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Edition 1 - 2002


training notes U N D E R S TA N D I N G S TA I N L E S S S T E E L A N D I T S P R O P E R T I E S

an introduction to stainless steels

Stainless steel is a generic term for a group
Over the years various Standards Associations have introduced naming systems for stainless
of corrosion resistant steels containing a
steels. Although the types of steels are basically the same in each standard, minor variations
minimum of 10.5% of chromium. Varying
can occur so that compliance with one Standard may not give an exact complaince with
additions of nickel, molybdenum, titanium,
another. For this reason equivalents quoted for a particular grade of steel may be only
niobium and other elements may also be
approximate and readers must refer to the original Standard for confirmation of any
equivalent steels.
Corrosion resistance These training notes are generally based on the common or, for proprietary grades, the
All stainless steels have a high resistance to supplier’s name. Here is a list of the more common Standards used to identify stainless
corrosion. This remarkable resistance to steel types:
attack is due to the naturally occurring
chromium-rich oxide film present on the China GB 1220, GB1221
surface of the steel. Although extremely thin, Euronorm EN10088
this invisible, inert and therefore passive film
ISO TR 15510
is tightly adherent to the metal and extremely
Japan JIS G4304
protective in a wide range of corrosion
media. The film is rapidly self-repairing in Korea KS D3698
the presence of oxygen and damage by USA ASTM A240
abrasion, cutting or machining is This list is only indicative - there are many related Standards for various product forms.
instantaneously repaired (see Figures 1, 2
and 3). and precipitation hardening. The austenitic widely used group of stainless steels. The
grades are non-magnetic and in addition to ferritic grades are magnetic, have a low
Types of stainless steel chromium, typically at the 18% level, carbon content and contain chromium as
There are five basic categories of stainless contain nickel (which improves fabrication the main alloying element, typically at the
steel: austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martensitic and corrosion resistance) and are the most 13% and 17% levels. Duplex stainless steels
have a mixed ferritic/ austenitic structure.
Chromium content varies from 18-28% and
Figure 1 - In any normal oxidising
environment a protective coating of passive nickel from 4.5-8%. Duplex grades find
chromium rich oxide film is automatically application particularly where chlorides are
formed on stainless steel. present. The martensitic grades are magnetic
containing typically 12% chromium and a
moderate carbon content; they are
F i g u re 1
hardenable by quenching and tempering like
Figure 2 - When scratched, damaged or plain carbon steels and find application
machined this protective film is denuded
mainly in cutlery manufacture, aerospace
exposing the steel to the atmosphere.
and general engineering. Precipitation
hardening steels have chromium content at
F i g u re 2 17% typically with additions of nickel,
copper and niobium. Precipitation hardening
Figure 3 - The protective coating is quickly stainless steels have a minimum of 17%
restored through the rapid self-repairing chromium and contain other elements that
quality of the chromium rich film. can provide strengthening through a
F i g u re 3
precipitation hardening mechanism. They are

