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Intro to IDMS

Margaret Sliming
Of
DivaProgrammer, LLC
www.web2IDMS.com

09/06/16 M Sliming 1
Introduction

This presentation will cover the basic


concepts of IDMS database structure, data
relationships and access methods.

09/06/16 M Sliming 2
Agenda
 Data Relationships
 Database Architecture
 Database Definition
 Currency
 COBOL Commands
 Error Handling
 Central Version
 Culprit
 SQL
 Additional Information / Sources
09/06/16 M Sliming 3
Data Relationships
TABLE RELATIONSHIPS

STUDENT
PAYROLL
Many-to-Many
ID ID
TCHR SSN NAME
SALARY ADDR

One-to-One
TEACHER COURSE STUD-CRSE

ID ID STUD ID
NAME NAME CRSE ID
SSN TCHR ID
DEPT ID

One-to-Many
DEPARTMENT

ID
NAME

09/06/16 M Sliming 4
Data Relationships (Con’t)
 Data relates in three ways:
 One-to-One (eg. Payroll & Teacher)
 One-to-Many (eg. Teacher & Course)
 Many-to-Many (eg. Course & Student)

 Relational databases use foreign keys to relate


records and IDMS uses sets.

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Database Architecture

09/06/16 M Sliming 6
Database Architecture
 The preceding page illustrates how records are
stored in IDMS.

 The database is comprised of areas which are


mapped to disk files. Areas are broken up into
pages which contain the database records. The
records are uniquely identified by the page
number, they reside on, and a sequence number,
called a line number. This makes up what is
known as the database key or DB-KEY.

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Database Architecture
Database Page

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Database Architecture
DATABASE KEYS

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Database Definition

PAYROLL-100
100 F CALC
100-PYRL-ID DN STUDENT-500
ADMIN-AREA 500 F CALC
500-STUD-ID DN
TEACHER-PAYROLL
COURSE-400 ADMIN-AREA
TEACHER-200 400 F CALC
400-CRSE-ID DN STUDENT-STUDCRSE
200 F CALC
200-TCHR-ID DN
TEACHER
-COURSE
ACADEMIC-AREA
FACULTY-AREA STUD-CRSE-600
COURSE-STUDCRSE 600 F VIA
DEPT-TEACHER CRSE-STUDCRSE DN
ACADEMIC-AREA
DEPT-300
300 F CALC
300-DEPT-ID DN
FACULTY-AREA

09/06/16 M Sliming 10
Database Definition
Record Descriptions

01 PAYROLL-100. 01 COURSE-400.
05 100-PYRL-ID PIC X(9). 05 400-CRSE-ID PIC X(3).
05 100-PYRL-SSN PIC 9(9). 05 400-CRSE-TITLE PIC X(20).
05 100-PYRL-SALARY PIC 9(6)V9(2).
05 400-CRSE-TCHR PIC X(5).
01 TEACHER-200. 01 STUDENT-500.
05 200-TCHR-ID PIC X(4). 05 500-STUD-ID PIC X(4).
05 200-TCHR-SSN PIC 9(9). 05 500-STUD-NAME PIC X(30).
05 200-TCHR-NAME PIC X(30). 05 500-STUD-ADDR PIC X(40).
05 200-TCHR-DEPT PIC X(4).
01 DEPT-300. 01 STUD-CRSE-600.
05 300-DEPT-ID PIC X(4). 05 600-STUD-ID PIC X(4).
05 300-DEPT-NAME PIC X(15). 05 600-CRSE-ID PIC X(3).

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Database Definition
 A Schema contains the record, set and area
definitions for an IDMS database.
 A Subschema contains the records, sets and
areas that can be referenced by an application
and whether they can be updated or retrieved
only.
 A DMCL maps the database areas to file
blocks.

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Database Definition
 To program IDMS applications, our most
valuable tool is the schema definition and/or
diagram, seen on slide 10, known as the
“Bachman” diagram.
 In order to retrieve and/or update information
in the database, we have to know how to get to
it.
 The following pages will detail how we define
data relationships in IDMS.

