for a
rhyton, although he was wrong in the identification of the animal: “Rhyton in
form of a cow’s head of Apulian Style… R446, A746, A747 in Brussels” (see
Hayes 1992, no. 175).
It is one of the numerous pastiches created by Campana’s restorers, combining
a bowl (shape II of Hoffmann) quite similar to those which belong to this
kind of animal’s head in Tarantine production, which generally have the head in
black glaze. The Brussels deer’s head, with the modern varnish mostly removed
although some remains on the neck, still shows traces of the original black glaze.
The fawn with emerging horns, which must have been black-glazed, resembles
the Apulian vase inv. no. 377 at the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Paris (CVA Palais des
Beaux-Arts de la ville de Paris, pl. 40,4 and 8) associated with the “Main Group”
by Hoffmann (1966, 62 no.  378). Quite similar, but covered with a white
slip, is the example in Düsseldorf inv. 1973-1178 (CVA Nordrhein-Westfalen 1,
pl.  29,3-4). See also the vase at the Capodimonte Museum in Naples, inv.
no. M. 6712 (De Caro 1996, 213-214 no. 3 fig. 29).
The neck is comparable, in shape and decoration, to that of a vase with a male
head in Vercelli attributed to the Menzies Group (Cambitoglou 1997, no. 24).

• CVA Bruxelles 3, IVD pl. 1,5 (Belgique 144); Robinson 1930, 262 no. 605;
Hoffmann 1966, 86 no. 511.

2 cm

178
Catalogue

179
The Campana Collection

Pastiche

75. A744 (2217, H36) vase in the shape of a Silen’s head

H. 16,6, with handle 17,7; width of mouth 12,7; diam. of foot 7,7.
Head of a Silen restored with the mouth of a trefoil oinochoe, created from
ancient fragments and repainted. Brown paint for the beard and hair, ears
(the tips are missing, and the left ear is glued), pupils; white paint for the
hair, eyes and teeth.Next to the handle, traces of fillings.

The moulded part of the vase could belong to one of the Silen-head
kantharoi, frequent in Attic production, more rare in South Italy:
Beazley 1929, 74, and Sichtermann 1966, nos. 120-127, pls. 161-167.
Although the rendering of the face seems unusual, there is no further
evidence to suggest that it is a creation of Campana’s atelier of forgery
and restoration.
To the head has been added the mouth of an Italiote trefoil oinochoe
decorated with a reserved band with an ivy branch, very frequent in
Italiote pottery.

• Unpublished.

2 cm

180
Catalogue

181
Appendix

Appendix : (De-)Restoration project

The choice of vase A749 (Cat. no.  72) for de- dusty deposit on the surface was removed gently
restoration was made following a detailed study of with cotton buds moistened with demineralised
the technical as well as aesthetic aspects of both the water (fig. 9). The animal glues and two kinds of
objects from the Campana Collection in Belgium material used in the 19th century assembly of the
and those elsewhere. Because of the obvious quality parts (a crumbly white plaster and a rose mastic,
of its plastic part, it was decided to restore as much fig. 10) were removed with a scalpel, demineralised
of the vase as possible to its original state. The water and acetone (where the paste on the vase was
overall aim of the operation was to remove any parts stuck to the clay). The numerous traces of deep
which did not belong to the original vase and all scratching on the contact surfaces, made to help
19th century over-painting. assist the joints between the original parts and the
additions (fig. 11), have been highlighted. Cotton
buds dipped in ethanol were used to remove the
The dismantling remainder of the 19th century paint. At the end of
the whole process, it was found that the rhyton had
As can be seen from figures 1-4, the joints with the been created by putting together 36 fragments from
mouth, handle and foot as well as the crack which different vases (fig. 12).
runs across the ram’s face had all become visible
because of the deterioration of the object. On the
back, fig.4, the 19th century repainting can be Restoration
clearly seen.
This phase concentrated on the reconstruction of
For the dismantling of these parts the degree of the ram’s head. Firstly, the fractures were protected
solubility of the products used by the 19th century with a reversible pellicle of acrylic primer, a solution
restorers was first tested. After satisfactory results of acetone containing 10% of Paraloid B72. Then,
using demineralised water, we applied imbibed the original fragments were re-assembled employing
cotton pads along the fractures. This operation acetone containing 50% of Paraloid B72 and the
allowed us to separate 18 fragments, thus confirming whole was reinforced with Micropore TM surgical
that the mouth and the foot did not belong to band (fig. 13). The filling of the missing areas along
the vase, for clear differences in the clay were the fractures was done with Polyfilla to which
immediately evident. Moreover, it appeared that all natural pigments were added, while the additional
the fragments belonging to the rear wall of the ram painted details were done with acrylic colours. All
were covered with a secondary layer: to each original the materials are reversible (fig. 14-16). The mouth,
fragment was glued a second fragment (from the handle and the foot were not inserted.
different ancient vases) and the whole covered with
modern varnish (fig. 5-6). Finally, it is worth noting
that the internal walls of the vase were covered with Conclusion
a film of grey mastic, quite coarse and very resistant
(fig. 7-8). This process of removing the 19th century restoration
created the opportunity to study the working
methods employed in Campana’s restorers atelier.
Cleaning Moreover, this operation has resulted in a new and
more accurate presentation of a particularly fine
The cleaning was done mechanically with the help ram’s head.
of a scalpel whenever necessary. In order to avoid
damaging the original patina of the object, the Isabella Rosati

183
The Campana Collection

1 2

3 4

5 6

7 8

184
Appendix

9 10

11 12

13 14

15 16

185
Abbreviations and Bibliography

Abbreviations and Bibliography

ABFV = Boardman, J., Athenian Black Figure Vases. A Handbook (London 1974, reprint 1991).
ABV = Beazley, J. D., Attic Black-figure Vase-painters (Oxford 1956).
Add2 = Carpenter, T. H., Beazley Addenda. Second Edition (Oxford 1989).
Aellen-Cambitoglou-Chamay 1986 = Aellen, Ch. - Cambitoglou, A. - Chamay, J., Le peintre de Darius et
son milieu (Geneva 1986).
Agora 12 = Sparkes, B.A. - Talcott, L., The Athenian Agora 12, 1-2. Black and Plain Pottery of the 6th, 5th,
4th Centuries B.C. (Princeton 1970).
Agora 30 = Moore, M.B., The Athenian Agora 30. Attic Red-figured and White-ground Pottery (Princeton 1997).
Ahlberg-Cornell 1984 = Ahlberg-Cornell, G., Herakles and the Sea Monster in Attic Black-figure Vase-painting
(Stockholm 1984).
Albizzati 1920 = Albizzati, C., “Il cratere di Amendola”, Dedalo I (1920), 153-161.
Amyx 1961 = Amyx, D.A., “The Medallion Painter”, AJA 65 (1961), 1-16.
Amyx 1988 = Amyx, D.A., Corinthian Vase-painting of the Archaic Period (Berkeley - Los Angeles - London 1988).
Andreassi 1979 = Andreassi, G., Ceramica italiota a figure rosse della collezione Chini di Bassano del Grappa
(Rome 1979).
Andreassi et alii 1995 = Andreassi, G. et alii, Ceramica sovraddipinta, ori, bronzi, monete della collezione Chini
nel Museo Civico di Bassano del Grappa (Rome 1995).
Andreassi-Radina 1988 = Andreassi, G. - Radina, F. (eds.), Archeologia di una città. Bari dalle origini al X
secolo (Bari 1988).
Angiolillo 1997 = Angiolillo, S., Arte e cultura nell’Atene di Pisistrato e dei Pisistratidi (Bari 1997).
ARFV = Boardman, J., Athenian Red Figure Vases. The Archaic Period (London 1975).
Arias-Hirmer 1960 = Arias, P. - Hirmer, M., Mille anni di ceramica greca (Florence 1960).
Arrigoni 1981 = Arrigoni, G., “Pentesilea e Marcia Elice. La bellezza dell’Amazzone come ricordo d’amore”,
ArchCl 33 (1981), 253-272.
Arte y Olimpismo 1999 = Arte y Olimpismo. Catálogo de la exposición itinerante Palma 05-08/99, Oviedo 09-
10/1999, Las Palmas 11/99-01/2000 (Barcelona 1999).
ARV 2 = Beazley, J.D., Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters (Oxford 1963).
Bakir 1974 = Bakir, T., Der Kolonnettenkrater in Korinth und Attika zwischen 625 und 550 v. Chr. (Würzburg 1974).
Baldoni 1993 = Baldoni, D. (ed.), Due donne dell’Italia antica. Corredi da Spina e Forentum (Padova 1993).
Balland 1969 = Balland, A., Céramique étrusque-campanienne à vernis noir. 1. Fouilles de l’École française de
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Balty 1992 = Balty, J.-C., “Emile de Meester de Ravestein e la collezione etrusca dei Musei reali di Arte e
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Bardel 2000 = Bardel, R., “Eidola in Epic, Tragedy and Vase-painting”, in: Rutter, N.K. - Sparkes, B.A. (eds.),
Word and Image in Ancient Greece (Edinburgh 2000), 140-160.

