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For any electrical installation work, it is necessary to ensure that the detailed design

does comply with the laid down requirements, and as a result a high level of

responsibility has to be carried by those concerned with installation planning and

design. In many cases, the experience and knowledge of the designer will be called

into play to arrive at the best or most economical arrangement and this will

encompass the practical application of installation techniques, as well as the ability

to apply the theoretical aspects of the work. It will generally be necessary to

demonstrate compliance with the Regulations and, in view of this, records should be

kept indicating the characteristics of the installation, the main design calculations and

the assumptions made in finalizing the design.

We are now going to discuss some of the points a designer will need to consider

when planning an electrical installation.

• Before any detailed planning can be carried out, it is necessary to assess the

characteristics of the proposed scheme. This applies whether the installation

is a new one, an extension to an existing system or an electrical rewire in an

existing building. The assessment required is a broad one and some of the

aspects to be considered are described below.

• The purpose and intended use of the building and the type of construction.

The construction and use of the building will inevitably dictate the type of

equipment to be installed. Environment conditions, and probable incidence of

fires are to be considered. Other features to be considered in the design will

depend upon whether the building is occupied by skilled technicians, children,

infirm persons and so on, also whether they are likely to have frequent contact

with conductive parts such as earthed metal, metal pipes, enclosures or

conductive floors.

the Diversity factor must be considered. Diversity is not easy to define, but

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can be described as the likely current demand on a circuit, taking into account

the fact that, in the worst possible case, less than the total load on that circuit

will be applied at anyone time. Whilst the application of diversity is often an

advantage in reducing the size of conductors and the associated protective

devices, the application must be made with care. The designer is responsible

for ensuring the conditions likely to prevail are appropriate ones for its use.

arrangements.

With regard to the arrangement of live conductors, and the type of earthing

arrangement, the electricity supplier should be consulted. It will be necessary

to establish:

standby purposes, the electricity supplier shall be consulted as to the

necessary changeover switching arrangements.

to avoid danger, minimise inconvenience and facilitate safe operation,

inspection, testing and maintenance. Thus, for example, a small dwelling

could require two lighting circuits, especially if there is a staircase to be lit.

Similarly with a block of flats, it is good practice to spread staircase lighting

SITP Electrical Installation

blackout.

This deals with characteristics, which are likely to impair, or have harmful

effects upon other electrical or electronic equipment or upon the supply.

These include;

Starting currents

Mutual inductance

d.c. feedback

features may be needed to enable compatibility to be achieved. Rapidly

fluctuating loads, or heavy starting currents may arise in, for example, the

case of some industrial motors or large refrigeration ~compressors which start

up automatically at frequent intervals, causing momentary voltage drop. It is

advisable for such loads to be supplied by separate sub main cables from the

main switchboard, and sometimes from a separate transformer .

makes the demands on the designer regarding compatibility more onerous.

Electronic equipment is especially susceptible to damage by transient over

voltages and these can occur even in small installations as a result of circuit

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frequency interference, which may corrupt the data in computing devices.

However, there is a standing international directive regarding electromagnetic

compatibility of electrical and electronic equipment. It requires that

manufacturers ensure that electrical and electronic equipment does not cause

electromagnetic interference. Also that such equipment is not susceptible to

electromagnetic effects.

problems, but the installation of suitable filters or isolating transformers may

• Maintainability.

maintenance that the installation can reasonably be expected to receive. The

designer must ensure that periodical inspection, testing, and maintenance can

be readily carried out and that the effectiveness of the protective measures

and the reliability of the equipment are appropriate to the intended life of the

installation. It is necessary to ensure as far as possible that all parts of the

installation, which may require maintenance, remain accessible. It is advisable

to provide special rooms for electrical apparatus.

the best locations for equipment so that accessibility is maintained.

In carrying out the design process, a number of decisions will be needed at the'

assessment of general characteristics' stage which will have an influence over the

way the detailed design is progressed. It is important to record this data so that when

required either during the design stage or afterwards, reference can be made to the

original assessment process. The person carrying out final testing will require

information as to these design decisions so as to assess the design concept

employed in the installation.

