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SITP Electrical Installation

3.0 DESIGNING AN ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION

For any electrical installation work, it is necessary to ensure that the detailed design
does comply with the laid down requirements, and as a result a high level of
responsibility has to be carried by those concerned with installation planning and
design. In many cases, the experience and knowledge of the designer will be called
into play to arrive at the best or most economical arrangement and this will
encompass the practical application of installation techniques, as well as the ability
to apply the theoretical aspects of the work. It will generally be necessary to
demonstrate compliance with the Regulations and, in view of this, records should be
kept indicating the characteristics of the installation, the main design calculations and
the assumptions made in finalizing the design.

We are now going to discuss some of the points a designer will need to consider
when planning an electrical installation.

• Before any detailed planning can be carried out, it is necessary to assess the
characteristics of the proposed scheme. This applies whether the installation
is a new one, an extension to an existing system or an electrical rewire in an
existing building. The assessment required is a broad one and some of the
aspects to be considered are described below.

• The purpose and intended use of the building and the type of construction.

The construction and use of the building will inevitably dictate the type of
equipment to be installed. Environment conditions, and probable incidence of
fires are to be considered. Other features to be considered in the design will
depend upon whether the building is occupied by skilled technicians, children,
infirm persons and so on, also whether they are likely to have frequent contact
with conductive parts such as earthed metal, metal pipes, enclosures or
conductive floors.

• The maximum current demand.

It is necessary to estimate the maximum current demand. In such estimation


the Diversity factor must be considered. Diversity is not easy to define, but

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can be described as the likely current demand on a circuit, taking into account
the fact that, in the worst possible case, less than the total load on that circuit
will be applied at anyone time. Whilst the application of diversity is often an
advantage in reducing the size of conductors and the associated protective
devices, the application must be made with care. The designer is responsible
for ensuring the conditions likely to prevail are appropriate ones for its use.

• The characteristics of the supply including the type of earthing


arrangements.

With regard to the arrangement of live conductors, and the type of earthing
arrangement, the electricity supplier should be consulted. It will be necessary

to establish:

The nominal voltage

Nature of current and frequency

Prospective short circuit current at the origin of the installation

Type and rating of the supplier's over current protective devices

Suitability of the supply

Earth loop impedance external to the installation

If it has been decided to provide a separate feeder or system for safety or


standby purposes, the electricity supplier shall be consulted as to the
necessary changeover switching arrangements.

Installation circuit arrangements cover the need to divide circuits as necessary


to avoid danger, minimise inconvenience and facilitate safe operation,
inspection, testing and maintenance. Thus, for example, a small dwelling
could require two lighting circuits, especially if there is a staircase to be lit.
Similarly with a block of flats, it is good practice to spread staircase lighting

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between different circuits so as to prevent a circuit failure causing a complete


blackout.

• Compatibility of the equipment.

This deals with characteristics, which are likely to impair, or have harmful
effects upon other electrical or electronic equipment or upon the supply.
These include;

Possible transient over voltages

Rapidly fluctuating loads

Starting currents

Harmonic currents (e.g. from fluorescent lighting)

Mutual inductance

d.c. feedback

High frequency oscillations

Earth leakage currents

Need for additional earth connections

Suitable isolating arrangements, separation of circuits or other installation


features may be needed to enable compatibility to be achieved. Rapidly
fluctuating loads, or heavy starting currents may arise in, for example, the
case of some industrial motors or large refrigeration ~compressors which start
up automatically at frequent intervals, causing momentary voltage drop. It is
advisable for such loads to be supplied by separate sub main cables from the
main switchboard, and sometimes from a separate transformer .

The increasing use of electronic equipment, especially computing equipment,


makes the demands on the designer regarding compatibility more onerous.
Electronic equipment is especially susceptible to damage by transient over
voltages and these can occur even in small installations as a result of circuit

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switching. Other problems can occur due to the transmission of high


frequency interference, which may corrupt the data in computing devices.
However, there is a standing international directive regarding electromagnetic
compatibility of electrical and electronic equipment. It requires that
manufacturers ensure that electrical and electronic equipment does not cause
electromagnetic interference. Also that such equipment is not susceptible to
electromagnetic effects.

Supplying the equipment from separate circuits generally assists in avoiding


problems, but the installation of suitable filters or isolating transformers may

be needed in some cases.

