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Travel Resources in India

STUDENTS HANDBook
Class-XI

Central Board of Secondary Education, Delhi


Shiksha Kendra, 2 Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110301
Name of the Title : Travel Resources in India

First Edition : March 2014


No. of copies:

© CBSE

Paper used : 80 GSM CBSE Watermark Whigte Maplitho

Price:

Published by : The Secretary, CBSE, Shiksha Kendra,


2, Community Centre,
Preet Vihar, Delhi-110301

Design, Layout & Dee Kay Printers


Printed by : 5/37 Kirti Nagar, New Delhi-110015
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Preface
In an increasingly globalised world and the changing paradigm of urbanized living the demand
for Hospitality and Tourism has increased manifold the world over. In this ever expanding sector,
it has become essential to provide competency based vocational education. It is in this context
that CBSE has launched a course in Travel and Tourism under Hospitality and Tourism stream.

The Students Handbook on Travel Resources in India explains about the various tourism resources
of India such as Mountains, Rivers Lakes, Duns, Wetlands, Hill Stations, Sea, Beaches, and Islands
etc. The approach has been to provide a simple and comprehensive outline of as many concepts
as possible.

It has been a deliberate effort to keep the language used in this student manual as simple as
possible. Necessary maps and pictorial illustrations have been included to help the students to
understand the concepts without any difficulty.

Practicing professionals from the field of Hospitality and Tourism comprised the team of authors
for this book. The Board thankfully acknowledges their contribution in completing the book in
record time. I hope this book will serve as a useful resource in this subject.

The Board is grateful to the members of the Committee of Course for their advice, guidance and
total commitment towards development of this course. We are indeed indebted to these academic
advisors who have lent us the benefit of their rich and insightful experience. I would like to
appreciate Vocational Education Cell, CBSE for coordinating and successfully completing the work.

Comments and suggestions are welcome for further improvement of the book.

Vineet Joshi, IAS


Chairman, CBSE

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Acknowledgements
Advisors
1. Sh. Vineet Joshi, IAS, Chairman, CBSE.
2. Sh. M.V.V. Prasada Rao, Director (Vocational and Edusat), CBSE.

Editing and Coordination


1. Dr. Biswajit Saha, Additional Director (VOC), CBSE.
2. Ms. Swati Gupta, Deputy Director (VOC), CBSE.

Material Production Group


1. Professor Syed Inayet Ali Zaidi, Ex. Dean and Coordinator, THHHS, JMI.
2. Dr. Abdul Qadir, Assistant Professor, JMI.
3. Dr. Sonia Sharma, Assistant Professor, IGNOU.
4. Ms. Nusrat Yasmeen, Assistant Professor, JMI.

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Contents Page No.

Unit-1: General Conceptual Survey 1


1.0 Unit Overview and Description 1
1.1 Introduction 2
1.2 Definition and Concept of Tourism Resources 3
1.3 Characteristics of Tourism Resources 3
1.4 Classifications and Basis of Classification of Tourism Resources 4
1.5 Key Terms Used In the Unit 11
1.6 Practical Activities 18

Unit-2: Physical Tourism Resources-Mountains and Valleys 19


2.0 Unit Overview and Description 19
2.1 Introduction 22
2.2 Indian Himalayas 23
2.3 Aravali Mountain Ranges and Tourism 25
2.4 Western Ghats-Malabar (Sahyadri Mountains) and Tourism 28
2.5 Eastern Ghats (Coromondal Coast) and Tourism 30
2.6 Ten Stunning Mountains and Valleys Attractions in India 32
2.7 Key Terms Used In the Unit 34
2.8 Practical Activities 36

Unit-3: Tourism Physical Resources-Hill Stations, Duns, Plaeatus, Desert,


Wetlands and Plains 37
3.0 Unit Overview and Description 37
3.1 Introduction 39
3.2 Hill Stations and Duns in India 42
3.3 Hill Stations of North-Eastern States (Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland,
Sikkim, Tripura & Mizoram) 47

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3.4 Plateaus and Tourism 54


3.5 Plain and Tourism 59
3.6 Wet Lands, Ramsar Sites and Tourism 60
3.7 Key Terms Used In the Unit 62
3.8 Practical Activity 64

Unit-4: Tourism Physical Resources-Coastal Lands and Beaches 65


4.0 Unit Overview and Description 65
4.1 Introduction 66
4.2 Sea Shores 67
4.3 Beaches And Tourism 68
4.4 Key Terms Used In the Unit 74
4.5 Practical Activity 76

Unit-5: Tourism Physical Resources-Islands 77


5.0 Unit Overview and Description 77
5.1 Introduction 79
5.2 Andaman and Nicobar Groups of Island 79
5.3 Lakshdweep Group of Islands 84
5.4 Majuli Islands 91
5.5 Other Islands of India 91
5.6 Key Terms Used In the Unit 92
5.7 Practical Activity 94

Unit-6: Tourism Physical Resources-Rivers, Lakes and Canals 95


6.0 Unit Overview and Description 95
6.1 Introduction 96
6.2 Major Rivers In India 98
6.3 Lakes and Canals Tourism In India 113

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6.4 Key Terms Used In the Unit 114


6.5 Practical Activities 117

Unit-7: Tourism Bio Geographical Resources in India 118


7.0 Unit Overview and Description 118
7.1 Introduction 121
7.2 Flora and Fauna of India 122
7.3 Eco Tourism 122
7.4 Wild Life Sanctuaries 123
7.5 Top Ten Famous Bird Sanctuaries of India 126
7.6 Botanical Gardens In India 129
7.7 Key Terms Used In the Unit 131
7.8 Practical Activity 135

Unit-8: Tourism Cultural Resources in India 136


8.0 Unit Overview and Description 136
8.1 Introduction 139
8.2 Built Up Tourism Cultural Resources 145
8.3 Religious Tourism Cultural Resources 145
8.4 Sport Resources 147
8.5 Conservatories Of India 147
8.6 Entertainment Resources 148
8.7 Indian Cuisines As Tourism Resources 149
8.8 Art, Artifacts And Handlooms 151
8.9 Transportation Network And Tourist Infrastructure 152
8.10 Key Terms Used In the Unit 152
8.11 Practical Activity 154

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General Instruction to the Students

1. It is expected that the student will be able to understand the basics of Tourism Resources
in India.

2. The student should try to gain as much practical knowledge as possible by completing the
practical assignments suggested after the respective units.

3. The students should focus on understanding theTypes of Tourism Resources such as Physical
Resources, Bio Geographical Resources& Cultural Resources, how they are different from
each other and their significance in promoting Tourism in India.

4. Each student must go through the relevant Tourism Resources dominant in their respective
regions and gather knowledge about them thoroughly. All doubts and queries of the students
should be clearly addressed and explained. Such questions and answers should be noted down
in pocket note books which shall be the basis of writing more elaborate Reports. Collaborative
group activities should be encouraged among students for proper understanding.

5. Proper caution regarding safety is mandatory during carrying out of practical projects. All
safety requirements must be followed strictly.

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Module Objectives
Travel Resources in India

Theory+
S.No. Unit/Chapter Name Key Learning Objectives
Practical
1 General Conceptual Survey 22 Hrs. 1. Explain the Meaning, Characteristics &
Classifications of Tourism Resources
2 Physical Tourism Resources- 18 Hrs. 1. Understand the Indian Himalayas, Aravali
Mountains And Valleys Mountain Ranges, Western Ghats-Malabar
(Sahyadri), Eastern Ghats (Coromondal Coast)
2. List the Ten Stunning Mountains and Valleys
Attractions in India
3 Tourism Physical Resources- 18 Hrs. 1. Understand about the Hill Stations and Duns in
Hill Stations Duns, Plateaus, India
Desert , Wetlands And Plains 2. List and Explain the Hill Stations of North-
Eastern States (Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland,
Sikkim, Tripura & Mizoram)
3. Explain about the Plateaus and Plains
4. Learn about the Wet Lands, Ramsar Sites in
india
4 Tourism Physical Resources- 16 Hrs. 1. Understand about the Sea Shores and Beaches
Coastal Lands And Beaches in india
5 Tourism Physical Resources- 16 Hrs. 1. Learn about the Andaman and Nicobar Groups
islands of Island , Lakshdweep Group of Islands, Majuli
Islands & Other Islands of India
6 Tourism Physical Resources- 25 Hrs. 1. List the Major Rivers in India
Rivers, Lakes And Canals 2. Explain the Lakes and Canals Tourism in India
7 Tourism Bio Geographical 18 Hrs. 1. Learn about the Flora and Fauna of India
Resources In India 2. Explain the Eco Tourism
3. List Wild Life Sanctuaries, Top Ten Famous Bird
Sanctuaries & Botanical Gardens in India
8 Tourism Cultural Resources In 25 Hrs. 1. Explain Built Up Tourism Cultural Resources,
India Religious Tourism Cultural Resources, Sport
Resources, Entertainment Resources
2. List the Conservatories of India
3. Understand about the Indian Cuisines Art,
Artefacts and Handlooms as Tourism Resources
4. Learn about the Transportation Network and
Tourist Infrastructure

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Unit-1
General Conceptual Survey

Contents
1.0 Unit Overview and Description
l Overview
l Skills and Knowledge
l Resource Material
l Learning Outcomes
l Assessment for Teachers
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Definition and Concept of Tourism Resources
1.3 Characteristics of Tourism Resources
1.4 Classifications and Basis of Classification of Tourism Resources
1.5 Key Terms Used In the Unit
1.6 Practical Activities

1.0 Unit Overview and Descriptions


Overview
This Chapter deals with the fundamentals of Tourism Resources, Terminologies used for the study
of Tourism Resources, Characteristics and Categorization of Tourism Resources.

This Unit will impart following Skills and Knowledge


- The Meaning of Tourism Resources
- The Characteristics of Tourism Resources
- The Categories of Tourism Resources
Resource Material:
1. Goh Cheng Leong - Certificate Physical and Human Geography, Oxford University Press (1995).
2. Charu Sheela - Tourism Products, New Royal Publishers, Lucknow, 2001.
3. Sampad Kumar Swain and Jitendra Kumar Mishra - Tourism Principles and Practices, OUP,
New Delhi, 2012

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Learning Outcomes:
UNIT-1 OUTCOMES
General Conceptual Survey After Studying these Sub-Units:
1.1 Introduction Students will be able to understand different
aspects of Tourism Resources
1.2 Definition and Concept of Tourism Students will be able to understand the fundamentals
Resources of Tourism Resources
1.3 Characteristics of Tourism Resources Students will be able to understand the major
characteristics of Tourism Resources
1.4 Classifications and Basis of Students will be able to understand the Classification
Classification of Tourism Resources of Tourism Resources

Assessment Plan: (for the Teachers)


Unit-1 Topic Assessment Method Time Plan Remarks

1.1 Introduction Question & Answer

1.2 Definition and Concept of Question & Answer


Trourism Resources
1.3 Characteristics of Tourism Question & Answer
Resources

1.4 Classifications and Question & Answer


Basis of Classification of
Tourism Resources

1.1 Introduction
The beauty of nature lies in its variety which indeed is endless. So is the timeless desire in the
human beings to appreciate the nature and culture from the bottom of their heart. This is why
since ancient times explorers, discoverers and travelers undertook adventurous journeys in spite
of all difficulty, they come across. The underlying idea of visiting new places to appreciate their
Natural and Cultural beauties. In course of time, it has given birth to modern industry called
TOURISM.

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But like other Industries, Tourism Industry also demands Resources. The resources used in Tourism
Industry are called Tourism Resources.

Review Question
1) Fill in the Blank:
a) The resources used in Tourism Industry are called ___________________.

1.2 Definition and Concept of Tourism Resources


Generally, Resources are defined as any item or bundle of items which are consumed by Humans
to satisfy their requirements.
On the same pattern Tourism Resources are those items or commodities which Tourist either
consume or use as facilitator to satisfy his/her requirements. By getting these products and
services tourist feels maximum satisfaction from his targeted Tourism activity or activities.

Review Question
1) Define Tourism Resources.

1.3 Characteristics of Tourism Resources


On the basis of elementary definition of Tourism resources, the bundle of Tourism resources
consists of:
A. The Core Tourism Resources: The tourism product resources which facilitate tourism in
product form are Mountain, Hill Station, Beach, Desert, River, Lake, Wetland, Landscape,
Wild life Sanctuaries, monuments like Qutub complex, Taj Mahal and remains of historical
civilization like Harappa, Culture & Traditions and so on.
B. The Additional Product or Service Tourism Resources: Under this category Tourism
resources produced inform of Tourism product elements and Services are Religion, Fairs
& Festivals, Travel Agencies, Foreign Exchange Providers, Passport Office, Transport &
Communications, Accommodations & Hospitality, Catering & Gastronomy, Art & Artifacts,
Literature, Visual & Performing Arts, Dance & Music, Theatre, Conservatories and so on.

Review Question
1) Define Core Tourism Resource and Additional Product Tourism Resource.

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1.4 Classifications and Basis of Classifications of Tourism Resources


Tourism resources in themselves do not make Tourism products but they need to be embedded
in whole range of Tourism services facilities and attractions.
On the basis of the elementary definition of Tourism resources as feedbacks for attractions,
accommodations & catering plus transportations, Tourism resources can be broadly classified
into following major groups:

A. Tourism Physical Resources


Physical Tourism resources are those Tourism generators and facilitators which are natural in
origin and non-living in characters. Physical Tourism resources can further be classified as:
1. Landscape Tourism Resources
Landscape Tourism Resources  comprises of the visible features of an area of land including
the physical elements of landforms such as Mountains, Hills, Rocks, Plateau, Valley, Dun, Caves,
Volcanoes, Gorges, Canyons and Deserts. Landscape Tourism resources bear too an extent of
significance that in the absence of them it is Utopian to think of the existence and survival of
Tourism. Major Landscape Tourism resources are:
i. Mountains: Provides hill stations, origin of glaciers and rivers and various types of Adventure
Tourisms.
ii. Hill Stations: These are first choice of tourists.
iii. Rocks: Provide raw materials for building monuments since old time.
iv. Valleys: Provide landscapes, natural beauty and rich source for tourism.
v. Duns: Duns also functions same as valleys.
vi. Volcanoes: Rich source for adventure tourism.
vii. Caves: Cave is rich source for tourism. Most of the caves are converted into master piece of
art & architecture, religious activities. Some caves act as source for adventure tourism.
viii. Deserts: Provide landscapes and night safaris particularly camel safaris.
ix. Plains: Plains have maximum share of total Tourism resources.
2. Tourism Marine or Hydrological Sites Resources
Marine or Hydrological Sites Tourism Resources are the components which are Hydrological in
origin i.e. Water bodies and Snow covered areas & Snow channels with their catchment areas.

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Classification of Tourism Resources

Physical
Resources
CLASSIFICATION OF TOURISM RESOURCES

Tourism Marine
or Hydrological
Resources

Tourism Bio-
Geographical

Tourism Cultural
Resources

The Marine or Hydrological resources are very crucial for Tourism owing to their roles in Tourism
as mentioned below:
i. Glaciers: These are rivers of moving snow. They support Adventure Tourism and some
glaciers such as Gangotri and Yamunotri support Religious Tourism. Some glaciers such as
Siachin glaciers act as strategic points from defense purpose & Adventure Tourist site.
ii. Rivers: These are water flowing channels emerge out either from glaciers or rains. Rivers
are good source of transport, Sport tourism and sacred purpose. Most of the sacred places
and monuments are built on the bank of rivers.
iii. Lakes, Lagoons, Backwaters, Ponds & Tals: Act as resources for boating and resorts.

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iv. Oceans, Seas, Bays & Gulfs: Source for Shipping, Cruise and Adventure Tourism activities.
v. Beaches: Beach is areas on sea coast with loose soil particles and shingles .These are most
favored by tourists to enjoy sea shore.
vi. Coast Lands: Excellent locations for supporting Wildlife Sanctuaries, Coastal Tourism, Geo
Tourism, Eco Tourism & Lush Green sites for Recreational Resorts.
vii. Islands: Best places for Coastal Tourism, Geo Tourism, Eco Tourism, Adventure Tourism and
Lush Green sites for Recreational Resorts.
viii. Isthmus: Best sites for Coastal Tourism, Geo Tourism, Eco Tourism, Adventure Tourism and
Lush Green sites for Recreational Resorts.
ix. Straits: Best locations for Coastal Tourism, Geo Tourism, Eco Tourism, Adventure Tourism
& some serves as sites for Religious Tourism.
x. Coral Reefs & Atolls: Best potential resource sites for Coastal Tourism, Geo Tourism, Eco
Tourism, Adventure Tourism & Lush Green sites for Recreational Resorts.
xi. Wet Lands: Best potential resource sites for developing Wildlife Sanctuaries, Bird Sanctuaries
and Botanical Gardens.
xii. Delta & Estuaries: Best potential resource sites for developing Wildlife Sanctuaries, Bird
Sanctuaries, Fish Aquariums, River Tourism, Eco Tourism & Geo Tourism etc.
3. Tourism Climatological Resources
Climatological Tourism Resources are the components of climate viz Sunny days, Rainfall, Snowfall,
Dryness, Cold, Hot, Warm. Seasonality and Climatic zones are king player in governing Tourism
mechanism.
i. Climate: Climate in association with Geomorphologic agents has great influence even on
monuments and Tourist concerned destinations. Each pattern and type of Tourism is directly
related to climate of concerned destination. Origin and destination and nature of Tourism
depends in which climatic zone origin and destination of Tourism is located
ii. Seasons & Weather: Seasons & Weather are the chief architects of all Tourism activities
and Tourism i.e. origin, destination and nature of Tourism depends on season and weather
of destination of Tourism concerned. Each pattern and type of Tourism is directly related to
seasons and weather of concerned Tourist destination. Day to day flow of Tourists depends on
season and weather of concerned destination. Even transportation also depends on weather
conditions.

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A Mountain Cherai Beach, Kerala

Thar Desert, Rajasthan The Blue Lagoon, Goa

Colony’s Plot Kerala Hill Station, Kerala Museum, Kolkata

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Shoolpaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary Golden Temple, Amritsar

Thenmala - First Planed Eco-Tourism Destination, India St. Xavier’s Church, Goa

Minicoy Atoll, Lakshadweep Jama Masjid, Delhi

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B. Tourism Bio-Geographical Resources


Tourism Bio-Geographical Resoures are those which have their root of Origin in Living Species in
combination with Geographical components, on which survival of those Species depends. Major
Tourism Bio-Geographical Resoures are:
i. Bio-Diversity: Bio-Diversity is the fundamental Bio-Geographical resource for the existence
and survival of Tourism. Bio-Diversity means variations in Biological components (Human,
Flora and Fauna) including their physical surroundings. Without Bio-Diversity there is no
question of survival of Tourism because it is the variations which motivates human behavior
to Travel.
ii. Ecology: Ecology is another fundamental Bio-Geographical resource for the existence and
survival of Tourism. Ecology is the science of study of relationship between living to living
organisms and their interrelationship with their physical surroundings.
It is Ecology and Bio-Diversity oriented resources which create platform for all types of Tourism.
Their balance is must for the survival of Tourism specially to make Tourism sustainable. All Nature
based Tourism have their origin in Bio-Geography among which important are Eco Tourism,
Green Tourism, Wildlife Sanctuaries, National Parks, Zoological Parks, Botanical Gardens, Whale
Watching, Fish Aquariums etc. are worth to mention.

C. Tourism Cultural Resources


Let us first understand what are Tourism Cultural Resources. These have two meanings:
(a) The evolved human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to act
imaginatively & creatively thus the resulted outcomes are consumed for Tourism by Tourists
as Cultural resources.
(b) The distinct ways that people living in different parts of the world classified and represented
their experiences, and acted creatively then resulted outcomes are consumed for Tourism
by Tourists as Cultural resources.
The major Tourism Cultural Resources can be grouped as:
i. Religious, Culture, Traditions, Customs and Rituals: Religion, Culture, Traditions, Customs
and Rituals are Tourism Cultural Resources because these satisfy the Tourist strong desire to
know what he does not know about the visiting destination’s Religions, Culture, Traditions,
Customs and Rituals. Moreover, these resources also form the Tourism Sub-Cultural resources
to encash into numbers of Tourism products.

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ii. Monuments, Historical Buildings, Art & Architecture: Monuments, Historical Buildings,
Art & Architecture are the reflectors of History, Art & Architecture, Culture and Traditions of
the destinations visited by the Tourists. For this reason these are the most sought Cultural
Resources by the Tourists.
iii. Performing and Visual Arts: These Tourism Cultural Resources are also attractions and pull
factors for Tourists for number of reasons which will be discussed in coming Units. These
Cultural Tourism Resources includes Music, Drama, Dance, Cinema, Theater and so on.
iv. Handicraft, Artifacts and Handlooms: No Tourist can resist himself from attracting towards
these categories of Tourism Cultural Resources to make his visit memorable by enjoying and
purchasing the products of these resources.
v. Fairs, Festivals and Sports: Fairs and Festivals are the interpreter of culture, tradition,
custom and rituals of any destination besides providing knowledge and entertainment. Same
is true for Sports. For this reasons, these Tourism Cultural Resources have place in the list
of Itinerary of Tourists.
vi. Pilgrimage and Religious Sites: This category of Tourism Cultural Resources are mostly
sought by Tourists of Religious Tourism.
vii. Literature: This category of Tourism Cultural Resources are sought by Bibliophilic and
Bibliomaniac Tourists.
viii. Medical Health, wellness and Marketing: This category of Tourism Cultural Resources is
natural as well as acquiring skill in the these fields. Therefore, these categories of resources
are vital Tourism Cultural Resources.
ix. Conservatories: Conservatories are also known as living theater of the past and plethora of
knowledge, information and entertainment under one roof. Therefore, to avail this category of
Tourism Cultural Resources are Tourist’s one of the top priorities to visit. Museums, Archives
and Art Galleries form Conservatories.
x. Financial Institutions: No Tourist, specially Non-Domestic can afford to ignore these resources
because beside other financial matter they have to avail it for Foreign exchange.
xi. Accommodations, Cuisines and Gastronomy: Each and every Tourist has to consume
these Tourism Cultural Resources because these are integral and inseparable components
of Tourism. Hotels, Motels, Inns, Guest Houses, House Boats, Food & Catering and related
services such as Hospitality falls under this category of Tourism Cultural Resources.
xii. Transport and Communications: These Tourism Cultural Resources are the backbone and
lifeline of Tourism.