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CIRCUIT DESIGN

The practical aspects of any electrical installation design mainly concerns the

determination of correct capacity of switch gear, protective devices and cable sizes

for all circuits. In order to do this it is necessary to take into account the following:

Grouping factor

Ambient temperature

Thermal lnsulation

Voltage drop

This is necessary for two reasons, firstly the need to divide the load so that it can be

conveniently and safely handled by the cabling and switch gear, and secondly the

need to achieve statutory Regulation requirement to take into account likely

inconvenience (i.e. lEE Regulation 314.01.02).

that in the event of a protective device tripping under fault conditions, a total blackout

is avoided. In addition separate circuits must be provided for lighting and power.

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Also, sufficient socket outlets should be provided for anticipated use. Furthermore, a

separate ring circuit is recommended for kitchen area in homes to handle loads

arising from domestic appliances.

circuits to be considered carefully. The knowledge gained from the assessment of

general characteristics discussed earlier will be very helpful in the choice of circuit

division. In many commercial or industrial installations main and submain cables will

be needed to supply distribution boards feeding the range of final circuits.

installation, the designer next needs to determine the design current for each circuit.

The following steps are required to determine the design circuit current:

• Calculate the assumed maximum demand after assessing diversity in the light

of experience and information obtained

The nominal current of the protective device is based upon the designed circuit

current as calculated above. As allowance has already been made for possible

additional future load, the rating of the protective device (i.e. fuse or circuit breaker)

should be chosen close to this value. IEE Regulation 433.02 demands

that the nominal current of the protective device is not less than the design current of

the circuit, and choosing a rating as close as possible to it should be the aim. A

larger fuse or circuit breaker will not cost any more, but if one of a higher rating is

installed it will be necessary to install a larger cable.

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The tables, which are used to determine the cable size required are contained in IEE

Appendix 4. The appendix is divided into sections. Tables in section 4A categorize

the methods of installation of cables, 4 B and 4C give correction factors for grouping

of cables, and 4 D to 4 L give the current ratings and associated voltage drops for a

range of different cable types.

Table 4A categorizes wiring systems into 20 different types. The current carrying

capacity of the cables differs considerably according to the method of installation

which is to be used. This needs to be borne in mind so that the appropriate columns

are used when referring to Tables 4D AND 4L

Correction factors for ambient temperature are also given, these being shown in

Table 4C2 if semi-enclosed fuses are used, and in Table 4C 1 for the other types of

protection. The size of cable to be used for any particular circuit will depend upon a

number of factors, which the designer must be aware of.

One factor, which influences the cable size, is the type of over current protection to

be used. If a circuit is to be protected by a semi-enclosed (re-wirable) fuse, then a

correction factor of 0. 725 must be applied to the nominal rating of the over current

protective device. This correction factor (as with the other correction factors to follow)

is a divisor. For example, in a heating circuit, if the designed circuit current is 12.5A,

and it is proposed to use a 15A semi-enclosed fuse for protection, the cable chosen

must be capable of carrying:

15

= 20A

0.72

circuit breaker, then a cable rated at 15A may be used for this circuit. Note that both

these figures assume no other limitations exist to influence the calculation.

For mineral insulated cables, the current carrying capacity is not affected by the type

of over current protection provided, but for PVC and rubber insulated cables the type

of over current protection must be taken into account, and the appropriate cable

used.

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Grouping factor

cables are run in close proximity to one another, their current capacity is reduced.

This arises because the heat generated during the normal operation of the circuit

has less chance of escape. As with the previously mentioned case, the correction

factor is applied to the rating of the protective device and once again it is a divisor.

The grouping factors to be applied are shown in IEE Tables 481, 4B2 and 483.

Figures are given dependent upon the installation method used. If the cables are

arranged so that there is a space of one diameter between them, increased factors

may be applied, and if spacing of two diameters between cables can be achieved, no

grouping correction factor need be used. As an example, consider our earlier heating

circuit, but this time assume that it is run in a conduit with two other circuits, then,

reading from IEE Table 481, a factor of 0.70 must be applied so the cable chosen

must be capable of carrying:

15

= 21.4 A

0.70

If the three circuits were to be clipped to a perforated metal cable tray and touching

the calculation would be:

15

= 18.5A

0.81

Alternatively, if the protection chosen were to be a semi-enclosed fuse then the cable

chosen must be capable of carrying:

15

= 25.5A

0.81X 0.725

That is to say correction factors for both the type of protection and grouping are

used.