• Maintainability.

Consideration must be given to the frequency and to the quality of


maintenance that the installation can reasonably be expected to receive. The
designer must ensure that periodical inspection, testing, and maintenance can
be readily carried out and that the effectiveness of the protective measures
and the reliability of the equipment are appropriate to the intended life of the
installation. It is necessary to ensure as far as possible that all parts of the
installation, which may require maintenance, remain accessible. It is advisable
to provide special rooms for electrical apparatus.

In all domestic or small installations, the electrical designer needs to consider


the best locations for equipment so that accessibility is maintained.

In carrying out the design process, a number of decisions will be needed at the'
assessment of general characteristics' stage which will have an influence over the
way the detailed design is progressed. It is important to record this data so that when
required either during the design stage or afterwards, reference can be made to the
original assessment process. The person carrying out final testing will require
information as to these design decisions so as to assess the design concept
employed in the installation.

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CIRCUIT DESIGN

The practical aspects of any electrical installation design mainly concerns the
determination of correct capacity of switch gear, protective devices and cable sizes
for all circuits. In order to do this it is necessary to take into account the following:

Subdivision and number of circuits

Designed circuit current

Nominal current of protective device

Size of live conductors

Type of over current protection

Grouping factor

Ambient temperature

Thermal lnsulation

Voltage drop

Earth fault loop impedance

Short circuit conditions

• Subdivision and number of circuits

This is necessary for two reasons, firstly the need to divide the load so that it can be
conveniently and safely handled by the cabling and switch gear, and secondly the
need to achieve statutory Regulation requirement to take into account likely
inconvenience (i.e. lEE Regulation 314.01.02).

In small installations it is appropriate to provide a minimum of two lighting circuits, so


that in the event of a protective device tripping under fault conditions, a total blackout
is avoided. In addition separate circuits must be provided for lighting and power.

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Also, sufficient socket outlets should be provided for anticipated use. Furthermore, a
separate ring circuit is recommended for kitchen area in homes to handle loads
arising from domestic appliances.

In larger commercial or industrial installations, it is also necessary for the division of


circuits to be considered carefully. The knowledge gained from the assessment of
general characteristics discussed earlier will be very helpful in the choice of circuit
division. In many commercial or industrial installations main and submain cables will
be needed to supply distribution boards feeding the range of final circuits.

• Designed circuit current

Having decided on the configuration and number of circuits to be used in the


installation, the designer next needs to determine the design current for each circuit.
The following steps are required to determine the design circuit current:

• Calculate the total installed load to be connected

• Calculate the assumed maximum demand after assessing diversity in the light
of experience and information obtained

• Add an appropriate allowance for future growth

• Nominal current of protective device

The nominal current of the protective device is based upon the designed circuit
current as calculated above. As allowance has already been made for possible
additional future load, the rating of the protective device (i.e. fuse or circuit breaker)
should be chosen close to this value. IEE Regulation 433.02 demands

that the nominal current of the protective device is not less than the design current of
the circuit, and choosing a rating as close as possible to it should be the aim. A
larger fuse or circuit breaker will not cost any more, but if one of a higher rating is
installed it will be necessary to install a larger cable.

• Size of live conductors

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The tables, which are used to determine the cable size required are contained in IEE
Appendix 4. The appendix is divided into sections. Tables in section 4A categorize
the methods of installation of cables, 4 B and 4C give correction factors for grouping
of cables, and 4 D to 4 L give the current ratings and associated voltage drops for a
range of different cable types.

Table 4A categorizes wiring systems into 20 different types. The current carrying
capacity of the cables differs considerably according to the method of installation
which is to be used. This needs to be borne in mind so that the appropriate columns
are used when referring to Tables 4D AND 4L

Correction factors for ambient temperature are also given, these being shown in
Table 4C2 if semi-enclosed fuses are used, and in Table 4C 1 for the other types of
protection. The size of cable to be used for any particular circuit will depend upon a
number of factors, which the designer must be aware of.

Type of over current protection

One factor, which influences the cable size, is the type of over current protection to
be used. If a circuit is to be protected by a semi-enclosed (re-wirable) fuse, then a
correction factor of 0. 725 must be applied to the nominal rating of the over current
protective device. This correction factor (as with the other correction factors to follow)
is a divisor. For example, in a heating circuit, if the designed circuit current is 12.5A,
and it is proposed to use a 15A semi-enclosed fuse for protection, the cable chosen
must be capable of carrying:

15
= 20A
0.72

If the protective device is to be an HBC fuse to BS 88 or 8S 1361, or a miniature


circuit breaker, then a cable rated at 15A may be used for this circuit. Note that both
these figures assume no other limitations exist to influence the calculation.