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Database Definition

 Record Attributes
 Location Modes
 Set Attributes
 Indexed Sets
 Area Sweeps

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Database Definition - Record Attributes

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Database Definition - Record Attributes

 Record ID: Unique numeric value within the


schema assigned to the record. It’s helpful to
include this number in the record name and to also
prefix each record element with it.

 Storage Mode: This means storing the record as


fixed or variable. Fixed is the most desirable so the
record does not change size when it gets updated.
Variable records can get fragmented and thus take
more I/O to retrieve.
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Database Definition - Record Attributes
 Record Length: This value includes the total length of
all data elements plus four bytes for each pointer
database key associated with the record. Pointers will
be discussed later with set options.
 Location Mode, Set Name and Duplicates
Indicator will we discussed in more detail later in this
section.
 Area Name: Name of the database area the record is
stored in.

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Database Definitiion - Location Modes
 The manner in which a record occurrence is physically
located in an area of the database. The three types are:
CALC, VIA and DIRECT.

 CALC: A method of determining the target page for


storage of a record in the database. The target page is
calculated is calculated by means of a randomizing
routine executed against the value of the Calc key in the
record.

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Database Definition - Location Modes
 VIA: Clusters member records in the same physical
location for efficient database access. Optionally, Via
can cluster member records with their owners.

 DIRECT: Populates an area in the order the records


are loaded. This mode is best used for data which is
static and will be retrieved in the order it physically
resides in the database.

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Database Definition - Location Modes
Example – CALC mode

09/06/16 M Sliming 20
Database Definition - Location Modes
Example – VIA mode

09/06/16 M Sliming 21
Database Definition – Location Modes
This example illustrates how records are stored VIA when the owner
and member reside in different areas.

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Database Definition - Location Modes
Example – DIRECT mode

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Database Definition - Set Attributes
 Sets relate records to each other in IDMS using a
number of parameters.
 Pointers: Next, Prior, Owner, Index, Index Owner
 Membership: Mandatory Automatic, Mandatory
Manual, Optional Automatic, Optional Manual
 Order (Unsorted sets): First, Last, Next, Prior
(Sorted sets): Ascending or
descending by key
 A database record contains a pointer (aka Db-key)
for each record it relates to. ie. If it is stored Next,
Prior and Owner in a set, it will contain the pointer
for the owner, previous and next record in the set.

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Database Definition – Indexed Sets
SYSTEM-OWNED INDEX

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Database Definition – Indexed Sets
USER-OWNED INDEX

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Database Definition – Area Sweeps
 This method of retrieval is used when records cannot
be retrieved using key information. The entire area is
read from beginning to end and the program selects the
desired records.
 This can be a good method when all occurrences of a
record type are needed and there are not too many
different record types in the area.
 The programmer must pay close attention to currency
when retrieving owner records with an area sweep and
then getting their member records when both records
reside in the same area. Looping can occur if the
owner record is not made current of area before each
obtain.
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Currency
 IDMS keeps track of record occurrences,
being processed, by area, set, record type and
run-unit (program).
 The current record is usually the last
record retrieved or updated.
 Currency is extremely important to
understand, especially when updating a
database, for maintaining data integrity.

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COBOL Commands
 ACCEPT
 BIND
 COMMIT
 CONNECT
 DISCONNECT
 ERASE
 FIND/OBTAIN
 FINISH
 IF
 MODIFY
 READY
 ROLLBACK
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COBOL Commands - ACCEPT
 Retrieves information pertaining to the status of the
database.
 Format:
ACCEPT {TASK CODE } INTO return-location.
{TASK ID }
{LTERM ID }
{PTERM ID }
{SYSVERSION}
{USER ID }
{SCREENSIZE}
09/06/16 M Sliming 30
COBOL commands - BIND
 Initiates a run-unit and establishes addressability
in variable storage to the IDMS communication
block, record types and optionally to procedure
control information.
 Format:
BIND {RUN-UNIT } .
{record-name }

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COBOL Commands - COMMIT
 Makes database updates permanent. Ie. If a
program abends without having issued any
‘COMMIT’s, all updates issued by the program
will be rolled back.
 Format:
COMMIT { }.
{ALL}

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COBOL Commands - CONNECT
 Establishes a record occurrence as a member of
a set occurrence. The set must not be defined as
Mandatory Automatic.
 Format:
CONNECT record-name TO set-name .