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capable of achieving very high strengths AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS wet (aqueous) corrosion resistance and
with proof stresses ranging in the 1,000- When nickel (Ni) is added to stainless steel weldability make them ideal for fabricated
1,500MPa range depending on the type and in sufficient quantities the crystal structure is components such as pipework, tanks, process
the actual heat treatment. changed from ferrite to austenite, hence the and pressure vessels in the chemical,
term austenitic stainless steels. The basic petrochemical, petroleum, mineral extraction,
Austenitic and ferritic grades account for pulp and paper industries, railway carriages
composition of the austenitic stainless steels
approximately 95% of stainless steel and goods wagons.
is 18% Cr and 8% Ni. This is Grade 304,
applications (see Figure 4).
sometimes loosely referred to as 18/8 or Austenitic stainless steels are available as
18/10. If additional corrosion resistance is plates, sheet and coil, tube and pipe (both
Other properties
required 2-3% molybdenum (Mo) is added, seamless and welded), fittings, flanges,
There is a wide range of stainless steels with
termed Grade 316. The carbon content of fasteners, bar, rod, wire, forgings and
other attractive properties to complement
almost all stainless steels is low (often 0.08% castings. Common austenitic stainless grades
their corrosion resistance – the austenitic
C max.). There are also ‘low carbon’ or ‘L’ are listed in Table 1, p1.
steels provide an example.
grades (0.03% C max) and stabilised grades
Most austenitic grades have excellent alloyed with titanium (Ti) or niobium (Nb) to Limitations
formability and impact strength. High creep prevent a form of corrosion occurring in the Austenitic stainless steels have some
strength and scaling resistance are also region next to the weld in welded structures. limitations:
reasons for choosing this type of steel. The Note, stainless steel “grades” tend to be • They are only suitable for low
common grades can be used up to around referred to as generic types, based on the concentrations of reducing acids or
600°C or slightly higher if scaling resistance American AISI numbering system. These reducing acid mixtures at lower
is the only consideration. More highly grades, or more accurately, “types”, are less temperatures. Reducing acids break down
alloyed grades can raise this temperature specific than the European grade numbers, the oxide film and this leads to the
appreciably with many furnaces using higher but are useful in identifying the steels. For general corrosion of these steels. (See
chromium and nickel grades up to 1,100°C. example the 316 “type” covers three Super Austenitic Stainless Steels section
They perform well at cryogenic European grade numbers, 1.4401, 1.4436 below.)
temperatures, retaining excellent ductility and 1.4435 and the 304L type covers both • Halide ions, especially the chloride ion
and impact properties. Cold working and 1.4306 and 1.4307 grade numbers. (Cl-), have the ability to break down the
forming processes considerably increase the passive film on austenitic stainless steels.
The common grade designations include
strength and hardness of austenitic grades, a This is often a highly localised form of
304, 304L, 321, 316, 316L, 316Ti, CF3M,
property exploited in springs and structural attack and leads to pitting corrosion with
CF8M, N08904 and S31254.
components. The addition of nitrogen to very little or negligible overall metal loss.
austenitic and duplex grades increases Basic properties of austenitic stainless steels Another form of chloride induced
strength and hardness which are retained include: corrosion is stress corrosion cracking
after welding or heat treatment. Selection of (SCC) which may occur above 60°C.
• excellent corrosion resistance
the correct grade is thus important to give
• excellent cleanability and hygiene factor Due to these limitations, other stainless
the best combination of properties for the
• fabricated and formed with ease steels have been developed with greater
• excellent weldability resistance to the above corrosive conditions.
• hardened by cold work, not by heat
treatment Heat resisting austenitic
• usually used in the fully annealed
stainless steels
Relation between nickel and chromium High temperature alloys are largely based on
condition in which they are essentially
contents of stainless steel. (PH steels are alloys containing chromium because of the
precipitation-hardening steels) non-magnetic
• the ability to handle both extremely low resistance the chromium oxide film provides.
(cryogenic) temperatures and, depending The basic high temperature alloys are simple
on the load and permissible distortion, iron-chromium alloys but the possibility of
higher service temperatures of around metallurgical changes giving undesirable
600°C – or even higher if scaling structures requires the addition of other
resistance is the only consideration. elements – the principal one of these being
nickel with some reaching up to 80% nickel.
Common uses and applications cover an This range of high nickel-chromium alloys
extremely wide scope such as holloware, can give oxidation resistance service under
builders hardware, architectural applications, appreciable loading but at a relatively high
abattoir, beer and beverage production and cost. Cost savings are introduced by
food processing equipment (which require replacing some of the nickel with iron – this
the cleanability and hygienic corrosion group of alloys, at the lower limit of alloy
resistance properties). They are used at very content includes the stainless steels. The
low (cryogenic) temperatures for the storage selection of which alloy to use – a stainless
Figure 4: Categories of stainless steel of liquefied gases and at high temperatures steel or a high nickel alloy – depends on the
based on nickel and chromium for heat exchangers, pollution control service requirement and is beyond the scope
content equipment and fume extraction. Excellent of this course.
01 an introduction to stainless steels ISSF training notes page 2
The most common heat resisting stainless Basic properties include: Common uses include applications at
steel is the 310 group of alloys with around temperatures up to 950°-1,150°C, such as
• resistance to oxidation (scaling) at high
25% chromium and 20% nickel. These resist furnace parts, radiant tubes and muffle liners.
scaling up to around 1,100°C and are
• good high temperature strength Cast components can often outperform
frequently used for the less demanding zones
• S30815 has high resistance to sigma similar wrought grades. Common grades are
of high temperature furnaces.
phase precipitation HK-40 and the HP-modified range.