For mineral insulated cables, the current carrying capacity is not affected by the type
of over current protection provided, but for PVC and rubber insulated cables the type
of over current protection must be taken into account, and the appropriate cable
used.

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Grouping factor

This is another aspect, which a designer should consider, because if a number of


cables are run in close proximity to one another, their current capacity is reduced.
This arises because the heat generated during the normal operation of the circuit
has less chance of escape. As with the previously mentioned case, the correction
factor is applied to the rating of the protective device and once again it is a divisor.
The grouping factors to be applied are shown in IEE Tables 481, 4B2 and 483.
Figures are given dependent upon the installation method used. If the cables are
arranged so that there is a space of one diameter between them, increased factors
may be applied, and if spacing of two diameters between cables can be achieved, no
grouping correction factor need be used. As an example, consider our earlier heating
circuit, but this time assume that it is run in a conduit with two other circuits, then,
reading from IEE Table 481, a factor of 0.70 must be applied so the cable chosen
must be capable of carrying:

15
= 21.4 A
0.70

If the three circuits were to be clipped to a perforated metal cable tray and touching
the calculation would be:

15
= 18.5A
0.81

Alternatively, if the protection chosen were to be a semi-enclosed fuse then the cable
chosen must be capable of carrying:

15
= 25.5A
0.81X 0.725

That is to say correction factors for both the type of protection and grouping are
used.

Ambient temperature

Before the size of the cable can be ascertained, the ambient temperature must be
taken into consideration. The IEE tables of current carrying capacity are based on an

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assumed ambient temperature of30°C. If the ambient temperature is higher, such as


in tropical countries or in a boiler house, an allowance must be made and the cable
derated accordingly.

The necessary correction factors are given in IEE Table 4Cl except in the case
where the protection is a semi-enclosed fuse, when the factors are given in IEE
Table 4C2. As with the previous correction factors described, the figures are divisors.

When measuring ambient temperature where cables have already been installed it is
important to make sure that any temperature rise from the cables is not included.
When measuring temperature, the thermometer used must be about 0. 5m from the
cables in the horizontal plane, or l50mm below the lowest of the cables.

Thermal insulation.

If cable runs are located in thermally insulating material, their ability to shed heat is
reduced. Because of this, the cable rating must also be reduced should this condition
occur lEE Regulation 523-04 requires that if possible cables should be routed in
such a way that they will avoid being covered by thermally insulating material. If
however, this proves impracticable, then the cable rating will need to be adjusted
accordingly.

Installation method 4 in IEE Table 4A refers to cases where one side of the cable is
in contact with thermally conductive material, and for this case cable ratings are
given in the cable rating tables in IEE Appendix 4. If the cable run is completely
surrounded by thermal insulation for a distance ofO.5m or more, a derating factor of
0.5 must be applied. For distances less than 0.5m, IEE Table 52A lists the factors to
be used. However, maximum operating temperatures of conductors are given in IEE
Table 52B.

As can be seen, a number of correction factors can arise and there may be cases
where more than one factor requires to be applied to the same cable. This is done in
the following way. The current rating of the protective device is divided by each
factor in turn thus:

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1 1 1 1
X X X
C1 C 2 C 3 C 4

Where:

C1 is the correction factor for grouping

C2 is the correction factor for ambient temperature

C3 is the correction factor for thermal insulation

C4 is the correction factor for use of semi-enclosed fuse (0.725)

It is rare to find that all four factors need to be applied to the cable simultaneously, if
it did prove necessary the change required in cable size would be very significant,
with consequent effect upon the cost of the cable. In view of this the designer can in
most cases arrange by careful planning that the effect of most, if not all, of the
factors is reduced or eliminated by, for example, avoiding the use of semi-enclosed
fuses and by routing the cable to avoid thermal insulation or warm areas such as
airing cupboards or boiler houses. The method of installation will also be relevant,
and it may be more economic to spread cables so as to avoid or reduce the effect of
the grouping factor.