Ambient temperature

Before the size of the cable can be ascertained, the ambient temperature must be

taken into consideration. The IEE tables of current carrying capacity are based on an

SITP Electrical Installation

in tropical countries or in a boiler house, an allowance must be made and the cable

derated accordingly.

The necessary correction factors are given in IEE Table 4Cl except in the case

where the protection is a semi-enclosed fuse, when the factors are given in IEE

Table 4C2. As with the previous correction factors described, the figures are divisors.

When measuring ambient temperature where cables have already been installed it is

important to make sure that any temperature rise from the cables is not included.

When measuring temperature, the thermometer used must be about 0. 5m from the

cables in the horizontal plane, or l50mm below the lowest of the cables.

Thermal insulation.

If cable runs are located in thermally insulating material, their ability to shed heat is

reduced. Because of this, the cable rating must also be reduced should this condition

occur lEE Regulation 523-04 requires that if possible cables should be routed in

such a way that they will avoid being covered by thermally insulating material. If

however, this proves impracticable, then the cable rating will need to be adjusted

accordingly.

Installation method 4 in IEE Table 4A refers to cases where one side of the cable is

in contact with thermally conductive material, and for this case cable ratings are

given in the cable rating tables in IEE Appendix 4. If the cable run is completely

surrounded by thermal insulation for a distance ofO.5m or more, a derating factor of

0.5 must be applied. For distances less than 0.5m, IEE Table 52A lists the factors to

be used. However, maximum operating temperatures of conductors are given in IEE

Table 52B.

As can be seen, a number of correction factors can arise and there may be cases

where more than one factor requires to be applied to the same cable. This is done in

the following way. The current rating of the protective device is divided by each

factor in turn thus:

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1 1 1 1

X X X

C1 C 2 C 3 C 4

Where:

It is rare to find that all four factors need to be applied to the cable simultaneously, if

it did prove necessary the change required in cable size would be very significant,

with consequent effect upon the cost of the cable. In view of this the designer can in

most cases arrange by careful planning that the effect of most, if not all, of the

factors is reduced or eliminated by, for example, avoiding the use of semi-enclosed

fuses and by routing the cable to avoid thermal insulation or warm areas such as

airing cupboards or boiler houses. The method of installation will also be relevant,

and it may be more economic to spread cables so as to avoid or reduce the effect of

the grouping factor.

In a situation where a particular cable route passes through a warm area for part of

the distance, through some thermal insulation for another part, and become grouped

with other circuits elsewhere in the run, three correction factors are relevant, but they

don't occur simultaneously. In such instance, it will be perfectly adequate to obtain

an approximation for the cable size to be used by calculating the three cable ratings

separately, comparing the results, and applying the largest size of the three in the

design.

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Voltage Drop

The lEE Regulations as amended stipulates that the voltage drop along any

electrical line under normal service between the origin of the installation and any

equipment must not exceed 4% of the nominal voltage. In addition such voltage drop

must not fall below the voltage requirement standard for the equipment.

voltage supplied to the consumer's installation by the supply undertaking. With a

declared voltage of 240V the actual voltage may therefore be anything between

225V and 254 V. It must be noted however, that voltage drop calculations must be

based upon the 'nominal' or declared voltage and not upon the actual voltage at the

consumer's terminals.

lEE Appendix 4, Table 4D to 4L give the voltage drops as well as the current carrying

capacities of the range of cables available. The voltage drops quoted in the tables

are in m V per ampere per metre, and the following illustration will indicate their use.

As an example, a circuit 35m long is supplying a 3kW electric heater. Assume the

voltage drop is to be limited to 4% and the size of the cable needed is to be

calculated. The load current for a 240V installation is 12.5A. A 15A protective device

is to be provided. No correction factors are needed, and the cable chosen is twin and

cpc with 1.5 mm2 conductors, enclosed in conduit. Reading from the IEE table, the

voltage drop for such cable is 29 m V per ampere per metre. In the case quoted the

calculation would be:

29 X 12.5 X 35

= 1269V

1000

This voltage drop exceeds 4% (9.6V) and so unsatisfactory. The next larger size of

cable will need to be used. This has 2.5 mm2 conductors, and a voltage drop of 18 m

V per ampere per metre.