Table 1: Common austenitic stainless steel grades and their applications

Common UNS EN Forms Typical Compositions (%)
Name No. No. Available* Typical Applications
C Cr Ni Mo Ti Other
301 S30100 1.4310 Sheet & Coil 0.05 17.0 7.0 - - - General purpose steel with good corrosion resistance for most
applications. Used where the high work-hardening exponent is
desirable. Can be supplied cold worked to give high strength.
Used for structural applications such as rail carriages and

302HQ S30430 Wire 0.02 18 9 - - 3.5Cu Wire for cold heading to produce fasteners etc.

303 S30300 1.4305 Bars 0.12 18.0 9.0 - - 0.25S Free machining steel used where extensive machining is
required. Corrosion resistance and weldability inferior to 304.

304 S30400 1.4301 Sheet & Coil 0.05 18.5 8.5 - - - General purpose steel with good corrosion resistance for most
Plate & Bars applications. Used for architecture, food processing, domestic
sinks and tubs and deep drawing applications.

304L S30403 1.4307/ Sheet & Coil 0.025 18.5 9.0 - - - Chemical plant and food processing equipment, where freedom
1.4306 Plate from sensitization is required in plate thicknesses.

304H S30409 1.4948 Sheet & Coil 0.6 18.5 9.0 - - - Higher carbon content than 304L, for increased strength,
Plate, Pipe & Bar particularly at elevated temperatures.

310 S31000 1.4841 Sheet & Coil 0.12 25.0 20.0 - - - Furnace parts and equipment. Resistant to temperature 900°C
Plate & Bars to 1100°C.

310S S31008 1.4845 Sheet, Plate, Bar 0.08 25.0 20.0 - - - A low carbon version of 310 used to resist nitric acid corrosion.
Tube & Pipe

316 S31600 1.4401/ Sheet & Coil, Plate, 0.05 17.0 11.0 2.1 - - Used where higher corrosion resistance is required, ie marine
1.4436 Seamless & Welded equipment. Can be welded up to 3mm without subsequent heat
Tube & Pipe treatment.

316L S31603 1.4404/ Sheet & Coil, 0.02 17.0 11.0 2.1 - - A low carbon modification of 316 where heavy section
1.4435 Plate, Seamless & weldments are required without the risk of intergranular
Welded Tube & Pipe corrosion.

- A titanium stabilised version of 316 used where good resistance

316Ti S31635 1.4571/ Plate, Pipe 0.05 17.0 11.0 2.1 0.5 to intergranular corrosion and high temperature strength is
1.4573 Tube required.

317L S31703 1.4438 Sheet & Coil 0.02 19.0 13.0 3.25 - - For chemical plant - has a greater corrosion resistance than 316
Plate in certain applications, notably in contact with brines and
halogen salts. More usually available in the low carbon “L”

321 S32100 1.4541 Sheet & Coil, 0.06 18.0 10.0 - 0.5 - Heavy weldments in chemical and other industries. Suitable for
Plate & Bar heat resisting applications to 800°C. Not suitable for bright

904L N08904 1.4539 Sheet, Plate 0.02 20.0 25.0 4.5 - 1.5Cu High resistance to: general corrosion in eg sulphuric and acetic
Bar, Pipe, Tube acids, crevice corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, pitting in
chloride bearing solutions. Good weldability.

+ S31254 1.4547 Sheet, Plate 0.02 20.0 18.0 6.0 - 0.2N Used where high resistance to chloride pitting and crevice
Tube, Pipe, Bar corrosion is required, eg seawater heat exchangers, bleach vats
and washers in the pulp and paper industry.