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India is one of the top most countries in the World having Unity in Diversities both at Natural
and Cultural levels. Almost every part of India is bestowed with Tourism resources. This Natural
gift has made India a progressive and one of the most favourite Tourist destination country in
the World. The spatial pattern of these Tourism resources and their feedbacks in making India
the best potential and progressive country in the arena of Tourism world will be discussed in
the following chapters.

Review Questions
1) Match the following:
Column A Column B
a) Conservatories a) Landscape Tourism Resources
b) Ecology b) Tourism Climatological Resources
c) Seasons and Wether c) Tourism Marine Or Hydrological Sites Resources
d) Glacires d) Tourism Bio-Geographical Resources
e) Duns e) Tourism Cultural Resources

2) Fill in the Blanks:


a) _________comprises of the visible features of an area of land including the physical elements
of landforms such as Mountains, Hills, Rocks, Plateau etc.
b) __________ provide landscapes and night safaris particularly camel safaris.

1.5 Key Terms Used in Unit


1. Mountain: A natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the
surrounding level and attaining an altitude which, relatively to the adjacent elevation, is
impressive or notable. Example-Himalayas
2. Hill Station: Mountain ranges modified by man for different uses. Example-Shimla
3. Valley: A plain area surrounded by high mountains. Example-Kashmir
4. Dun: A plain area surrounded by low mountain ranges. Example-Dehradun
5. Rock: Relatively hard, naturally formed mineral or petrified matter and stone.
6. Desert: A desert is a landscape or region that receives an extremely low amount of precipitation,
less than enough to support growth of most plants and is characterized by the presence of
sand. Example-Thar desert in Rajasthan.

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7. Beach: The part of the shore of an ocean, sea, large river, lake, etc. formed of loose soil, sand
and shingles, washed by the tide or waves. Example-Juhu, Mumbai
8. Ocean: An open vast amount of water body. Example-Indian Ocean
9. Sea: An open huge amount of water body. Example-Arabian Sea
10. Bay: A huge amount of water body with curved landmass. Example-Bay of Bengal
11. Gulf: A huge amount of water body enters deeply into landmass. Example-Gulf of Cambay.
12. River: A water flowing channel natural in origin and course. Example-Ganga
13. Lake: An enclosed man made water body. Example-Butkal lake, Haryana
14. Glacier: A huge mass of ice slowly flowing over a land mass, formed from compacted snow
in an area where snow accumulation exceeds melting and Sublimation. Example-Gangotri
15. Wetlands: Wetlands are areas of very shallow water table which make these regions always
wet.
16. Delta: A  delta  is a landform that is formed at the mouth or at the source of a  river, where
the river flows into an ocean, sea,  estuary, lake, or  reservoir. Example-Sundarban delta.
17. Estuary: An  estuary  is a partly enclosed  coastal  body of  water  with one or more  rivers  or
streams  flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open  sea.
18. Strait: refers to a channel of water that lies between two  masses. Example Palk Strait., 
19. Isthmus: An isthmus is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas usually with
water on either side.
20. Coast Land: A  coastline  or  seashore  is the area where land meets the sea or ocean.
21. Island: An  island  is any piece of  sub-continental  land that is surrounded by  water.
22. Coral Reef: Coral reefs are underwater structures made from calcium carbonate secreted by
corals. Coral reefs are colonies of tiny living animals found in marine waters that contain few
nutrients. Most coral reefs are built from  stony corals, which in turn consist of  polyps  that
cluster in groups. The polyps are like tiny  sea anemones, to which they are closely related.
Unlike sea anemones, coral polyps secrete hard carbonate  exoskeletons  which support and
protect their bodies. Reefs grow best in warm, shallow, clear, sunny and agitated waters.
On accumulation of these by-products with ocean ridges and reefs are formed. Example –
Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
23. Atoll: An  Atoll  is a  coral island  (or islands) that encircle a  lagoon partially or completely.
24. Lagoon: A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier
islands  or reefs.

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Gangotari Glacier A Coral Reefs of Indian Ocean

An Island Ocean

Palk Strat Seprates South - East India and Eastern Sri A Wet Land
Lanka

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Chilka Lake, Odisha

Wular Lake, Kashmir Barren Island, Andaman and Nicobar

Back waters of Kerala Bhaja Caves, near Malavali Village, Lonavala, Maharashtra

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Jagannath, Puri Dwarka Temple

Badrinath Temple, Uttrakhand Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu

Body Gya, Bihar The famous Sai Baba Shrine, Shirdi

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25. Backwater: Backwater is water in a main river which is backed up by an obstruction such
as the tide or a dam or a branch of a main river which runs alongside it before rejoining it.
26. Bio-Diversity: Means variations in Biological components (Human, Flora and Fauna) including
their physical surroundings.
27. Ecology: Ecology is the science of study of relationship between living to living organisms
and their interrelationship with their physical surroundings.
28. Wildlife Sanctuaries: A  Wildlife Sanctuary is a naturally occurring area that provides protection
for  species  from  hunting,  predation  or competition, or it may refer to a  protected area, a
geographic territory within which  wildlife  is protected.
29. Eco Tourism: Eco tourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively
undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to
standard commercial (mass) tourism. Its purpose may be to educate the traveler, to provide
funds for ecological conservation, to directly benefit the economic and political empowerment
of local communities, or to foster respect for different cultures and for  human rights.
30. Geo Tourism: Geotourism  is “best practice”  tourism  that sustains, or even enhances,
the  geographical  character of a place, such as its  culture environment,  heritage, and the
well-being of its residents.
31. Climate: Climate  is the statistics of temperature,  humidity,  atmospheric pressure, wind,
precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elemental measurements
in a given region over long periods.
32. Season: A  season  is a subdivision of the  year, marked by changes in  weather,  ecology, and
hours of daylight. Seasons result from the yearly revolution of the Earth around the Sun and
the  tilt of the Earth’s axis  relative to the plane of revolution.
33. Weather: Weather  is the state of the atmosphere, to the degree that it is hot or cold, wet
or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.
34. Tourist Accommodation: Tourist Accommodations are the spots which provide lodging and
catering facilities to the Tourists during their Tour. Hotels, Motels, Inn, Guest Houses, House
Boats are few types of Tourist Accommodations.
35. Museums: Museums are the places where objects of significant values are kept and displayed
for knowledge, information, educational and entertainment objectives & purposes.
36. Archives: Archives are the places where original & authentic documents of significant values
are kept for knowledge, information and educational objectives & purposes.

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Review Questions
Fill in the blanks:
1. A natural elevation of earth surface rising more abruptly from the surrounding level is
called……….
2. A plain area surrounded by low mountains ranges known as………..
3. ……….. is an enclosed manmade water body.
4. …………..is water in a main river which is backed up by such as the dam or a tide.
5. The biggest delta of the world is…………….
6. ………….. are the places where original and authentic documents of significant values are kept
for knowledge, information and educational objectives and purposes.
7. …………and……….. Islands are made up of coral reefs.
8. ………… strait is a channel of water that lies between India and Sri Lanka.
9. …………. are places where original and authentic documents of significant values are kept
and displayed.
10. …………. is a form of tourism that involves visiting to fragile, pristine and relatively undisturbed
natural areas.

Short Answer Questions:


1. What are the core tourism products?
2. Define the concept of tourism resources.
3. What are the additional tourism product or service tourism resources?
4. What are the hydrological tourism resources?
5. Define Eco tourism.
6. What do you mean by Geo tourism? Explain.
7. Enumerate the tourist accommodations.
8. Define beach and name some famous beaches of India.
9. Define hill station. Highlight the prominent hill stations of India.
10. What are coral reefs? Explain.

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Long Answer Questions:


1. Define Landscape tourism resources with appropriate examples.
2. How marine or hydrological resources are accustomed for tourism purposes?
3. “Climate has been used as a tourism product”. Elaborate this statement with suitable
examples.
4. What are bio geographical resources? Discuss the major bio geographical regions of India.
5. Discuss the major cultural tourism resources of India.

1.6 Practical Activities


1) Draw the diagram for Tourism Resources.
2) Visit a nearby historical monument/educational recreational place. Write a report and
prepare a scrapebook.

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Unit-2
Physical Tourism Resources-Mountains and Valleys

Contents
2.0 Unit Overview and Description
l Overview
l Skills and Knowledge
l Resource Material
l Learning Outcomes
l Assessment for Teachers
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Indian Himalayas
2.3 Aravali Mountain Ranges and Tourism
2.4 Western Ghats-Malabar ( Sahyadri Mountains) and Tourism
2.5 Eastern Ghats (Coromondal Coast) and Tourism
2.6 Ten Stunning Mountains And Valleys Attractions In India
2.7 Key Terms Used In the Unit
2.8 Practical Activities

2.0 Unit Overview & Descriptions


Overview
India, the land of Physical amazing wonders, has a large number of fascinating spots including
some most scintillating of the world. The India is known for its fascinating natural charm with
many of it having some really amazing Tourist attractions which form the focus discussion of
this chapter.

This Unit will impart following skills and knowledge


- India is the land of Physical amazing wonders in providing Mountain & Valley Tourism
Resources.
- India has a large number of Mountain & Valley Tourism Resources backbone for
fascinating Tourist spots including some most scintillating of the world.
- Spatial distribution of Mountain & Valley Tourism Resources in India.

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- Spatial distribution of Mountain & Valley Tourist destinations in India and types of
Tourism offered by them.
- Significances and Characteristics of Mountain & Valley Tourist destinations in India.
- Custodian, Regulator and Maintainee Authorities of Mountain & Valley Tourism Resources
& destinations in India.
- Conservation & Protection issues of Mountain & Valley Tourism Resources & destinations
in India.
- Rights and Duties of Authorities and Tourists about Mountain & Valley Tourism Resources
and at Mountain & Valley Tourism destinations in India.

Resource Material:
1. R.L. Singh - Regional Geography of India,National Geographical Society of India, 1971 
2. Majid Husain - Geography of India, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, (2013)
3. H.Y. Sharada Prasad and Ashok Dilwali - Life and Landscapes, Under the Incredible India
Series, Wisdom Tree Publications, New Delhi, 2007

Learning Outcomes:

UNIT-2.0 OUTCOMES
Physical Tourism Resources- After Studying these Sub-Units:
Mountains and Valleys
2.1 Introduction Students will be able to understand different aspects of
Mountain & Valley Tourism Resources in India
2.2 Indian Himalayas Students will be able to understand about Indian
Himalayas
2.3 Aravali Mountain Ranges and Students will be able to understand about Aravali
Tourism Mountain
2.4 Western Ghats-Malabar (Sahyadri Students will be able to understand the major
Mountains) and Tourism characteristics and distribution Western Ghats
2.5 Eastern Ghats (Coromondal Students will be able to understand about the major
Coast) and Tourism characteristics and distribution Eastern Ghats
2.6 Ten Stunning Mountains And Students will be able to understand about the major
Valleys Attractions In India Mountains And Valleys Attractions In India

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Assessment Plan: (for the Teachers)


Unit-2 Topic Assessment Method Time Plan Remarks

2.1 Introduction Question & Answer

2.2 Indian Himalayas Question & Answer

2.3 Aravali Mountain Ranges Question & Answer


and Tourism

2.4 Western Ghats-Malabar Question & Answer


(Sahyadri Mountains)
and Tourism
2.5 Eastern Ghats Question & Answer
(Coromondal Coast)
and Tourism
2.6 Ten Stunning Mountains Question & Answer
And Valleys Attractions
In India

2.1 Introduction
India, the land of Great wonders and Diversities, is one of the most fascinating Tourist destinations
in the World. India has always impressed its visitors with its exceptionally beautiful and fascinating
Landscapes, Biodiversity, rich Forest reserves, Flora, Fauna, Marine resources and high magnitude
of amazing Wild life and Floral diversities, Natural heritages and all the above its Monsoon of
Climate (Seasonal variations & varied Climatic zones). All these cumulative factors make visiting
this enchanting land a rewarding and unforgettable Tourism experiences. India offers thousands
of exciting and enjoyable Tourism Physical Resources and make it Paradise for Tourists by
variable Seasonality, Climatic zones, Mountains and Hill stations, Valleys, Duns, Mountain passes,
Plains, Desert, Wetlands, exotic Beaches, Shore Lines, and Coastal areas, Lagoons, Islands, Strait,
Backwaters, magnificent Rivers and their Deltas & Estuaries, Lakes, Tals, Wild life Sanctuaries,
National parks, Botanical gardens and so on. With so much to offer, no doubt, India is truly a
Treasure for Worldwide Tourists.

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Visit and explore hundreds of fascinating and exotic Physical Tourism Resources of India. These
Resources in India offers Tourists an array of Tourist spots and those Tourists from all over the
world. Travelling in all the exotic Mountain & Valley Tourism spots in India is an experience,
where each destination is a welcome break from the usual. Whatever the theme of Travel, India
has all the perfect Physical, specially Mountain & Valley Tourism spots for Tourists. Tourists from
all over the world visit and discover the various Mountain & Valley Tourism facets of enchanting
India and experience the magic of this fascinating land.

India is a dream holiday destination that rewards every Tourist with its unmatched Mountain &
Valley Tourism attractions.

Review Question
1) India is one of the most fascinating Tourist destinations of the world. Comment.

2.2 Indian Himalayas


Himalayan range covers the entire northern part of India, nestling five major states of the country
within it. The ancient pilgrims who have travelled in these mountains in India since time immemorial
coined a Sanskrit word for the Himalayas meaning “Abode of Snow”.
Some of the reasons why people have been so fascinated by the Indian Himalayas is because
of the Hindu pilgrim routes, the low valleys that abruptly rise up in high mountain ranges, the
lovely trekking hikes, densely forested areas lying just a mountain range away from barren cold
deserts, and the lovely people of the mountains in India with their unique hospitable lifestyles.

Major Indian Himalayan Regions


a. Jammu & Kashmir 
Jammu and Kashmir are really three regions: the foothill plains of Jammu; the lakes and blue
valleys of Kashmir rising to alpine passes, the high altitude plains and starkly beautiful mountains
of Ladakh, which lies beyond those passes. Srinagar is Kashmir’s summer capital and Jammu,
the winter capital. Among the most attractive part that this Indian state has is the adventure
opportunities that can be segregated into trekking, mountaineering and Trans Himalayan Jeep Safari.
What can make a mountaineering expedition, an adventure one could never forget. If it’s done
on the glaciers that are still craving to be explored. The Himalayan range offers some of the
most rigorous mountaineering challenges one can ever come across. The glaciers of Ladakh and

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Kashmir regions can test one’s survival to the fittest and most testing of them all is the Siachen
glacier, known as the largest glacier outside the Polar Regions.
b. Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh is the land of snow, lofty peaks, cascading streams, alpine meadows & lush
fruit-laden valleys. Many parts of the Himachal state have a distinctly Austrian look with conifer-
clad mountains, chalet-like huts with overhanging balconies and serene blue valleys watered by
snow-fed streams. Shimla the capital of Himachal Pradesh is still very much a Raj township in
appearance and atmosphere. 
Himachal also store numerous wonderful hill stations, which are particularly, cool in summers.
Shimla, Dalhousie, Kullu, Manali and Kufri are a few of the hill Stations in Himachal Pradesh which
offer breathtaking scenery and countless options of adventure sports. Dharamshala, where the
DalaiLama lives, is another important centre on the tourist map.
c. Uttarakhand
Lying in the north of the vast and bountiful expanse of India and cradled in the awesome beauty
and calm serenity of the stately Himalayas, Uttarakhand - the “Devbhumi” that has attracted tourists
and pilgrims from world over since time immemorial. Comprising of eight hill districts and an
area and population that equals the state of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand is an expression of
divinity, austerity, meditation, penance and attainment.
Uttarakhand is a paradise for adventure sports. The sheer variety ranging from Mountaineering,
Trekking, Skiing, Skating, Water Sports to Aero Sports like Hang Gliding, Paragliding make Uttaranchal
one of the most attractive destinations for adventure sports not only in India but the world over.
d. Sikkim
A former kingdom, Sikkim is now the 22nd State of India. It is rooted to the Himalayan Massif
like a scale on the neck of a Dragon. One of the smallest states of India, it is bounded by Nepal
to the west and Bhutan to the east; by Tibet to the north and northeast and by West Bengal to
the south.
Shrouded in heavy mist, the guardian deity Kanchenjunga both protects and terrifies the inhabitants
of the magical kingdom of Sikkim. An awe-inspiring mass of rock clothed in dazzling white snow,
this Himalayan giant in the world’s third highest peak at 8,590m (28,199ft). The name itself means
’house of five treasures’ represented by its five soaring summits

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e. The North Eastern States - Seven Sisters


The region has so much to see, so much to experience and so much to write about that it would
take volumes. The region of northeastern India will wet the appetite of the travelers, the tourist,
the anthropologist and the observer. It is impossible to describe the nuances that make this area
unique, challenging and interesting. Get to any one place and the result will be that you will
return for more.
The seven sisters comprise of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya
and Mizoram. While the seven sisters are unique in their own way, the major Himalayan destination
over here is Arunachal Pradesh. The state provides abundant scope for angling, boating, rafting,
trekking and hiking. Besides, there are a number of wild life sanctuaries and national parks where
rare animals, birds and plants will fascinate the visitors.

Review Question
1) Fill in the Blanks:
a) A former kingdom ________ is now the 22nd State of India.
b) _________ has attracted tourists and pilgrims from world over since time immemorial.
c) __________ where the DalaiLama lives, is another important centre on the tourist map.
d) ___________ is known as the largest glacier outside the Polar Regions.

2.3 Aravali Mountain Ranges and Tourism


The Aravalli Range literally meaning ‘line of peaks’, is a range of mountains in western India running
approximately 800 km from northeast to southwest across states of Rajasthan, Haryana, and Gujarat.
The Aravalli Range runs across the state from the southwest peak Guru Shikhar (Mount Abu),
which is 1,722 m in height, to Khetri in the northeast. This divides the state 60% in the northwest
of the range and 40% in the southeast. The northwest tract is sandy and unproductive with little
water but improves gradually from desert land in the far west and northwest to comparatively
fertile and habitable land towards the east.
Aravalies mountains are adventurous destinations, being the oldest mountain ranges in India. The
Aravalies have always attracted Tourists from India and abroad. If one is looking for an adventurous,
action packed holiday then the Aravalies can be the ultimate destination. It is considered to be
unique for trekkers as this place abounds in dense jungles, undulating meadows, lakes and so

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Himalaya Coromandal

Aravali Range Sangla Mountain

Sahyadri Mountain Kashmir Valley

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Araku Valley Igatpuri, Maharastra

Irpu Water Fall Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh

Lakkidi,Kerala Auli, Uttrakhand

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on. These ranges constitute some of the finest places like Mount Abu which is 1300 m above the
sea level, Kumbhalgarh Fort, the Jain temples of Ranakpur and Delvara.

Review Question
1) Fill in the Blanks:
a) The Aravali Range literally means _____________ .
b) The Aravali range is the _________________ mountain ranges of India.

2.4 Western Ghats-Malabar (Sahyadri Mountains) and Tourism


From The  Western Ghats,  Western Ghats  or the  Sahyadri mountains  constitute a mountain
range along the western side of  India. This range runs north to south along the western edge of
the Deccan Plateau, and separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea.
The range starts near the border of  Gujarat  and  Maharashtra, south of the  Tapti river, and runs
approximately 1,600  km (990  mi) through the states of  Maharashtra,  Goa,  Karnataka,  Tamil
Nadu  and  Kerala  ending at  Kanyakumari, at the southern tip of India.
These hills cover 160,000  (62,000 sq mi) and form the catchment area for complex riverine drainage
systems that drain almost 40% of India. The Western Ghats block rainfall to the Deccan Plateau. The
average elevation is around 1,200  m (3,900  ft).
The area is one of the world’s ten “Hottest  biodiversity hotspots” and has over 5000 species of
flowering plants, 139 mammal species, 508 bird species and 179 amphibian species; it is likely
that many undiscovered species live in the Western Ghats. At least 325 globally threatened
species  occur in the Western Ghats.
The Western Ghats extend from the Satpura Range in the north, go south past Maharashtra, Goa,
through Karnataka and into Kerala and Tamil. Major gaps in the range are the Goa Gap, between
the Maharashtra and Karnataka sections, and the Pal hat Gap on the Tamil Nadu and Kerala border
between the Nilgiri Hills and the Anaimalai Hills.

a) Sahyandhris
The major hill range starting from the north is the  Sahyadri  (the benevolent mountains) range.
This range is home to many  hill stations  like Matheran,  Lonavala, Khandala,  Mahabaleshwar,
Panchgani,   Amboli  Ghat,  Kudremukh  and  Kodagu. The range is called  Sahyadri  in northern
Maharashtra  and  Sahya Parvatam  in Kerala.