187
The Campana Collection

Baurain-Rebillard 1997 = Baurain-Rebillard, L., “Des vases qui s’épanchent. Les inscriptions peintes sur la
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Baurain-Rebillard 1998 = Baurain-Rebillard, L., “Des peintres linguistes?”, Mètis 13 (1998), 75-105.
Bažant 1985 = Bažant, J., Les citoyens sur les vases athéniens du 6e au 4e siècle av. J.-C. (Rocnik 1985).
Beazley 1908 = Beazley, J.D., “Three New Vases in the Ashmolean Museum”, JHS 28 (1908), 313-318.
Beazley 1911-12 = Beazley, J.D., “The Master of the Eucharides-Stamnos in Copenhagen”, BSA 18 (1911‑12),
217-233.
Beazley 1918 = Beazley, J.D, Attic Red-figured Vases in American Museums (Cambridge 1918).
Beazley 1925 = Beazley, J.D., Attische Vasenmalerei des rotfigurigen Stils (Tübingen 1925).
Beazley 1928 = Beazley, J.D., Greek Vases in Poland (Oxford 1928).
Beazley 1929 = Beazley, J.D., “Charinos”, JHS 49 (1929), 38-78.
Beazley 1931 = Beazley, J.D., “Disjecta Membra”, JHS 51 (1931), 39-56.
Beazley 1932 = Beazley, J.D., “Little-master Cups”, JHS 52 (1932), 167-204.
Beazley 1933 = Beazley, J.D., Campana Fragments (Oxford 1933).
Beazley 1939 = Beazley, J.D., “Review CVA Bruxelles 2 (1937)”, JHS 59 (1939), 149-150.
Beazley 1943 = Beazley, J.D., “Groups of Campanian Red-figure”, JHS 63 (1943), 66-111.
Beazley 1946 = Beazley, J.D., Potter and Painter in Ancient Athens (London 1946).
Beazley 1947 = Beazley, J.D., Etruscan Vase-painting (Oxford 1947).
Beazley 1950 = Beazley, J.D., “Review CVA Bruxelles 3 (1949)”, JHS 70 (1950), 88-89.
Beazley 1958 = Beazley, J.D., “A Hydria by the Kleophrades Painter”, AntK 1 (1958), 6-8.
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Beazley-Magi 1939 = Beazley, J.D. - Magi, F., La raccolta Benedetto Guglielmi nel Museo Gregoriano Etrusco.
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Beckel 1961 = Beckel, G., Götterbeistand in der Bildüberlieferung griechischer Heldensagen (Waldassen/
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Bellelli 2003 = Bellelli, V., “I vasi Egizi del Museo Jatta, gli scavi di Nola e il commercio antiquario nel Regno
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Benndorf 1868 = Benndorf, O., Griechische und sicilische Vasenbilder (Berlin 1868).
Benson 1953 = Benson, J.L., Die Geschichte der korintischen Vasen (Basel 1953).
Benson 1956 = Benson, J.L., “Some Notes on Corinthian Vase Painters”, AJA 60 (1956), 219-230.
Benson 1969 = Benson, J.L., “The Three Maidens Group”, AJA 73 (1969), 109-122.
Bérard 1990 = Bérard, C., “Le Satyre casseur”, Mètis 5 (1990), 71-87.
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Berchmans 1909 = Berchmans, J., L’esprit décoratif dans la céramique grecque à figures rouges (Brussels 1909).
Berger-Lullies 1979 = Berger, E. - Lullies, L. (eds.), Antike Kunstwerke aus des Sammlung Ludwig. I. Frühe
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Berkin 2003 = Berkin, J., The Orientalizing Bucchero from the Lower Building at Poggio Civitate (Murlo)
(Philadelphia 2003).

188
Abbreviations and Bibliography

Bernardini 1961 = Bernardini, M., Museo Provinciale “S. Castromediano” Lecce. Vasi dello stile di Gnathia. Vasi
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Bernhard 1966 = Bernhard, M.L., Greckie malarstwo Wazowe (Wroclaw 1966).
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Bertocchi 1958 = Bertocchi, F., “Un nuovo cratere a campana del pittore di Amykos”, BdA 43 (1958),
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Besques 1982 = Besques, S., “La représentation du Silène au canthare”, RA 2/1982, 263-272.
Besques 1986 = Besques, S., Catalogue raisonné des figurines et reliefs en terre-cuite grecs étrusques et romains IV-I
(Paris 1986).
Biella 2011 = Biella, M.C., La collezione Feroldi Antonisi De Rosa (Pise-Rome 2011).
Bioul 1990 = Bioul, A.C., Musées royaux d’Art et d’Histoire. Céramique attique à figures rouges (Brussels 1990).
Birch 1873 = Birch, S., History of Ancient Pottery (London 1873).
Birch-Newton 1856 = Birch, S. - Newton, C.T., Report on the Campana Collection (London 1856).
Blanco Freijeiro 1956 = Blanco Freijeiro, A., “Orientalia. Estudio de objetos fenicios y orientalizantes en la
Penìnsula”, AEspA 29 (1956), 3-50.
Boardman 1954 = Boardman, J., “Painted Votive Plaques and an Early Inscription from Aegina”, BSA 49
(1954), 183-201.
Boardman 1987 = Boardman, J., “Amasis: the Implications of His Name”, in: Papers on the Amasis Painter and
his World (Malibu 1987), 141-152.
Boardman 1992 = Boardman, J., “The Phallos-Bird in Archaic and Classical Greek Art”, RA 2/1992, 227-242.
Boardman 2006 = Boardman, J., The History of Greek Vases: Potters, Painters and Pictures (London 2006).
Bohác 1958 = Bohác, J.M., Kercské vázy, se zretelem k památkám v ceskoslovenských sbírkách (Praha 1958).
Bonamici 1972 = Bonamici, M., “Contributi al più antico bucchero decorato a rilievo- III”, StEtr 40 (1972),
95-114.
Bonamici 1974 = Bonamici, M., I buccheri con figurazioni graffite (Florence 1974).
Borowitz 1991 = Borowitz, H. and A., Pawnshop and Palaces: Fall and Rise of the Campana Art Museum
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Bossert 1930 = Bossert, H. Th., Geschichte des Kunstgewerbes IV (Berlin-Zürich 1930).
Bottini-Fresa 1988 = Bottini, A. - Fresa, M.P., Forentum I. Le necropoli di Lavello (Venosa 1988).
Bottini-Fresa 1991 = Bottini, A. - Fresa, M.P., Forentum II. L’acropoli di età classica (Venosa 1991).
Bourgeois 1993 = Bourgeois, B., “Dérestauration de vases italiotes du Musée du Louvre”, in:  Cassimatis
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Bourgeois-Denoyelle-Merlin 1994 = Bourgeois, B. - Denoyelle, M. - Merlin, Ch., “La restauration d’une
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Brady 1977 = Brady, B.J., Etruscan Bucchero Chalices in the University Museum (Ph.D. Ann Arbor 1977).
Braun 1855 = Braun, E., “Discorso del dottor E. Braun all’occorrenza del Natale di Winckelmann 1855,
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Brijder 2003 = Brijder, H., “Een symposion in Athene: wijn, zang en liefjes”, in: Aan Tafel! Eten & drinken
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Brommer 1959 = Brommer, F., Satyrspiele: Bilder griechischen Vasen (Berlin 1959, 2nd edition).
Brommer 1973 = Brommer, F., Vasenlisten zur griechischen Heldensage (Marburg 1973, 3rd edition).