+ S30815 1.4835/ Sheet, Plate, Bar 0.10 21.0 11.0 - - 0.15N Used for furnace parts, radiant shields, fluidised beds. Resistant
1.4893 Tube & Pipe 0.04Ce to temperatures up to 1150°C. Possesses high strength and
resistance to sigma phase formation.
* Compatible or equivalent grades also available in castings
+ Proprietary alloy names apply

01 an introduction to stainless steels ISSF training notes page 3

All grades optimised for high temperature more severe corrosive conditions of Due to their predominant use as thin gauge
applications have high carbon contents. They concentration, temperature and contaminant material they are readily available in the
are likely to be sensitised during welding or prevail, which make standard austenitic form of sheet and coil. They are also
service, which significantly reduces stainless steels unsuitable. available in the form of plate (mainly grade
subsequent ambient temperature corrosion They are available in forms such as thicker 3CR12/5CR12) and in welded tube (mainly
resistance. sheet, plate, bar, tube, castings and pipe. They grade 409).
are generally available as proprietary alloys.
Super austenitic stainless alloys As a result of the poor weldability exhibited
They are highly alloyed materials which may FERRITIC STAINLESS STEELS by ferritic steels, Columbus Stainless
be considered as an extension to the These are nickel-free stainless steels. They developed 3CR12, a weldable ferritic type
austenitic stainless steels. They were have a varying chromium (Cr) content of 12- steel in thickness of up to 30mm. Available
developed for higher corrosion resistance, 18%, but a lower carbon (C) content than the as thicker sheet, plate, some sections and
particularly to overcome the pitting and martensitics. (A special heat resistant grade welded tube. Common ferritic stainless
stress corrosion cracking limitations of contains 26% Cr.) grades are listed in Table 2.
standard austenitic stainless steels. The common specifications are 430, 409 and
Super ferritic proprietary alloys with high
Their basic composition is such that the alloy weldable 12% Cr steels.
chromium and molybdenum contents are
content exceeds approximately 50%. The alloy
Basic properties of ferritic stainless steels: available with extremely high resistance to
additions typically include chromium in the
• moderate to good corrosion resistance pitting and stress corrosion cracking. These
range of 20-27%, nickel in the range of 25-
which increases with the chromium are generally designated by proprietary
31%, relatively high molybdenum content of
content names such as ‘E-Brite’, ‘Sea-Cure’ and
3-6%, and a low carbon content of less than
• magnetic, non-hardenable and always ‘AL29-4C’.
0.03%. These higher contents give these alloys
a markedly increased corrosion resistance to used in the annealed condition
reducing acids at higher temperatures and • weldability is poor which generally limits
Duplex stainless steels have a structure of
concentrations and a high resistance to pitting their applications as welded components
approximately equal amounts of ferrite and
corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in warm to thin gauge material
austenite and, therefore, may be referred to
or hot chloride media. • more difficult to form (i.e. bend, draw,
as ferritic-austenitic stainless steels. The
Basic properties include: etc) than the austenitics
chromium content varies from 18-28%. The
• same as standard austenitic stainless Common uses include builders’ hardware, nickel content of 4.5-8% is insufficient to
steels – non-magnetic, cryogenic domestic appliances (dishwashers, clothes develop a fully austenitic crystal structure.
properties, high work hardening rate dryers) and architectural and automotive Most grades contain molybdenum in the
• readily fabricated trim. Thick gauge applications include liners, range 2.5-4% plus a small nitrogen addition
• weldable even in thick material decking plates, spillways, chain conveyors, which enhances both strength and pitting
dust and fume extractors. resistance.
Common uses include applications in the
chemical and petrochemical industries where

Table 2: Common ferritic steel stainless grades and their applications

Common UNS EN Forms Typical Compositions (%)
Name No. No. Available* Typical Applications
C Cr Mo Ti Other
409 S40900 1.4512/ Sheet & Coil 0.02 11.5 - 0.25 - Heat resistant steel, easily formed and welded. Mainly used
1.4720 for automotive exhausts or welded applications where superior
performance to galvanised steel is required.

Used for severe heat resistant applications up to 1200˚C. In

446 S44600 1.4762 Tube, Pipe 0.08 26.0 - - -
recuperators, highly resistant to sulphidation and oil ash

430 S43000 1.4016 Sheet & Coil 0.06 17.0 - - - Interior architectural components, stove and automotive trim,
Plate & Bar dishwasher and clothes dryer liners. Fusion welds tend to be
444 S44400 1.4521 Sheet & Coil 0.02 18.5 2.0 0.4 - Heat exchanger and hot water tanks, and in chloride
containing waters. Not prone to chloride stress corrosion -
superior resistance to pitting, crevice and intergranular
corrosion. Possesses excellent deep drawing properties.
12% Cr S41003 1.4003 Sheet & Coil, 0.02 11.5 - - - Mildly corrosive environments where better life cycle cost is
Structural Welded Tube & obtainable than with carbon or galvanised steel. Usually
Steels Hollow Sections referred to by proprietary designations eg 3CR12 or 5CR12.