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b) Nilgiris
The  Hills, also known as known as the  Nilagiri malai, are in northwestern  Tamil Nadu. The
Nilgiri Hills are home to the hill station  Ooty. The Bili giri rangana Betta  southeast of  Mysore  in
Karnataka, meet the  Shevaroys  (Servarayan range) and  Tirumala  range farther east, linking the
Western Ghats to the  Eastern Ghats. In the South, the range is or  Nilgiris  in Tamil Nadu.

c) Anaimalai Hills
South of the  Pal Ghat Gap  are the  Anaimalai Hills, in western Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Smaller
ranges are further south, including the  Cardamom Hills.
In the southern part of the range is Ana Mudi peak 2,695 metres (8,842 ft) in Kerala the highest
peak in Western Ghats.  Chembra Peak  2,100 metres (6,890  ft),  Banasura Peak  2,073 metres
(6,801 ft), Vellarimala 2,200 metres (7,218 ft) and Agasthya mala 1,868 metres (6,129 ft) are also
in  Kerala.  Doddabetta  in the Nilgiri Hills is 2,637 metres (8,652  ft).  Mullayanagiri  is the highest
peak in Karnataka 1,950 metres (6,398 ft). The Western Ghats in Kerala and Tamil Nadu is home
to many tea and coffee  plantations.
The northern portion of the narrow coastal plain between the Western Ghats and the Arabian
Sea is known as the  Konkan Coast  or simply  Konkan, the central portion is called  Kanara  and
the southern portion is called  Malabar region  or the  Malabar Coast. The foothill region east of
the Ghats in Maharashtra is known as Desh, while the eastern foot hills of the central Karnataka
state is known as Malenadu. The largest city within the mountains is the city of Pune (Poona), in
the Desh region on the eastern edge of the range. The Biligirirangan Hills lies at the confluence of
the Western and  Eastern Ghats.
Western Ghats has to be listed as a protected  World Heritage Site.  This will be composed of 7
adjoining areas:
1. Agasthyamalai sub-cluster (with five site elements) including: The  Agasthya malai
Biosphere Reserve  900  km², includes  Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve  806  km², in
Tamil Nadu and Neyyar, Peppar and Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuaries and their adjoining areas
of Achencoil, Thenmala, Konni, Punalur, Thiruvananthapuram Divisions and Agasthyavanam
Special Division in Kerala.
2. Periyar sub-cluster (with six site elements) including: Periyar National Park and nature
reserve 777 km², in Kerala, Ranni, Konni and Achankovil Forest Divisions. On the eastern side,
lying largely in a rain-shadow area with mostly drier forests, lie the  Srivilliputtur Wildlife
Sanctuary  and reserved forests of the  Tirunelveli  Forest Division.

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3. Anamalai sub-cluster (with seven site elements) including:  Chinnar Wildlife


Sanctuary,  Eravikulam National Park  90  km²,  Indira Gandhi National Park,  Grass Hills
National Park  and  Karian Shola National Park  are located within the larger Indira Gandhi
Wildlife Sanctuary 958 km², and Palani Hills National Park 736.87 km² (PRO) in Tamil Nadu
and  Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary  285  km² in Kerala.
4. Nilgiri sub-cluster (with seven site elements) including: The  Nilgiri Biosphere
Reserve with Karimpuzha National Park 230 km² (PRO),Silent Valley National Park 89.52 km²
and Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary 344 km² in Kerala, Bandipur National Park 874 km², Mukurthi
National Park  78.46  km²,  Mudumalai National Park  321  km²,  Sathyamangalam Wildlife
Sanctuary  524.34km², New  Amarambalam Reserved Forest in Tamil Nadu. This sub-cluster
constitutes a largely secure forest complex of over 6,000 km², which is one of the most globally
significant conservation areas for highly threatened species such as the Asian elephant, tiger
and gaur, besides dozens of endangered species.
5. Talakaveri sub-cluster (with six site elements) including: Brahmagiri Wildlife
Sanctuary  181.29  km², Rajiv Gandhi (Nagarhole National Park) 321  km²,  Pushpagiri
Wildlife Sanctuary  92.65  km²,  Talakaveri Wildlife Sanctuary  (105.01  km²) in Karnataka
and  Aralam  Reserved Forest in Kerala.
6. Kudremukh Sub-Cluster (with Five Site Elements) including:  Kudremukh National
Park  600.32  km²,  Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary  and surrounding Reserved Forests
of  Someshwara,  Agumbe  and  Balahalli  in karnataka.
7. Sahyadri Sub-Cluster (with Four Site Elements) including:  Anshi National Park
340  km²,  Chandoli National Park  317.67  km²,  Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary  and  Radhanagri
Wildlife Sanctuary  in Maharashtra.
Western Ghats are rich sources for all types of Mountain Tourism i.e from Recreation to Adventures.

Review Question
1) Write a short note on Western Gahts.

2.5 Eastern Ghats (Coromondal Coast) and Tourism


a) Geographical Location
Eastern Ghats are discontinuous range of mountain set along Eastern coast. Starting at West
Bengal, Eastern Ghats pass through states like Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. These
Ghats are ripped through by rivers like Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna and Kaveri, the four major
rivers of South India.

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b) Characteristics of Eastern Ghats


Eastern Ghats are older than Western Ghats. The elevation of Eastern Ghats is lower than the
Western Ghats. They are located between 11o 30’ and 22o N latitude and 76o 50’ and 86o 30
E longitude in a North-East to South-West strike. It covers a total area of around 75,000 sq. km.
Sirumalai and Karanthamalai hills of Tamil Nadu lies in the southern most part of the Eastern
Ghats. North of Kaveri river are higher Kollimalai, Pachaimalai, Shevaroy, Kalrayan Hills, Palamalai
and Mettur hills in north Tamil Nadu.
Eastern Ghat is said to be the watershed of many rivers as the Ghat gets higher average waterfall.
Due to higher rainfall, the flora and thus fauna is very rich. Often referred as “Estuaries Of India”,
Eastern Ghats gift Tourists Eco & Geo Tourism in special. Like Western Ghats, thus, Eastern Ghats
also carry a heap of Ecological importance.

c) Eastern Ghats Flora and Fauna


The diversified ecological niches and environmental situation provide habitat for rich fauna.
Eastern Ghats is home to largest number of Asiatic elephants in the world. Other large animals
such as Nilgiri Tahr, Leopards, Gaurs, Sambar, and tigers abound the landscape. Apart from this,
these Ghats are known for the wide variety of Birds species. A Tourist would be able to explore
other Wildlife Sanctuaries and National parks in the Eastern Ghats such as the Simlipal National
Park, Baissipalli Wildlife Sanctuary, Satkoshia Gorge Sanctuary and many more. Eastern Ghats
also holds the rich floral system. It is region where large number of medicinal plants are traced
thus boon for developing Nature based Medical Tourism.
The land is also occupied by quite a few tribes which include Savara, Jatapu, Konda Dora, Gadaba,
Khond, Manne Dora and Mukha Dora. These indigenous people have their own unique cultural
heritage. These people follow the age old customs and traditions. They are still dependent on
the forest produce and haunting for their livelihood. These tribes have good knowledge about
the region and its produce and thereby make a good use of its medicinal plants. Owing to this
reason this region can be marked to develop Tribal and Ecotourism.
Like Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats are also having plethora of Mountain Tourism resources ranging
from Recreational to Adventurous.

Review Question
1) Write a short note on characteristics of Eastern Ghats.

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2.6 Ten Stunning Mountains and Valleyes Attractions in India


a) Auli
State: Uttarakhand / Region – Garhwal Himalayas
This popular ski resort is approximately 492km from Delhi, nestled at an altitude of around 3km
above sea level. To reach the snow clad slopes, you treat yourself to a 4km long gondola ride, the
longest in Asia. Apart from skiing, Auli also offers other attractions such as the highest man-made
lake in the world and a stunning 180 degree view of the Himalayan Peaks.

b) Munsiyari
State: Uttarakhand / Region – Kumaon Himalayas
Munsiyari offers breathtaking views of the Himalayas, trekking routes into a never ending horizon,
high altitude glacier walks and the whispering of the wind in the God’s own natural amphitheater.
Situated approximately 588km from Delhi, Munsiyari, meaning “place with snow”, stands at an
altitude of 2,200m high. It gives you the chance to view some of the most beautiful snow-capped
landscape in the region, with the road towards it filled with scintillating scenery.

c) Sangla
State: Himachal Pradesh
This is popularly considered as the most beautiful Himalayan valleys in India. Surrounded by
breathtaking scenery, Sangla is situated on the historically famous Hindustan-Tibet highway, a
charming experience often dubbed, the Swiss Countryside of India. Visitors can enjoy a day out
angling on the Baspa River, trekking to Kinner Kailash or pay a visit to the monastery at Rekong
Peo.

d) Gangtok
State: Sikkim
Gangtok, the capital of Sikkim, is a popular haven for tourists, trekkers and mountaineers looking
to explore the scenery of Sikkim. There is much to see within a day’s drive from Gangtok, such
as the Tsomgo or Changu Lake, the famed Nathu La Pass which connects India to China’s Tibet
autonomous region, as well as the valley of Yumthang. There are also numerous trekking routes
starting from Gangtok, including the famed Mount Kanchenjunga (third highest in the world) trek
and the Dzongri trek.

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e) Tawang
State: Arunachal Pradesh
Located between the border of India and Bhutan, Tawang is yet another station boasting stunning
views of the Eastern Himalayas. At the heart of this small hill station lies the Tawang Gompa, a
Buddhist monastery home to not more than 40 monks. Nearby is the beautiful Sela Lake, pristine
and untouched, while trekkers would enjoy a hike to the Sela Top Pass.
f) Igatpuri
State: Maharashtra
Igatpuri is a small sleepy town in the Western Ghats not far from Mumbai, approximately 138km.
During the Monsoons, the landscape transforms into a riot of colors and waterfalls dot every nook
and cranny of this valley. It is also home to the Vipasana center, where believers flock to meditate
and renew their spirituality. The Tringalwadi Fort is a popular picturesque spot, offering one a
wide angle view of the entire valley and the Talegaon Lake.
g) Araku Valley
State: Andhra Pradesh
For some of the coolest summer in Southern India, head straight to Araku Valley. Enjoy a picturesque
train ride passing through numerous tunnels enroute, before finally reaching the rolling hills and
waterfalls of the Araku Valley. The Borra Caves, 35km from Araku Valley, dates back to a million
years back and are pure stalactite and stalagmite formations that tells a story from a different era.
h) Nagarhole National Park: Irpu Falls
State: Karnataka
Spread over 640 square km of virgin forests, streams and cascading waterfalls, the Nagarhole
National Park is home to the mystical Irupu Falls (also known as Lakshmana Tirtha Falls). This
stunning waterfall cascades down and takes a plunge of 170ft! The park is a haven of flora and
fauna, and you can find wild elephants, leopards, spotted dear and Gaur, among others. It is also
an excellent place for bird-watching.
i) Lakkidi
State: Kerala
When you travel to the God’s and country, what would you expect? Naturally, stunning scenic beauty
fit for the Gods, exactly the type Kerala offers. Lakkidi, often referred to as the Tarzan territory,
is the highest point in the Wayanad region of Kerala. It’s a forest canopy so dense that you can

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barely see the sky, where you can truly walk through the wilderness. Here, you can experience
treetop living and walking 100 feet above the ground to get from one tree to another.
j) Bellikal
State: Tamil Nadu
Bellikal is a picturesque village situated on the Nilgiri Montains, with the famed Mudumalai forest
on one end and the Sigur Plateau on the other. It is a place of isolation and tranquility, 5,500 ft
above sea level. A trekker’s paradise, there are various trails here leading to various attractions
such as the Kalhatti Falls, as well as the Bison valley, where you can spy on these amazing beasts.
The biggest attraction here however, is the Kurinji Bush, which blooms only once every 12 years.

Review Question
1) Match the Following:
Cloumn A Column B
Bellikal Karnataka
Nagarhole national park: irpu falls Arunachal Pradesh
Tawang Maharashtra
Igatpuri Tamil Nadu

2.7 Key Terms Used in the Unit


1. Ghat
Ghat means a descending path or stairway to a river, a mountain pass or it could reference either
the Western or Eastern Ghats (mountain ranges) in India.

2. Mountain Pass
A pass is a route through a Mountain Range or over a Ridge. If following the lowest possible route,
a pass is locally the highest point on that route. Since many of the world’s mountain ranges have
presented formidable barriers to travel, passes have been important since before recorded history.

3. Valley
A large plain areas surrounded by high Mountains.

4. Mountain Range
A  Mountain Range  is a Geographic area containing numerous Geologically related  Mountains. A
Mountain system or system of Mountain Ranges sometimes is used to combine several Geological
features that are Geographically (Regionally) related.

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Review questions
Fill in the blanks:
1. A Sanskrit word for the Himalayan mountain is …………….
2. …………… is the world’s third highest peak at 8,590m.
3. …………… range literally meaning ‘line of peaks’.
4. ………… Ghats are ripped through by rivers like Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna and Kaveri.
5. Sangla is often dubbed as the ………………… of India.
6. …………… is a large plain area surrounded by high mountains.
7. Eastern Ghats is often referred as………… of India.
8. ………… means a descending path or stairway to a river .
9. Nilgiris are situated in…………..
10. Cardamom hills are on ……….. side of India.

Short Answer Questions:


1. Enumerate the names of seven sisters of India.
2. What is the location and extension of Aravallis?
3. Name the hill stations of north India.
4. Name the important hill stations of south India.
5. Name the tribes who lives in Eastern Ghats.

Long Answer Questions:


1. What are the main characteristics of mountain and valley resources tourism which attracts
the tourist round the world?
2. Which states are embedded with Himalayas? Discuss in details.
3. Communicate the Western Ghats mountains and its marvelous correlation with tourism
industry.
4. What are the main resources that Eastern Ghats offer to flourish tourism? Mark the Eastern
Ghats Wildlife Sanctuaries on India’s map.
5. “Mountains are the frozen pride of India”. Discuss any ten stunning mountains and valleys
attractions in India.

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2.8 Practical Activities


1) On an Indian Map, locate any four rivers and Mountain Ranges.
2) Visit a nearby hotel and write a report on practices followed by the hotel to boost tourism
in the region.

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Unit-3
Tourism Physical Resources-Hill Stations, Duns, Plateaus,
Desert, Wetlands and Plains

Contents
3.0 Unit Overview and Description
l Overview
l Skills and Knowledge
l Resource Material
l Learning Outcomes
l Assessment for Teachers
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Hill Stations and Duns In India
3.3 Hill Stations Of North-Eastern States (Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura &
Mizoram)
3.4 Plateaus and Tourism
3.5 Plain and Tourism
3.6 Wet Lands, Ramsar Sites and Tourism
3.7 Key Terms Used In the Unit
3.8 Practical Activity

3.0 Unit Overview & Descriptions


Overview
This Chapter deals with the fundamentals of Hill stations, Duns, Plateaus, Desert, Plains and
Tourism Resources.

This Unit will impart following Skills and Knowledge


- The Concept of Hill stations, Duns, Plateaus, Desert, Wet Lands (Including Ramsar Sites)
as Tourism Resources
- The Characteristics of Hill stations, Duns, Plateaus, Desert, Wet Lands as Tourism
Resources

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- The Categories of Hill stations, Duns, Plateaus, Desert, Wet Lands Tourism Resources
- The spatial distributions and resulted Tourism products carved out of Hill stations,
Duns, Plateaus, Desert, Wet Lands Tourism Resources
Resource Material:
1. Majid Husain - Geography of India, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, (2013)
2. Manohar Sajnani - Encyclopedia of Tourism Resources in India (In two Vol.), Kalpaz Pub.
New Delhi, 2001.
3. H.Y. Sharada Prasad and Ashok Dilwali - Life and Landscapes, Under the Incredible India
Series, Wisdom Tree Publications, New Delhi, 2007
Learning Outcomes:

UNIT-3 OUTCOMES
Tourism Physical Resources-Hill Stations, After Studying these Sub-Units:
Duns, Plaeatus, Desert, Wetlands and
Plains
3.1 Introduction Students will be able to understand different aspects
of Hill stations, Duns, Plateaus, Desert, Wet Lands
Tourism Resources in India.
3.2 Hill Stations and Duns In India Students will be able to understand about major
characteristics and Distribution ofHill Stations and
Duns In India
3.3 Hill Stations of North-Eastern States Hill Stations Of North-Eastern States (Manipur,
(Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura & Mizoram)
Sikkim, Tripura & Mizoram)
3.4 Plateaus and Tourism Students will be able to understand the major
characteristics and distribution of Plateaus of India
3.5 Plains and Tourism Students will be able to understand about the major
characteristics and distribution Plains of India
3.6 Wet Lands, Ramsar Sites and Students will be able to understand Wet Lands,
Tourism Ramsar Sites of India

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Assessment Plan: (for the Teachers)


Unit-1 Topic Assessment Method Time Plan Remarks

3.1 Introduction Question & Answer

3.2 Hill Stations and Duns Question & Answer


In India
3.3 Hill Stations of North- Question & Answer
Eastern States (Manipur,
Meghalaya, Nagaland,
S i k k i m , Tr i p u ra &
Mizoram)
3.4 Plateaus and Tourism Question & Answer

3.5 Plains and Tourism Question & Answer

3.6 Wet Lands, Ramsar Sites Question & Answer


and Tourism

3.1 Introduction
The Hill Stations are high-altitude man modified Mountains, used especially by the rulers and
ruling class particularly European colonialists, as a place of refuge from the summer heat. They
are prevalent in Southeast Asian and South Asian countries, particularly India.
The British Raj, and in particular the British Indian Army, founded perhaps 50 of the 80-odd hill
stations in the Indian subcontinent. The rest were built by various Indian rulers over the centuries
as places of leisure or even as capities.
Duns are generally plain areas surrounded by low mountain ranges. Dehradun (Uttarakhand) is
best example of Duns in India.
Plains are flat topography which are developed by the deposition of alluvium by the rivers. Punjab-
Haryana Plains, Ganga Plains, Yamuna Plains, Awadh and Brahmaputra Plains are some of the
famous Plains of India. Plains alone feed about 70 Per Cent of Tourism in India because most of
Architectural and Historical-Cultural Tourism Products are available in Plains.

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Rocks can be no doubt main feedback for Tourism Products because there is no single Architectural,
Historical, Monumental or any other building and even construction which can come into existence
without direct or indirect role of Rocks.
Desert is a region where rate of precipitation is extremely low compared to very high rate of
evaporation making area vegetation deficit, arid and sandy. Thar Desert is the best example of
Desert Topography in India. Sand dunes support both natural and cultural Tourism. For example
Camel Safari and Camel Caravan are the best examples.
Wetlands are the Ecotones or Transitional zones between permanently aquatic and dry Terrestrial
Ecosystems. Ramsar Convention has defined Wetlands as “areas of marsh, fen, peat land or water,
whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary with water that is static or flowing, fresh,
brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed
six meters.”Wetlands are very significant to Tourism because they play a vital role in evolving and
development of Wildlife Sanctuaries, National Parks, Bird Sanctuaries and Botanical Gardens etc.

Purpose
Several Hill Stations served as Summer capital cities of Indian provinces and princely states.
Since independence, the role of these Hill Stations as Summer capitals has largely ended, except
Kashmir. There in winter Srinagar remains capital while in Summer Jammu. But now Hill Stations
are popular summer resorts.

Discussions
We come across numerous such holiday resorts almost in all parts of the country. Besides the
high Himalayas in the north, there are high hills in the northeast and around Nil Giris the South.
There are hill ranges of medium to low height in the Vindhyas, Satpura, and the Aravalies and
Western Ghats in the addition to isolated hillocks elsewhere. For this reason, even states which
have predominantly plain or flat land, have one or two hill resorts with the exception of Odisha
and Punjab. Locationally, out of 100 Hill Stations, the largest group of 42 is in the west Himalayas
extending Kumaon (Uttarakhand) to Kashmir. The next long enough of 25 is marked along the
Nilgiris-Western Ghats Hills divide forming the boundary of our three Southern most States. A
bunch of 15 is found along Sahyadri ranges, mostly in Maharashtra and another 12 are scattered
in North- Eastern Hills .One comes across the remaining six unevenly scattered on central hills,
Eastern Ghats and the Aravalies.
Some of these Hill Resorts are relatively more developed and are most popular. Many have the

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potential to gain importance in years to come and there are others lying under developed. These
Hill Stations altitude-wise is divided into three broad categories:
(a) Hill resorts at low height (between 800 and 1200 meters at sea level).
(b) Hill Resorts at medium height (between 1200 and 2100 meters at sea level).
(c) Hill Resorts at great height (between 2100 and 3500 meters at sea level).
The accompanying map locates a very large number of them medium height, a number of them
at low height and a few at very great heights. Most of them share the salubrious climate, pleasant
summers, but usually rainy monsoon season and mildly cool winters. Some of them located in
the Western Himalayas experience severally cold winters with the frequent snowfall. They are
famous for providing relief to the visitors from heat of the burning hot plains in summer months
and recreation in the winter season. There are the examples of less known Hill Resorts, not even
marked on general maps. These are Morni at 1000m height in Haryana near Kalka, Haflong (1637
m) in north Catcher hills of Silchar district of Assam, Jmapui (1309 m) in North Tripura, Ukhrul
(1900 m),east of Imphal in Manipur, Mao (1788 m) on Dimapur, Imphal route, Harshly hills(1265
m) enroute to Tirumala Temple of Andhra Pradesh, Mannar (1600 m) in Western Ghats of Kerala,
unspoilt Matheran (830 m) close to Mumbai, Satpura (873 m) on the second highest plateau of
the Sahyadri to the southeast of Gujarat and Chikaldara (1000 m) on Satpura hills near Amravati
town in Maharashtra. Their less popularity and low degree of development are largely a matter
of chance a casual neglect. They can hardly be ruled out for being less attractive sites. No doubt
they regain their lush greenery and seasonal cascades every year during Summer rains. Over a
dozen such places are situated on western and Eastern Ghats or on Satpura Hill ranges. Each of
them uniqueness its own.
Ridge sites like Shimla, Darjeeling, Gangtok or Mussoorie attract by opening out a wider view of
the deep valleys and of the snow-clad mountains. The wall of the forest green as a backdrop to
the slopes parallel to the ridges adds to their charms. If the forest cover is replaced by wholesale
cutting down of the trees and mushrooming of the tiers of concrete buildings, the scenic beauty
of the resort is lost. The attraction of the distant views on sunny days is as much like as their
mystic landscape wrapped in clouds on other days.
Some Hill resorts like Naini Tal, Udagamandalam (Ooty) and Kodaikanal have come up around
the lakesides, lying in a bowl and hemmed in by the hills. Their slopes are thickly wooded up to
the water edges. In some cases like Srinagar in Kashmir and Ooty in Tamil Nadu, the encircling
mountains are at a great distant and the sites lie in a wide open valley or undulating Grassland. The

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lakeside resort of Udaipur in Rajasthan is an example of a lakeside resort outside the Himalayas
and the hill regions.
Hill Resorts like Mt. Abu, Morni, Matheran, Pachmarhi, Saputara and Ranchi are situated on a
hump backed broad hill tops or on an uneven plateau surface giving panoramic views of the
lush green valley or wild landscape. Shillong and Dalhousie are two examples of places situated
on a group of hills separated by narrow valleys. Dharamsala in Himachal Pradesh occupies a flat
topped spur projecting from Dhaula Dhar towards the Kangra valley. Long walks along a ridge
from end to end of circular rounds of hills engage the visitors’ every day. Riverside location like
Manali and Pahalgam combine the advantages of the valley site and the altitude of a mountain.
Tawang in Arunachal Pradesh along Indo-Bhutan border Leh and Gulmarg in J&K state, Chail,
Shimla, Dalhousie, Tabo, Sangla, Thanedar and Masholora in Himachal Pradesh are the examples
of high altitude or near high-altitude hill stations.

