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Laser Based Additive Manufacturing

2016 Manufacturing Summit

March 16, 2016

Scott M. Thompson, Ph.D.


Additive Manufacturing
“a process of joining materials to make objects from 3D
model data, usually layer upon layer…”
- ASTM Standard F2792-12a

• Material extrusion
• Material jetting
• Binder jetting
• Vat photopolymerisation
• Sheet lamination
• Powder bed fusion
• Directed energy deposition

Additive Manufacturing
1985-1990 2000-2010 2010+
• Plastics • Metals ‘printing’ emergence • Metals printing
• metal sintering • Commercialization of 3D commercialization
printing technology • Production-grade
metallic parts sought

Rapid/visual prototyping, Part production, defense

hobbyists, science projects applications

Material Extrusion
• Fused filament fabrication, Fused deposition
modeling, 3D printing
• Stratasys®, MakerBot®
• Thermoplastics, nylon
• < 570 ºF, heated nozzle (liquid on delivery)
• Home, office or industry

By John Abella - https://www.flickr.com/photos/jabella/8965235630, CC BY 2.0,


By Zureks - Own work, GFDL, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=5544055

Material Jetting

• Drop-on-demand, 3D printing
• Similar to inkjet, 2D printing
• Liquid photopolymer that is cured
• Home, office or industry


Sheet Lamination
• Ultrasonic additive manufacturing,
laminated object manufacturing
• Sheets/ribbons of material bound via
ultrasonic welding
• Low-temperature
• Non-structural parts



Additive Manufacturing of Metals
Direct Laser
Laser Melting

• Powder Bed Fusion & Directed Energy

• Powder and wire feedstock
• Laser based methods
• Powder Bed Fusion – Laser, e.g.
Selective Laser Melting
• Direct Laser Deposition, e.g. Laser
Engineered Net Shaping

Good surface feeding

•• Multi-material finish
•• High precision
Very complex
• Parts repair
• geometries
Thompson, S.M., Bian, L, Shamsaei, N., Yadollahi, A., 2015, “An Overview of Direct Laser Deposition for Additive Manufacturing; Part I:
Transport Phenomena, Modeling and Diagnostics,” Additive Manufacturing, 8, pp. 36-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2015.07.001.

Additive Manufacturing of Metals: Large Potential
• Customize parts for specific applications
• Biomedical implants, heat exchangers
• Fabricate complex geometries
• Repair expensive parts
• Manufacture in remote locations
• Submarines, battlefield, ships, space
• Reduce weight and cost of parts
• Aerospace
• Potential economic rewards:
• New skilled jobs created in U.S.
• Restored U.S. strength in manufacturing
• Trade deficit reduction

Additive Manufacturing of Metals: The Bottleneck

Challenge: Mechanical behavior of AM parts not easily predictable or

trustworthy. This is hampering widespread adoption of AM parts.

• Process-property relationships must be learned

for each new material, machine, geometry, etc.
• Experimental trial-and-error ($$)
• Parts consist of porosity
• Process quality control lagging
• Material properties during manufacture unknown
• Minimal standards and regulation for production
and end-parts
• Powder, machine variability

Additive Manufacturing: Trending


Economic Growth

Where is Mississippi in this

global market?

Biomedical Applications in Additive Manufacturing

 Biomedical industry is getting

interested in AM
 Large market potential
 MSU has already researched
biomedical supply chains in MS
 Have initiated some preliminary
research collaboration with MSU
Vet School and UMMC in
Jackson, MS.

Facilities at MSU/CAVS
Direct Laser Deposition (DLD)
Donated by Army c. 2006
OPTOMEC LENS 750 w/ 1 kW laser and multi-
camera thermal monitoring
Multi-powder feeder for functional-grading

Laser Powder Bed Fusion

Renishaw AM 250 w/ 400 W laser

Materials characterization equipment

Mechanical testing (fatigue, tension, etc.)
Microstructural characterization
• EBSD, Microscopy, X-Ray tomography

Advanced Laser-Based Additive Manufacturing… Our Approach
The Complexity of Additive Manufacturing

“It’s is not a printer, it is a mini foundry”

Mechanical Testing of Additive-Manufactured Parts
Strain Life Curve: Wrought & LENS Ti-6Al-4V

An order of magnitude shorter fatigue lives for additive-manufactured

samples as compared to wrought samples.

Sterling, A.J., Torries, B., Lugo, M., Shamsaei, N., Thompson, S.M., 2015, “Fatigue Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Additively Manufactured by Laser
Engineered Net Shaping,” 56th AIAA/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference Kissimmee, FL. || DOI:

Thermal Monitoring and Control

“By FY2018, develop process

metrology, in-process sensing
methods, and real-time process
control approaches to maximize
part quality and production
throughput in Additive
Manufacturing (AM).”

- National Institutes of Standards

and Technology (NIST.gov)

Dual Thermal Monitoring of LENS

Porosity & X-Ray Computed Tomography

Simulation via High Performance Computing at MSU

deposited track

Effects of laser velocity for laser power of 2 W (substrate response)

powder bed
Fluid dynamics, solidification, high heat flux diffusion,
microstructural evolution

Time scale ~ 10-100 μs (10-100 million time steps)

Space scale ~ 1 μm (resolution smaller than laser)
Masoomi, M., Elwany, A., Shamsaei, N., Bian, L., Thompson, S.M., 2015, “An
Experimental-Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer during Selective Laser
Melting,” 2015 Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium - An
Additive Manufacturing Conference, Austin, TX.
Additive Manufacturing Research Team

Nima Shamsaei Scott M. Thompson Steve R. Daniewicz

Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Professor, ASTM Fellow
Mechanical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Mechanical Engineering
Fatigue & microstructure characterization Process thermal modeling and monitoring Fracture mechanics, joining methods

Linkan Bian Shuai Shao Jutima Simsiriwong

Assistant Professor Post-Doctoral Associate Post-Doctoral Associate
Industrial & Systems Engineering Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems
Statistical modeling, uncertainty propagation, Microstructural characterization, multi-scale Fatigue & mechanical behavior
supply chains modeling

Additive Manufacturing at Mississippi State
National leadership
Organizing joint workshop with ASTM & NIST in
Organizing ASME’s Symposium on Additive
MSU is leading certification efforts AM parts
with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
MSU Faculty serving as Guest Editors of Special
Issue in Additive Manufacturing
ASTM Representative on U.S. National
Committee on Theoretical and Applied
Mechanics: Supervisory Role in Additive
CAVS is now a member of ‘America Makes’
Sponsored AM research projects from NSF,
NASA, Army and industry