189
The Campana Collection

Browing 1985 = Browing, R. (eds.), The Greek World, Classical, Byzantine and Modern (London 1985).
Brown 1960 = Brown, W.L., The Etruscan Lion (Oxford 1960).
Brownlee 1995 = Brownlee A. Blair, “Attic Black Figure from Corinth: III”, Hesperia 64, No. 3 (Jul.‑Sep. 1995),
337-382.
Brulé 2003 = Brulé, P., Women of Ancient Greece (translated by A. Nevill, Edinburgh 2003).
Brunn 1857 = Brunn, H., Geschichte der griechischen Künstler (Stuttgart 1857).
Buitron-Oliver 1991 = Buitron-Oliver, D., “A Cup for a Hero”, Greek Vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum 5
(1991), 65-74.
Buitron-Oliver 1995 = Buitron-Oliver, D., Douris. A Master-Painter of Athenian Red-Figure Vases (Mainz 1995).
Bulle 1930 = Bulle, H., “Von griechischen Schauspielern und Vasenmalern”, in: Festschrift für James Loeb; zum
sechzigsten Geburtstag gewidmet von seinen archäologischen Freunden in Deutschland und Amerika (Munich 1930),
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Bundrick 2005 = Bundrick, S.D., Music and Image in Classical Athens (Cambridge 2005).
Buranelli 1997 = Buranelli, F., La raccolta Giacinto Guglielmi. Parte I. La ceramica (Vatican City 1997).
Buschor 1916 = Buschor, E., “Neue Duris-Gefäße”, JdI 1916, 74-95.
Buschor 1919 = Buschor, E., “Das Krokodil des Sotades”, MüJb 11, 1/2 (1919), 1-43.
Buschor 1940 = Buschor, E., Griechische Vasen (Munich 1940).
Byvanck 1948 = Byvanck, A.W., “The Development of Attic Art during the Transitional Period from the 6th to
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Caliò 2000 = Caliò, L.M., La collezione Bonifacio Falcioni. Parte II (Vatican City 2000).
Cambitoglou 1997 = Cambitoglou, A., The Italiote Red-figured Vases in the Museo Camillo Leone at Vercelli
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Camporeale 1962 = Camporeale, G., “Brocchetta cipriota dalla tomba del Duce di Vetulonia”, ArchCl 14
(1962), 60-70.
Camporeale 1965 = Camporeale, G., “Considerazioni sui leoni etruschi di epoca orientalizzante”, RM 72
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Camporeale 1972 = Camporeale, G., Buccheri a cilindretto di fabbrica orvietana (Florence 1972).
Camporeale 1976 = Camporeale, G., “Su alcune forme vascolari di bucchero ceretano”, in: Mélanges offerts à
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Canciani 1980 = Canciani, F., “Amphora aus Vulci und Pseudochalkidische Vasen”, JdI 95 (1980), 140-162.
Canina 1847 = Canina, L., L’antica città di Veii descritta e dimostrata con i monumenti (Rome 1847).
Capecchi-Gonnella 1975 = Capecchi, G. - Gonnella, A., Calici di bucchero a sostegni figurati (Florence 1975).
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Cassimatis 1993 = Cassimatis, H., Les lébès à anses dressées italiote à travers la collection du Louvre (Naples 1993).

190
Abbreviations and Bibliography

Castoldi 2006a = Castoldi, M., “I vasi a figure rosse del periodo protoapulo e apulo antico: Taranto e le
officine ceramiche”, in: Sena Chiesa-Slavazzi 2006, 178-181.
Castoldi 2006b = Castoldi, M., “I vasi a figure rosse lucani e protolucani: la nascita della ceramografia lucana
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conquista l’Italia (Rome 2008), 59-67.
Chamay 1993 = Chamay, J. (ed.), L’arte dei popoli italici dal 3000 al 300 a.C. Catalogo della mostra Genève,
Musée Rath 6/11/1993 – 13/02/1994 and Paris, Mona Bismarck Foundation 1/03- 30/04/1994 (Naples 1993).
Charbonneaux-Martin-Villard 1971 = Charbonneaux, J. - Martin, R. - Villard, F., Archaic Greek Art, 620-
480 BC (London 1971).
Charitonidou 1958 = Charitonidou, S.I., “Anaskaphe klassiakon tafon para ten plateian Syntagmatos”,
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Cherici 1988 = Cherici, A., Ceramica etrusca della Collezione Poggiali di Firenze (Rome 1988).
Christiansen-Melander 1988 = Christiansen, J. - Melander, T. (eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on
Ancient Greek and Related Pottery, Copenhagen 31/8-4/9/1987 (Copenhagen 1988).
Ciancio 1997 = Ciancio, A., Silbìon. Una città tra greci e indigeni (Bari 1997).
Cloché 1931 = Cloché, P., Les classes, les métiers, le trafic (Paris 1931).
Cohen 1991 = Cohen, B., “The Literate Potter: A Tradition of Incised Signatures on Attic Vases”, MetrMusJ 26
(1991), 49-95.
Colonna 1959-60 = Colonna, G., “S. Omobono - la ceramica etrusca figurata”, BCom 77 (1959-60), 125‑143.
Cook 1925 = Cook, A.B., Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion 2 (Cambridge 1925).
Corey 1891 = Corey, A.D., De amazonum antiquissimis figuris (1891).
Corinth 7 = Amyx, D.A. - Lawrence, P., Corinth 7. Part II (Princeton 1975).
Corinth 13 = Blegen, C.W. - Palmer, J.- Young, R.S., Corinth 13. The North Cemetery (Princeton 1964).
Corinth 15 = Newhall Stillwell, A. - Benson, J.L., Corinth 15. Part III. The Potter’s Quarter. The Pottery
(Princeton 1984).
Cortinovis 2004 = Cortinovis, F., “La ceramica a vernice nera e le coppe megaresi”, in: Sena Chiesa, G. (ed.),
La Collezione Lagioia. Civiche raccolte archeologiche di Milano (Milan 2004), 323-373.
Cristofani-Martelli 1996 = Cristofani, M. - Martelli, M., “La distribuzione dei crateri corinzi: il mito e
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Cristofani-Zevi 1965 = Cristofani, M. - Zevi, F., “La tomba Campana di Veio. Il Corredo”, ArchCl 17
(1965), 1-35.
Culican 1968 = Culican, W., “Quelques aperçus sur les ateliers phéniciens”, Syria 45 (1968), 275-293.
Cumont 1901 = Cumont, F., Catalogue des antiquités grecques et romaines acquises par les Musées royaux depuis
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Curti 1998 = Curti, F., La céramique de Gnathia du Musée d’Art et d’Histoire de Genève (Geneva 1998).
D’Amicis et alii 1997 = D’Amicis, A. et alii, Catalogo del Museo Nazionale Archeologico di Taranto I,3. Atleti e
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Damevski 1976 = Damevski, V., Crvenofiguralne vaze iz apulskih radionica u Arheološkom muzeju u Zagrebu
(Zagreb 1976).
Dasen 1993 = Dasen, V., Dwarfs in Ancient Egypt and Greece (Oxford 1993).