Review Question
1) Define the following:
a) Hill Stations
b) Duns
c) Plains
d) Desert
e) Wetlands

3.2 Hill Stations and Duns in India


a) In Uttrakhand
Almora is one of the most beautiful places in Kumaon region. The glamour and glitter which is
seen in Ranikhet and Nainital is totally absent in Almora.
Cradled in the mountain ranges of the Nar-Narayan, with the splendid Nilkanth peak as the
enchanting backdrop, is located the holiest of all the Hindu pilgrimages, Badrinath. Bhim Tal,
situated at a distance of 22kms from Nainital, is named after one of the Pandav brothers called
Bhim.
Mussoorie is located in the Garhwal hills. Due to its immense natural beauty, Mussoorie is known
as the queen of hill stations.

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Small town in the hills of Kumaon, Nainital is a lovely hill station surrounded by mountains on
three sides. Once this area had many lakes and it was called the City of 60 lakes. Dundanadun,
Mussoorie, Auli and Pithoragarh are often referred to as Miniature Kashmir. Hence, Uttarakhand
offers following gems for Tourists in the form of following Hill Stations:
1. Nainital Lake City
2. Mussoorie
3. Almora
4. Askot
5. Auli
6. Badrinath
7. Bageshwar
8. Berinag
9. Bhimtal
10. Binsar
11. Chamoli
12. Auli
13. Champawat
14. Chaukori
15. Chopta
16. Dehradun
17. Didihat
18. Dhanaulti
19. Gangolihat
20. Garhwal
21. Joshimath
22. Kausani
23. Kedarnath
24. Landour
25. Lansdowne
26. Lohaghat
27. Mukteshwar

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28. Munsiyari
29. Mussoorie
30. Nainital
31. Nanda Devi
32. Naukuchiatal
33. Pauri
34. Pithoragarh
35. Tarkeshwar Mahadev
36. Ranikhet
37. Rishikesh
38. Rudraprayag
39. Uttarkashi
40. Marchula
41. Joshimath
42. Ranikhet
43. Valley of flowers
44. Kanatal
b) In Himachal Pradesh
Chail, Chamba Valley, Dalhousie, Dharamsala Kangra, Kasauli, Khajjiar, Kufri, Kullu, Lahaul & Spiti,
Manali, Palampur, Renuka, Shimla, Solan, Chopta, Dhanaulti Hills and so on. Chopta situated on
the Gopeshwar-Ukhimath Road about 40 kms. From Gopeshwar is at an altitude of about 2,900
m above sea level.
Total in Himachal Pradesh Tourists can enjoy following Hill Stations:
1. Chail
2. Dharamkot
3. Dharamsala
4. Mcleodganj
5. Dalhousie
6. Kasauli
7. Kullu
8. Manali

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9. Shimla
10. Kufri
11. Barog
12. Kiarighat
13. Solan
14. Mashobra
15. Kangra
16. Khajjiar
17. Haripurdhar
18. Lahaul and Spiti
19. Palampur
c) In Jammu & Kashmir
A huge cup shaped meadow, lush and green with slopes where the silence is broken only by the
tinkle of cowbells, Gulmarg & Sonmarg look like a fantasy set in a film and not surprisingly have
been the venue of several films.
About 20-km south of Rangdum stands the Pazila watershed across which lies Zanskar, the most
isolated of all the Trans Himalayan Hill Stations.
Ladakh is a land like no other. Bounded by two of the world’s mightiest mountain ranges, the Great
Himalayas and the Karakoram, it is a thwart two other, the Ladakh range and the Zanskar range
As one approaches Leh, the sloping seep of dust and pebbles divide it from the floor of the Indus
Valley.
The capital of Jammu and Kashmir and the largest city in the state, Srinagar (1,730m) is famous
for its canals, houseboats and Mughal gardens.
At an altitude of 2,130m and about 95-km from Srinagar, Pahalgam is probably the most popular
hill resort in the Kashmir valley.
Relatively unknown, compared to the other tourist spots in the state Patnitop is no less beautiful
or serene.
At a height of 2,740m, Sonmarg is the last major point in the Kashmir valley before the Zoji La
pass into Ladakh.
So the Tourists in Jammu & Kashmir may enjoy following Hill Stations for heavenly pleasure,

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excitement and make their visit life time memorable:


1. Bhaderwahea
2. Patnitop
3. Aru
4. Gulmarg
5. Pahalgam
6. Sonmarg
7. Srinagar
8. Yusmarg
9. Leh
d) In Arunachal Pradesh
Major Hill Stations in Arunachal Pradesh for Tourism purposes are Along, Bomdila, Itanagar,
Khonsa, Twang, Ziro etc.

e) In Assam
Haflong and Maibong are major Hill Stations in Assam.

f) In Rajasthan & Haryana


The only hill station in Rajasthan, Mount Abu huddles among the rocks on a 1,220-m granite table
mountain at the far southwestern end of the Aravalli hills.
Atop the Aravalli hills lies Sohna, the picturesque health-cum-holiday resort. ‘Sohna’ literally means
`gold’ in Hindi. Morni Hills is famous Hill Station of Haryana.

g) In Madhya Pradesh
Major Hill attractions in Madhya Pradesh for Tourists are Pachmarhi, Amarkantak and Shivpuri.

h) In Gujarat
Hill Stations which attract Tourists in Gujarat are Pavagadh, Saputara and Wilson Hills.

i) In Jharkhand
Major Hill attractions in Jharkhand are Hazaribagh and Ranchi.

j) In West Bengal
In West Bengal Tourist can enjoy and get refreshed by visiting the following Hill Stations and

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attractions:
1. The ‘Toy Train’ in Darjeeling,
2. Darjeeling
3. Kalimpong
4. Kurseong
5. Mirik

Review Question
1) Name any four major hill stations of the region of your choice.

3.3 Hill Stations of North-Eastern States (Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim,


Tripura & Mizoram)
The Hill Stations which allure Tourists in the above States of Seven Sisters State categories are:
1. Nohkalikai
2. Cherrapunjee
3. Jowai
4. Shillong
5. Aizawl
6. Kohima
7. Pfutsero
8. Lachung
9. Gangtok
10. Lachung
11. Pelling
12. Yuksom
These spots provide specially Adventure Tourism, Eco Tourism, GeoTourism and Natural landscapes
to the Tourists.

a) In Odisha
The main Hill Station in Odisha is Daringbadi.

b) In Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh has following major attractions as Hill Stations to facilitate Tourism:
1. Araku Valley,
2. Horsley Hills

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3. Araku Valley
4. Nallamala Hills
5. Ananthagiri Hills
c) In Karnataka
In Karnataka Tourists have to select their choice of Hill Station from the following Hill Destinations:
1. Kudremukh
2. Agumbe
3. Baba Budangiri
4. Biligiriranga Hills
5. Dandeli
6. Horanadu
7. Hosanagara
8. Kemmangundi
9. Kudremukh
10. Koppa
11. Madikeri
12. Mudigere
13. Mullayanagiri
14. Nandi Hills
15. Chikkamagaluru
16. Sakleshpur
17. Sirsi
18. Siddapura
19. Somwarpet
20. Sringeri
21. Talakaveri
22. Theerthahalli
23. Virajpet
24. Yana
25. Yellapura
d) In Kerala
Kerala is an established Tourist destination for both Indians and non-Indians alike. Kerala is
popular for its Beaches,Backwaters, Mountain ranges and Wildlife Sanctuaries. Hill Stations of

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Tourists interests are well efficient. Tourists desired Hill Station products as indicated below:
1. Munnar
2. Charalkunnu
3. Devikulam
4. Kalpetta
5. Kottancheri
6. Kumily
7. Mananthavady
8. Nelliampathi
9. Peermade
10. Ponmudi
11. Ranipuram
12. Sulthan Bathery
13. Thusharagiri
14. Vellarimala
15. Vythiri
16. Vagamon
e) In Maharashtra
As Maharashtra is the home of Sahydri Mountains, the state has many appealing Hill Stations to
attracts Tourists not only from India but throughout the World, also has potential of all the facilities
to make these Hill Stations pull factors for Tourists. Major Hill stations of Maharashtra are:
1. Lonavla
2. Amboli
3. Chikhaldara
4. Igatpuri
5. Jawhar
6. Karjat
7. Khandala
8. Lavasa
9. Lonavala
10. Mahabaleshwar

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Malwa Plateau

Jeep Safari, Ranthambore Wild


Life Sanctuary

Camel Caravan, Rajasthan

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Loktak lake (Ramsar site), Manipur

A Wetland

Valley of Flowers, Hill station in Uttrakhand Deacon Plateau

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11. Matheran
12. Panchgani
13. Panhala
14. Toranmal
f) In Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu Tourism holds a special place in India’s tour landscape. Known to be the land of serene
beaches and panoramic Mountains, Hill Stations Valleys, Tamil Nadu welcomes all with its infinite
reserve of Natural beauty. Situated on the southern corner of the country, the Hill Stations of Tamil
Nadu are visited by large number of Foreign and Domestic Tourists. The endless special appeals
of  Tamil Nadu’s Hill Stations  not only make it an obvious choice of holiday destination but also
extends its aesthetic credibility to the outer World. The major Hill Stations of Tamil Nadu are:
1. Ooty
2. Agasthiyamalai
3. Coonoor
4. Javadi Hills
5. Kodaikanal
6. Kolli Hills
7. Kothagiri
8. Meghamalai
9. Sirumalai
10. Udagamandalam
11. Valparai
12. Yelagiri
13. Yercaud

Review Question

1) Match the following:


Column A Column B
a) Lonavla, Amboli, Chikhaldara Tamil Nadu
b) Coonoor, Javadi Hills, Kodaikanal Maharashtra
c) Araku Valley, Horsley Hills West Bengal
d) Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Kurseong Andhara Pradesh

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Map 3.1: Distribution of Hill Stations, Duns, Plateaus, Deserts and Plains in India

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3.4 Plateaus and Tourism


Plateaus are flat top and steep wall Topography are of intense significance for Tourism. In India
three major Plateaus are very crucial from Tourism aspects which are as follows:

a) Chotanagpur Plateau and Tourism


The Chotanagpur plateau lies in the Indian state of  Jharkhand and adjoining States. This region
has a lot to offer with respect to Tourism, and it caters to every type of Tourist – the religiously
inclined ones, the history buffs, the ones who are travelling for fun and architecture and nature
buffs. The region is vast and beautiful and mainly unadulterated. There are many hills and
valleys in the Chotanagpur region too and all these places provide excellent options for hiking
and camping. Tourists can also indulge in activities like bird watching or wildlife spotting. There
are many small tribal villages in the region too, which serve as bases for Khonds, Gonds, Koras,
Lohras, Asurs and Santhals, and these can be visited by Tourists. 
Major places to visit in the Chotanagpur region include Ranchi, Dhanbad, Netarhat and Hazaribagh.
There are many Waterfalls. Hazaribagh is a Hill Station and thus provides excellent views. Tourists
can also visit the Wildlife sanctuary that is located near this town. Netarhat is another beautiful
Hill Resort which is a must see destination due to its picturesque setting and exotic locales. This
region is also blessed with minerals and ores resources which form the basis for Mining Tourism.
From above analysis of The Chotanagpur plateau it can be concluded that this region is ideal for
providing Nature Based, Mining and Cultural (Especially Tribal) Tourism.

b) Malwa Plateau  and Tourism


Politically and administratively, the Malwa includes districts of western  Madhya Pradesh  and
parts of South-Eastern  Rajasthan. The definition of Malwa also includes the  Nimar  region north
of the Vindhyas.
This plateau has mixed of cultures like Rajasthani, Marathi and Gujarati. Several  prominent
people in the history of India have hailed from Malwa, including the poet and dramatist Kalidasa,
the author Bhartrihari, the mathematicians and astronomers Varahamihira and Brahmagupta, the
polymath king Bhoja and musician Tansen.  Ujjain  had been the political, economic, and cultural
capital of the region in ancient and medieval times, and  Indore  is presently the largest city and
commercial centre.

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Tourism of Malwa Plateau


The main Tourist Destinations in Malwa are places of Historical or Religious significance. The
river Shipra and the city of Ujjain have been regarded as sacred for thousands of years. The
Mahakal Temple of Ujjain is one of the 12 Jyotirlingas. Ujjain has over 100 other ancient temples,
including Harsidhhi, ChintamanGanesh, Gadh Kalika, Kaal Bhairava and Mangalnath. The Kalideh
Palace is a fine example of ancient Indian architecture. The  Bhartrihari  caves are associated
with interesting legends. Since the fourth century BC, Ujjain has enjoyed the reputation of being
India’s Greenwich, as the Prime Meridian of the Hindu Geographers. The observatory built by Jai
Singh II is one of the four such observatories in India and features Ancient Astronomical devices.
The Simhastha mela, celebrated every 12 years, starts on the full moon day in Chaitra (April) and
continues into Vaishakha (May) until the next full moon day.
Mandu was originally the fort capital of the Parmar rulers. Towards the end of the 13th century,
it came under the sway of the Sultans of Malwa, the first of whom named it Shadiabad (city
of joy). It remained as the capital, and in it the sultans built exquisite palaces like the Jahaz
Mahal and Hindola Mahal, ornamental canals, baths and pavilions. The massive Jami Masjid and
Hoshang Shah’s tomb provided inspiration to the designers of the  Taj Mahal  centuries later.  Baz
Bahadur  built a huge palace in Mandu in the 16th century. Other notable historical monuments
are  Rewa Kund,  Rupmati’s Pavilion, Nilkanth Mahal, Hathi Mahal, Darya Khan’s Tomb, Dai ka
Mahal, Malik Mughit Mosque and Jali Mahal.
Close to Mandu is Maheshwar, a town on the northern bank of Narmada River that served as the
capital of the Indore state under  Rajmata Ahilya Devi Holkar. The Maratha rajwada  (fort) is the
main attraction. A life-size statue of Rani Ahilya sits on a throne within the fort complex. Dhar
was the capital of Malwa before Mandu became the capital in 1405. There, the fort is in ruins
but offers a panoramic view. The Bhojashala Mosque (built in 1400) is still used as a place of
worship on Fridays. The abandoned Lat Masjid (1405) and the tomb of Kamal Maula (early 15th
century), a Muslim saint, are other places of interest.
Modern Indore was planned and built by Rajmata Ahilya Devi Holkar. The grand Lal Baag Palace
is one of its grandest monuments. The Bada Ganpati  temple houses what is possibly the largest
Ganesh idol in the world, measuring 7.6  m from crown to foot. The  Kanch Mandir  is a Jain
temple entirely inlaid with glass. The Town Hall was made in 1904 in indo-gothic style; originally
named  King Edward  Hall, it was renamed  Mahatma Gandhi  Hall in 1948. The  chhatris  are the
tombs or cenotaphs erected in memory of dead Holkar rulers and their family members.

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The shrine of  Hussain Tekri, built by the  Nawab of Jaora,  Mohammad Iftikhar Ali Khan Bahadur,
in the 19th century, is on the outskirts of Jaora in the Ratlam district. Mohammad Iftikhar Ali
Khan Bahadur was buried in the same graveyard where Hussain Tekri was buried. During the
month of  Moharram, thousands of people from all over the world visit the shrine of  Hazrat
Imam Hussain  there, which is a replica of the Iraqi original. The place is famous for the rituals
called  Hajri  to cure mental illness.

c) Deccan Plateau And Tourism


The plateau is bounded on the east and west by the Ghats, while its northern extremity is the
Satpura Mountain Range. its principal rivers, the Godavari, Krishna, and Cauvery, flow from the
Western Ghats eastward to the Bay of Bengal. The plateau’s climate is drier than that on the
coasts and is arid in places.
On the Western edge of the plateau lie the Sahyadri, the Nilgiri, the Anaimalai and the Cardamom
Hills, commonly known as Western Ghats.
The eastern Deccan plateau is called Telangana. The language of the plateau is Telugu of the
Dravidian family. The plateau’s important cities and towns are Hyderabad, Warangal, Kurnool,
and Nizamabad. 
Tourists Attractions  of Deccan Plateau

i. Aurangabad
Named after the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, Aurangabad is located in Maharashtra. It is globally
renowned for the Ajanta and Ellora caves, apart from the Bibi-ka-Maqbara (mausoleum of
Aurangzeb’s wife) and the Aurangabad caves. 
ii. Badami
Once the capital of the Chalukyas, Badami is now a small rural town in Karnataka. It is best known
for its beautiful cave temples, cut into the cliff face of a red sandstone hill.
iii. Bangaluru
Also in Karnataka, it is India’s Garden city with pleasant parks and Historical monuments. Now
it is Information & Technological capital of India with many Multinational software companies
comming up in the city. 

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iv. Belgaum
This small town in Karnataka is famous for its Jain temples and the Masjid Sata mosque. The
Watchtower and Sunset Point offer panoramic views of the flat countryside and distant hills. 
v. Bidar
The one-time capital city of the Bahamani rulers of south India, Bidar, located in Karnataka, is
known for its Historical monuments. The main Tourist attraction of Bidar is its fort built by Ahmad
Wali Shah .There are important palaces within the ramparts of the fort, including the Rang Mahal,
the Solah Kambha Masjid (16-pillared mosque), the Gagan Mahal, the Diwan-e-Aam, the Royal
Pavilion, and the Takhat Mahal. 
vi. Bijapur
The capital city of the Adil Shahi rulers of Medieval India, Bijapur is situated in the Southern
state of Karnataka. It is known for its Historical monuments. The magnificent Gol Gumbaz (the
largest dome in India and the second largest in the world), the Ibrahim Roza (a beautiful tomb
built by Adil Shah II for his queen), and the ruins of Gagan Mahal lure Tourists. The Sat Manzil
(seven-storied palace), Jal Manzil (water pavilion), Bara Kaman (twelve arches), Taj Bawdi (water
tank), Upli Burj (watch tower), Mehtar Mahal and Asar Mahal are other important places to be
visited by Tourists in Bijapur. 
vii. Calicut
Calicut (also Kozhikode), located in Kerala, has been a commercial trading city since ancient times.
Vasco-da-Gama landed in a place called Kappada close to Calicut in 1498. The city is the center
of the timber industry, and is known for its boat building. The word ‘calico’ is derived from the
name of this place. 
viii. Gulbarga
Located in the state of Karnataka, the small town of Gulbarga is famous for its association with the
Medieval kingdom of Bahamani. A number of monuments dating from 13th to the 15th century
can be enjoyed by Tourist here. Gulbarga Fort is an important Tourist spot. This fort includes the
Jama Masjid, said to have been built by a Moorish architect from Spain in the late 14th century
on the lines of the Great Cordoba Mosque in Southern Spain. Other places of interest within the
town are the Tombs of the Bahamani rulers, the Haft Gumbaz, the Tomb of Khwaja Bande Nawaz,
a sufi saint and the Sharana Basaveshwara temple. 