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COBOL Commands - DISCONNECT

 Removes a member record occurrence from a


set but does not delete the record from the
database. This command is only valid for
records which are optional members of a set.
 Format:
DISCONNECT record-name FROM set-name .

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COBOL Commands - ERASE
 Deletes a record occurrence from the database
and optionally deletes records subordinate to it.
 Format:
ERASE record-name { } .
{ALL MEMBERS}

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COBOL Commands - FIND / OBTAIN

 The FIND statement locates a record


occurrence in the database; the OBTAIN
statement locates a record and moves the data
associated with the record to the record buffers.
Because the FIND and OBTAIN command
statements have identical formats, they are
discussed together. The six formats of the
FIND/OBTAIN statement are as follows:

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COBOL Commands - FIND / OBTAIN
 FIND/OBTAIN CALC accesses a record occurrence by using
its CALC key value.
 FIND/OBTAIN CURRENT accesses a record occurrence by
using established currencies.
 FIND/OBTAIN DB-KEY accesses a record occurrence by
using its database key.
 FIND/OBTAIN OWNER accesses the owner record of a set
occurrence.
 FIND/OBTAIN WITHIN SET USING SORT KEY
accesses a record occurrence in a sorted set by using its sort key
value.
 FIND/OBTAIN WITHIN SET/AREA accesses a record
occurrence based on its logical location within a set or on its
physical location within an area.
09/06/16 M Sliming 37
COBOL Commands - FIND / OBTAIN

Formats:
 FIND / OBTAIN CALC record-name .
 FIND / OBTAIN CURRENT { record-name }.
{WITHIN set-name }
{WITHIN area-name }
 FIND / OBTAIN DB-KEY IS db-key .
 FIND / OBTAIN OWNER WITHIN set-name .
 FIND / OBTAIN record-name WITHIN set-name USING sort-key.
 FIND / OBTAIN {NEXT} { } WITHIN { set-name } .
{PRIOR} {record-name
{ } { area-name }
{FIRST}
{LAST}
{seq-nbr}

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COBOL Commands - FINISH
 Causes affected database sessions to terminate.
 Format:
FINISH .

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COBOL Commands - IF
 The IF statement allows the program to test for the
presence of member record occurrences in a set and to
determine the membership status of a record
occurrence in a specified set; once the set has been
evaluated, the IF statement specifies further action
based on the outcome of the evaluation. For example,
an IF statement might be used to determine whether a
set occurrence is empty and, if it is empty, to erase the
owner record.
 Note: DML IF statements cannot be nested within
COBOL IF statements.

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COBOL Commands - IF
 Depending on its format, the IF statement uses set or run-unit
currency. The object set occurrence of an IF statement is
determined by the owner of the current record of the named set;
the object record occurrence is determined by the current of run
unit.

 Each IF statement contains a conditional phrase and an


imperative statement. When an IF is issued, the
precompiler first generates a call to the DBMS to
execute the conditional phrase; the results of the test
determine whether or not the imperative statement is
executed.

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COBOL Commands - IF

Formats:
 IF set-name EMPTY imperative-statement .
 IF set-name NOT EMPTY imperative-statement .
 IF set-name MEMBER imperative-statement .
 IF NOT set-name MEMBER imperative-statement .

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COBOL Commands - Modify
 Replaces the contents of a database record occurrence
with the values in it’s corresponding variable storage.
Note: The database record being modified, must
always be current of run-unit.
 Format:
MODIFY record-name .