191
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De Caro 1996 = De Caro, S., “Napoli Galleria Nazionale di Capodimonte”, BA 39-40 (1996) 187-217.
De Cesare 1997 = De Cesare, M., Le statue in immagine. Studi sulle raffigurazioni di statue nella pittura
vascolare greca (Rome 1997).
De Juliis 1968 = De Juliis, E.M., “Buccheri del Museo Archeologico di Napoli”, ArchCl 20 (1968), 24-57.
De Juliis 1990 = De Juliis, E.M., L’Ipogeo dei Vimini di Canosa (Bari 1990).
De Juliis 1997 = De Juliis, E.M., Mille anni di ceramica in Puglia (Bari 1997).
De la Genière 1979 = De la Genière, J., “Un faux authentique du Musée du Louvre”, in: Cambitoglou, A.
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De Puma 1974 = De Puma, R.D., “A Bucchero Pesante Column Krater in Iowa”, StEtr 42 (1974), 25-36.
De Ruyt-Hackens 1974 = De Ruyt, F. - Hackens, T., Vases grecs, italiotes et étrusques de la collection Abbé
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De Siena 2002 = De Siena, A. (ed.), Il vino di Dioniso. Dei e uomini a banchetto. Catalogo della mostra Siena,
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Dell’Aglio 1996 = Dell’Aglio, A., “La ceramica a vernice nera. Taranto”, in: I Greci in Occidente. Arte e
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Dentzer 1971 = Dentzer, J.M., “Aux origines de l’iconographie du banquet couché”, RA 2/1971, 215-258.
Dentzer 1982 = Dentzer, J.M., Le motif du banquet couché dans le Proche-Orient et le monde grec du VIIe au IVe
siècle avant J.-C. (Paris - Rome 1982).
Depalo 1977 = Depalo, M.R., La collezione Loiudice (Bari 1977).
Des animaux et des hommes 1988 = Des animaux et des hommes. Témoignages de la Préhistoire et de l’Antiquité (Brussels 1988).
Devambez 1965 = Devambez, P., “La vie des Musées. Nouvelles acquisitions”, RLouvre 15 (1965), 275-277.
Di Palo 1987 = Di Palo, E., Dalla Ruvo antica al Museo Archeologico Jatta (Fasano 1987).
Dierichs 1993 = Dierichs, A., Erotik in der Kunst Griechenlands (Mainz 1993).
Dinsmoor 1946 = Dinsmoor, W., “The Athenian Treasury as Dated by its Ornament”, AJA 50 (1946), 86-121.
Dobrowolski 2007 = Dobrowolski, W., Stanislaw Kostka Potocki’s Greek Vases 2 (Warsaw 2007).
Donati 1967 = Donati, L., “Buccheri decorati con teste plastiche - zona di Vulci”, StEtr 35 (1967), 619-632.
Donati 1969 = Donati, L., “Vasi di bucchero decorati con teste plastiche umane - zona di Orvieto”, StEtr 37
(1969), 443-462.
Donati 1993 = Donati, L., “Dalla Plumpe- alla Schnabelkanne nella produzione ceramica etrusca”, in: La
civiltà di Chiusi e del suo territorio, Atti del XVII Convegno di Studi Etruschi e Italici, Chianciano Terme, 28
maggio - 1 giugno 1989 (Florence 1993), 239-263.
Dons des Muses 2003 = Dons des Muses. Musique et danse dans la Grèce ancienne, Catalogue d’exposition Bruxelles,
Musées royaux d’Art et d’Histoire, 26 février - 25 mai 2003 (Athens 2003).

192
Abbreviations and Bibliography

Doucet 1859 = Doucet, J., “Le Musée Campana”, GBA I, 1859, 142-151.
Dover 1978 = Dover, K. J., Greek Homosexuality (Liverpool 1978).
Ducati 1922 = Ducati, P., Storia della ceramica greca (Florence 1922).
Dugas 1940 = Dugas, Ch., “Les vases de Saint-Mauront”, in: Mélanges d’études anciennes offerts à Georges Radet,
REA 42 (1940), 127-130.
Dugas 1960 = Dugas, Ch., “Le peintre d’Altamura au Musée du Lyon”, in: Recueil Charles Dugas (Paris 1960),
141-146.
Dulière 1979 = Dulière, C., Lupa romana. Recherche d’iconographie et essai d’interprétation (Brussels-Rome 1979).
Dunbabin 1962 = Dunbabin, T.J., Perachora II (Oxford 1962).
Duysinx 1988 = Duysinx, F., Musique et poésie en Grèce antique (Brussels 1988).
Equizzi 2006 = Equizzi, R., Palermo. San Martino delle Scale. La collezione archeologica. Storia della collezione e
catalogo della ceramica (Rome 2006).
Euwe 1988 = Euwe, J., “Early Nolan Amphorae”, in: Christiansen-Melander 1988, 144-151.
Fabrini 1984 = Fabrini, G.M., Numana: vasi attici da collezioni (Rome 1984).
Fairbanks 1948 = Fairbanks, A., Greek Gods and Heroes (Boston 1948, 4th reprint).
Fantham et alii 1994 = Fantham, E., et alii, Women in the Classical World: Image and Text (New York-Oxford 1994).
Fehr 1971 = Fehr, B., Orientalische und griechische Gelage (Bonn 1971).
Fehr 2000 = Fehr, B., “Bildformeln und Bildtypen in der archaisch-griechischen Kunst als Ausdruck von
sozialen Normen und Werten”, Hephaistos 18 (2000), 103-154.
Ferrari 1988 = Ferrari, G., I vasi attici a figure rosse del periodo arcaico (Rome 1988).
Finkenstaedt 1974 = Finkenstaedt, E., “Attitude and Gesture in a Palmette-eye Cup by Epyktetos”, BABesch 49
(1974), 241-245.
Forti 1965 = Forti, L., La ceramica di Gnathia (Naples 1965).
Froehner 1873 = Froehner, W., Les musées de France: recueil de monuments antiques (Paris 1873).
Froning 1982 = Froning, H., Katalog der griechischen und italischen Vasen (Essen 1982).
Frontisi-Ducroux 1995 = Frontisi-Ducroux, F., Du masque au visage, aspects de l’identité en Grèce ancienne
(Paris 1995).
Frucht 1914 = Frucht, H., Die signierten Gefässe des Duris (Munich 1914).
Furtwangler-Reichhold 1904-32 = Furtwangler, A. - Reichhold, K., Griechische Vasenmalerei (Munich 1904-32).
Galli 1920 = Galli, E., “Marsia Sileno”, MemLinc 1920, serie V, vol. 16, 4-54.
García Y Bellido 1964 = García Y Bellido, A.G., “Nuevos jarros de bronce tartessios”, AEspA 37 (1964),
50-80.
Garibaldi 1982 = Garibaldi. Arte e Storia. Catalogo della mostra Roma, Palazzo Venezia e Museo Centrale del
Risorgimento, 23 giugno -31 dicembre 1982 (Florence 1982).
Gaspar 1901 = Gaspar, C., “La céramique grecque au Musée du Cinquantenaire”, Durendal: Revue Catholique
d’Art et de Littérature 1901, 5-14.
Gaspar 1902 = Gaspar, C., “Le peintre céramiste Smikros. A propos d’un vase inédit du Musée de Bruxelles”,
MonPiot 9 (1902), 15-42.
Gaultier-Metzger 2005 = Gaultier, F. - Metzger, C. (eds.), Trésors antiques. Bijoux de la collection Campana.
Catalogue d’exposition Paris, Louvre, 19 octobre 2005 - 16 janvier 2006 (Paris 2005).
Gercke 1996 = Gercke, W.B., Etruskische Kunst im Kestner-Museum Hannover (Hannover 1996).