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18 X 12.5 X 35

= 7.88V

1000

This gives a result within the limits required. It should be noted that this figure will be

pessimistic as regards voltage drop because the figures quoted in the IEE tables

assume the cable to be operating at its full load current. In this case however, the

larger cable needed is rated at 23 A, and so the actual voltage drop incurred will be

less than the 7.88V calculated.

The importance of the value of the earth fault loop impedance relates to the matter of

shock protection. For effective protection against indirect contact, it must be

arranged that the protective device operate sufficiently rapidly to provide the

necessary level of safety. The requirement limiting earth fault loop impedance is

given in lEE Regulation 413-02-08, and figures for the maximum values are

contained in lEE Tables 41B1, 41B2 and 41D. It is possible to calculate the earth

fault loop impedance of a particular circuit, and Table 3. 7 provide data, which can

assist with this. It is necessary however, to know the earth fault loop impedance at

the origin of the installation, and this can be obtained by consulting the supply

undertaking, or, where the supply is already in existence, by measurement. This

could be illustrated using our heater circuit example.

As already stated, voltage drop considerations indicated the need to use a 2.5 mm2

twin cable for the circuit. This cable will have a 1.5 mm2 protective conductor, and by

reference to Table 3.7, it can be seen that the resistance of 35mm of 2.5 mm2 plus

35 m of 1.5 mm2 protective conductor (both PVC insulated) is:

= 0.94 ohms

1000

Assuming the earth fault loop impedance external to the installation has been arrived

at separately at, say, 0.500, the maximum earth fault loop impedance of the circuit

concerned is 0.94 + 0.50 = 1.440. Referring to IEE Table 41Bl for O.4s disconnection

time, and assuming a l6A HBC fuse to BS 88 is to be used, the maximum value of

Omoigui, M.O Page 12 of 24 Univation

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earth fault loop impedance permitted is 2.8.0 and as can be seen above, the value

for the circuit under consideration is satisfactory , being less than the maximum.

Consideration of the short circuit conditions, which apply, is necessary to ensure that

the thermal effects of a short circuit are not so severe as to cause excessive

temperature rise in the conductors.

Note that lEE Regulation 434-03-02 states that the conductors on the load side of

the protective device can be considered to be protected provided that certain

conditions are met. These relate to the breaking capacity of the overload protective

device, which must be greater than the short circuit current at its point of installation.

It will be necessary to ascertain the prospective short circuit current at the location

concerned.

necessary to apply Regulation 434-03-03 to calculate the maximum time the fault

current can be allowed to flow without causing damage due to rise in temperature.

The time value thus obtained can then be compared with the current/time

characteristic for the protective device.

SOME EXAMPLES

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necessary to check the size of the protective conductor to ensure that the

thermal considerations for the earth fault conditions are covered.

some of the stages described in the foregoing sections.

A distribution board feeds six final circuits, each of which supplies six twin 85 W

fluorescent lighting fittings. The circuits are 20 m in length and are grouped, three

circuits together, for 10 m of their run, clipped to a cable tray but not spaced. The

circuits also, for the last 5 m of their run pass through an industrial drying room at 60

°C. These cables are twin and cpc copper/PVC. Protection is to be by Type I

miniature circuit breaker. The earth fault loop impedance at the distribution board is

0.85 ohms, and the short circuit loop impedance is 0.75 ohms.

Design current

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We will first of all consider one final circuit. This is subject to both grouping and

ambient conditions, both of which have correction factors to be considered. Note that

fluorescent lighting is to be employed, and in the absence of manufacturer's data, a

factor of 1.8 is applied to cater for control gear current.

= 1836W

1836

Designed circuit current = = 7.7A

240

No diversity can be applied, as the entire lighting load is likely to be used at the

same time. From lEE Table 41B2, the nearest size of miniature circuit breaker is a

10 A device.

In this case, correction factors for both grouping and ambient conditions above 30°C

need to be considered. Because the two conditions do not occur simultaneously, the

worst case must be identified and used. Regarding grouping of cables, using Table

3.4, the factor for three circuits on cable tray, not spaced = 0.81.