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COBOL Commands - READY
 Prepares a database area for access by DML functions
and specifies that area's usage mode.
 Format:
READY { } USAGE-MODE {UPDATE }.
{ area-name } {RETRIEVAL}

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COBOL Commands - ROLLBACK
 Rolls back uncommitted changes made to the database
through an individual run unit.
 Format:
ROLLBACK { CONTINUE } .
 The CONTINUE option allows the run-unit to remain
active after the changes have been backed out.
Database access can be resumed without issuing BIND
and READY statements.

09/06/16 M Sliming 45
ERROR HANDLING
 After each IDMS command executes, a value is
returned into a field called ERROR-STATUS which is
‘0000’ if the command was successful, or a 4-byte value
indicating the command in error and the reason for the
error. The first two bytes of ERROR-STATUS
indicate the command and the last two bytes indicate
the cause of the error.
 Every IDMS error should be trapped and the
appropriate action should be taken. This action may be
an error message or an Abort of the program
depending on the severity of the error.
 A list of these error status codes can be found in
Volume 4, Chapter 11 of the ‘IDMS Messages and
Codes’ manuals.
09/06/16 M Sliming 46
ERROR HANDLING
Component Major code DML function

 00 Any DML function


 01 FINISH
 02 ERASE
 03 FIND/OBTAIN
 05 GET
 06 KEEP
 07 CONNECT
 08 MODIFY
 09 READY
 11 DISCONNECT
 12 STORE
 14 BIND
 15 ACCEPT
 16 IF
 17 RETURN
 18 COMMIT
 19 ROLLBACK
 20 LRF requests

09/06/16 M Sliming 47
Central Version / Local Mode
 CENTRAL VERSION is an IDMS system that enables
multiple applications to access the database concurrently. A
central version controls access to data at the individual record
(or row) level thus providing integrity while maximizing
concurrency. It also provides automatic recovery in the event of
failure. All applications executing within a TP monitor
(including DC/UCF) use central version services to access
IDMS data. Batch applications can access data in central
version or local mode.

 LOCAL MODE is a mode of operation in which a batch


program uses a dedicated copy DBMS to access the database.
In local mode, only one program can update the database at a
time. Updates in local mode are usually rare and only done
when it is faster to back of the database, run the update program
and restore in the event of an abend than running under Central
Version.
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Central Version / Local Mode

09/06/16 M Sliming 49
Culprit
Advantage CA-Culprit is a batch utility that generates reports
from conventional and database files.
Data Input: As shown in the diagram on the following page,
Advantage CA-Culprit can extract data from several database
and conventional file structures. As many as 32 conventional
files can be read and processed in one Advantage CA-Culprit
run. Each run can generate up to 100 reports from the same
input data. Reports can be formatted as printed output, stored
tables, or written to cards, tape, or disk.
The diagram shows The Advantage CA-Culprit Data Access
and Transfer Network. Advantage CA-Culprit can extract data
from and write reports to several database and file structures.
Advantage CA-Culprit is fully integrated with other products,
such as Advantage CA-IDMS/DB, the Integrated Data
Dictionary (IDD), and CA-ICMS.

09/06/16 M Sliming 50
Culprit

09/06/16 M Sliming 51
Culprit
Sample program to list Service Office Address History for a Provider:

DATABASE DICTNAME=DICT05
IN DB SS=DPU001
PATHAA DPR-PROVSVOFC DPR-ADDRHIST
01OUT 132 1330 D PS(3375) DD=SYS036,36 LT=S
0151*010 339-BILL-PROV-ID-NBR SZ=6
0151*020 339-SERVICE-OFC-NBR SZ=2
0151*030 364-SERVICE-OFC-ADDR-GRP SZ=79
0151*040 364-SVCOFC-STATUS-CODE SZ=1
0151*050 364-SVCOFC-ADDR-EFFDATE-FULL SZ=8
0151*060 364-SVCOFC-ADDR-ENDDATE-FULL SZ=8
0151*070 364-SVCOFC-PROVL-DATE-TIME SZ=14
017 IF 339-BILL-PROV-ID-NBR = 'B20000' 010
017 DROP
017010 TAKE