193
The Campana Collection

Gerhard 1846 = Gerhard, E., “Griechische Vasenbilder”, AZ 4 (1846), 284-289.


Gericke 1970 = Gericke, H., Gefässdarstellungen auf griechischen Vasen (Berlin 1970).
Geroulanos 1994 = Geroulanos, S., Trauma. Wund-Entstehung und Wund-Pflege im antiken Griechenland
(Mainz 1994).
Geyer 1996 = Geyer, A. (ed.), Der Jenaer Maler. Eine Töpferwerkstatt im klassischen Athen. Fragmente attischer
Trinkschalen der Sammlung Antiker Kleinkunst der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena. Ausstellungskatalog Jena
11.4- 26.5.1996 (Wiesbaden 1996).
Giacobello 2004 = Giacobello, F., “La coroplastica e gli oscilla”, in: Sena Chiesa, G. (ed.), La Collezione
Lagioia. Civiche raccolte archeologiche di Milano (Milan 2004), 375-415.
Giambersio 1989 = Giambersio, A.M., Il pittore di Pisticci. Il mondo e l’opera di un ceramografo della seconda
metà del V secolo a.C. (Galatina 1989).
Giglioli 1935 = Giglioli, G.Q., L’arte etrusca (Milan 1935).
Giglioli 1955 = Giglioli, G.Q., “Il Museo Campana e le sue vicende ”, StRom 3 (1955), 292-306; 413-434.
Gilotta 1985 = Gilotta, F., Gutti e askoi a rilievo italioti ed etruschi. Teste isolate (Rome 1985).
Giudice-Tusa-Tusa 1992 = Giudice, F. - Tusa, S. - Tusa, V., La collezione archeologica del Banco di Sicilia
(Palermo 1992).
Giuman 2005 = Giuman, M., Il fuso rovesciato. Fenomenologia dell’Amazzone tra archeologia, mito e storia
nell’Atene del VI e del V secolo a.C. (Quaderni di Ostraka 10, Naples 2005)
Goossens-Thielemans 1996 = Goossens, E. - Thielemans, S., “The Popularity of Painting Sport Scenes on
Attic Black and Red Figure Vases: a CVA-based Research-Part A”, BABesch 71 (1996), 59-94.
Gorbunova 1983 = Gorbunova, K.G., Cernofigurnye Atticeskie Bazy v Ermitaze (Leningrad 1983).
Gran-Aymerich 1972 = Gran-Aymerich, J.M.J., “Situles orientalisantes du VIIe siècle d’Etrurie”, MEFRA
84,1 (1972), 7-59.
Gran-Aymerich 1983 = Gran-Aymerich, J.M.J, “Les céramiques phénico-puniques et le bucchero étrusque:
cas concrets et considérations générales”, in: Atti del I Congresso Internazionale di Studi fenici e punici Roma 5-10
novembre 1979 (Rome 1983), 77-87.
Gran-Aymerich 1992 = Gran-Aymerich, E. et J., “La collection Campana dans les musées de province et la
politique archéologique française”, in: Laurens, A-F. - Pomian, K. (eds.), L’anticomanie. La collection d’antiquités
aux 18e et 19e siècles. Colloque international, Montpellier - Lattes 9 -12 June 1988 (Paris 1992), 123-132.
Grau-Zimmermann 1978 = Grau-Zimmermann, B., “Phönikische Metallkannen in den orientalisierenden
Horizonten des Mittelmeerraumes”, MM 19 (1978), 161-218.
Greco 1993 = Greco, G., “Des étoffes pour Héra”, in: Héra. Images, espaces, cultes. Actes du Colloque
International du CRA Lille III, 29-30 Novembre 1993 (Lille 1993), 185-199.
Greco-Pontrandolfo 1990 = Greco, G. - Pontrandolfo, A. (eds.), Fratte. Un insediamento etrusco-campano
(Modena 1990).
Green 1972 = Green, J.R., “Oinochoe”, BALond 19 (1972), 1-16.
Green 1989 = Green, J.R., “Motif-symbolism and Gnathia Vases”, in: Cahn, H.U. - Gabelmann, H.- Salzmann,
D. (eds.), Festschrift für Nikolaus Himmelmann (Mainz 1989), 221-226.
Greenhalgh 1973 = Greenhalgh, P.A.L., Early Greek Warfare. Horsemen and Chariots in the Homeric and
Archaic Ages (Cambridge 1973).
Greifenhagen 1929 = Greifenhagen, A., Eine attische schwarzfigurige Vasengattung und die Darstellung des
Komos im VI Jahrhundert (Königsberg 1929).
Greifenhagen 1936 = Greifenhagen, A., “Ausserattische schwarzfigurige Vasen im akademischen Kunstmuseum
zu Bonn”, AA 1936, coll. 344-406.

194
Abbreviations and Bibliography

Greifenhagen 1963 = Greifenhagen, A., Beiträge zur antiken Reliefkeramik (Berlin 1963).
Greifenhagen 1967a = Greifenhagen, A., “Neuerwerbungen des Staatlichen Museen Berlin”, WZROSTOCK
16 (1967), heft 7/8, 451-454.
Greifenhagen 1967b = Greifenhagen, A., “Smikros. Lieblingsinschrift und Malersignatur”, JbBerlMus 9
(1967), 5-25.
Greifenhagen 1972 = Greifenhagen, A., Neue Fragmente des Kleophrades Malers (Heidelberg 1972).
Greifenhagen 1974 = Greifenhagen, A., “Die Silene der Smikros-Amphora Berlin 1966.19”, AA 1974,
238‑240.
Grimm 2001 = Grimm, G., “Der schöne Leagros oder Tyrannenmörder, Künstler und Banausen im
spätarchaischen Athen”, AW 32 (2001), 179-185.
Gualandi 1982 = G. Gualandi, “La raccolta di ceramiche italiote nella collezione Palagi”, in: Aparchai. Studi
in onore di P.E. Arias (Pise 1982), 750-761.
Gualtieri 2006 = Gualtieri, M., “La committenza della ceramica a figure rosse tardo-apula: un caso di studio”,
in: de La Genière (ed.), Cahiers du Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum France 1. Les clients de la céramique grecque.
Actes du colloque de l‘Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres Paris, 30-31/01/2004 (Paris 2006), 97-106.
Guerrieri Borsoi 2004 = Guerrieri Borsoi, M.B., Gli Strozzi a Roma (Rome 2004).
Günter-Simon 1997 = Günter, G. - Simon, E. (eds.), Mythen und Menschen. Griechische Vasenkunst aus einer
deutschen Privatsammlung. Martin-von-Wagner-Museum der Universität Würzburg (Mainz 1997).
Guy 1981 = Guy, R., “A Ram’s Head Rhyton Signed by Charinos”, Arts in Virginia 21 (1981), 2-15.
Hackl 1909 = Hackl, R., “Merkantile Inschriften auf attischen Vasen”, in: Münchener Archäologische Studien
dem Andenken Adolf Furtwängler gewidmet (Munich 1909).
Harari 1980 = Harari, M., Il “Gruppo Clusium” della ceramografia etrusca (Rome 1980).
Harari 2004 = Harari, M., “A Short History of Pygmies in Greece and Italy”, in: Lomas, K. (ed.), Greek
Identity in the Western Mediterranean. Papers in Honour of Brian Shefton (Boston-Leiden 2004), 163-190.
Hartwig 1891 = Hartwig, P., “Zwei Schalenbilder des Epiktet”, JdI 1891, 250-257.
Hartwig 1893 = Hartwig, P., Die griechischen Meisterschalen. Die Blüthezeit des strengen rotfigurigen Stiles
(Stuttgart-Berlin 1893).
Hayes 1984 = Hayes, J.W., Greek and Italian Black-gloss Wares and Related Wares in the Royal Ontario Museum
(Toronto 1984).
Hayes 1985 = Hayes, J.W., Etruscan and Italic Pottery in the Royal Ontario Museum. A Catalogue (Toronto 1985).
Hayes 1992 = Hayes, J.W., Greek and Greek-Style Painted and Plain Pottery in the Royal Ontario Museum
(Toronto 1992).
Hedreen 1992 = Hedreen, G.M., Silens in Attic Black-figure Vase-painting. Myth and Performance (Ann
Arbor 1992).
Hedreen 2009 = Hedreen, G.M., “Iambic Caricature and Self-Representation as a Model for Understanging
Internal References among Red-Figure Vase-Painters and Potters of the Pioneer Group”, in Yatromanolakis, D.,
An Archaeology of Representations. Ancient Greek Vase-painting and Contemporaries Methodologies (Athens 2009),
200-239.
Hiller 1963 = Hiller, F., “Zwei verkannte Bronzeschalen aus Etrurien”, MarbWPr 1963, 27-41.
Hiller 1965 = Hiller, F., “Beiträge zur figürlich geritzen Bucchero Keramik”, MarbWPr 1965, 16-29.
Hirschland Ramage 1970 = Hirschland Ramage, N., “Studies in Early Etruscan Bucchero”, BSR 38 (1970), 1-61.
Hoffmann 1966 = Hoffmann, H., Tarentine Rhyta (Mainz 1966).
Hoffmann 1997 = Hoffmann, H., Sotades. Symbols of Immortality on Greek Vases (Oxford 1997).