10

The cable chosen must be capable of carrying = 12.35 A

0.81

Consider ambient conditions From IEE Table 4Cl, the correction factor for 60°C = 0.50

10

The cable chosen must be capable of carrying = 20A

0.50

The worst case of the two is the ambient condition, so this one only should be used

in the design. By reference to Table 3.2 the cable can be selected. It can be seen

that if installed clipped to a perforated cable tray, 1.5 mm 2 has a 22 A capacity.

However, volt drop conditions need to be considered, and may modify this selection.

Overload protection is afforded since the current carrying capacity of the conductor

(22 x 0.5), 11 A, exceeds the nominal rating of the mcb, 10A.

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Voltage drop

The voltage drop may now be calculated. Reference to Table 3.2 gives a voltage

drop for 1.5-mm2 cable of 29 mV per ampere per metre.

29 X 7.7 X 20

Voltage drop = = 5.6V

1000

This value, when taken together with the volt drop from the sub main cable, may

prove to be too great for the equipment concerned. It will be necessary to consult the

BS appropriate to the equipment concerned, but for the purpose of the example, we

will assume a smaller volt drop figure is needed. The method is to recalculate the

volt drop figure for the next largest cable size. So the calculation is repeated for

2.5-mm2 cable

18 X 7.7 X 20

Voltage drop = = 2.8V

1000

Assume therefore that 2.5-mm2 cable will be used. It has a current carrying capacity

of 30 A.

Overload protection is still satisfactory since the current carrying capacity of the

conductor (30 x 0.5), 15 A, exceeds the nominal rating of the mcb, 10 A.

Shock protection

The fluorescent lamps are regarded as fixed equipment, and thus a 5 second

disconnection time is permitted. By reference to lEE Table 41B2, the maximum

allowable earth fault loop impedance is 6 ohms. The earth fault loop in the final

circuit comprises 20 m of 2.5 mrn2 PVC insulated conductor, with 20 m of 1.5 mm2

insulated protective conductor. The calculation can be made using the resistance

values in Table 3.7 and give the following figures:

20

((1.38 x 7.41) + (1.30 x 12.10)) x = 0.52 ohms

1000

This figure must now be added to the earth fault loop impedance at the distribution

board, the figure given being 0.85 ohms. Thus the total fault loop impedance is

SITP Electrical Installation

This is less than the value of 6 ohms from the lEE Regulations, and thus shock

protection measures are satisfied.

The prospective short circuit current at the distribution board can be calculated.

240

= 320 A

0.75

k 2S 2

t= (S is the size of1he PVC insulated conductor)

I2

1152 X 2.5 2

=

320 2

= 0.807 seconds

of320 A will clear in less than 0.01 seconds i.e. virtually instantaneously. Therefore

the position is satisfactory.

To carry out a check, the let through energy for the protective device, I2t may be

compared with the value of k2 S2 in accordance with lEE Regulation 434-03-03. The

value of k2 S2 should be greater than the value of I2t of the device.

Six security lights, each drawing 2 A, are spaced 30 m from the first lamp. Proposed

protection is by a fuse to BS 1361. Determine the conductor size required. The earth

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fault loop impedance external to the installation is 0.3 ohms, and live conductor loop

impedance is 0.1 ohms.

Design current

The total load on the circuit is 6 x 2 = 12 A. No diversity can be allowed, as all lights

will be used simultaneously. The protective device selected to BS 1361 is a 15 A

fuse. No ambient, grouping or thermal correction factors need be applied.

Voltage drop

Because of the length of the circuit, volt drop considerations will be a feature of the

design. With the protective device placed at the origin, the same size cable must be

used throughout. The Standard for the equipment used should be consulted,

however, in this example we win assume that the limit for the equipment is 6 V. The

volt drop calculation needs to be carried out in stages. Assuming an initial cable size

of 6 mm2 the volt drop is 7.3 mV per ampere per metre.

Total = 9.198V

SITP Electrical Installation

This exceeds 2.5% (6 V) so the calculation needs to be repeated for the next larger

cable size, which is 10 mm2. In this case the voltage drop is 4.4 mV per ampere per

metre, and the total voltage drop for the circuit calculated as above is 5.544 V.

Shock protection

The earth fault loop impedance can now be considered. 10 mm 2 cable will normally

have a 6mm2 protective conductor, and the resistance under fault conditions may be

found by reference to Table 3.7.