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ix. Hampi
Located in the central part of Karnataka, Hampi is a world heritage site famous for its ruins
belonging to the kingdom of Vijaynagar. The Temples and monolithic Sculptures and monuments,
along with the rugged landscape attract Tourists to Hampi. 
x. Hassan
Hassan is located in Karnataka. The place is called Hassan after the Goddess “Hasanamba,” the
presiding deity of the town. The Temple of Hasanamba is opened only once in a year during the
second Ashwayuja (October). A big Jatra (fair) is held on this occasion. Hassan is a convenient
base for visiting the other temple of nearby towns such as Belur, Halebid and Sharavanabelagola.
Sharavanabelagola is a famous Jain pilgrimage with a 17-m-high monolith of lord Bahubali. Belur
was once the capital of the Hoysala kings. The Chennakeshava Temple took 103 years to be
completed and is filled with intricate carvings and sculptures. Halebid, like Belur, is rich cultural
heritage of Karnataka. 
xi. Hyderabad
Built around the Hussain Sagar Lake, Hyderabad is the capital of the state of Andhra Pradesh. It
was founded in the 16th century by Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah and later became the seat of
the Nizam rulers. Symbolic of Hyderabad is its Char Minar, a charming rectangular building with
four slender minarets. Other places of Tourists attractions include the Mecca Masjid, Salar Jung
Museum, Birla Mandir, and Mahakali Temple. The Golconda Fort, the 13th-century fort rebuilt by
the Qutub Shahi rulers, lies at a distance of 13 km from Hyderabad. 
xii. Mysore
Mysore and Bangaluru can be translated as twin cities. Being home to the royalty for centuries,
Mysore has a number of palaces, parks and boulevards as well as museums and cultural centers.
The Maharaja’s Palace, Lalitha Mahal, Jayachamarajendra Art Gallery, Jaganmohan Palace,
Chamarajendra Zoological Gardens, Rail Museum, St. Philomenas Church, etc. are some of the must-
see places of Bangalore. Among the nearby places, Chamundi Hill (13 km), Srirangapatnam (16
km), Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary (16 km), historical capital city of the famous rulers Hyder ali
and Tipu Sultan and Krishna Sagar Dam (19 km). However, memorable to many Tourists visiting
Mysore is the Vrindavan Gardens. 

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xiii. Ooty 
Situated amidst the blue mountains of the Nilgiris in Tamilnadu, Ooty was once the British
township and a popular Hill station(Presently also). The beautiful Botanical Gardens, Ketty Valley,
the Wenlock Downs and Doddabetta Peak make Tourists delighted.

Review Question
1) Fill in the Blanks:
a) The eastern Deccan plateau called _______ .
b) __________ includes districts of western Madhya Pradesh and parts of South-Eastern Rajasthan.
c) __________ plateau lies in the Indian state of  Jharkhand and adjoining States.

3.5 Plains and Tourism


Plains are generally flat Topography resulted of deposition of Alluvium etc. by Rivers or any
other depositional agents. In India, River and Coastal Plains have their presence with significant
Tourism values.
India have very extensive Plain Regions among which prominent are Indo-Gangatic, Brahmaputra,
Awadh and Coastal Plains which offer a huge array of Tourist places to be explored by Tourists.
The shades of these Plains compose of a number of Communities, Religions, Cultures and Races.
As a result, the Tourist attractions in India due to these Plains are varied and numerous in nature.
For the sake of convenience Indian Plains and the Tourism outcome of them can be categorized
into following Zones:

i. North Zone
The vast expanses of the North Indian Territory present one of the World’s most widespread and
fertile lands, comprising the alluvial soil deposited in the form of fine silt by the rivers. Lying
towards the south of the Himalayas, the northern plains comprise the Indus basin, the Ganga-
Brahmaputra basin. Uttar Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab,
Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh are the states that form the north zone.
Some of the striking Tourist destinations of India in the North Zone are Taj Mahal, Hawa Mahal,
Jama Masjid, Dal Lake, Jaisalmer Fort, Agra Fort, Qutub Complex and Corbett National Park etc.

ii. East Zone


The East Zone is composed of States Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Assam etc. Assam’s

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Brahmaputra and the Barak river Plains are full of dense forests. The mentionable Tourist attractions
in this zone broadly include Konark Temples, Sunderbans, Victoria Memorial, Kolkata National
Museum Bodh Gaya, Rajgir, etc. 

iii. West Zone


Comprising the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Daman & Diu, and Goa, the western region is one
of the most Travelled Tourist Zones of India. Located along the blue waters of the Arabian Sea,
all of these states offer primarily Coastal beauties of Beaches and Sea shores. Gujarat, one of the
most important states, houses some of the most impressive architectural works of art, like the
Somnath Temple and the Dwarkadhish Temple. Gir Wildlife Sanctuary is another favorite site for
the Tourists. Ajanta and Ellora Caves and Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra are some of the striking
Tourist destinations. Lakshadweep, Goa and Kerala, favourite Tourist spots in the Western areas
offer magnificent Lagoons, Backwaters, Beaches of Kovalam, Dona Paula and Calangute etc.

iv. South Zone


One of the major Tourist Zones of India, the South zone includes the States Tamil Nadu, Andhra
Pradesh, Karnataka, Andaman and Nicobars Islands etc. The Wildlife Sanctuaries of the Nilgiris and
exotic beaches of Tamil Nadu, Pudducherry, Andaman & Nicobar are some of the prime Tourist
attractions. Among the Architectural Masterpieces, the Meenakshi Temple, Khajuraho Temples,
the Tirupati Temple, Rameswaram and Kanyakumari hold great Tourism significance.

Review Questions
1) Fill in the Blanks:
a) _____________ is the most travelled Tourist Zones in India.
b) ____________ is major Tourist Zone of India.
2) In how many Zones Indian Plains can be classified? Give two examples of Tourist attraction
of each zone.

3.6 Wet Lands, Ramsar Sites and Tourism


Wetlands are areas of very shallow water table which make these regions always wet. They have
very significant role in Tourism by contributing towards Wild Life Sanctuaries, Bird Sanctuaries
National Parks, Botanical Gardens, Wildlife Reserves and now Ramsar Sites. Following are some
of the mentionable Wet Land in India:

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1. Ashtamudi Wetland-Kerala
2. Bhitarkanika Mangroves-Orissa
3. Bhoj Wetland- Madhya Pradesh
4. Chandertal Wetland-Himachal Pradesh
5. Chilika Lake- Odisha
6. Deepor Beel-Assam
7. East Calcutta Wetlands-West Bengal
8. Harike Lake- Punjab
9. Hokera Wetland-Jammu and Kashmir
10. Kanjli-Punjab
11. Keoladeo National Park -Rajasthan
12. Kolleru Lake - Andhra Pradesh
13. Loktak Lake -Manipur
14. Point Calime- Tamil Nadu
15. Pong Dam Lake-Himachal Pradesh
16. Renuka Wetland-Himachal Pradesh
17. Ropar- Punjab
18. Rudrasagar Lake-Tripura
19. Sambhar Lake-Rajasthan
20. Sasthamkotta Lake- Kerala
21. Surinsar-Mansar Lake- Jammu and Kashmir
22. Tsomoriri-Jammu and Kashmir
23. Vembanad-Kol Wetland- Kerala
24. Wular Lake-Jammu and Kashmir
25. Upper Ganga River (Brijghat to Narora Stretch)-Uttar Pradesh

Review Question
1) Give five examples of wetlands in India.

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3.7 Key Words Used in the Unit


1. Hill Stations
Hill Stations are modified Mountains by man for one or more reasons.

2. Duns
Duns are plain areas surrounded by low mountains.

3. Desert
Desert is a region where rate of precipitation is extremely low compared to very high rate of
evaporation making area vegetation deficit, arid and sandy.

4. Plain
Plains are flat and fertile areas formed by deposition of alluvium by rivers.

5. Safari
A Safari is an overland journey, usually a trip by Tourists. Traditionally, the term is used for a Big-
Game  hunt, but today the term often refers to a trip taken not for the purposes of hunting, but
to observe and  photograph  animals and other  wildlife.

6. Caravan
A  Caravan is a series of  animals or vehicles  carrying goods or passengers or both in a group as
part of a regular or semi-regular services between two points.

7. Wet Lands
Wetlands are areas of very shallow water table which makes these regions always wet. They have
very significant role in Tourism by contributing towards Wild Life Sanctuaries, Bird Sanctuaries
National Parks, Botanical Gardens, Wildlife Reserves and now Ramsar Sites.

8. Ramsar Sites
Ramsar Sites are sites which comprise of Wet Lands and the Sites which are deemed potential sites
for the development of Wildlife Reserves, Wild life Sanctuaries, Bird Sanctuaries “for International
importance” under the  Ramsar Convention.

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review questions
Fill in the blanks:
1. …………. is famous for its canals, houseboat and Mughal gardens.
2. The Toy train starts from ……………. .
3. …………… is famous for its beaches, backwaters, mountain ranges and wildlife sanctuaries.
4. Maharashtra is the home of …………….. Mountains.
5. Chotanagpur region is famous for ……………… tourism.
6. Since the fourth century BC, Ujjain has enjoyed the reputation of being India’s ………………,
as the Prime Meridian of the Hindu Geographers.
7. The ………….. Mandir is a Jain temple entirely inlaid with glass.
8. The language of Deccan plateau is …………… of the Dravidian family.
9. Vasco da Gama landed in a place called ……….. close to Calicut in 1498.
10. …………… is a world heritage site famous for its ruins belonging to the kingdom of Vijaynagar.

Short Answer Questions:


1. Define desert and where one can find it in Indian sub continent.
2. Define Duns.
3. What is Safari in Tourism context?
4. Define Wetlands.
5. What are Ramsar sites? Explain.

Long Answer Questions:


1. Write down the famous hill stations of India and locate them on India’s political map.
2. “Plateaus are main stay of cultural tourism” Elaborate this statement in an Indian context.
3. Indian plains constitute a large number of communities, religions, cultures and races and
hence a tourist spot. Where are these regions in India?
4. How wetlands and Ramsar sites contribute to tourism industry? Locate these sites on India
map.

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3.8 Practical Activity


On the Physical map of India show any ten Wetlands and Ramsar sites significant from tourism
aspects.

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Unit-4
Tourism Physical Resources-Coastal Lands and Beaches

Contents
4.0 Unit Overview and Description
l Overview
l Skills and Knowledge
l Resource Material
l Learning Outcomes
l Assessment for Teachers
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Sea Shores
4.3 Beaches And Tourism
4.4 Key Terms Used In the Unit
4.5 Practical Activity

4.0 Unit Overview & Descriptions


Overview
This Chapter deals with the fundamentals of Coastal lands and Beaches as Tourism Resources.

This Unit will impart following Skills and Knowledge


- The Concept of Coastal lands and Beaches as Tourism Resources
- The Characteristics of a Coastal lands and Beaches as Tourism Resources
- The Categories of Coastal lands and Beaches Tourism Resources
- The significances of Coastal lands and Beaches Tourism Resources
- The spatial distributions and resulted Tourism products Coastal lands and Beaches

Resource Material:
1. Enayat Ahmad - Physical Geography, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, 20052.
2. Majid Husain - Geography of India, Geography of India, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, (2013)
3. Manohar Sajnani - Encyclopedia of Tourism Resources in India (In two Vol.), Kalpaz Pub.
New Delhi, 2001.

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Learning Outcomes:
UNIT-4 OUTCOMES
Tourism Physical Resources-Coastal Lands After Studying these Sub-Units:
and Beaches
4.1 Introduction Students will be able to understand different
aspects of Coastal lands and Beaches Tourism
Resources in India.
4.2 Sea Shores Students will be able to understand about major
characteristics and Distribution ofSea Shores of
India
4.3 Beaches and Tourism Students will be able to understand about the major
characteristics and distribution of Beaches of India

Assessment Plan: (for the Teachers)


Unit-4 Topic Assessment Method Time Plan Remarks

4.1 Introduction Question & Answer

4.2 Sea Shores Question & Answer

4.3 Beaches and Tourism Question & Answer

4.1 Introduction
India is Peninsular Country with its Southern Boundaries washed by Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal
and Indian Ocean. All these three huge Water bodies form the Indian Shorelines.
These Shorelines form an integral part of Tourism Resource by providing lush Green Flora & high
reserves of Wildlife which in turn provide Wildlife Sanctuaries, Bird Sanctuaries, Zoological Parks,
Botanical Gardens, Lagoons, Backwaters, Eco- Tourism, Geo- Tourism and so on.
Beaches are Shorelines which have loose Soil, Sand, Shingles and Gravels. Beaches are most favorite
among the Tourists because of the excitement and enjoyment provided by them to the Tourists.

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India is blessed with World famous Shoreline and Beaches as Tourism Resources for instance:

Review Questions
1) Define Beaches.
2) Name the three water bodies that form the Indian Shorelines.

4.2 Sea Shores


Covering everything from sponges to Crabs, Birds, and Algae, Coastal lands Life of India introduces
Tourists to the Plant and Animal life along India’s Coastlines. Important Seashores of India are:
India has two Seashores on the East and the West, which have 10 large and 200 small-and-
medium-sized Seashores. In addition there are many islands, which are proximal to other countries
than Indian mainland. In east, Andaman and Nicobar islands are more proximal to Thailand
and Indonesia, and in the West Lakshadweeps and Minikoy Islands lie in the neighbourhood of
Maldives and Mauritius. Kandla, Mumbai, Chennai, Vishakhapatanam and Kolkata are busy gates
on Indian Sea-coast today.

Famous Sea Shores of India


Though India is blessed with numerous Sea Shores in it. From Tourism resources point of view
Shorelines give Tourists a nice differs from their frantic everyday life and if they are hunting for
a change, sea shores are best options for them.
Among the better seaside vacation resort possibilities contain Juhu, Underwater Push and also
Chowpatty Beaches in Mumbai. Common as treat joint parts and also hangout specific zones
regarding Mumbai, these kinds of coastal landsoffer finest alternatives for uses the particular
smooth fine sand in the ocean. Kovalam Seaside in Kerala provides a stimulating change. Kovalam
shines from other Indian native seashores due to its magnificent natural landscape and also the
coconut trees along the seacoast.
Using stunning blue waters Marine and also Elliot’s Beaches give Tourists a pleasant experience
with the horse rides will invariably pleasure for the kids. Tamil Nadu Traveler Improvement
Corporation operates a speed boat House from Muttukadu, in which facilities regarding Marining
and also wind flow browsing on are available for Tourists’ pleasure regarding coastal landslovers.
Puri, as well as Konark Shorelines throughout Odisha furthermore create excellent sea shore
destination for a number of fascinating Tourism. The particular Tourist influx in these spots
primarily consists of pilgrims and marine lovers.

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One of many sea shore parts of Andhra Pradesh, Vishakhapatnam shore is noted for its charming
natural environments and prolonged seaside expands. Ramakrishna shore front and the Lawson’s
Fresh are main spots to keep things interesting and also rest one search for with sea shore
Tourism. Close to Vishakhapatnam are Bheemunipatnam which is one of several safest shores.
In Western India shores of Tourism significances are Malabar, Konkan and Gujarat Sea Shores.
Konkan apart from its beauty, Railway is also a masterpiece of Railway Network with more than
two thousands Tunnels and bounty of natural beauty along the tracks. The magnificent beauty
of Malabar is beyond imagination and Tourist’s expectations.

Review Question
1) Write a short note on famous Sea Shores of India.

4.3 Beaches and Tourism

Top Beaches in India


India is a peninsula with an extensive coast line dotted with numerous marvelous and heart
capturing Beaches. The Seas and the Oceans bordering the Coastline sport magnificent colors like
Electric blue, Turquoise, Emerald green, Menacing gray and even Foamy white. Tourists enjoys
Whirling currents, Gigantic waves, Gentle ripples, Glistening Sunlight dancing on the undulations
of water, sparkling foam crowning the waves, lapping or crashing against the shores advancing
and receding.
The sounds range from a gentle rumbling to a mighty roar. The Beaches sport amazing variety.
These have vast stretches of golden or dazzling white sand, hard Beaches rocky Beaches with
crags, crevices and caves. Most of these Beaches are some of the most sought holiday destinations
offering luxurious Resorts simple Cottages and Hotels amidst exotic Landscapes and breathtaking
Scenic beauty. There are provisions for various exciting activities, Cruises and Water sports. Each
Beach is unique with a perfect ambience for a holiday mood for attracting Tourists. There are
certain outstanding Beaches especially in Goa which is the Beach Capital of India .Calangute Beach
of Goa is called the Queen of Beaches.
Goa is blessed with a bounty of exotic Beaches, Fabulous Weather, Delightful people, Delicious
food, quaint little white washed Churches, Forts on Hill tops, Portuguese cathedrals. It is one of
the prime holiday destinations because of these fabulous Beaches amidst which Calangute Beach
deserves a special mention. Tourists swarm to this Beach mesmerized by the soft sands, swaying

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Map 4.1: Sea Shores and Beaches In India

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A beach

Chawpatty Beach, Mumbai Mahabalipuram Beach, Tamil Nadu

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Nagoa Beach

Ajuna Beach, Goa Andaman Beach

Rishikonda Beach Shores

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palms, and the calm waters of the Arabian Sea caressing its shores. It is a perfect haunt for Water
sports like surfing, snorkeling, scuba diving, water skiing, parasailing and others. Some like to
relax by fishing or enjoying a lazy swim or just lying around to acquire a sun. Goa Beaches are
for frolicking in shade or sun or splashing in the water or just sipping long cool drinks. It’s a big
chill out party zone and a close cousin to the Caribbean and Miami Beaches. The best time to
visit is November to February.
a) Anjuna Beach
Anjuna Beach in Goa is a favorite hunt for honeymooners and those want the memories of the
sixties “Flower Power” days. It is very popular amidst International Tourists. The calm blue sea
here is very safe for swimming and water sports. The weekly flea market is a great crowd puller
offering cool bargains on a plethora of products from handicrafts to trinkets. Drink House parties
in the full moon night or restaurants offering a great variety of culinary delights are enough to
recharge people with zest and vigor. The Mascarenhas Mansion is a wonderful piece of Architecture
with beautiful floral motifs etched on glass and artistic woodwork. The Albuquerque Mansion has
majestic octagonal towers and an astounding Mangalore tile Roof. The best time to visit Anjuna
Beach is from November to May. June to October is, however, the best time to enjoy overcast skies
and cool breeze with occasional rain splashes.
b) Nagoa Beach (DIU)
Twenty kilometers away from Diu there is a long shoe-shaped stretch of sand called the Nagoa
Beach. It is one of the most beautiful Beaches of India. It is very peaceful with shady palm trees
at the shore of the cool crystal waters of the Arabian Sea.
c) Kovalam Beach – Paradise of the Kerala
Kerala Beaches are quite a contrast to Goa Beaches. Goa Beaches are for Backpackers whereas
Kerala Beaches are spots of perfect calm beauty drawing more upper class Tourists. Tourists find
over excited crowds here, unlike in Goa. Kovalam is the most famous Beach along the West Coast
of Kerala. This Beach affords privacy and silence with only the sound of waves lashing on the
shore to enjoy walks along the golden sands, swims in the crystal clear water, soothing shade
of tall coconut trees which create a green magic along the shores. It is a dream destination for
International Tourists who want to relax and rejuvenate. They can indulge in Ayurvedic massages
or catamaran Cruises. Other attractions are exotic Sea food flavored with Coastal Cuisine and
Colorful corals. The best time to visit is September to May.
d) Mahabalipuram (Tamil Nadu)
Tamil Nadu has one of the finest Beaches in India at Mahabalipuram. It attracts Tourists from all

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over the World. The peaceful ambience here has a compelling impact on all who come here. One
can relax and unwind soaking in the Natural beauty and listening to the roar of the waves. There
are centuries old monuments and amazing rock cut Sculptures. The Shore Temples, Rathas and
Arjuna’s Penance are truly magnificent and have withstood here with Nature. The Traditional Indian
Dances and Classical Music at the Dance Festival organized by Dept of Tourism Govt. of Tamil
Nadu attracts a lot of Indian and Foreign Tourists. There are many luxury Resorts, Guest Houses
and Budget Hotels for Tourists. The Crocodile farm and Snake Venom- Extracting center, besides
School of Art and Sculpture are other Tourist attractions. The best time to visit Mahabalipuram
is from November to February.
e) Pudduchery Beaches
If Goa has traces of the Portuguese Culture then Pudducherry (Pudducherry was the central town
for the French colonialists) has memories of the French Colonial era. The Beaches here abound
in powdery white sand and brilliant Sunshine, bordered by clear blue water. There are numerous
Resorts, Cafes, Bars and Cottages a lot of it still upholding the French ethos. The surroundings
are very calm and peaceful. The Sri Aurobindo Ashram attracts Tourists from all over the World
and is the ultimate destination in the search for peace.
f) Rishikonda Beach
The Golden sands of the unspoilt Beach of Rishikonda washed by the warm sea is an ideal haunt
for Swimmers, Water Skiers and Wind Surfers. The settings are charming with Hills in the vicinity,
a rare combination of the Hills and the Sea. It is just 8 km away from Vizag stuffed with Hotels
and Resorts.
g) Andaman Beaches
Andaman Islands are encircled by the Sea and are, therefore, blessed with some of the best Beaches.
Deep Sea Coral Reefs, Soft Sands and captivating Sunshine are the main attractions apart from
Water Sports and activities like Snorkeling, Boat rides and Deep Sea diving. Corbyn’s Cove which
is 4 km from the airport with long Sandy Stretches fringed by Coconut trees, Chiriya Tapu, a tiny
Fishing village with beautiful Beaches or the unspoilt Beaches and Corals of Clinque Island treat
the Tourists to Divine experiences of lazing and bathing in the Sun. Havelock Island has white
Sand Beaches washed by Turquoise waters beneath which there is abundance of amazing Coral
Reefs and colorful Marine creature. Havelock Island sites include Mac Point, Aquarium, Barracuda
city, Turtle Bay, Seduction Point, Pilot Reef and Minerva Lodge. Wandur Island, Little Andaman as
well as Red Skin, Cinque, Neil and Havelock Islands are popular spots for Snorkeling. The perfect
beauty of the Islands of Grub, Red skin and Jolly Buoy is irresistible.