* Compatible or equivalent grades also available in castings

01 an introduction to stainless steels ISSF training notes page 4

Table 3: Duplex grades and their applications
Common UNS EN Forms Typical Compositions (%)
Name No. No. Available* Typical Applications
C Cr Ni Mo N Cu W
+ S32304 1.4362 Sheet, Plate, 0.03 23.0 4.0 - 0.1 - - Similar corrosion resistance to 316L. Higher yield
Pipe, Fittings strength and stress-corrosion cracking resistance. Used
where high corrosion resistance is required in marine,
mining, chemical, food and power industries.
Particularly useful in nitric acid.
2205 S31803 1.4462 Plate, Pipe, 0.03 22.0 5.5 3.0 0.14 - - Superior corrosion resistance to 316L and 317L,
Bar, Fittings combined with high strength. Excellent stress corrosion
and abrasion resistance. Typically used in heat
exchangers, gas scrubbers, fans, chemical tanks,
flowlines, marine and refinery applications.
+ S32550 1.4507 Plate, Sheet 0.03 25.0 5.5 3.0 0.15 2.0 - Excellent resistance to corrosion by seawater, acids and
Pipe, Bar, salts combined with high strength, abrasion resistance
Fittings and weldability.
+ S32750 1.4410 Plate, Pipe, 0.03 25.0 7.0 4.0 0.3 - -
Bar, Fittings
Extremely high resistance to corrosion in severe
+ S32760 1.4501 Plate, Pipe, 0.02 25.0 7.0 3.5 0.25 0.7 0.7 marine, chloride and acid environments. Suitable for
Bar, Fittings heat exchangers, reactors, pipework etc.
+ S32520 - Plate, Pipe, 0.02 25.0 6.5 3.5 0.25 1.6 -
Bar, Fittings

* Compatible or equivalent grades also available in castings

+ Proprietary alloy names apply

Basic properties of the duplex stainless steels The forms available are sheet, plate, Basic properties of the martensitic stainless
include: castings, bar, wire, tube and pipe. Duplex steels include:
stainless steels are often available as
• a mixed ferritic-austenitic, i.e. duplex, • moderate corrosion resistance
proprietary alloys. Common duplex grades
crystal structure which results in a high • hardenable by heat treatment and
are listed in Table 3.
resistance to stress corrosion cracking therefore high strength and hardness
• an increased level of passivity due to MARTENSITIC STAINLESS levels can be developed
higher Cr, Mo and N STEELS • very limited weldability
• good weldability and formability
Martensitic stainless steels are the first Common uses include applications which
• higher tensile and yield strengths
branch of the plain chromium stainless need strength and hardness such as knife
(compared with austenitic and ferritic
steels. These were the first stainless steels blades, surgical instruments, fasteners,
stainless steels)
industrially developed (as stainless steel spindles, nozzles, shafts, impellers and
Common uses include applications such as cutlery). They have a relatively high carbon springs.
heat exchanger panels and tubes, materials (C) content and a chromium content of 12-
Generally, martensitic stainless steels are
handling equipment, tanks and vessels where 18% Cr.
available in forms such as bar, strip and
high chloride concentrations are present, e.g.
The common specifications are 410, 420, castings. Common martensitic stainless
sea water cooling, desalination, food
431 and CA-6NM. steels are listed in Table 4.
pickling plants and aggressive mine waters.

Table 4: Common martensitic stainless steel grades and their applications

Common UNS EN Forms Typical Compositions (%)
Name No. No. Available* Typical Applications
C Cr Ni Mo Other
410 S41000 1.4006 Bars 0.10 12.5 - - - General purpose grade for use in mildly corrosive environments.
416 S41600 1.4005 Bars 0.10 12.5 - - 0.20S Free machining variation of 410.
420 S42000 1.4021 Bars 0.25 12.5 - - - General engineering uses, such as pump and valve shafts.
420C - - Sheet & Coil, 0.30 12.5 - - - Developed for high hardness after heat treatment. Used for cutting
Plate & Bars tools, surgical knives, etc.
431 S43100 1.4057 Bars 0.18 16.0 2.0 - - Hardenable steel with corrosion resistance approaching 304. Used for
pump shafts etc. Should be double tempered after hardening.
440C S44004 1.4125 Bars 1.10 17.0 - 0.40 - Capable of being hardened to 60HRC. Highest hardness and abrasion
resistance of all the stainless steels. Corrosion resistance similar to 410.