In a situation where a particular cable route passes through a warm area for part of
the distance, through some thermal insulation for another part, and become grouped
with other circuits elsewhere in the run, three correction factors are relevant, but they
don't occur simultaneously. In such instance, it will be perfectly adequate to obtain
an approximation for the cable size to be used by calculating the three cable ratings
separately, comparing the results, and applying the largest size of the three in the
design.

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Voltage Drop

The lEE Regulations as amended stipulates that the voltage drop along any
electrical line under normal service between the origin of the installation and any
equipment must not exceed 4% of the nominal voltage. In addition such voltage drop
must not fall below the voltage requirement standard for the equipment.

However, Electricity Supply Regulation 30(2)(b) permits a variation of up to 6% in the


voltage supplied to the consumer's installation by the supply undertaking. With a
declared voltage of 240V the actual voltage may therefore be anything between
225V and 254 V. It must be noted however, that voltage drop calculations must be
based upon the 'nominal' or declared voltage and not upon the actual voltage at the
consumer's terminals.

lEE Appendix 4, Table 4D to 4L give the voltage drops as well as the current carrying
capacities of the range of cables available. The voltage drops quoted in the tables
are in m V per ampere per metre, and the following illustration will indicate their use.

As an example, a circuit 35m long is supplying a 3kW electric heater. Assume the
voltage drop is to be limited to 4% and the size of the cable needed is to be
calculated. The load current for a 240V installation is 12.5A. A 15A protective device
is to be provided. No correction factors are needed, and the cable chosen is twin and
cpc with 1.5 mm2 conductors, enclosed in conduit. Reading from the IEE table, the
voltage drop for such cable is 29 m V per ampere per metre. In the case quoted the
calculation would be:

volt drop per A per metre x current rating x length of circuit

29 X 12.5 X 35
= 1269V
1000

This voltage drop exceeds 4% (9.6V) and so unsatisfactory. The next larger size of
cable will need to be used. This has 2.5 mm2 conductors, and a voltage drop of 18 m
V per ampere per metre.

The calculation may therefore be repeated:

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18 X 12.5 X 35
= 7.88V
1000

This gives a result within the limits required. It should be noted that this figure will be
pessimistic as regards voltage drop because the figures quoted in the IEE tables
assume the cable to be operating at its full load current. In this case however, the
larger cable needed is rated at 23 A, and so the actual voltage drop incurred will be
less than the 7.88V calculated.

Earth fault loop impedance

The importance of the value of the earth fault loop impedance relates to the matter of
shock protection. For effective protection against indirect contact, it must be
arranged that the protective device operate sufficiently rapidly to provide the
necessary level of safety. The requirement limiting earth fault loop impedance is
given in lEE Regulation 413-02-08, and figures for the maximum values are
contained in lEE Tables 41B1, 41B2 and 41D. It is possible to calculate the earth
fault loop impedance of a particular circuit, and Table 3. 7 provide data, which can
assist with this. It is necessary however, to know the earth fault loop impedance at
the origin of the installation, and this can be obtained by consulting the supply
undertaking, or, where the supply is already in existence, by measurement. This
could be illustrated using our heater circuit example.

As already stated, voltage drop considerations indicated the need to use a 2.5 mm2
twin cable for the circuit. This cable will have a 1.5 mm2 protective conductor, and by
reference to Table 3.7, it can be seen that the resistance of 35mm of 2.5 mm2 plus
35 m of 1.5 mm2 protective conductor (both PVC insulated) is:

(7.41 + 12.1) X 1.38 X 35


= 0.94 ohms
1000

Assuming the earth fault loop impedance external to the installation has been arrived
at separately at, say, 0.500, the maximum earth fault loop impedance of the circuit
concerned is 0.94 + 0.50 = 1.440. Referring to IEE Table 41Bl for O.4s disconnection
time, and assuming a l6A HBC fuse to BS 88 is to be used, the maximum value of
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earth fault loop impedance permitted is 2.8.0 and as can be seen above, the value
for the circuit under consideration is satisfactory , being less than the maximum.

Short circuit conditions

Consideration of the short circuit conditions, which apply, is necessary to ensure that
the thermal effects of a short circuit are not so severe as to cause excessive
temperature rise in the conductors.