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h) Lakshadweep Beaches
The astounding beauty of the white Coral Beaches of Lakshadweep Islands scattered on the
Turquoise blue Waters of the Lagoons is unparalleled in the World. The gentle breeze of the
swaying Coconut palms and the soothing warm Sunshine adds to its attraction. The Marine life
and Coral Reefs enhance the visual splendor. The Moon dipping into the horizon at the Bangaran
Islands or the water sports at Agatti Islands, Deep Sea Fishing, Sailing, Diving into the unruffled
waters draws Tourists in large numbers. October to May is the best time for divers.
i) Puri Beach (Odisha)
Puri is both a Pilgrimage and Holiday destination. The vast stretch of sand along the breath taking
beautiful Bay of Bengal on the Coastline of Odisha is one of the finest Beaches in India. The roaring
Sea is so alluringly blue with foam-covered white crowns that thousands flock to bathe in the
Sea or take Catamaran Cruises. The Temple of Lord Jagannath is an added attraction in Puri with
Craft, Culture and Cuisine of Odisha.

An attempt to identify the top Beaches in India would leave one puzzled as each has its unique
charm and the Coastline is almost an unending stretch as is the number of Beaches.

The number of Beaches mentioned is certainly not an exhaustive list nor does it diminish the
importance of others.

Review Questions
1) Define Shores.
2) Give two examples of famous sea shores of India.

4.4 Key Terms Used in the Unit


1. Beach
Beach is Shoreline which has loose Soil, Sand, Shingles and Gravels. Beaches are most favorite
among the Tourists because of the excitement and enjoyment provided by them to the Tourists.

2. Shore
The Shore is the land along the edge of an Ocean, Sea, Bay, Gulf, River and Lake,

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review questions
Fill in the blanks:
1. India has ………….. large and ………. Small and medium sized Seashore.

2. …………. and ………… Islands are more proximal to Thailand and Indonesia.

3. West Lakshadweep and Minikoy Island lie in the neighborhood of ………….. and ………………

4. Calangute beach of Goa is called the …………….. of Beaches.

5. The ………….. Mansion has majestic octagonal towers and an astounding Mangalore tile roof.

6. ………….. Beach is known as the Paradise of the Kerala.

7. ……………… Island has white sand beaches washed by turquoise waters beneath which there
is abundance of amazing coral reefs and colorful marine creatures.

8. The …………………… Ashram attracts tourists from all over the world and is the ultimate
destination in the search for peace.

9. …………… Tapu, a tiny fishing village with beautiful beaches and corals of Clinque Island treat
the tourists to divine experiences of lazing and bathing in the sun.

10. The Temple of ……………….. is an added attraction in Puri with craft, culture and cuisine of
Odisha.

Short Question Answer:


1. What do you mean by Beach?
2. Define Seashore.
3. What is coast?

Long Question Answer:


1. Write about Eastern Beaches of India.
2. Write about Western Beaches of India.
3. Which are the famous Seashores of India.

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4.5 Practical Activity


On the Physical map of India mark famous seashores of India.

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Unit-5
Tourism Physical Resources-Islands

Contents
5.0 Unit Overview and Description
l Overview
l Skills and Knowledge
l Resource Material
l Learning Outcomes
l Assessment for Teachers
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Andaman and Nicobar Groups of Island
5.3 Lakshdweep Group of Islands
5.4 Majuli Islands
5.5 Other Islands of India
5.6 Key Terms Used In the Unit
5.7 Practical Activity

5.0 Unit Overview & Descriptions


Overview
This Chapter deals with the fundamentals of Islands as Tourism Resources.

This Unit will impart following Skills and Knowledge


- The Concept of Islands as Tourism Resources
- The Characteristics of Islands Tourism Resources
- The Categories of Islands Tourism Resources
- The significances of Islands Tourism Resources
- The spatial distributions Islands Tourism Resources in India
Resource Material:
1. Majid Husain - Geography of India, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, (2013)
2. H.Y. Sharada Prasad and Ashok Dilwali - Life and Landscapes, Under the Incredible India
Series, Wisdom Tree Publications, New Delhi, 2007

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Learning Outcomes:
UNIT-5 OUTCOMES
Tourism Physical Resources- Islands After Studying these Sub-Units:
5.1 Introduction Students will be able to understand different aspects
of Island Tourism Resources in India.
5.2 Andaman and Nicobar Groups of Students will be able to understand about major
Island characteristics such as tourist destinations, flora &
fauna, major ethnic groups of Andaman and Nicobar
Groups of Island.
5.3 Lakshadweep Group of Islands Students will be able to understand about major
characteristics such as tourist destinations, flora &
fauna, major ethnic groups of Lakshadweep Group
of Islands.
5.4 Majuli Islands Students will be able to understand about major
characteristics of Majuli Islands.
5.5 Other Islands of India Students will be able to understand about other Major
islands of India.

Assessment Plan: (for the Teachers)


Unit-1 Topic Assessment Method Time Plan Remarks
5.1 Introduction Questions & Answer

5.2 Andaman and Nicobar Questions & Answer


Groups of Island
5.3 Lakshadweep Group of Questions & Answer
Islands
5.4 Majuli Islands Question & Answer

5.5 Other Islands of India Question & Answer

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5.1 Introduction
As you have studied in the previous chapters that India is a peninsular country that means it has
three large water bodies in each three sides. These have islands. Islands can be devided into two
categories-(i) Sea islands and (ii) river islands. Andaman and Nicobar islands are situated in the
Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea. The world famous river island Majuli lies in
the basin of river Brahmputra.
These Islands due to high biodiversity and natural coastal areas, greenery and unpolluted fresh air
atract all nature lovers. Landscapes are Naturalist’s heaven. The beaches, clean environment and
adventure sports like trekking, snorkeling, Scuba diving etc. are the real attractions for tourists.
A marvelous mix of natural beauty, historical heritages and tribal cultures make these Islands
favorite passion for Tourists across the World.
After going through this chapter you will understand and appreciate the precious Tourism values
of Islands.

Review Question
1) Why are the Islands considered to be one of the important tourism resources in India?

5.2 Andaman and Nicobar Groups of Islands


There are 572 islands in the territory having an area of 8,249 km2 of these, only 38 are permanently
inhabited. The islands extends from 6° to 14° North latitudes and from 92° to 94° East longitudes.
The Andamans are separated from the Nicobar group by a channel (the Ten Degree Channel) some
150 km wide. The highest point is located in North Andaman Island (Saddle Peak at 732 m .The
Andaman group has 325 islands which cover an area of 6,408  km2 while the Nicobar group has
only 24 islands with an area of 1,841  km2.
It is an union territory. Unlike states Union territory is directly governed by the centre. Government
is appointed to control the administration. In India, there are seven union territories. Its capital
is Port Blair. It is located 1,255  km from  Kolkata, 1,200  km from  Visakhapatnam  and 1,190  km
from  Chennai. The northernmost point of the Andaman and Nicobars group is 901  km away
from the mouth of the  Hooghly River  and 190  km from Burma. Indira Point at 6°45’10°N and
93°49’36°E at the southern tip of the southernmost island, Great Nicobar, is the southernmost
point of India and lies only 150  km from  Sumatra  in  Indonesia.
The Capital of the Andamans is Port Blair and the Capital of Nicobar Islands is  Car bar.

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a) Flora and Fauna


1) Flora
Andaman & Nicobar Islands are blessed with a unique Tropical Rainforest canopy, made of a
mixed flora with elements from Indian, Myanmarese, Malaysian and endemic floral strains. So far,
about 2,200 varieties of plants have been recorded, out of which 200 are endemic and 1,300 do
not occur in mainland India.
The South Andaman forests have a profuse growth of  Epiphytic  vegetation, mostly ferns and
orchids. The Middle Andamans harbors mostly moist Deciduous Forests. North Andamans is
characterized by the wet evergreen type, with plenty of woody climbers. The North Nicobar
Islands (including Car Nicobar and Battimalv) are marked by the complete absence of evergreen
forests, while such forests form the dominant vegetation in the central and southern islands of the
Nicobar group. Grasslands occur only in the Nicobars, and while Deciduous Forests are common
in the Andamans, they are almost absent in the Nicobars. The present forest coverage is claimed
to be 86.2% of the total land area.
This a Typical Forest coverage is made up of twelve types namely:
- Giant  evergreen forest
- Andamans tropical evergreen forest
- Southern hilltop  tropical evergreen forest
- Cane brakes
- Wet bamboo brakes
- Andamans semi-evergreen forest
- Andamans moist deciduous forest
- Andamans secondary moist deciduous forest
- Littoral  forest
- Mangrove forest
- Brackish water mixed forest
- Submontane Hill Valley swamp forest
2) Fauna
This tropical rain forest despite its isolation from adjacent land masses is surprisingly rich with
a diversity of animal life.

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i) Mammals
About 50 varieties of forest mammals are found to occur in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Some
are endemic, including the Andaman Wild Boar. Rodents are the largest group with 26 species,
followed by 14 species of bat. Among the larger mammals there are two endemic varieties of wild
boars, Sus scrofa Andamanensis from Andaman and  Nicobaricus from Nicobar, which are protected
by the Wildlife Protection Act 1972 The Spotted Deer  Axis axis, Barking Deer and Sambar were
all introduced to the Andaman District, though the Sambar did not survive. Interview Island (the
largest wildlife sanctuary in the ANI) in Middle Andaman holds a population of feral elephants.
These elephants were brought in for forest work by a Timber company, which subsequently
released them when it went bankrupt.
ii) Birds
ANI has also 270 species of birds (including endemics) the Nicobar island group has a higher
endemicity than the Andamans and there are a total of 14 species endemic to ANI. The State
Bird of the Andamans is the Andaman Wood pigeon. Some  endemic birds of the Andaman and
Nicobar Islands  are:
- Andaman Hawk Owl
- Andaman Scoops Owl
- Andaman Crake  (a data deficient species [IUCN 2000] – endemic species
- Andaman Coucal, Subspecies of  Brown Coucal  – endemic subspecies
iii. Butterflies and Moths
With about 225 species, the A&N Islands house some of the larger and most spectacular Butterflies of
the world. Ten species are endemic to these Islands. Mount Harriet National Park is one of the
richest areas of butterfly and moth diversity on these Islands.
iv. Shells
These islands are traditionally known for their Shell Wealth, especially in the
genera  Turbo,  Trochus,  Murex  and  Nautilus. Shells such as Giant clam, Green mussel and Oyster
support edible shell fishery, a few like Scallopand cockle are burnt in kilns to produce edible lime.

b) National Parks of Andaman and Nicobar Islands


i. Campbell Bay National Park
ii. Galathea National Park

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iii. Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park


iv. Middle Button Island National Park
v. Mount Harriet National Park
vi. North Button Island National Park
vii. Rani Jhansi Marine National Park
viii. Saddle Peak National Park
c) Other Tourist Decimations of Andman & Nicobar Island
i) National Memorial Monument (Cellular Jail)
The Cellular Jail which is also known as KALA PANI (Black Water) was a Colonial prison situated in
the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The prison was used by the British especially to exile Political and
other Hardcore prisoners to the remote Archipelago. Many notable dissidents such as Batukeshwar
Dutt  and  Veer Savarkar etc. were imprisoned here during the  Struggle for India’s Independence.
Today, the complex serves as a National Memorial Monument.

ii) Port Blair 


The laid-back capital of the Andamans and the sole entry/exit point. Tourists can spend a day
or two here walking around and enjoying fresh Seafood and seeing a couple of the nearby sites.

iii) Diglipur 
This is a Road trip to the far North of the Island chain of Smith and Ross islands which are very
alluring group of Islands.
iv) Rangat
A very beautiful and attractive Tourist destination.
v) Mayabunder
One of the most beautiful destinations.
vi) Havelock Island
The most visited of the islands, with the most (although still minimal) infrastructure. Beautiful
Beaches, Great snorkeling and Scuba diving.
vii) Rutland Island
It is pristine, non-polluted and least visited island. Beautiful Mangrove forest and coral reefs

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welcomes Tourists to the 274 sq.km island. There is also a 45 acre Totani Resort which has
quaint little huts which can be used as a base camp for exploring the island. It is the ideal place
for Eco-Tourists.

viii) Neil Island


It is quieter than Havelock with nice Beaches and decent Snorkeling.

ix) Wandoor
It is a relaxed destination known as the Gateway to the Park. There is a newly setup luxury resort
called Sea Princess Beach Resort. Easily reached, and near the Wandoor jetty is Anugama Resort.
x) Baratang Islands
These are sites of Mud Volcano, Limestone Caves, and Mangrove creeks in Back waters.
xi) Barren Island
It is an island with the only volcano in all of  India.
xii) Long Island
It is great destination for Tourists to enjoy Robinson Crusoe style camping. Nothing exists here,
so Tourists must bring their own accessories and food.
xiii) Little Andaman
Once popular for Surfing, it was devastated in the 2004 Tsunami. Now a destination for Disaster
Tourism.
xiv) Jarwa Reserve
A heart touching Wild life and Flora of Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

d) Ethnic Groups of Andaman & Nicobar Groups of Islands


In the Andaman Islands, the various  Andamanese people  maintained their separated existence,
diversifying into distinct linguistic, cultural and territorial groups. By the 1850s when they first
came into sustained contact by outside groups, the indigenous people of the Andamans were:
- The  Great Andamanese, who collectively represented at least 10 distinct sub-groups and
languages.
- The  Jarawa

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- The  Jangil  (or  Rutland Jarawa)


- The  Onge
- The  Sentinelese  (most isolated of all the groups).
The indigenous people of the Nicobars (unrelated to the Andamanese) are divided into two main
groups:
- The  Nicobarese, or  Nicobari, living throughout many of the islands; and
- The  Shompen, restricted to the hinterland of  Great Nicobar.
Owing to the location, Geographical conditions, availability of Flora & Fauna and Tribal & Ethnic
Groups, Andaman & Nicobar Groups of Islands are wonderful destinations for Recreational, Eco,
Geo, Wildlife, Beach, Adventure and Tribal Tourisms.
Review Questions
1) List any 5 National Parks of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
2) List any 3 Ethinic Groups of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

5.3 Lakshadweep Group of Islands


Lakshadweep is an  Archipelago  of twelve  Atolls, three  Reefs  and five submerged  Banks, with a
total of about thirty-nine Islands and Islets. The Reefs are in fact also Atolls, although mostly
submerged, with only small unvegetated sand cays above the high water mark. The submerged
banks are sunken Atolls. Almost all the Atolls have a Northeast-Southwest orientation with the
Islands lying on the Eastern Rim, and a mostly submerged Reef on the Western Rim, enclosing
a Lagoon. It has 10 inhabited Islands, 17 uninhabited Islands, attached  Islets, 4 newly formed
Islets and 5 submerged Reefs.
The main Islands are  Kavaratti,  Agatti,  Minicoy, and  Amini. Agatti has an  airport  with direct
flights from Kochi. Tourists need a Permit to visit the Islands. Foreign Tourists are not permitted
to visit certain Islands. According to the current  Alcohol laws of India, consumption of  Alcoholic
Beverages  is not permitted in the Lakshadweep Archipelago except on  Bangaram Island.
All these islands have been built up by Corals and have fringing  Coral reefs  very close to their
shores.

a) Tourism in Lakshadweep Group of Islands


Due to its isolation and scenic appeal, Lakshadweep was already known as a Tourist attractions
for Indians since 1974.  This brings in significant revenue, which is likely to increase. Since such

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a small region cannot support Industries, for this reason the Government is actively promoting
Tourism as a means of income in  in these groups of Islands. Bangaram is projected as a major
destination for International Tourism. In the Groups of Lakshwadeep Islands the rich Marine Flora
and Fauna are delightful attraction for Tourists. Water sports activities such as Scuba Diving, Wind
Surfing, Snorkeling, Surfing, kayaking, Canoeing, Water Skiing, Yachting and Night-Voyage into sea
are Adventurous as well as quite popular activities among Tourists.

b) Major Tourist Attractions


i) Kadmat
Kadmat Island is one of the most popular Tourist destinations. There is a huge Lagoon.

ii) Kavaratti Island


Kavaratti Island is the most developed Island in Lakshadweep. Kavaratti is the administrative
capital of Lakshadweep. There are many Mosques on this Island (around 52) and the most
beautiful one is Ujra mosque.

iii) Kalpeni
This place lies in an extensive and shallow Lagoon. This Lagoon is World famous for its rich Coral
and Marine life.

iv) Bangaram
This Island is one of the best Tourist destinations in the World due to its smooth sands and amazing
palm grove backdrop. Here smooth sand is caressed by the waves of the multi coloured sea.
v) Agatti Island
Agatti Island is the Gateway for the Lakshadweep. Agatti Island is around 6 km long. Surplus
fishes are easily found on Agatti Island.
This Island has some of the best Beaches for swimming in the World. Here Tourists can enjoy
the Adventure of Swimming, Snorkeling and Scuba Diving. Tourists can also find huge Lagoons
over here, which increases the beauty of this Island. Tourists can also enjoy different water sports
activities like Scuba Diving, Deep Sea Fishing, Sailing, Boat rides, Water Skiing and Kayaking.

c) Flora, Fauna and Cuisines as Tourists Attractions


Lakshadweep is a completely different piece of land that holds, the treasures of nature.  The Flora
in Lakshadweep is no exception itself. Lakshadweep is home to some of the unique Plant varieties
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An Island Andaman and Nikobar Island

Majuli Island, Assam Andaman and Nikobar Island

Andaman and Nikobar Island An Archipelago

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Mezo Tribe Celular Jail Andaman and Nicobar Island

Samudrika Museum

Minicoy Tower House, Lakshadweep Islands Lakshadweep Tribe

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that add to the beauty of this Archipelago. Banana, Colocasia, Drumsticks, Bread-fruit and Jack
fruit are some of the most common plant varieties in Lakshadweep. However Coconut is the only
item of economic importance to Lakshadweep population. Not only it is the main ingredient in
the Lakshadweep cuisine, it is also used for making coir which is then exported from here.
Fauna in Lakshadweep consists mainly of Marine life that is simply the most colorful Tourists
would have ever seen. When groups of fishes of various colours swim over Corals of different
hues, the view is unbelievably beautiful. Skip jack, yellow fin, Rainbow fish and King fish are the
most commonly seen fishes in Lakshadweep Lagoons. Lakshadweep is also home to a Diversity
of Bird Species. Bangaram is the main island where Tourists can see the birds. Sand piper, Golden
plover, Green shanks and Red shanks are few of the most frequently found Avi fauna species on
Bangaram Island.

d) Monuments / Historical Places / Forts Of Lakshadweep


The Monuments and Historical places in Lakshadweep include a few Museums, the Minicoy
Lighthouse and the Three Storied jail. The famous monument of Andrott Island is the Tomb of
Hazrat Ubaidullah, renowned for introducing Islam in archipelago and other Buddhist Archaeological
remains. The main Monument at Kalpeni is the Moid-Ud-Din Mosque also referred as Historical
Grandeur of Lakshadweep that has walls made of Coral.
i) Minicoy Tower House
One of the most impressive sights of Minicoy is a fifty meter tall Lighthouse, built by the British.
ii) Three-Storied Jail
Netaji Subash Chandra Bose hoisted the Tricolor flag to proclaim Independence on 30th December
1943 at a place near this Three-storied jail where inhumane atrocities were meted out to the
said-convicts or the most influential freedom fighters. It also houses a Museum, an Art Gallery
and a Photo Gallery.
iii) Ross Island
The Capital of Andaman Islands during the British Raj period is having the Colonial ruins of old
buildings like Ballroom.
iv) Anthropological Museum at Phoenix Bay
Anthropological Museum at Phoenix Bay exhibits the life of the Paleolithic Islanders while Aquarium
or Fisheries Museum exhibits species of Marine life peculiar to the Islands. 

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v) Zoological Survey of India Museum


Zoological Survey of India Museum exhibit a good variety of sponges, corals, butterflies and
centipedes while Forest Museum at Haddo offers an insight into forest activities through scale
models and displays decorative wood pieces made up of Padauk, Marble, Peauma, Gurjan and
Satin Wood. 
vi) Samudrika or Naval Marine Museum at Delanipur
Samudrika or Naval Marine Museum at Delanipur aims to create awareness on various aspects
of oceanic environment and has a good collection of shells, corals and a few species of colorful
fishes found in these Islands.

e) Festivals
Majority of the people in Lakshadweep are Muslims. So festivals of Lakshadweep are mostly
Muslim festivals like Iid-ul-Fitr, and Milad-Un-Nabi, which are celebrated with great enjoyment
here. Moharram is observed as a mark of sorrow and mourning in memory of martyrs Hasan
and Husain, sons of Hazrat Ali.
i) Eid-Ul-Fitr
Popularly known as the Festivals in South India of the breaking of the fast, Eid-ul-Fitr is observed
as soon as the new moon is sighted at the end of Ramazan or the month of Fasting. It is a festive
occasion. On this day special food and delicacies are made and distributed to neighbors and friends.
ii) Eid-Ul-Zuha (Bakra Eid)
Eid-ul-zuha is popularly known as Bakra Eid. It is a festival of sacrifice. This festival is observed to
pay homage to Prophet Ibrahim’s readiness to sacrifice his son for God’s sake. On this auspicious
day special prayers are recited by thousands of Muslims for peace and prosperity. Not only this,
it is a festival that marks the completion of pilgrimage at Mecca.
iii) Milad-Un-Nabi
On this day Muslim communities throughout the world celebrate the birthday of Prophet Muhammad.
They take part in religious services and prepare delicious food and delicacies for the day. 
iv) Muharram
Muharram is not festival to celebrate. On this day people mourn the Karbala tragedy when
Imam Husain, grandson of Prophet Muhammad, was martyred. To observe this day of mourning,

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luxuriously decorated Taziyas which are the replicas of martyr’s tomb are carried through city
streets. People beat their chests and lament over the killing of Imam Husain.

f) Lakshadweep Ethnicity  and Tribes


Lakshadweep Ethnicity  involves wide Tribal communities that are populating the Island from
many past decades. Divided as per the Social status and occupation, the various Ethnic groups
of Lakshadweep comprises of  Aminidivi, Koyas, Malmis and Malcheris. 
The unique trait of the Ethnicity of Lakshadweep lies in its Multi-Dimensional Culturalism which
glorifies one and only one Religion i.e. Islam. The Historical Archives of Lakshadweep states the
fact that once upon a time the Island had been visited by the Great Prophet of Muslims, Ubaidullah.
Inspired by the sermons of this Holy Prophet, the people of Ancient Lakshadweep converted to
Islamic faith. Today, the Island is dominated mainly by the Muslim sects.
The Ethnicity of Lakshadweep can be categorized under four main heads. These are:
Aminidivis : The community of Aminidivis is found in the Amini Island of Lakshadweep. The
people of this community are known as one of the original and oldest clans of the place.
Koyas : The community of Koyas were once the land-owners of Lakshadweep who used to possess
a powerful position in the Island. Till today, the people of this particular community enjoy the
benefits of a superior social rank.
Malmis : The community of Malmis were originally the Tenants of Koya community. The people
of this group today ferry goods through boats from one place to another.
Melacheris : The community of Melacheris are engaged with the occupation of gathering coconuts
to extracting sweet Toddy. This Ethnic group of Lakshadweep is considered as the last social rung
of the Island.
Lakshadweep Ethnicity  collectively showcases the varied Socio-Cultural characteristics of the
Tribal people of the Islands.
On the same pattern of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshwadeep Islands also provide Recreational,
Eco, Geo, Wildlife, Beach, Adventure and Tribal Tourisms.
Tourists flock these Islands throughout the year except during the  South-West Monsoon  months
when Sea is extremely rough.