195
The Campana Collection

Hofkes-Brukker 1935 = Hofkes-Brukker, Ch., Frühgriechische Gruppenbildung (Leiden 1935).


Hofstetter 1990 = Hofstetter, E., Sirenen im archaischen und klassischen Griechenland (Würzburg 1990).
Hollein 1988 = Hollein, H.G., Bürgerbild und Bildwelt der attischen Demokratie auf den rotfigurigen Vasen des
6-4 Jahrhunderts v.Chr. (Frankfurt 1988).
Homann-Wedeking 1938 = Homann-Wedeking, E., Archaische Vasenornamentik in Attica, Lakonien und
Ostgriechenland (Athens 1938).
Hommes et dieux 1982 = Hommes et dieux de la Grèce antique. Catalogue d’exposition Europalia 82/Hellas-
Grèce, Bruxelles, 1/10- 2/12/1982 (Brussels 1982).
Hoppin 1917 = Hoppin, J.C., Euthymides and His Fellows (Cambridge 1917).
Hoppin 1919 = Hoppin, J.C., A Handbook of Attic Red-figured Vases Signed by or Attributed to the Various
Masters of the Sixth and Fifth Centuries B.C. (Washington 1919).
Huls 1957 = Huls, Y., Ivoire d’Etrurie (Brussels-Rome 1957).
Hurschmann 1992-93 = Hurschmann, R., “Ein apulischer Volutenkrater in Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe
Hamburg”, Jahrbuch der Museums für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg 11/12 (1992-93), 31-38.
Hurwit 1985 = Hurwit, J.M., The Art and Culture of Early Greece, 1100-480 BC (Ithaca, N.Y., 1985).
Iker 1971 = Iker, R., “La tombe LX”, in: Mertens, J. (ed.), Ordona III (Brussels-Rome 1971), 39-81.
Immerwahr 1990 = Immerwahr, H.R., Attic Script. A Survey (Oxford 1990).
Isler-Kerényi 2001 = Isler-Kerényi, C., Dionysos nella Grecia arcaica. Il contributo delle immagini (Pisa-
Rome 2001).
Isler-Kerényi 2008 = = Isler-Kerényi, C., “Eracle e Dioniso, fiori e cigni. Immagini e allusioni”, in: Sena
Chiesa, G. (ed.), Vasi immagini collezionismo. Giornate di studio Milano 7-8/11/2007 (Milan 2008), 228-247.
Jacobsthal 1912 = Jacobsthal, P., Göttinger Vasen. Nebst einer Abhandlung Symposiaka (Berlin 1912).
Jacobsthal 1927 = Jacobsthal, P., Ornamente griechischer Vasen (Berlin 1927).
Jentel 1976 = Jentel, M.O., Les Gutti et les askoi à reliefs étrusques et apuliens (Leiden 1976).
Jircik 1991 = Jircik, N.R., The Pisticci and the Amykos Painter. The Beginnings of Red-figured Vase Painting in
Ancient Lucania (Ph.D. Ann Arbor 1991).
Johansen 1971 = Johansen, F., Reliefs en bronze d’Etrurie (Copenhagen 1971).
Johnston 1979 = Johnston, A.W., Trademarks on Greek Vases (Warminster 1979).
Jucker 1991 = Jucker, I., Italy of the Etruscans (Jerusalem 1991).
Juste 1867 = Juste, Th., Catalogue des collections composant le Musée royal d’antiquités (Brussels 1867).
Jüthner 1968 = Jüthner, J., Die athletischen Leibesübungen der Griechen. II. Einzelne Sportarten. 1. Lauf-,
Sprung- und Wurfwettbewerbe (Vienna 1968).
Kardianou 2009 = Kardianou, A., “Le cratère corinthien: forme et décor à travers quelques exemples peu
connus du Musée du Louvre”, Mètis n.s. 7, 2009, 63-74.
Karousos 1930-31 = Karousos, X.I., “Poseidon tou Artemisiou”, ADelt 13 (1930-31), 41-104.
Keuls 1985 = Keuls, E.C., The Reign of the Phallus, Sexual Politics in Ancient Athens (New York 1985).
Keuls 1988 = Keuls, E.C., “The Social Position of Attic Vase Painters”, in: Christiansen-Melander 1988,
300-313.
Keuls 1997 = Keuls, E.C., Painter and Poet in Ancient Greece (Stuttgart 1997).
Killet 1996 = Killet, H., Zur Ikonographie der Frau auf attischen Vasen archaischer und klassischer Zeit
(Berlin 1996).