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Culprit
Output from Sample program:
B20000 52 7117 DAWN VIEW CT SUITE 5225 CITRUS HEIGHTS CA956100000C20 C 20040910 20040910 20040910140146
B20000 52 11432123N VIEW CT SUITE CITRUS HEIGHTS CA956100000C20 C 20040901 20040910 20040910135446
B20000 52 11432123N VIEW CT CITRUS HEIGHTS CA956100000C20 C 20040901 20040910 20040910135041
B20000 52 7117 DAWN VIEW CT CITRUS HEIGHTS CA956100000A20 A 20040828 20040910 20040910124434
B20000 56 NEW ADDRESS DIAMOND SPRINGS CA956190000A20 A 20050801 20050830 20050826105313
B20000 47 7505 SYLVAN VALLEY WAY CITRUS HEIGHTS CA956100000C20 C 20041001 20041005 20041005100933
B20000 30 7117 NEW ADDRESS CITRUS HEIGHTS CA956213501C20 C 20050829 20050829 20050829143219
B20000 54 75 CH CA956100000A20 A 20040901 20040907 20040907150639
B20000 55 TEST ADDRESSS TT CITY CA956100000C20 C 20030901 20040830 20041026154158
B20000 55 TEST ADDRESSS CITY CA956100000A20 A 20040901 20041026 20040923141317
B20000 50 785 CH CA956100000A20 A 20040701 20041005 20040830143345
B20000 48 12123 DH CA956100000C20 C 20041002 20041005 20041005101456
B20000 5 7117 DAWN VIEW CT CITRUS HEIGHTS CA956284011C20 C 20060316 20060328111055
B20000 5 7117 DAWN VIEW CT CITRUS HEIGHTS CA956284011C20 C 20040901 20040910 20040907150441
B20000 5 7505 SYLVAN VALLEY WAY CITRUS HEIGHTS CA956284011C20 C 20040828 20040907 20040907132818
B20000 53 75 X CH CA956100000C20 C 20041001 20041005 20041005101533
B20000 53 75 CH CA956100000A20 A 20040401 20041005 20040901155604
B20000 1 5555555555555ET PLACERVILLE CA956213501C20 C 20060314 20060315113330
B20000 1 555 MAIN STREET PLACERVILLE CA956213501C20 C 20060308 20060315 20060309113516
B20000 1 555 MAIN STREET PLACERVILLE CA956213501C20 C 20060207 20060216 20060207161221
B20000 1 555 MAIN STREET PLACERVILLE CA956213501C20 C 20060205 20060207 20060206131043
B20000 1 555 MAIN STREET PO BOX 5 PLACERVILLE CA956213501C20 C 20040830 20041207 20040901160019
B20000 46 DD X CC CA956100000C20 C 20041001 20041005 20041005101738
B20000 51 7505 SYLVAN VALLEY WAY CITRUS HEIGHTS CA956100000A20 A 20040828 20041005 20040831153728

09/06/16 M Sliming 53
Culprit
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

G:\SYSGRP\IDMS R16 Manuals\IDMS Manuals – PDF\B01287-1E

TSO DATASETS:
 DLST.CULP.SOURCE

 DLST.CULP.JCL

 DLST.CULP.PROC

09/06/16 M Sliming 54
SQL
 With the SQL feature, non-SQL defined IDMS
databases can be accessed using SQL DML (IDMS
version of SQL). This is done by either using the
Online Command Facility (OCF) or the batch program
IDMSBCF.
 An SQL schema is created which maps to that of the
non-SQL IDMS database.
 Records defined in the non-SQL schema can then be
accessed as tables in SQL.
 The following page show an example of executing a
SELECT statement using OCF.

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SQL

09/06/16 M Sliming 56
Additional Information / Sources
 List of manuals and file names located on G:
drive at: G:\SYSGRP\IDMS R16 Manuals
 Glossary: B01251-1E
 DML Reference – COBOL: B01247-1E
 Messages and Codes – Volume 4: B01259-2E
 SQL Option Self-Training Guide B01274-1E
 G:\SYSGRP\2006 IUA Workshop
 CDMMIS Schema Definition:
DLST.IDMS.RPTS(CV5SCHEM)

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