Note that lEE Regulation 434-03-02 states that the conductors on the load side of
the protective device can be considered to be protected provided that certain
conditions are met. These relate to the breaking capacity of the overload protective
device, which must be greater than the short circuit current at its point of installation.
It will be necessary to ascertain the prospective short circuit current at the location
concerned.

If the conditions required by lEE Regulation 434-03-02 cannot be met, it will be


necessary to apply Regulation 434-03-03 to calculate the maximum time the fault
current can be allowed to flow without causing damage due to rise in temperature.
The time value thus obtained can then be compared with the current/time
characteristic for the protective device.

SOME EXAMPLES

To recapitulate, the stages needed in determining the design of a circuit are:

• Establish detail of subdivision and number of circuits

• Determine the design current

• Establish the nominal rating of the protective device

• Establish the size of the live conductors

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• Select the type of over current protection

• Check for grouping, temperature and other correction factors

• Calculate the volt drop

• Check earth fault loop impedance satisfactory for shock protection

• Examine short circuit conditions for thermal considerations. It is also


necessary to check the size of the protective conductor to ensure that the
thermal considerations for the earth fault conditions are covered.

Examples of the application of circuit calculations now follow. These illustrate


some of the stages described in the foregoing sections.

Example 1. Final circuits feeding industrial fluorescent lighting.

A distribution board feeds six final circuits, each of which supplies six twin 85 W
fluorescent lighting fittings. The circuits are 20 m in length and are grouped, three
circuits together, for 10 m of their run, clipped to a cable tray but not spaced. The
circuits also, for the last 5 m of their run pass through an industrial drying room at 60
°C. These cables are twin and cpc copper/PVC. Protection is to be by Type I
miniature circuit breaker. The earth fault loop impedance at the distribution board is
0.85 ohms, and the short circuit loop impedance is 0.75 ohms.

Design current

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We will first of all consider one final circuit. This is subject to both grouping and
ambient conditions, both of which have correction factors to be considered. Note that
fluorescent lighting is to be employed, and in the absence of manufacturer's data, a
factor of 1.8 is applied to cater for control gear current.

Load for 6 twin 85 W fluorescents = 6 x 2 x 85 x 1.8

= 1836W

1836
Designed circuit current = = 7.7A
240

No diversity can be applied, as the entire lighting load is likely to be used at the
same time. From lEE Table 41B2, the nearest size of miniature circuit breaker is a
10 A device.

In this case, correction factors for both grouping and ambient conditions above 30°C
need to be considered. Because the two conditions do not occur simultaneously, the
worst case must be identified and used. Regarding grouping of cables, using Table
3.4, the factor for three circuits on cable tray, not spaced = 0.81.

10
The cable chosen must be capable of carrying = 12.35 A
0.81

Consider ambient conditions From IEE Table 4Cl, the correction factor for 60°C = 0.50

10
The cable chosen must be capable of carrying = 20A
0.50

The worst case of the two is the ambient condition, so this one only should be used
in the design. By reference to Table 3.2 the cable can be selected. It can be seen
that if installed clipped to a perforated cable tray, 1.5 mm 2 has a 22 A capacity.
However, volt drop conditions need to be considered, and may modify this selection.

Overload protection is afforded since the current carrying capacity of the conductor
(22 x 0.5), 11 A, exceeds the nominal rating of the mcb, 10A.

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Voltage drop

The voltage drop may now be calculated. Reference to Table 3.2 gives a voltage
drop for 1.5-mm2 cable of 29 mV per ampere per metre.

29 X 7.7 X 20
Voltage drop = = 5.6V
1000

This value, when taken together with the volt drop from the sub main cable, may
prove to be too great for the equipment concerned. It will be necessary to consult the
BS appropriate to the equipment concerned, but for the purpose of the example, we
will assume a smaller volt drop figure is needed. The method is to recalculate the
volt drop figure for the next largest cable size. So the calculation is repeated for

2.5-mm2 cable

18 X 7.7 X 20
Voltage drop = = 2.8V
1000

Assume therefore that 2.5-mm2 cable will be used. It has a current carrying capacity
of 30 A.

Overload protection is still satisfactory since the current carrying capacity of the
conductor (30 x 0.5), 15 A, exceeds the nominal rating of the mcb, 10 A.