196
Abbreviations and Bibliography

Klein 1883 = Klein, W., Die griechischen Vasen mit Meistersignaturen (Vienna 1883).
Klein 1890 = Klein, W., Die griechischen Vasen mit Lieblingsinschriften (Vienna 1890).
Klein 1898 = Klein, W., Die griechischen Vasen mit Lieblingsinschriften (Vienna 1898, 2nd edition).
Kleinbauer 1964 = Kleinbauer, W.E., “The Dionysos Painter and the ‘Corinthio-Attic’ Problem”, AJA 68
(1964), 355-370.
Klinger 1997 = Klinger, S., “A ‘Kerch’ Vase in The Israel Museum”, IsrMusJ 15 (Summer 1997), 35-44.
Kluiver 1992 = Kluiver, J., “The ‘Tyrrhenian Group’. Its Origin and the Neck-amphorae in the Netherlands
and Belgium”, BABesch 67 (1992), 73-109.
Kluiver 1993 = Kluiver, J., “The Potter-Painters of ‘Tyrrhenian’ Neck-amphorae. A Close look at the Shape”,
BABesch 68 (1993), 179-194.
Kluiver 1996 = Kluiver, J., “The Five later ‘Tyrrhenian’ Painters”, BABesch 71 (1996), 1-58.
Kluiver 2003 = Kluiver, J., The Tyrrhenian Group of Black-figure Vases. From the Athenian Kerameikos to the
Tombs of South Etruria (Gent 2003).
Knatz 1893 = Knatz, Fr., Quomodo Persei fabulam artifices graeci et romani tractaverint (Bonn 1893).
Knigge 1976 = Knigge, U., Südhügel. Kerameikos 9 (Berlin 1976).
Kolbe 1984 = Kolbe, H.-G. (ed.), Wilhelm Henzen und das Institut auf dem Kapitol (Mainz 1984).
Korshak 1987 = Korshak, Y., Frontal Faces in Attic Vase Painting of the Archaic Period (Chicago 1987).
Kossatz-Deissman 2000 = Kossatz-Deissman, A., “Ein Kelchkrater des Amykos-malers”, in: Linant de
Bellefonds, P. (ed.), Agathos Daimon (BCH Supplement 38, 2000), 259-278.
Kraiker 1931 = Kraiker, W., Die rotfigurigen attischen Vasen (Berlin 1931).
Krauen 1973 = Krauen, E.R., Ein Skyphos des Triptolemosmalers (Berlin 1973).
Kretschmer 1894 = Kretschmer, P., Die griechischen Vaseninschriften ihrer Sprache nach Untersucht
(Gütersloh 1894).
Krug 1968 = Krug, A., Binden in der griechischen Kunst (Hösel 1968).
Kurtz 1975 = Kurtz, D.C., Athenian White Lekythoi. Patterns and Painters (Oxford 1975).
Kurtz 1982 = Kurtz, D.C., “Mr Hattatt’s Painter”, OxfJA 1 (1982), 139-147.
Kurtz 1983 = Kurtz, D.C., The Berlin Painter (Oxford 1983).
Kurtz 1989 = Kurtz, D.C. (ed.), Greek Vases. Lectures by J.D. Beazley (Oxford 1989).
Kyle 1987 = Kyle, D.G., Athletics in Ancient Athens (Leiden 1987).
Kyrieleis 1969 = Kyrieleis, H., Throne und Klinen (JdI Ergänzungsheft XXIV, Berlin 1969).
Lambrugo 2002 = Lambrugo, C., “Collezione Dordoni. Ceramica a vernice nera greca e magno-greca”, in:
Castoldi, M.- Volontè, M. (eds.), Museo Archeologico di Cremona. Le collezioni Grecia, Italia Meridionale e Sicilia
(Milan 2002), 227-242.
Lamer 1914 = Lamer, H., Griechische Kultur im Bilde (Leipzig 1914).
Langlotz 1920 = Langlotz, E., Zur Zeitbestimmung der Strengrotfigurigen Vasenmalerei und der Gleichzeitigen
Plastik (Leipzig 1920).
Langlotz 1932 = Langlotz, E., Griechische Vasen Martin von Wagner-Museum der Universität Würzburg
(Munich 1932).
Langner 2012 = Langner, M., “Mantle-figures and the Athenization of Late Classical Imagery”, in: Schierup,
S.  - Bundgaard Rasmussen, B. (eds.), Red-figure Pottery in its Ancient Setting. Acts of the International
Colloquium Copenhagen November 5-6, 2009 (Aarhus 2012), 11-20.

197
The Campana Collection

Langridge 1993 = Langridge, E., The Eucharides Painter and his Place in the Athenian Potter’s Quarter (Ph.D.
Princeton University, Ann Arbor 1993).
LCS = Trendall, A.D., The Red-figured Vases of Lucania, Campania and Sicily (Oxford 1967).
LCS Suppl. I = Trendall, A.D., The Red-figured Vases of Lucania, Campania and Sicily. First Supplement (London
1970, BALond Supplement 26).
LCS Suppl. II = Trendall, A.D., The Red-figured Vases of Lucania, Campania and Sicily. Second Supplement
(London 1973).
LCS Suppl. III = Trendall, A.D., The Red-figured Vases of Lucania, Campania and Sicily. Third Supplement
(London 1983, BALond Supplement 41).
Levi 1928 = Levi, D., “I frammenti fiorentini della Collezione Campana”, BdA 1928, 166-191, 211-230.
Lezzi-Hafter 1976 = Lezzi-Hafter, A., Der Schuwalow Maler (Mainz 1976).
Lippolis 1994 = Lippolis, E. (ed.), Catalogo del Museo Nazionale Archeologico di Taranto. III,1. Taranto. La
Necropoli: aspetti e problemi della documentazione archeologica tra VII e I sec. a.C. (Taranto 1994).
Lippolis 2005 = Lippolis, E., “Taranto: dal saccheggio alla tutela”, in: Settis, S. - Parra, M.C. (eds.), Magna
Grecia. Archeologia di un sapere. Catalogo della mostra Catanzaro, Complesso monumentale di San Giovanni,
19 giugno - 31 ottobre 2005 (Milan 2005), 165-184.
Lissarrague 1987a = Lissarrague, F., Un flot d’images. Une esthétique du banquet grec (Paris 1987).
Lissarrague 1987b = Lissarrague, F., “De la sexualité des satyres”, Mètis 2 (1987), 64-90.
Lissarrague 1988 = Lissarrague, F., “Les satyres et le monde animal”, in: Christiansen- Melander 1988,
335-351.
Lissarrague 1990 = Lissarrague, F., “The Sexual Life of Satyrs”, in: Halperin, D.M. et alii (eds.), Before
Sexuality. The Construction of Erotic Experience in the Ancient Greek World (Princeton 1990), 53-81.
Lista 1996 = Lista, M., “La collezione vascolare del Museo Santangelo”, in: I Greci in Occidente. La Magna
Grecia nelle collezioni del Museo Archeologico di Napoli (Naples 1996), 181-188.
Lohmann 1979 = Lohmann, H., Grabmäler unteritalischen Vasen (Berlin 1979).
Lohmann 1982 = Lohmann, H., “Zu technischen Besonderheiten apulischer Vasen”, JdI 97 (1982), 191-249.
Lücken 1919 = Lücken, G. v., “Archaische griechische Vasenmalerei und Plastik”, AM 44 (1919), 47-174.
Lullies 1931 = Lullies, R., Die Typen der griechischen Herme (Königsberger 1931).
Lullies 1962 = Lullies,R., Vergoldete Terrakotta-Appliken aus Tarent (Heidelberg 1962).
Lullies 1971 = Lullies, R., “Der Dinos des Berliner Malers”, AntK 14 (1971), 44-55.
Lunsingh Scheurleer 1936 = Lunsingh Scheurleer, C.W., “Zur Datierung der sogennanten Gnathiavasen”,
AA 1936, coll. 285-297.
Lunsingh Scheurleer 1986 = Lunsingh Scheurleer, D.,“Rijken Hemels aardewerk. Een hommage aan
I.M. Hemelrijk”, VerAmstMeded 37/38 (1986), 1-32.
Maas-Snyder 1989 = Maas, M. - Snyder, J.M., Stringed Instruments of Ancient Greece (New Haven-London 1989).
Madigan 2008 = Madigan, M., Corinthian and Attic Vases in the Detroit Institute of Arts. Geometric, Black-
figure, and Red-figure (Leiden-Boston 2008).
Maggiani 1985 = Maggiani, A. (ed.), Artigianato artistico. L’Etruria settentrionale interna in età ellenistica
(Milan 1985).
Magi 1935 = Magi, F., “Un nuovo cratere a campana del Pittore di Amykos”, RendPontAc 11 (1935), 119-137.
Margos 1977 = Margos, R., “Note technique sur un cratère corinthien à colonnettes”, BMusBrux 49 (1977),
233-236.