Review Question
1) List any 5 Tourist attarctions of Lakshadweep Island.

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5.4 Majuli Island


Majuli is the largest fresh Water mid-river Deltaic Island in the world. It is situated in the upper
reaches of the river Brahmaputra in Assam within the latitude of 26045’ N – 27012’ N & longitude
of 93039’ E – 94035’ E with mean height of 84.5 Mt. above MSL. This landmass, with a population
of 1.6 Lakhs, majority being Tribals, has a very rich heritage and has been the abode of Assamese
Vashnavite culture with tremendous option for spiritual and Eco-tourism. The island is a Bio-
Diversity hotspot and has rich ecology with rare breeds of flora and fauna.

Review Question
1) Write a short note on Majuli Island.

5.5 Other Islands of India


1. Diu
2. Islands of the Cauvery River
3. Srirangapatnam
4. Shivanasamudram
5. Sri Rangam
6. Crocodile Island (Tamil Nadu)
7. Chorao, (Goa)
8. St. Mary’s Islands
9. Netrani Island
10. New Moore Island (West Bengal)
11. Divar, Goa
12. Majuli fluvial island
13. Minicoy Island
14. Munroe Island, (Kollam, Kerala)
15. Islands of Mumbai Harbour
16. Butcher Island (Mumbai)
17. Cross Island
18. Elephanta Island
19. Middle Ground
20. Oyster Rock
21. Salsette Island
22. Sagar Island (West Bengal)

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23. Pamban Island


24. Sriharikota
25. Vashee, Goa
26. Vypin, Kochi, (Kerala)
27. Willington Island, Kochi, (Kerala)
28. Kavvayi
29. Quibble Island – It is an entirely man-made island. The island starts from University of
Madras and ends in Estuary of Adayar.
30. South Tolyatti Island –It is a three-mile-long island that was disputed to be owned by both
India and Bangladesh.

5.6 Key Terms Used in the Unit


1. Island
An  Island  is any piece of  Sub-Continental  land that is surrounded by  water. 

2. Archipelago
An  Archipelago  is any Island group containing a large number of scattered Islands

3. Coral Reef
Coral Reefs  are underwater structures made from  Calcium Carbonate  secreted by  Corals. Coral
Reefs are colonies of tiny living animals found in Marine waters that contain few nutrients. Most
Coral Reefs are built from  Stony Corals, which in turn consist of  Polyps  that cluster in groups.
The Polyps are like tiny Sea animals, to which they are closely related. Coral Polyps secrete hard
Carbonate Exoskeletons which support and protect their bodies. Reefs grow best in warm, shallow,
clear, sunny and agitated waters.

5. Atoll
An  Atoll  is a  Coral Island  (or Islands) that encircles Lagoons  partially or completely.

6. Lagoon
A  Lagoon  is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by  barrier, Land,
Islands  or Reefs.

7. Tribe
Tribes are Social Groups used to live in Remote areas and want to preserve their Old age Socio-
Cultural identity without intermingling with outside World.

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Review questions
Fill in the blanks:
1. In Andaman and Nicobar Islands only………… Islands are permanently inhabited.
2. The Andaman group has ……….. Islands while the Nicobar group has only ………. Islands.
3. ……… Point at the southern tip of the southernmost Island, Great Nicobar, is the southernmost
point of India.
4. The capital of the Andaman is ………….. and the capital of Nicobar Island is Car bar.
5. Andaman and Nicobar Island’s present coverage is claimed to be ………per cent of the total
land area.
6. The cellular jail which is also known as KALA PANI was a colonial prison situated in the
……………… Islands.
7. ………………. is an Island with the only volcano in all of India.
8. …………….. Lagoon is world famous for its rich coral and marine life.
9. …………… Island is an entirely man-made Island.
10. ………….. Island was disputed to be owned by both Bangladesh and India.

Short Question Answer:


1. Define Island.
2. Write the five names of National Park of Andaman and Nicobar Island.
3. Write the five names of Ethnic group of Andaman and Nicobar Island.
4. What is Lakshadweep?
5. Which Island is the Gateway of Lakshadweep?
6. Where is three storied jail?
7. What Zoological Survey of India Museum presents to tourist?
8. Where is Majuli Island?
9. What is Atoll?
10. Define Lagoon.

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Long Question Answers:


1. Describe the flora and fauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
2. Name the National Parks, Ethnic groups and other small Islands of Andaman and Nicobar
Islands.
3. How Lakshadweep Island evolves as a tourists spot? Name the major tourist attractions
of Lakshadweep Islands.
4. Write about the monuments/historical places and forts of Lakshadweep Islands.
5. How the Lakshadweep’s Ethnicity and Tribes allure tourists?

5.7 Practical Activity


On the Physicall Map of India locate famous Indian Islands.

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Unit-6
Tourism Physical Resources-Rivers, Lakes and Canals

Contents
6.0 Unit Overview and Description
l Overview
l Skills and Knowledge
l Resource Material
l Learning Outcomes
l Assessment for Teachers
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Major Rivers In India
6.3 Lakes and Canals Tourism In India
6.4 Key Terms Used In the Unit
6.5 Practical Activities

6.0 Unit Overview & Descriptions


This Chapter deals with the fundamentals of Rivers, Canals and Lakes as Tourism Resources.

This Unit will impart following Skills Knowledge


- The Concept of Rivers, Canals and Lakes as Tourism Resources
- The Characteristics of Rivers, Canals and Lakes as Tourism Resources
- The Categories of Rivers, Canals and Lakes as Tourism Resources
- The significances of Rivers, Canals and Lakes as Tourism Resources
- The Spatial distributions and resulted Rivers, Canals and Lakes as Tourism products

Resource Material:
1. Enayat Ahmad - Physical Geography, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, 2005
2. Majid Husain - Geography of India, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, (2013)
3. Manohar Sajnani - Encyclopedia of Tourism Resources in India, (In two Vol.), Kalpaz Pub.
New Delhi, 2001.

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Learning Outcomes:
UNIT-6 OUTCOMES
Tourism Physical Resources- After Studying these Sub-Units:
Rivers, Lakes and Canals
6.1 Introduction Students will be able to understand different aspects of
Rivers, Canals and Lakes Tourism Resources in India
6.2 Major Rivers In India Students will be able to understand about major
characteristics and distribution and River adventure
tourism of India
6.3 Lakes and Canals Tourism In Students will be able to understand about major
India characteristics of Majuli Islands
6.4 Other Islands of India Students will be able to understand about other Major
Characteristics and Distribution of Canals and Lakes in
India

Assessment Plan: (for the Teachers)

Unit-6 Topic Assessment Method Time Plan Remarks

6.1 Introduction Questions & Answer

6.2 Major Rivers In India Questions & Answer

6.3 Lakes and Canals Tourism Questions & Answer


In India

6.4 Other Islands of India Question & Answer

6.1 Introduction
India is Peninsular Country with Perennial and Seasonal Rivers. These Rivers are Huge Resource
Base for River Tourism like Recreation, Boating, Rafting, Adventure and Religious Tourism etc.

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MAP 6.1: Rivers in India

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because most of the Pilgrimage sites in India are located along the banks of Rivers. Rivers are
also one of the modes of Tourist Transportation and facilitators for Fish Tourism and Wildlife
Sanctuaries and Aquariums etc.

Review Question
1) How do rivers act Tourism Resource in India?

6.2 Major Rivers in India


Alaknanda River, Amravati River, Baitarani River, Banas River, Beas River, Betwa River, Bhagirathi
River, Bharathappuzha, Bhargavi River, Bhavani River, Bhilangna River, Bhima River, Bhugdoi River,
Brahmaputra River, Chambal River, Ganges River, Ghaghara River, Godavari River, Gomati River,
Hoogly River, Indus River, Jhelum River, Mahanadi River, Mahi River, Mondovi River, Meenachil River,
Meghna River, Musi River, Narmada River,Naagavali, Ravi River, Rihand River, Tapti River,Saryu
River,Sarasvati River, Sabarmati River, Son River, River, Subarnarekha River, Sutlej River, Teesta
River, Thuthapuzha, Tons, Tungabhadra River, Yamuna River, Zuari River etc.

1. Major Rivers in India and Tourism


A. River Adventure Tourism in India
River Rafting, Canoeing and Kayaking Regions in India

1. Himalayas
Famous Rafting, Canoeing And Kayaking sites include Ladakh in Jammu & Kashmir, the Garhwal
Himalayas in Uttarakhand, the Beas River of Himachal Pradesh and Teesta River in Sikkim.
The most difficult and exciting white water rafting is available on the Zanskar River through the
Gorge in the Zanskar Mountains, between Padum and Nimo regions. This river course is suitable
only for well-organized white-water expeditions.
2. The Ganges
Ganges River is one of the most favorable choices for the Rafting, Canoeing And Kayaking. Ganga
near Rishikesh in Uttarakhand is a popular spot for white water rafting. This site is available from
Kaudiyala to Rishikesh where the river has 12 major Rapids over 36-kms long most of which are
easily negotiable and some require expertise.

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3. Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh’s Snow-fed rivers offer tremendous opportunities for the rafting. The rivers
Chandrabhaga in Lahaul, the Satluj near Shimla, the Ravi near Chamba and the Beas near Kullu
offer immense white water rafting potentials. Here river running expedition opportunities are
available between Shamshi and Aut on the Beas. The 20-km stretch has exciting and extreme
white water rapids.
4. Teesta River
River Teesta of Sikkim provide opportunity to rafters in the Eastern Himalayan region. Teesta
provides a series of white water rapids with various intensities at regular intervals with meandering
down the rough and rugged mountain river offer one a combination of Nature and Adventure.
5. Brahmaputra River
The Brahmaputra cascading down the heights of immense beauty across Tibet into the north-
Eastern state of Arunachal Pradesh is an exciting experience for the rafters. This region is the
ultimate destination for Canoeing and Kayaking.
ii) Major Places For Rafting, Canoeing And Kayaking In India
Teesta River (Sikkim), Beas River (Himachal Pradesh), Ganges River (Garhwal, Uttarakhand),
Gangotri (Garhwal Himalayas, Uttarakhand), Lake Paradise (Nanital, Uttarakhand) Asan Barrage
(Uttarakhand), Kudiyala Rafters Club (Uttarakhand), Satluj River (Shimla, Himachal Pradesh), Ravi,
Chamba (Himachal Pradesh), Chandra, Lahaul (Himachal Pradesh), Bhalukpung (Assam), Mercera
(Coorg, Karnataka), Munnar (Kerala), Dandeli (Kali River, Karnataka), Dharmapuri (Tamilnadu),
Kundalika (Maharashtra), Konaseema (Andhra Pradesh) and Goa etc.
B. Sacred Rivers for Tourists in India
Among the most distinctive features of India are its Rivers, which hold the highly Religious
importance for Religious and Pilgrimage Tourism. Carrying a wider importance in Cultural and
Religious development, the numerous Rivers of India are of great value. The Rivers in India are
considered as God and Goddess and are even worshiped among the Hindus. They provide Tourists
a wonderful insight into the Historical, Cultural and Traditional aspect of India. Some of the most
prominent Sacred Rivers in India include Ganga, Yamuna, Krishna, Godavari, Narmada, Saryu and
Kaveri etc.
1) Ganga River
Ganga originates from the Gangotri Glacier which is located in the Western Himalayas. According

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A River Dal Lake, Kashmir

Heritage Site: Tajmahal, Agra Khijadia Bird Sanctuary, Gujurat

Heritage Site: Red Fort, Delhi Nandankanan Zoo, Odisha

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Hampi : Located on the Banks of Tungabhadra River Rapid of a River

A Shikara River Rafting

A Canal River as transport facilitator

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to the Hindu beliefs a dip in the Ganga water can wash away all the Sins. Sangam at Allahabad
and Banaras Ghats are major gifts of Ganga. Muhammad-bin Tughlaq and Emperor Akbar used
to drunk Gangawater.
2) Yamuna River
Yamuna originate from the Yamunotri Glacier in the Western Himalayas. This River is also sacred
among Hindus parallel to Ganga.
3) Saryu River
The  Saryu  River flows through the  Uttar Pradesh. This River is of Ancient significance, finding
mentions in the  Vedas  and the  Ramayana. The Saryu forms at the confluence of the  Karnali  (or
Ghaghara) and Mahakali (or Sharda) in Bahraich District. The Mahakali or Sharda forms the India-
Nepal border.  Ayodhya  is situated on the banks of River Saryu.
On Ram Navami thousands of people take a dip in the Saryu River at  Ayodhya.

4) Godavari River
The Godavari River rises near the Trimbak in the district of Nasik in the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Apart from Ganga and Yamuna, Godavari also holds the special religious importance in India.
5) Kaveri River
River Kaveri originates in the Brahmagiri Hills in Kodagu in a place called Talakaveri (head of
Kaveri). The River Kaveri has been supporting the large amount of Wildlife. Millions of people in
south India are heavily dependent on its water especially the Tribal population.
6) Krishna River
Krishna River originates in the Western Ghats near Mahabaleshwar at an elevation of about 1,300
meter, in the state of Maharashtra in Central India. It is one of the longest rivers in India.
7) Narmada River
Narmada River originates in Amarkantak. It is said Narmada River came down from the Sky as
by the order of the Lord Shiva. Some also says that the Narmada River sprang from the body of
the Lord Shiva, while performing the Tandava (Lord Shiva’s Cosmic Dance).
8) Tapi River
Tapi River is one of the major Rivers in India. This river is also called by the names Tapati, Tapti,
Tapee and Taapi. According to the legends, Tapi River also known as Tapti, the daughter of Surya
(the Sun God).

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C. Rivers as Transport Facilitators to Tourists


India  has about 14,500  km of  Navigable  Waterways, which consists of the  Ganges–Bhagirathi–
Hooghly Rivers, the  Brahmaputra, the Barak river, the rivers in  Goa, the Backwaters in  Kerala,
Inland waters in Mumbai and the deltaic regions of the Godavari - Krishna rivers. Large number of
Tourists moved annually through these Waterways using mechanized Vessels and Country Boats.

- National Waterway-1: Allahabad–Haldia stretch of the Ganges– Bhagirathi– Hooghly river of


total length 1620  kms.

- National Waterway-2: Saidiya-Dhubri stretch of the Brahmaputra river of total length 891 kms.

- National Waterway-3: Kollam–Kottapuram stretch of West Coast Canal and Champakara and
Udyogmandal canals of total length 205  kms.

- National Waterway- 4:  Kakinada–Pondicherry  stretch of canals and  Kaluvelly Tank, 


Bhadrachalam–Rajahmundry  stretch of  River Godavari  and Wazirabad–Vijayawada  stretch
of  River Krishna  of total length 1095  kms.

- National Waterway-5:  Talcher–Dhamra  stretch of rivers, Geonkhali – Charbatia stretch of


East Coast Canal, Charbatia–Dhamra stretch of Matai River and  Mahanadi Delta Rivers of
total length 620  kms.
D. Rivers as Facilitator for Wildlife Sancturaries and National Parks
Major Wildlife Sanctuaries Located on Rivers Banks in India
1. Rampara Wildlife Sanctuary
The Rampara Wildlife Sanctuary is a compact woodland located at a distance of 47 kms from
Rajkot airport. The sanctuary is home to 280 species of plants, 130 species of birds, 20 species of
mammals, 20 species of reptiles and several species of amphibians and invertebrates. The major
wildlife species found here are Nilgai (bluebull), Chinkara, Wolf and Fox.
2. Khijadia Bird Sanctuary
Khijadia Bird Sanctuary, located 10 km north east of Jamnagar, represents the combination of
seasonal freshwater shallow lake, inter-tidal mudflats, creeks, saltpans, saline land and mangrove
scrub. The place is a known breeding ground of the Great Crested Grebe. Apart from it, Little Grebe,
Purple Moorhen, Coot, Black-winged Stilt and Pheasant-tailed Jacana are also recorded breeding
here. Raptors, including harriers, eagles, hawks and falcons are also spotted here. The sanctuary
also shelters migratory birds such as swallows, martins, wagtails and various waterfowls.

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3. Gir Forest National Park


Gir Forest National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary also known as Sasan-Gir, is a forest and wildlife
sanctuary in Gujarat, India. Established in 1965, the park is located about 65 km to the south-
east of Junagadh. It is the sole home of the pure Asiatic Lions and is considered to be one of the
most important protected areas in Asia due to its supported species.
4. Wild Ass Sanctuary
Wild Ass Sanctuary is situated in the Rann of Kutch area of Gujarat. It was established in the
year 1972 and falls under the Wildlife Protection Act of 1973. The sanctuary is also known as
the Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary and covers an area of 4953 sq. km.
5. Nandankanan Zoo
Nandankanan Zoo is about 15 km outside of Bhubaneswar and has some rare species of animals.
Particularly well known for white tigers. A large number of buses ply from Acharya Vihar Square.
Hiring an auto rickshaw is also possible. There is a nice lake inside for boating, a ropeway, also
the Botanical Garden is adjacent to the zoo.
6. Lakhari Valley Sanctuary
Lakhari Valley Sanctuary is located in the Lakhari valley of Ganjam District, Odisha. It is 60 km
from Berhampur. Spread over an area of 185 sq km, it offers a rare feast of rich tropical forest,
hills, valleys, perennial water sources. The sanctuary is primarily home to elephants and black
bucks. Besides, tiger, leopard, pea fowl and all other fauna of tropical forests are found here.
Mahendragiri hill, close to this sanctuary, is rich in flowers and medicinal plants.
7. Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary
A sprawling expansion of 650 sq km, which houses rich marine vegetation, dynamic and salt
tolerant varieties of trees, accumulated land, rivers, estuaries, mud flats, creeks and backwater
Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary acquires a unique position. Regarded as one of its kind in the
entire Asia, this sanctuary is famous as a natural residence of the estuarine crocodiles. This thick
mangrove forests with wetlands showcases a pulsating ecosystem and its lush greenery serves
as a natural asylum for large number migratory and exotic birds that includes winter migratory
birds from central-Asia and Europe. The area near Suajore creek at the sanctuary is a hub of
Cormorants, Asian Open Bill, Black Ibis, Egrets, Darters, and many other precious inhabitants of
the Avifauna.