Shock protection

The fluorescent lamps are regarded as fixed equipment, and thus a 5 second
disconnection time is permitted. By reference to lEE Table 41B2, the maximum
allowable earth fault loop impedance is 6 ohms. The earth fault loop in the final
circuit comprises 20 m of 2.5 mrn2 PVC insulated conductor, with 20 m of 1.5 mm2
insulated protective conductor. The calculation can be made using the resistance
values in Table 3.7 and give the following figures:

20
((1.38 x 7.41) + (1.30 x 12.10)) x = 0.52 ohms
1000

This figure must now be added to the earth fault loop impedance at the distribution
board, the figure given being 0.85 ohms. Thus the total fault loop impedance is

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0.52 + 0.85 = 1.37 ohms.

This is less than the value of 6 ohms from the lEE Regulations, and thus shock
protection measures are satisfied.

Short circuit conditions

The prospective short circuit current at the distribution board can be calculated.

The maximum short circuit current is given by:

240
= 320 A
0.75

Maximum permitted disconnection time is given by:

k 2S 2
t= (S is the size of1he PVC insulated conductor)
I2

1152 X 2.5 2
=
320 2

= 0.807 seconds

Referring to the characteristic for a 10 A type 1 mcb in lEE Appendix 3, a current


of320 A will clear in less than 0.01 seconds i.e. virtually instantaneously. Therefore
the position is satisfactory.

To carry out a check, the let through energy for the protective device, I2t may be
compared with the value of k2 S2 in accordance with lEE Regulation 434-03-03. The
value of k2 S2 should be greater than the value of I2t of the device.

Example 2. Factory security lighting circuits

Six security lights, each drawing 2 A, are spaced 30 m from the first lamp. Proposed
protection is by a fuse to BS 1361. Determine the conductor size required. The earth

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fault loop impedance external to the installation is 0.3 ohms, and live conductor loop
impedance is 0.1 ohms.

Design current

The total load on the circuit is 6 x 2 = 12 A. No diversity can be allowed, as all lights
will be used simultaneously. The protective device selected to BS 1361 is a 15 A
fuse. No ambient, grouping or thermal correction factors need be applied.

Voltage drop

Because of the length of the circuit, volt drop considerations will be a feature of the
design. With the protective device placed at the origin, the same size cable must be
used throughout. The Standard for the equipment used should be consulted,
however, in this example we win assume that the limit for the equipment is 6 V. The
volt drop calculation needs to be carried out in stages. Assuming an initial cable size
of 6 mm2 the volt drop is 7.3 mV per ampere per metre.

Section 1, 0.0073 x 2 x 30 = 0.438 V

Section 2, 0.0073 x 4 x 30 = 0.876 V

Section 3, 0.0073 x 6 x 30 = 1.314 V

Section 4, 0.0073 x 8 x 30 = 1.752 V

Section 5, 0.0073 x 10 x 30 = 2.190 V

Section 6, 0.0073 x12 x 30 = 2.628 V

Total = 9.198V

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This exceeds 2.5% (6 V) so the calculation needs to be repeated for the next larger
cable size, which is 10 mm2. In this case the voltage drop is 4.4 mV per ampere per
metre, and the total voltage drop for the circuit calculated as above is 5.544 V.

Shock protection

The earth fault loop impedance can now be considered. 10 mm 2 cable will normally
have a 6mm2 protective conductor, and the resistance under fault conditions may be
found by reference to Table 3.7.

180
((1.38 x 1.83) + (1.30 x 3.08)) x = 1.175 ohms
1000

With the addition of the earth fault loop external to the installation, the total is:

0.3 + 1.175 = 1.475 ohms

lEE Regulation 41B1 limits this figure to 3.43 ohms and thus the design proposed is
satisfactory.

Short circuit conditions

Next we will look at the short circuit conditions. The short circuit current at d1e origin
of d1e installation may be calculated.

240
Short circuit current = = 2400 A
0 .1

Applying the equation from lEE Regulation 434-03-03, the maximum time the fault
may persist.

K 2S 2
t=
I2

1152 X 10 2
=
24002

= 0.23 seconds

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Referring to the characteristic for a 15 A fuse to BS 1361 in lEE Appendix 3, a


current of 2400 A will clear in less than 0.01 seconds, i.e. virtually instantaneously.
Therefore the position is satisfactory .

To carry out a check, the let-through energy for the fuse I2 t may be compared with
the value of k2 S2 in accordance with lEE Regulation 434-03-03. The value of k2 S2
should be greater than the value of I2 t of the device.

