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SAT II Biology E/M Dr Haitham AbdAllah

0100 36 777 19

Cell division

2 types :
Mitosis Meiosis
In growth and repair of body cells In producing gametes (sperm and ova) in
sexually reproducing organisms
Produces 2 genetically identical ( clone ) 4 daughter cells , each has ½ no. of
daughter cells with same chromosome no. as chromosomes of parent cell
parent cell

Daughter cell is Diploid (2n( like parent cell Daughter cell is Haploid (n)

 A chromosome consists of highy coiled and condensed


DNA …. Replicated Chromosome consists of 2 identical
sister chromatids
 Centromere : specialized region that holds sister
chromatids together.
 Spindle fibers : connect centromere to centrosome
during cell division.

4 replicated chromosomes, each contains 2 sister chromatids

56
Cellular and molecular biology
SAT II Biology E/M Dr Haitham AbdAllah
0100 36 777 19

The Cell Cycle:


-Regular sequence of growth and division that living and dividing cells pass through-
Frequency ‫ معدل‬of cell division varies acc. to cell type ex : Skin cells and cells that line
digestive tract divide constantly……. Other special cells like nerve and muscle cells
permenantly lose ability to divide and remain in G-zero phase

 Stem cells from human embryos can divide and differentiate to any cell type

Cell cycle is regulated by many proteins called cyclins… some proteins are internal regulators,
others are external (growth factors)

Internal : Make sure the cell doesn’t undergo mitosis until certain conditions are met.

External : speed up or slow down or stop cell cycle

Cell cycle consists of 5 Stages : ( G-


1,S,G-2)→ interphase , Mitosis (division
of nuclues) , cytokinesis (division of
cytoplasm)

3 checkpoints to ensure the cell is ready


for the next phase

 G-1 (1st GAP phase) : Cell


increases in size and prepares to
replicate DNA

G-1 checkpoint : if cell is


healthy and DNA is undamaged, growth
factors stimulate it to proceed to DNA
synthesis ( S-phase) otherwise, it will die or
enters resting state G-Zero

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Cellular and molecular biology
Replicated chromosome
SAT II Biology E/M Dr Haitham AbdAllah
0100 36 777 19

 S-Phase : DNA synthesis by replication ‫هام جداااااا‬

S-1 checkpoint : if no synthesis errors → growth signals stimulate cell to


proceed to G-2

 G-2 (2nd GAP Phase) : Cell produce organelles like mitochondria and other
components that will populate 2 new functioning daughter cells

G-2 Checkpoint : All Chromosomes must be fully replicated with no other types of
damage.. only then it can enter mitosis and divide

N.B : Cell division is strictly regulated process that mostly works without errors. If errors
→ Cancers

Interphase : ‫ مراحل‬3 ‫أول‬more than 90% of cell life is in interphase……… most cells we
observe under microscope are in interphase

During interphase :

1- Chromosomes replicate ( DNA synthesis )


2- Nuclear membrane remains intact ‫هام‬
3- Nucleolus is visible

58
Cellular and molecular biology
SAT II Biology E/M Dr Haitham AbdAllah
0100 36 777 19

4- Mitosis (actual division of nucleus) : divided into 4 phases (PMAT)

prophase :
1. Strands of chromosomes condense and become
visible ‫الكروموسومات فى االول بتكون خيوط رفيعة اسمها‬
‫كروماتين و بعد كده بتتكثف و تتخن‬
2. Nuclear membrane begins to disintegrate ‫الحظ‬
‫كان سليم فى االنترفيز‬
3. Nucleoli disappear ‫الحظ كانت ظاهرة فى االنترفيز االن‬
‫اختفت‬

4. Spindle fibers (microtubules) form in


cytoplasm , run from 1 centrosome to other
5. Centrioles migrate to poles

Metaphase :
1. Chromosomes line up in a single file ‫ ( هام‬for ex:
human chromosome line up as 46 chromosomes in a
single file ) on equator or ( metaphase plate )
2. Centrosomes are already at opposite poles
3. Spindle fibers run from centrosomes to centromere

Anaphase :
1. Shortest phase
2. Centromeres of each chromosome separate and
spindle fibers begin to pull sister chromatids apart

Cytokinesis-
this is division
of the
cytoplasm and
cell
into two by
constriction
59 from the
Cellular and molecular biology
edges of the
cell
SAT II Biology E/M Dr Haitham AbdAllah
0100 36 777 19

Telophase :
1. Chromosomes cluster ‫ تتجمع‬at opposite ends of cell ‫ هام‬and
nuclear membrane reforms ‫هيتكون هنا تانى‬
2. Super-coiled chromosomes unravel and return to pre-cell division condition as long
thread-like strands ( chromatin )

Summary

* Interphase

Chromosomes replicate , nucleoli visible, nuclear membrane intact ‫سليم‬

* Prophase

Chromosomes condense , nuclear membrane disintegrate, , centrioles migrate to poles


nucleoli disappear, spindle forms ,

*Metaphase chromosomes line-up

*Anaphase chromatids separate

*Telophase chromosomes cluster at opposite ends of cell , nuclear


membrane reforms and supercoiled chromosomes ( untwist ) unravel

Chromosomes cluster in telophase

N.B : No centrioles in plant ‫هام‬

60
Cellular and molecular biology
SAT II Biology E/M Dr Haitham AbdAllah
0100 36 777 19

Cytokinesis

 Cytokinesis is division of cytoplasm

 In animal cells, a cleavage furrow


forms down the middle of the cell as
the cytoplasm pinches inward and the
two daughter cells separate from each
other