* Compatible or equivalent grades also available in castings

01 an introduction to stainless steels ISSF training notes page 5

PRECIPITATION HARDENING The family of precipitation hardening CONCLUSION
STAINLESS STEELS stainless steels includes martensitic, semi- Stainless steels can be logically classified
Precipitation hardening stainless steels have austenitic and austenitic types. The 17-4 into austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martensitic
their compositions formulated so that they type, referred to above is a martensitic type. and precipitation hardening groups.
can be supplied in the solution treated It has the approximate composition Cr: 17%;
The choice of a specific grade is determined
condition, in which they are machinable. Ni: 4%; Cu: 4% and 0.3% Nb.
by the application and the conditions under
Following fabrication operations, these steels which it will operate. Nearly all end-use
Another reasonably common type is S66286,
can be hardened by a single ‘ageing’ applications can be covered by austenitic or
frequently called ‘286’ or ‘A286’. This
treatment. This is at a fairly low temperature ferritic types. Duplex and other stainless
variety is austenitic, although there can be
and can, therefore, be done without steels fulfil a necessary role where their
transformation to martensite by using
distorting the product. These grades are properties are essential.
subzero cooling after the annealing process.
therefore ideal for the production of long, Stainless steels are not indestructible
straight high strength shafts for pumps and The steels can be welded but this, materials, nor are they immune to all
also valve spindles. necessarily, requires attention to the heat corrosive attack. With careful selection and
The most common grade is 17-4PH (S17400 treatment because of possible changes that good fabrication, however, the majority or
or ‘630’ or 1.4542) – a martensitic can occur during welding. corrosive conditions can be handled by one
precipitation hardening grade. High strength of the family of stainless steels. When other
wire can be produced in grade 17-7PH properties are considered, a wide variety of
(S17700 or ‘631’ or 1.4568). other applications can be handled by these
exciting and versatile materials.

01 an introduction to stainless steels ISSF training notes page 6

Table 5: Equivalent Standard Grade Designations
AISI UNS Euro ISO Standard British (Obsolete) Korean Japanese
301 S30100 1.4310 X 10 CrNi 18 8 301S21 SUS 301
302 S30200 1.4300 X 3 CrNiN 17 8 302S25 SUS 302
303 S30300 1.4305 X 8 CrNiS 18 9 303S21 SUS 303
304 S30400 1.4301 X 5 CrNi 18 10 304S15 SUS 304
304H S30409 1.4948 X 6 CrNi 18 10 304S51 SUS 304H
304L S30403 1.4306 X 2 CrNi 19 11 304S12 SUS 304L
304N S30451 — — — SUS 304NI
304LN S30453 1.4311 X 2 CrNiN 18-10 304 S 61 SUS 304 LN
CF-8 J92600 1.4308 GX5 CrNi 19-10 304 C 15 (LT 196) SCS 13
302HQ S30430 1.4567 — — SUS XM7
305 S30500 1.4312 — 305S19 SUS 305
309 S30900 1.4828 X 15 CrNiSi 20-12 309 S 24 SUH 309

Generally similar to USA AISI numbers with a prefix indicating function for the steel, eg D3705 - STS (Hot Rolled Plates, Strip and Sheet;
309S S30908 1.4833 X 7 CrNi 23 14 309S24 SUS 309S
310 S31000 1.4841 X 15 CrNi 25 20 310S24 SUH 310
HK J94224 1.4848 GX 40 CrNiSi 25-20 310 C 40 SCH 21;
310 C 45 SCH 22
310S S31008 1.4845 X 12 CrNi 25 21 310S16 SUS 310S
— S31254 1.4547 — — —
314 S31400 1.4841 X 15 CrNiSi 25 20 — —
316 S31600 1.4401 X 5 CrNiMo 17 12 2 316S16 SUS 316