180

((1.38 x 1.83) + (1.30 x 3.08)) x = 1.175 ohms

1000

With the addition of the earth fault loop external to the installation, the total is:

lEE Regulation 41B1 limits this figure to 3.43 ohms and thus the design proposed is

satisfactory.

Next we will look at the short circuit conditions. The short circuit current at d1e origin

of d1e installation may be calculated.

240

Short circuit current = = 2400 A

0 .1

Applying the equation from lEE Regulation 434-03-03, the maximum time the fault

may persist.

K 2S 2

t=

I2

1152 X 10 2

=

24002

= 0.23 seconds

SITP Electrical Installation

current of 2400 A will clear in less than 0.01 seconds, i.e. virtually instantaneously.

Therefore the position is satisfactory .

To carry out a check, the let-through energy for the fuse I2 t may be compared with

the value of k2 S2 in accordance with lEE Regulation 434-03-03. The value of k2 S2

should be greater than the value of I2 t of the device.

A hotel kitchen is fed from a main intake point 16 m from the proposed position of a

new distribution board. The external earth fault loop impedance is 0.3 Ω . The

following equipment is to be installed:

2 hotplate/ovens, 9 kW each

1 fryer, 9 kW

1 oven, 12 kW

1 dishwasher, 15 kW

1 microwave oven, 3 kW

2 freezers, 1 kW

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Each of the items of three phase equipment and the single phase waste disposal unit

will be fed from separate circuits from the distribution board, and each will have their

own isolating switch within 2 m of the equipment. The switches should be arranged

so that it is not necessary to lean across the cooking equipment to operate the

switch. The smaller items of single-phase equipment may be fitted with plugs and

connected to a ring main of 13 A socket outlets. It will not be possible to fully balance

the load between the phases, but the waste disposal unit should in any case be

placed on a different phase to the ring main.

Design current

Diversity may be applied. The basis could be 100% of full load of the largest

appliance, 80% for the second largest appliance, and 60% of the remainder.

4500

Equivalent current demand = = 62.2 A

3 X 415

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Protective devices for the individual final circuits will be suitably rated miniature

circuit breakers, and a protective device suitable for the sub main feeding the kitchen

would be a 100 A fuse to BS 88.

A four-core cable to suit this load, if installed on a cable tray, is 35 rnm2 (lEE Table

4D2). Consider the final circuit feeding the 12 kW oven.

1200

The circuit design current =

3 X 415

= 16.7 A

Assuming the cable is to be enclosed in conduit, a suitable cable size would be 2.5

rnm2.

Voltage drop

Guidance will need to be sought to establish the maximum acceptable figure, but we

will aim to keep the maximum to 2.5%.

17 X 20 X 5

The voltage dropping the final circuit = =1.7V

1000

1.1X 100 X 16

The voltage drop in the sub main cable =

1000

= 1.76 V

This is well within the 2.5% (6 V) maximum, so no increase in cable size is needed.

The other final circuits will need to be checked to see that the voltage drop figures do

not rise above the maximum.

Shock protection

Assume the earth fault loop impedance external to the installation is 0.3 ohms.

SITP Electrical Installation

To determine the impedance of the sub main cable (35 mm2), data can be obtained

from Table 3.7:

0.524 X 1.38 X 5 X 2

= 0.0231 ohms

1000

Similarly for the final circuit cable, (2.5 mm2), the calculation is:

7.41X 1.38 X 5 X 2

= 0.102 ohms

1000

= 0.425 ohms

For satisfactory disconnection times, using a 20A miniature circuit breaker, the

maximum permitted earth loop impedance is 1.2 ohms (lEE Table 41B2). The cables

used are therefore satisfactory.

A similar calculation must be conducted for each of the other final circuits.

Assume the short circuit current at the origin of the installation is 6000 A. The

external circuit resistance, which would give this figure, is 0.04 ohms.

The resistance of the sub main cable under short circuit conditions = 0.0231 ohms.

240

The short circuit current = 3803 A.

0.0631

As it is intended to use miniature circuit breakers in the distribution board, the fitting

of such devices with breaking capacities of 6000 A or above will enable the

requirements of lEE Regulation 434-03-02 to be met. In this case therefore,

Regulation 434-03-03 does not need to be applied.

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