 In plant cells : a cell plate forms down


the middle of cell and Daughter cells
do not separate from each other. Instead, a sticky middle lamella cements
adjacent cells together

Meiosis
- Meiosis is a form of cell division in which cells having diploid chromosome number (2n)
produce gametes (sex cells) with haploid ( monoploid ) chromosome number (n)

- Meiosis occurs in two stages, meiosis I and meiosis II

Meiosis I

1. This stage is called reduction division because 2n gives n


2. Synapsis and crossing-over occur during prophase 1 :

i. During synapsis ( in prophase 1 ) All chromosomes have to find their


homologous partner and pair up ‫ كروكوسووم كول كروموسووم جوا مون‬46 ‫االنسان عنده‬
63 ‫االب له شبيه جا من االم ص‬
ii. Crossing-over ( occurs in prophase 1 and metaphase 1 ) : a process in
which like segments on homologous chromosomes are exchanged
(exchange genetic material )
iii. Crossing-over is important because it ensures variety of gametes

61
tetrad Cellular and molecular biology
SAT II Biology E/M Dr Haitham AbdAllah
0100 36 777 19

Indpendent assrotment chromosomes line up randomly on equatorial plate in


metaphase ‫ بوالطول فوى المنت وف‬and separate independently in anaphase ‫بيترصكوا تحكت ب ك بشككل‬
‫عشوائي‬

meaning that how one pair of chromosomes lines up and


separates has no effect on how any other pair of chromosomes
lines up and separates
4. Homologous chromosomes separate ( anaphase 1 ) Failure
to separate is leads to → nondisjunction

6. Each resulting gamete is genetically unique

Meiosis II

1. This stage is similar to mitosis


2. Chromosomes line up in a single file

3. Sister chromatids separate

4. This division maintains ‫ يحوافظ علوى العودد الىورد‬haploid number of


chromosomes ( n gives n )

5. This phase completes the goal of meiosis → producing four


genetically unique cells from one original mother cell

Chromosomes line up double file

Goldberg M.S., Deborah T.. Barron's SAT


Subject Test Biology E/M, 5th ed. (Kindle
Homologous pairs separate
Locations 1567-1568). . Kindle Edition.

62
Cellular and molecular biology
SAT II Biology E/M Dr Haitham AbdAllah
0100 36 777 19

Chromosomes line up single file

Sister chromatids separate

N.B Chromosomes Come in Pairs: Homologous Chromosomes We said that human cells
have a total of 46 chromosomes. But these 46 chromosomes come in pairs: Each human somatic
cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes. Many other species also have their chromosomes situated in
pairs. 46 just happens to be number of chromosomes in human cells; hence, human cells have
23 pairs of chromosomes. Another way of saying this is to say that human cells have two sets of
chromosomes, and each set consists of 23 different chromosomes.

Think about the set of 23 chromosomes that came from Dad. We’ll call them 1A, 2A, 3A … all
the way to 23A. Now think about the set of 23 chromosomes that came from Mom. We’ll call
them 1B, 2B, 3B, etc. Chromosomes 1A and 1B are very similar (not exactly alike, but very
similar). They form one of 23 pairs of chromosomes in your cells, and we refer to them as being
homologous. Chromosomes 1A and 1B form a homologous pair. So do chromosomes 2A and 2B,
3A and 3B, 4A and 4B, etc. One last point: Cells that have two sets of chromosomes (all
chromosomes have a homologous partner) are said to be diploid ( 2n ) → 2 X 23

Princeton Review. Cracking the SAT Biology E/M Subject Test, 15th Edition (College Test
Preparation) (Kindle Locations 1823-1829). Random House Children's Books. Kindle Edition.

63
Cellular and molecular biology
SAT II Biology E/M Dr Haitham AbdAllah
0100 36 777 19

Homologous chromosomes → similar but not identical

Questions :

1. An important process that occurs during sperm formation in diploid organisms is.
(A) Fertilization.
(B) Cl oni ng
(C) Meiosis.
(D) Parthenogenesis.
(E) Gastrulation.

2. Which term best describes what is happening to this dividing cell?

(A) Crossing-over
(B) Metaphase spread
(C) Gene mutation
(D) Non-disjunction
(E) Mitotic cell division

3. Which of the following


conditions could result if a normal
sperm fertilized one of the gametes
produced by this cell?

(A) Sickle cell anemia


(B) Down syndrome
(C) Cystic fibrosis
(D) Huntington's disease
(E) PKU

Ans : 1- C 2-D 3-B

64
Cellular and molecular biology
SAT II Biology E/M Dr Haitham AbdAllah
0100 36 777 19

4-

Ans : B

N.B :

Linked genes : genes that are on the same chromosome and inherited together ‫هام‬

( in the replicated state )

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Cellular and molecular biology