Example 3. Kitchen circuits for a hotel

A hotel kitchen is fed from a main intake point 16 m from the proposed position of a
new distribution board. The external earth fault loop impedance is 0.3 Ω . The
following equipment is to be installed:

Three phase equipment -

2 hotplate/ovens, 9 kW each

1 fryer, 9 kW

1 oven, 12 kW

1 dishwasher, 15 kW

single phase equipment –

1 waste disposal unit, 1.5 kW

1 microwave oven, 3 kW

2 freezers, 1 kW

4 food mixers, <1 kW

slicers, icemaker and other small items.

All the equipment is within 5 m of the distribution board

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SITP Electrical Installation

Subdivision and number of circuits

Each of the items of three phase equipment and the single phase waste disposal unit
will be fed from separate circuits from the distribution board, and each will have their
own isolating switch within 2 m of the equipment. The switches should be arranged
so that it is not necessary to lean across the cooking equipment to operate the
switch. The smaller items of single-phase equipment may be fitted with plugs and
connected to a ring main of 13 A socket outlets. It will not be possible to fully balance
the load between the phases, but the waste disposal unit should in any case be
placed on a different phase to the ring main.

Design current

Diversity may be applied. The basis could be 100% of full load of the largest
appliance, 80% for the second largest appliance, and 60% of the remainder.

Using this information, the cooking load would be:

12 + (0.8 x 9) + (0.6 x 9) + (0.6 x 9) = 30 kW

To this must be added the dishwasher = 15 kW

Total for 3 phase equipment = 45 kW

4500
Equivalent current demand = = 62.2 A
3 X 415

Add a 30A ring circuit for the small items of equipment.

Total designed circuit current = 93 A

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SITP Electrical Installation

Protective devices for the individual final circuits will be suitably rated miniature
circuit breakers, and a protective device suitable for the sub main feeding the kitchen
would be a 100 A fuse to BS 88.

A four-core cable to suit this load, if installed on a cable tray, is 35 rnm2 (lEE Table
4D2). Consider the final circuit feeding the 12 kW oven.

1200
The circuit design current =
3 X 415

= 16.7 A

The protective device chosen is a 20 A miniature circuit breaker.

Assuming the cable is to be enclosed in conduit, a suitable cable size would be 2.5
rnm2.

Voltage drop

Guidance will need to be sought to establish the maximum acceptable figure, but we
will aim to keep the maximum to 2.5%.

17 X 20 X 5
The voltage dropping the final circuit = =1.7V
1000

1.1X 100 X 16
The voltage drop in the sub main cable =
1000

= 1.76 V

Total voltage drop = 1.7 +1.76 =3.46V

This is well within the 2.5% (6 V) maximum, so no increase in cable size is needed.
The other final circuits will need to be checked to see that the voltage drop figures do
not rise above the maximum.

Shock protection

Assume the earth fault loop impedance external to the installation is 0.3 ohms.

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SITP Electrical Installation

To determine the impedance of the sub main cable (35 mm2), data can be obtained
from Table 3.7:

0.524 X 1.38 X 5 X 2
= 0.0231 ohms
1000

Similarly for the final circuit cable, (2.5 mm2), the calculation is:

7.41X 1.38 X 5 X 2
= 0.102 ohms
1000

Total earth fault loop impedance = 0.30 + 0.0231 + 0.102

= 0.425 ohms

For satisfactory disconnection times, using a 20A miniature circuit breaker, the
maximum permitted earth loop impedance is 1.2 ohms (lEE Table 41B2). The cables
used are therefore satisfactory.

A similar calculation must be conducted for each of the other final circuits.

Short circuit conditions

Assume the short circuit current at the origin of the installation is 6000 A. The
external circuit resistance, which would give this figure, is 0.04 ohms.

The resistance of the sub main cable under short circuit conditions = 0.0231 ohms.

The earth fault loop impedance at the distribution board

= 0.04 + 0.0231 = 0.0631

240
The short circuit current = 3803 A.
0.0631

As it is intended to use miniature circuit breakers in the distribution board, the fitting
of such devices with breaking capacities of 6000 A or above will enable the
requirements of lEE Regulation 434-03-02 to be met. In this case therefore,
Regulation 434-03-03 does not need to be applied.

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SITP Electrical Installation

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