D3698 - STS (Cold Rolled Plates, Sheets and Strip); D3731 STR (Heat Resisting Steel Bars)
316H S31609 — — —
316L S31603 1.4404 X 2 CrNiMo 17 12 2 316S12 SUS 316L
316N S31651 1.4406 X 2 CrNiMoN 18 12 — SUS 316N
(316Nb) S31640 1.4580 X 6 CrNiMoNb 17-12-2 318 S 17
316 LN S31653 1.4406 X 2 CrNiMoN 17-11-2 316 S 61 SUS 316 LN
1.4429 X 2 CrNiMoN 17-12-2
X 2 CrNiMoN 17-13-3 316 S 63
316Ti S31635 1.4571 X 6 CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 320S17 —
CF-8M J92900 1.4408 GX5 CrNiMo 19-11-2 316 C 16 (LT 196) SCS 14
ANC 4 B 4
317 S31700 1.4449 X 3 CrNiMo 18 12 3 317S16 SUS 317
317L S31703 1.4438 X 3 CrNiMo 18 12 3 317S12 SUS 317L
318 S31800 1.4583 X 10 CrNiMoNb 18 12 ---
321 S32100 1.4541 X 6 CrNiTi 18 10 321S12 SUS 321
321H S32109 1.4878 X 10 CrNiTi 18 10 321S20 SUS F321H
329 S32900 1.4460 X 3 CrNiMoN 27 5 2 — SUS 329J1
347 S34700 1.4550 X 6 CrNiNb 18 10 347S17 SUS 347
348 S34800 1.4546 X 5 CrNiNb 18 10 347S18 —
347 31;2S. 130
2S 143/144/145
403 S40300 1.4000 X 6 Cr 13 403S17 SUS 403
405 S40500 1.4002 X 6 CrAl 13 405S17 SUS 405
409 S40900 1.4512 X 2 CrTi 12 409S19 SUS 409
410 S41000 1.4006 X 12 Cr 13 410S21 SUS 410
CA-15 J91150 1.4011 GX12 Cr12 ANC 1A SUS 410
+ S41003 1.4003 X 2 CrNi 12/ XCr11 — —
CA 6-NM J91540 1.4313/1.4317 GX4 CrNi 13 4 425 C 12 SCS 6
416 S41600 1.4005 X 12 CrS 13 416S21 SUS 416
420 S42000 1.4021 X 20 Cr 13 420S37 SUS 420J1
420F S42020 1.4028 X 30 Cr 13 420S45 SUS 420F
430 S43000 1.4016 X 6 Cr 17 430S17 SUS 430
430F S43020 1.4104 X 14 CrMoS 17 — SUS 430F
431 S43100 1.4057 X 17 CrNi 16 2 431S29 SUS 431
434 S43400 1.4113 X 6 CrMo 17 1 434S17 SUS 434
440C S44004 1.4125 X 105 CrMo 17 — SUS 440C
444 S44400 1.4521 X 2 CrMoTi 18 2 — SUS 444
446 S44600 1.4762 X 10 CrAl 18/X 10 CrAISi 25 --- (SUH 446)
630 S17400 1.4542 X 5 CrNiCuNb 16 4 — SUS 630
631 S17700 1.4568 X 7 CrNiAl 17 7 — SUS 631
+ N08904 1.4539 X 1 NiCrMoCuN 25 20 5 904S13 —
+ S30815 1.4835 — — —
+ S31803 1.4462 X 2 CrNiMoN 22 5 — —
+ S32304 1.4362 — — —
+ S32550 — X 2 CrNiMoCuN 25 6 3 — —
+ S32750 — X 2 CrNiMoN 25 7 4 — —
+ S32760 1.4501 X 2 CrNiMoCuWN 25 7 4 — —

* These are approximate equivalents for wrought stainless steel grades only — in some instances they are very close, in others much less so. The list is
intended as a comparison of functionally similar materials not as a schedule of contractual equivalents.
+ Proprietary alloy names apply.
01 an introduction to stainless steels ISSF training notes page 7
Family Relationships For Standard Wrought Ferritic Stainless Steels

Higher Cr For Maximum Scaling
Resistance And Sulphidation Resistance

444 Note: Chemical compositions given

18.5Cr 2Mo Lower Cr, Mo For Increased General And in this figure are typical values
0.02C Pitting Corrosion Resistance which will vary for different
0.4Ti(Nb) steelmakers.
17Cr 0.06C
409 Low Cr Low C, N
11.5Cr 0.02C Lower Corrosion Resistance Weldable in Plate
12% Cr Structural
0.25Ti Stabilised For Improved Weldability Form
11.5 Cr <0.02C

Family Relationships For Standard Wrought Martensitic Stainless Steels

Added Cr For Increased
16Cr 2Ni
Corrosion Resistance
Note: Chemical compositions given in
this figure are typical values which
will vary for different steelmakers.