198
Abbreviations and Bibliography

Margos 1978 = Margos R., “Une péliké attique à figures rouges du IVe siècle avant J.-C.”, BMusBrux 50
(1978), 25-48.
Marinazzo 1979 = Marinazzo, A., La necropoli messapica di San Lorenzo (Francavilla Fontana) (Mesagne 1979).
Mark 1995 = Mark, I.S., “The Lure of Philosophy: Craft and Higher Learning in Ancient Greece”, in: Moon,
W.G. (ed.), Polykleitos, the Doryphoros and Tradition (Madison 1995), 25-37.
Marseglia 1998 = Marseglia, P. , “Villa Strozzi sul Viminale”, Roma moderna e contemporanea 6 (1998), 135-155.
Martens 1992 = Martens, D., Une esthétique de la transgression. Le vase grec de la fin de l’époque géométrique au
début de l’époque classique (Brussels 1992).
Martin 2003 = Martin, R.P., “The Pipes are brawling: Conceptualizing Musical Performance in Athens”, in:
Dougherty, C.- Kurke, L. (eds.), The Culture within Ancient Greek Culture: Contract, Conflict, and Collaboration
(Cambridge 2003), 153-180.
Massei 1978 = Massei, L., Gli askoi a f.r. nei corredi funerari delle necropoli di Spina (Milan 1978).
Mathiesen 1993 = Mathiesen, H.E., Til bords med de homeriske helte (Aarhus 1993).
Maul-Manderlatz 1990 = Maul-Manderlatz, E., Griechische Reiterdarstellungen in agonistischen Zusammenhang
(Frankfurt am Main 1990).
Mayence 1946 = Mayence, F., “Un vase chypriote a figure humaine”, BCH 70 (1946), 369-373.
Mayer-Emmerling 1982 = Mayer-Emmerling, S., Erzählende Darstellungen auf “tyrrhenischen” Vasen (Diss.
Frankfurt am Main 1982).
Mayo-Hamma 1983 = Mayo, M.E. - Hamma, K., The Art of South Italy: Vases from Magna Graecia (Richmond 1983).
McPhee 1979 = McPhee, J., “An Apulian Oinochoe and the Robbery of Herakles”, AntK 22 (1979), 38-42.
Merlin 1932 = Merlin, A., “Pégase et Chrysaor sur une pyxide attique du Musée du Louvre”, in: Mélanges
Gustave Glotz, vol. II (Paris 1932), 599-609.
Merzagora 1971 = Merzagora, L., I vasi a vernice nera della Collezione H.A. di Milano (Milan 1971).
Metzger 1965 = Metzger, H., Recherches sur l’imagerie athénienne (Paris 1965).
Meyers 2011 = Meyers, S., “Seeing Purity in Painting: A fresh Look at the Career of Luigi Gregori (1819–
1896)”, in: Artist in Residence: Working Drawings by Luigi Gregori (1819–1896). The Snite Museum of Art,
Exhibition January 15–March 11, 2012 (Notre Dame 2011), 13-19.
http://sniteartmuseum.nd.edu/publications/index.html
Michaelis 1886 = Michaelis, A., “Die sogenannten Ephesischen Amazonenstatuen”, Jahrbuch des Kaiserlich
Deutschen archäologischen Instituts 1886, 14-47.
Miller 2005 = Miller, S.G., Ancient Greek Athletics (Yale 2004).
Minetti 2004 = Minetti, A., L’orientalizzante a Chiusi e nel suo territorio (Rome 2004).
Mingazzini 1967-68 = Mingazzini, P., “Spigolature vascolari”, ASAtene 29-30 (1967-68), 329-353.
Mingazzini 1971 = Mingazzini, P., Catalogo dei vasi della collezione Augusto Castellani. II (Rome 1971).
Mitchell 2009 = Mitchell, A.G., Greek Vase-Painting and the Origins of Visual Humour (Cambridge 2009).
Mommsen 1975 = Mommsen, H., Der Affecter (Mainz 1975).
Mommsen 1997 = Mommsen, H., “AMASIS MEPOESEN: Beobachtungen zum Töpfer Amasis”, in: Oakley,
J.H. - Coulson, W.D.E. - Palagia, O. (eds.), Athenian Potters and Painters (Oxford 1997), 17-34.
Mommsen 2009 = Mommsen, H., “Die Botkin-Klasse”, in: Tsingarida 2009, 31-46.
Montagna Pasquinucci 1972 = Montagna Pasquinucci, M., “La ceramica a vernice nera del Museo Guarnacci
di Volterra”, MEFRA 84 (1972/1), 269-498.

199
The Campana Collection

Moore 1972 = Moore, M.B., Horses on Black-figured Greek Vases of the Archaic Period ca 620-480 B.C. (Ph.D.
New York University 1971, Ann Arbor 1972).
Moore 2008 = Moore, M.B., “The Hegesiboulos Cup”, Metropolitan Museum Journal 43 (2008), 11-37.
Morel 1981 = Morel, J.P., Céramique campanienne. Les formes (Rome 1981).
Moretti Sgubini 2001 = Moretti Sgubini, A.M. (ed.), Veio, Cerveteri, Vulci. Città d’Etruria a confronto.
Catalogo della mostra Roma, Museo di Villa Giulia 1/10 – 30/12/2001 (Rome 2001).
Müller 1988 = Müller, R., “Arbeit und Muße in der Sozialutopie der Antike”, Das Altertum 34, Heft 3 (1988),
133-141.
Muth 2008 = Muth, S., Gewalt im Bild. Das Phänomen der medialen Gewalt im Athen des 6 und 5. Jahrhunderts
v. Chr (Berlin-New York 2008).
Nadalini 1998 = Nadalini, G., “La collection Campana au Musée Napoléon III et sa première dispersion dans
les musées français (1862-1863)”, JdS 1998, 183-225.
Neer 2002 = Neer, R.T., Style and Politics in Athenian Vase-Painting. The Craft of Democracy ca. 530-460 B.C.E.
(Cambridge 2002).
Nicole 1916 = Nicole, G., “Corpus des céramistes grecs”, RA 2/1916, 375-412.
Nicole 1926 = Nicole, G., La peinture des vases grecques (Paris-Brussels 1926).
Noble 1988 = Noble, J.V., The Techniques of Painted Attic Pottery (London 1988, revised edition).
Oenbrink 1996 = Oenbrink, W., “EIN ‘BILD IM BILD’ – PHÄNOMEN – Zur Darstellung figürlich
dekorierter Vasen auf bemalten attischen Tongefäßen”, Hephaistos 14 (1996), 81-134.
Ohly-Dumm 1974 = Ohly-Dumm, M., “Euphroniosschale und Smikrosscherbe”, MüJb 25 (1974) 7-26.
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200
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201
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202
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203
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204
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205
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206
Abbreviations and Bibliography

Williams 2000 = Williams, D., “Cista a cordoni - bicchiere a cordoni”, in: Ridgway, D. et alii (eds.), Ancient
Italy and its Mediterranean Studies. Studies in Honour of Ellen Macnamara (London 2000), 257-269.
Winckelman 1972-73 = Winckelman, S., “Späte Gnathia-Vasen”, ÖJh 50 (1972-73), 150-165.
Wolf 1993 = Wolf, S.R., Herakles beim Gelage (Vienna 1993).
Wünsche 2003 = Wünsche, R. (ed.), Herakles. Herkules (Munich 2003).
Yfantidis 1990 = Yfantidis, K., Antike Gefäße. Katalogue der Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Kassel (Melsungen 1990).
Zampieri 1991 = Zampieri, G., Ceramica greca etrusca e italiota del Museo Civico di Padova (Rome 1991).
Zampieri 1996 = Zampieri, G., Museo Civico di Padova. La collezione Casuccio (Padua 1996).
Zervoudaki 1968 = Zervoudaki, E.A., “Attische polychrome Reliefkeramik”, AM 83 (1968), 1-88.
Ziomecki 1975 = Ziomecki, J.Z., Les représentations d’artisans sur les vases attiques (Wroclaw 1975).

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Éditeur
CReA-Patrimoine
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Impression : Le Livre Timperman

Cover
Late 19th century drawing of the kylix, MRAH A723
© Musées royaux d'Art et d'Histoire, Bruxelles

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