Added S For
Free Machining
0.1C 0.2S

410 420 420C 440C

12.5Cr 0.1C 12.5Cr 0.25C 12.5Cr 0.3C 17Cr 1.1C

Increasing C For
Higher Strength
Or Hardness

01 an introduction to stainless steels ISSF training notes page 8

Family Relationships For Wrought Duplex Stainless Steels

UNS S32550
25Cr 5.5Ni
3Mo 0.03C
0.15N 2Cu

UNS S31803 UNS S32750

UNS S32304
22Cr 5.5Ni 25Cr 7Ni
23Cr 4Ni
3Mo 0.14N 4Mo 0.03C
0.03C 0.1N
0.03C 0.3N Super Duplex Grades
High Cr, Mo And N
Improve Resistance To
Basic High Cr Higher Mo And
Chloride Pitting And
Grade Duplex For N Contents
General Improve Chloride UNS S32760
550 MPa Y.S.
Applications In Pitting Resistance 25Cr 7Ni
Food, Chemical 450 MPa Y.S. 3.5Mo 0.02C
And Mining 0.25N 0.7Cu
Industries 0.7W
400 MPa Y.S.

Note: (1) For super duplex alloys specialist assistance will S32520
help differentiate applications for each grade. 25Cr 6.5Ni
Note: (2) Chemical compositions given in this figure are 3.5Mo 0.02C
typical values which will vary for different 1.6Cu 0.25N

01 an introduction to stainless steels ISSF training notes page 9

Family Relationships For Standard Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steels

Higher C For Better Higher Cr For

Strength At Elevated Maximum Scaling Ce And N For
304H Temperatures 310S Resistance Scaling Resistance,
21Cr 11Ni
18.5Cr 9Ni 25Cr 20Ni High Strength And
0.08C 0.08C Resistance To Sigma
0.04Ce, 0.15N
Phase Formation

Lower C For
Resistance N08904 Higher Cr And Mo For Higher Alloy
To Sensitisation 20Cr 25Ni Pitting Resistance S31254 Content For
19Cr 13Ni
4.5Mo 1.5Cu 20Cr 18Ni 0.2N Increased Pitting
3.25Mo Higher Ni And Cu For
0.02C 0.02C 6.0Mo Resistance
0.02C Corrosion And General

Low C For
316 Mo Added For 316L Resistance To 316Ti
17Cr 11Ni Pitting Resistance 17C 11Ni Sensitisation 17Cr 11Ni Stabilised Version
2.1Mo 2.1Mo 2.1Mo
0.05C 0.02C 0.05C 0.5Ti

Lower C For Low C For Resistance To

304 Improved Weldability 304L Sensitisation 321
18.5Cr 8.5Ni 18.5Cr 9.0Ni 18Cr 10Ni Stabilised Version
0.05C 0.025C 0.06C 0.5Ti

Higher Ni And Cu For
Lower Work
18Cr 9Ni
Hardening Rate
0.02C 3.5Cu

301 Lower Cr, Ni For

17Cr 7Ni Higher Work
0.05C Hardening Rate

S Added For Free Note: Chemical compositions given in this

303 and subsequent figures are typical values,
18Cr 9Ni which will vary for different steelmakers.
Weldability And
Resistance Poorer
Than 304

Edition 1
© 2002 Australian Stainless Steel Development Association

Acknowledgment: The contribution of the Australian Stainless Steel Development Association’s Technical and Education Committees in preparing this
course is acknowledged with thanks. Some material in this course originated from the Southern Africa Stainless Steel Development Association.
Disclaimer: The technical data and views expressed in this publication are for the general information of interested persons and should not be relied
upon in specific applications without first securing competent advice. Whilst all care is taken to ensure that the information contained herein is accurate
and up-to-date, the ISSF does not warrant its accuracy or completeness and does not accept liability for errors or omissions.

01 an introduction to stainless steels ISSF training notes page 10