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8. Himalayan Zoo
Everest Museum and Mountaineering Museum are entered through the Himalayan Mountaineering
Institute Zoo. The zoo and the two museums are run by the Himalayan Mountaineering Institute,
which trains mountaineers. The mountaineering museum has a grand collection of Historical
mountaineering equipment, specimens of Himalayan flora and fauna, and a relief model of the
Himalayas.
9. Chinnar
Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary is located 18 km north of Marayoor in the Marayoor and Kanthalloor
Panchayats of Devikulam Taluk in the Idukki District of Kerala state in South India. It is under
the jurisdiction of and contiguous with Eravikulam National Park to the south. Indira Gandhi
Wildlife Sanctuary is to the northwest and Kodaikanal Wildlife Sanctuary is to the east. It is one
of twelve Wildlife Sanctuaries in Kerala. The Western Ghats, Anamalai Sub-Cluster, including all
of Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, is under consideration by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee
for selection as a World Heritage Site
10. Eravikulam National Park
The park is administered by the Kerala Department of Forests and Wildlife, Munnar Wildlife
Division, together with the nearby Mathikettan Shola National Park, Anamudi Shola National
Park, Pambadum Shola National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kurinjimala Sanctuary.
The Western Ghats, Anamalai Sub-Cluster, including all of Eravikulam National Park, is under
consideration by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee for selection as a World Heritage Site.
11. Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary
Located adjacent to the Anamalai Wildlife Sanctuary, the 285 km² stretch of forest, known as the
Parambikulam Sanctuary, is one of Kerala’s premier wildlife reserves. Parambikulam lies in the
Anamalai Hills, south of the Palghat Gap in the Western Ghats. The area is hilly and rocky, drained
by several rivers, including the Parambikulam, the Sholayar and the Thekkady. Parambikulam
animal species include many of India’s most prominent mammals such as tiger, leopard, wild
dog, sloth bear and elephant.
12. Silent Valley National Park
Silent Valley National Park is located in the Nilgiri Hills, Palakkad district, Kerala, in South India.
The park is one of the last undisturbed tracts of South Western Ghats montane rain forests and

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tropical moist evergreen forest in India. Contiguous with the proposed Karimpuzha National Park
(225 km²) to the north and Mukurthi National Park (78.46 km²) to the north-east, it is the core
of the Nilgiri International Biosphere Reserve (1,455.4 km²), and is part of The Western Ghats
World Heritage Site.
13. Muthanga Wild Life Sanctuary
It is Sanctuary in Wayanad, Kerala, South India. It is on the way from Mysore to Sultan Battery.
Wild animals such as bison, elephant, deer and tiger have been spotted. There are also quite a
few wild birds in the sanctuary. Peacocks and Peafowl tend to be very common in the area. The
sanctuary is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
14. Nilambur
Nilambur is a place in Malappuram district of Kerala, South India. It is famous for its green forests,
especially the wildlife habitat, clean water rivers, waterfalls and teak plantations. It is situated
close to The Nilgiris range of the Western Ghats on the banks of the Chaliyar River. It is about
40 kilometres from Malappuram town.
15. kumarakom bird sanctuary
The main attractions are local birds like the waterfowl, cuckoo, owl, egret, heron, cormorant,
moorhen, darter, Brahminy kite and the duck, as well as the migratory Siberian crane. Parrot, teal,
lark, flycatcher, and other birds are seen here during their respective migratory seasons. Some of
the migratory birds come from the Himalayas, and a few from far away Siberia. Dawn is the ideal
time for bird watching when the birds prepare to leave their forest homes and fly over the lake.
An early morning trek, well before sunrise, is recommended for avid bird watchers
16. National Zoological Park
Delhi National Zoological Park lies near the famous Old Fort. One of the best zoos in the entire
Asian continent, its uniqueness is that it tries to provide an almost natural habitat to the animals
and birds houses here. It proves to be an ideal picnic spots, especially in winters, and is spread
over an area of 214 acres. National Zoological Gardens of New Delhi houses more than 2,000
species of animals and birds.
17. Gajner Wildlife Sanctuary
Situated 32 km from Bikaner is the Gajner wildlife sanctuary. Located on the Jaisalmer road, the
sanctuary houses a rich wildlife consisting of Nilgai, Chinkara, Black buck, Wild boar, etc.

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18. Vedanthangal
It is one of the major Water Bird Sanctuaries in India, 48 km from Kanchipuram. Storks, Egrets,
Cormorants, Darter, Flamingos, Pelicans, moor hens, herons, kingfishers, sandpipers, white ibis,
spoonbills, swans and grey wagtails are some of the birds which arrive here during season. The
best time to visit is between October and March, when a large number of migratory birds visit.
The birds can be viewed from the bank or from the watch tower.
19. Anamalai Wildlife Sanctuary
Anamalai Wildlife Sanctuary also called as Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary. Indira Gandhi Wildlife
Sanctuary and National Park sprawls across an expanse of 958 sq. km. The sanctuary is accessible
from Top slip in Anamalai Hills. It also encompasses a national park that occupies an area of 108
sq. km.
20. Bannerghatta National Park
Bannerghatta National Park is situated 22 km south of Bangalore. This hilly place is the home
for one of the richest natural, zoological reserves. The 25,000 acre zoological park makes this a
major tourist attraction of Bangalore.
21. Dubare - Elephant Camp
This is mainly an elephant capturing and training camp of the Forest Department, at the edge of
Dubare forest, on the bank of river Kaveri, on the Kushalnagar - Siddapur road. The largest land
animal is captured here with the help of tamed elephants and local tribals - the Kurbas - and is
held captive for up to 6 months in large teak wood cages.
22. Bandipur National Park
Bandipur National park includes rocky hills and valleys drained by rivers Kabini, Nugu, Moyar and
numerous small streams. The enchanting Nilgiri Mountains and their cloud-covered peaks form a
picturesque backdrop for the park. Bandipur National Park’s altitude between 680-1454 metres
and is situated south of the Kabini river at the foothills of the Western Ghats. Monsoon from June
to September and best time to visit is open throughout the year but preferably in monsoon when
wildlife is plenty and forest is green.
23. Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary
Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary was started in 1951 as Jagara Valley Game Sanctuary covering an area
of about 252 km². It was combined with the surrounding Lakkavalli forests in the year 1972 and

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given its present name of Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary. It now spans an area of 492 km². It has two
component areas Muthodi and Lakkavalli. Some of the wild animals found in this sanctuary are
tiger, leopard, wild dog, jackal, elephant, gaur, sloth bear, sambar, spotted dear, monitor lizard,
barking deer, wild boar, common langur, bonnet macaque, slender loris and the Malabar giant
squirrel.
24. Shettihalli Wildlife Sanctuary
It lies adjacent to Shimoga town and has forests ranging from dry deciduous to semi-evergreen
and is spread over an area of 395.6 km².
25. Mandagadde Bird Sanctuary
Mandagadde Bird Sanctuary is located on the NH-13 at a distance of 30 km. from Shivamogga
town on the way to Thirthahalli. This is a small island surrounded by Tunga River and the birds
found here are median egret, cormorant, darter and snakebird.
26. Sakrebailu Elephant Camp
Sakrebailu Elephant Camp lies 14 km. from Shivamogga town on the way to Thirthahalli. As the
name suggests, this is a training camp where elephants undergo training from mahouts.
27. Tyavarekoppa Lion Safari
Shimoga is a true picture of nature’s bounty-landscapes dotted with waterfalls, swaying palms
and lush paddy fields make for picturesque locales. Shimoga, almost central on the Karnataka
map is the rice bowl of the State. The rivers Tungabhadra, Sharavasti, Varada and Kumudavathi
inundate the luxuriant greens of the region. Shimoga was ruled by the great Indian dynasties of
the Kadambas, Gangas, Chalukyas, Rastrakutas, Keladi and Vijaynagar Kings.
28. Daranghati Sanctuary
This sanctuary located in the upper area of the Shimla district has an undisturbed forest area
with plenty of wildlife-monal, tragopan, koklas and khalij pheasants and musk deer, ghoral and
thar. There is a network of bridle paths in the sanctuary. Visitors are advised to seek assistance
from the forest staff posted at Dofda and Sarahan. The area is ideal for those who love to trek.
29. Gopalpur
There is a mini zoo here, here you have a glimpse of Leopard, Black Beer and many more rare
species.

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30. Malsi Deer Park


Dehradun is situated in the newly formed Himalayan state of Uttaranchal around 235 km from
Delhi at the center of the Doon valley. The city has the Himalayas to its north, the Shivalik range
to its south, the sacred Ganges to its east and the Yamuna to its west. Dehradun is the part of
Garhwal Himalayan region, which was earlier known as Kedar Khand. Katyuris of Garhwal were
the initial rulers of this region.
31. Pench Tiger Reserve
All Maharashtra’s tiger reserves are located in Vidarbha. Pench Tiger Reserve is in Nagpur district.
32. Phansad Wildlife Sanctuary
Primarily a bird sanctuary, Phansad is also home to a whole array of insects, amphibians and
mammals. Phansad is a wilderness not frequented by too many people and the forest reflects
this with its green vistas and varied wildlife that will tempt you to stay back.
33. Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve
Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve is the second largest protected area in Tamil Nadu, created
in 1988 by combining Kalakad Wildlife Sanctuary and Mundanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary. The
Reserve forms the catchment area for 14 rivers and streams. Among them the Tambraparani,
Ramanadi, Karayar, Servalar, Manimuthar, Pachayar, Kodaiyar, Kadnar, Kallar form the back-bone
of the irrigation network and drinking water for people of Tirunelveli, Turicorin and part of
Kanyakumari district. Several major dams - Karaiyar, Lower Dam, Servalar, Manimuthar, Ramanadi,
Kadnanadi and Kodaiyar - owe their existence to these rivers.
34. Mudumalai National Park
The Mudumalai National Park is about 80 KM from Coimbatore on the interstate boundaries with
Karnataka and Kerala. It was started in 1940 and the first wildlife sanctuary in South India. The
sanctuary is contiguous with Bandipur National Park and Waynad Wildlife Sanctuary. Activites
includes Elephant Safari and Jungle Safari. Other attractions are elephant feeding camp, Kallatty
falls, Pykara Lake,Lonar River, Museum. A private guest house provides the Jungle Home facility.
35. Panna National Park
The Park is situated 25 km from Khajuraho, a world heritage site which is half an hour drive from
Madla Entry Point. Hinouta, the second gate of the Park is 20 km from Panna town. Khajuraho

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is the nearest airport which is directly connected to the National Capital, New Delhi. Taxis are
available all the time from Khajuraho to Panna.
36. Jungle Safari
Shivpuri in Madhya Pradesh is famous for the wildlife sanctuaries that preserve the wild animals in
their natural habitat. The deep woody forest around these parks offers a wonderful experience of
seeing animals in their natural surroundings. The enthralling experience of enjoying the abundant
natural beauty, Jungle Safari in the sanctuaries is an unforgettable experience
37. Karera Bird Sanctuary
Karera Bird Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh is the hub of diverse avian army and is a perfect spot
for bird watchers. With an array of birds of different colors, shape and size, this sanctuary houses
not only birds but is also home to a number of wild animals. It is a bird watcher’s delight.
38. Fambong La Wildlife Sanctuary
Fambong La Wildlife Sanctuary is situated 20 km away from Gangtok. This sanctuary is very famous
for varied flora (like bamboo, champa, ferns, katus, kimbu, oak, orchids, rhododendrons, and so
on) and fauna (binturong or bearcat, civet cat, Himalayan black bear, red panda, and so on). It is
a wonderful place to find many species of wild animals pursued with their day-to-day activities.
39. Kamla Nehru Zoo
This is near to Kankaria Lake and one of the best zoos in India.
E) Rivers and Monuments
If we analyse the locations of Monuments in India, most of them are located in the vicinity of
Rivers Zones. This may be attributed to the Rivers as the main mode of Transportation during
the periods of their respective constructions.

Some Prominent Monuments in India Located on River Banks


1) Taj Mahal
It is the most beautiful monument of Mughal period in Indian history. It stands on the bank of
the river Yamuna at Agra. It was built by Emperor Shahjahan in the memory of his beloved queen
Mumtaz Mahal. It is a grand monument of white, marble. It is considered to be one of the Seven
Wonders of the World due to its matchless beauty.

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2) Qutab Minar
The Qutub Minor is situated at Mehrauli in Delhi, near River Yamuna. It was built by Qutub-ud-
din-Aibak, the first ruler of Slave Dynasty about 750 years ago.

3) Red Fort
Shahjahan, the Mughal Emperor was a great builder. Red Fort, built on the bank of the River
Yamuna is one of his most important buildings.

4) Dilwara Jain Temples


Dilwara Jain Temples built on a tip of Mount Abu in Rajasthan are about 800 years old. It is a
sacred place for the Jains. These temples are built of white marble.

5) St. Xavier’s Church


St. Xavier’s Church is one of the oldest and the most famous Churches in Goa. It is in old Goa, a
place about 10 Km. from Panjim, near River Mandovi, Goa.

6) Ajanta Caves
The Ajanta Caves are famous for their beautiful paintings. Ajanta Caves are about 100 km. from
Aurangabad. In Ajanta there are about 30 caves cut out of the rocky hills in Kaveri River Basin.

7) Ellora Caves
Ellora Caves are famous for their rock paintings. These caves are at a distance of about 100 Km.
from the Ajanta Caves. They are located in Kaveri River Basin, near Dev Giri a short distance
from Aurangabad. There are about 60 caves. Emperor Aurengzib (1556 – 1707 A.D.) visited Ellora
Caves. Though he is known an iconoclast but in contrary his remarks are significant to note here.
He eulogized in the following Persian words, ‘San’ san’ haqiqi subhana ast’ (It is the truth of the
glorifying Creator).

8) Hampi
This Heritage Site is located on the  banks  of Tungabhadra  River.

9) Ujjain
Ancient  monuments  in Ujjain, in the Malwa region of  Madhya  Pradesh are located on the
Eastern  bank  of the Shipra  River.

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Map 6.2 Major Lakes in India

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10) Charminar
Charminar in Hyderabad  is located on the East  bank  of Musi River.

11) Hastinapur
Hastinapur is located on Ravine of Ganges.

12) Chittorgarh
It is located on the left  bank  of the Berach  River  (a Tributary of the Banas  River).

Review Questions
1) List any Four Sacred Rivers of India.
1) List any Four Monuments located on the bank of rivers.
2) List any Four Wildlife Santuaries located on the bank of rivers.

6.3 Lakes and Canals Tourism in India


Lakes and Canals are an attractive element and play an important role in recreation and holidays.
Besides Seas and Rivers a large number of Lakes and Canals are available as destinations for
Tourists in India. Most of these destinations are Worldwide famous for their different morphology,
climate, culture, traditions and nature of providing Tourism and so on. Nonetheless, they show also
various similarities concerning their characteristics, development potentials and the threats they
are exposed to by Tourism. Lakes and Canals serves Tourists with Resorts, Natural Landscapes,
Boating and Shikaras etc.

I Major Lakes Available in India for Tourist


Andhra Pradesh (Hussain Sagar, Kambham Lake, Kolleru Lake, Pulicat Lake), Assam (Chanddubi
Lake), Bihar (Ranchi Lake, Topchanchi Lake), Goa (Corambolin Lake, Mayem Lake), Gujarat (Narayan
Sarovar), Haryana (Badkhal Lake, Brahma Sarovar, Suraj Kund), Himachal Pradesh (Brighu Lake,
Chamera Lake, Chandra Tal Lake,Gadhasaru Lake Gobind Sagar Lake,Maharana Pratap Sagar
Lake,Manimahesh Lake), Jammu & Kashmir (Dal Lake, Manasbal Lake, Mansar Lake, Wuler Lake,
Karnataka (Karanji Lake, Kukkarahalli Lake, Ulsoor Lake), Kerala (Akkulam Lake, Pookot Lake,
Venbanad Lake), Maharashtra (Ambazari Lake, Lonar Lake, Pashan Lake, Rankala Lake, Ramkund
Lake), Meghalaya (Thadlaskein Lake,Umhang Lake),Odisha (Chilika Lake), Rajasthan (Ana Sagar
Lake, Fateh Sagar Lake, Gaib Sagar Lake, Pichola Lake, Sardar Samand Lake), Sikkim (Khecheopalri

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Lake, Tsomgo Lake), Tamil Nadu (Berijam Lake, Ooty Lake, Pulicat Lake), Uttarakhand (Bhim Taal,
Dodi Taal, Kedar Taal, Naini Lake, Nachiketa Taal, Naukuchia Taal, Roop Kund), Uttar Pradesh
(Barua Sagar Taal, Radha Kund) for providing the basis for Boatings & Lake Tourism.

II Major Canals Available in India for Tourists


Indira Gandhi Canal, Ganga Canal, Sethu Canal, Agra Canal, Telugu Ganga Canal, Kalingarayan Canal,
Buddha Nullah Canal, Sutlej-Yamuna link Canal, Lower Bhavani Canal, Kaveri–Vaigai link Canal,
Shoranur Canal, Tamirabarani–Nambiar Canal to support flora & fauna, catchment greenery and
Resort centers along Canal banks.

6.4 Key Terms Used in the Unit


1. River
River  is a Natural  Watercourse,  usually  Freshwater, flowing towards an  Ocean, a  Lake, a  Sea, or
another River.

2. Perennial River
A  Perennial river  is a  river  (channel) that has continuous flow throughout the year.

3. Seasonal River
Seasonal River is River in generally Arid areas (Deserts and other very Dry areas) that has water
flowing in it only in the Rainy season.

4. River Tourism
River Tourism is Tourism in which Tourist use Riverine system for Tourism purpose.

5. River Rafting
River Rafting  is a challenging Recreational  Outdoor activity  using an inflatable  Raft  to navigate
a  River  or other bodies of water

6. Raft
Raft is a flat Buoyant structure of Timber fastened together, used as a Boat or floating Platform.

7. Canoeing
Canoeing  is an  Outdoor activity  that involves a Special kind of  Canoe.

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8. Canoe
A  canoe  is a small narrow  Boat, typically Human-powered, though it may also be powered by
Sails or small Electric or Gas motors.

9. Kayaking
Kayaking  is the use of a  Kayak  for moving across water.

10. Kayak
A kayak is defined by the International Canoe Federation as a Boat where the paddler faces
forward, legs in front, using a double-bladed paddle.

11. Rapid
A  Rapid  is a section of a River where the River bed has a relatively Steep Gradient causing an
increase in water Velocity and Turbulence.

12. Lake
A  Lake  is a body of relatively still fresh or salt water of considerable size, localized in a  basin
that is surrounded by land apart from a river, stream, or other form of moving water that serves
to feed or drain the lake. Lakes are inland and not part of the ocean  and therefore are distinct
from  lagoons, and are larger and deeper than  ponds. These are generally man made features.

13. Canal
Canals  are man-made channels for water

14. Shikara
The Shikara is a type of wooden ship found on Dal Lake and other water bodies of Srinagar, Jammu
& Kashmir,  India. 

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review question
Fill in the blanks:
1. Ganges originates from the ………….. Glacier.
2. The Mahakali or Sharda forms the ……………….. Border.
3. Narmada river sprang from the body of the Lord Shiva, while performing the …………………..
4. India has about …………….. Kms of Navigabl Waterways.
5. Gir Forest National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary also known as ………………
6. …………….. Valley National Park is located in the Nilgiri Hills.
7. Anamalai Wildlife Sanctuary also called as ………………… Wildlife Sanctuary.
8. Taj Mahal stands on the bank of river ………….. at Agra.
9. Ajanta caves are cut out of the rocky hills in ………… river basin.
10. Charminar in Hyderabad is located on the East bank of …………. River.

Short Question Answer:


1. What is Perennial River?
2. What is River rafting?
3. What is Cannoning?
4. What is Kayak?
5. What do you understand by Shikara?
6. Define Lake?
7. Name the largest Canal of India.
8. What is Wildlife Sanctuary?
9. Which is the largest National Waterway of India?
10. On which river basin Ellora caves are located? For what they are renowned for?

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Long Question Answer:


1. Name the rivers those offer river rafting, canoeing and kayaking in India?
2. Discuss the Holy Rivers of India in detail and their significances in tourism.
3. Name the Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks located on river banks of India and mark
them on India’s map?
4. Write about the prominent monuments of India which are located on the banks of river
and locate them on India’s map?
5. Lakes and Canals are becoming the major tourist attraction in India. Discuss the major
lakes and canals of India serving as tourist attractions.

6.5 Practical Activities


1) On the Physical map of India locate the major lakes in India.
2) Visit any major river destination in your region and write a report on how it acts as
attraction for tourists.

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Unit-7
Tourism Bio Geographical Resources in India

Contents
7.0 Unit Overview and Description
l Overview
l Skills and Knowledge
l Resource Material
l Learning Outcomes
l Assessment for Teachers
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Flora and Fauna of India
7.3 Eco Tourism
7.4 Wild Life Sanctuaries
7.5 Top Ten Famous Bird Sanctuaries Of India
7.6 Botanical Gardens In India
7.7 Key Terms Used In the Unit
7.8 Practical Activities

7.0 Unit Overview & Descriptions

Overview
This Chapter deals with the fundamentals of Bio Geographical components as Tourism Resources.

This Unit will impart following Skills Knowledge


- The Concept of Bio Geographical components as Tourism Resources
- The Characteristics of Bio Geographical components as Tourism Resources
- The Categories of Bio Geographical components as Tourism Resources
- The significances of Bio Geographical components as Tourism Resources
- The Spatial distributions of Bio Geographical components and resulted Tourism products

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Map 7.1 Bio Geographical Regions in India

Resource Material:
1. A.K. Raina - Ecology, Wildlife and Tourism Development, Sarup and Sons Pub., New Delhi,
2005
2. Avinash Chiranjeev - Wildlife Tourism Resources, Published by  Jnanada Prakashan, Delhi
2008.
3. Varsha ed. - Incredible India

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Learning Outcomes:
UNIT-7 OUTCOMES
Tourism Bio Geographical After Studying these Sub-Units:
Resources In India
7.1 Introduction Students will be able to understand different aspects of Bio
Geographical Resources as Tourism Resources in India.
7.2 Flora and Fauna of India Students will be able to understand the definitions and
difference between Flora and Fauna.

7.3 Eco Tourism Students will be able to understand about the definitions,
characteristics of Eco Tourism

7.4 Wild Life Sanctuaries Students will be able to understand about ten most famous
Wild Life Sanctuaries of India

7.5 Top Ten Famous Bird Students will be able to understand about Top Ten Famous
Sanctuaries of India Bird Sanctuaries Of India
7.6 Botanical Gardens of India Students will be able to understand about the Botanical
Gardens of India

Assessment Plan: (for the Teachers)


Unit-7 Topic Assessment Method Time Performance
Plan Remarks
7.1 Introduction Questions & Answer

7.2 Flora and Fauna Questions & Answer


of India

7.3 Eco Tourism Questions & Answer

7.4 Wild Life Questions & Answer


Sanctuaries

7.5 Top Ten Famous Questions & Answer


Bird Sanctuaries
of India
7.6 Botanical Gardens
of India

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7.1 Introduction
Bio Geographical Resources are the Resources which are the resulted resources of Bio Life and
surrounding Physical Environment of respective Region or an Area.
These Bio Geographical Resources are the root bases and suppliers of Nature Base Tourism viz.
Wildlife Sanctuaries, Bird Sanctuaries, National Parks, Botanical Gardens, Aquariums, Wildlife
Safaris and certain Tourism like Eco Tourism, Geo Tourism, Shark & Whale Tourism etc.
The Biomes, Biodiversity, Environment, Ecosystems and Ecology are the major constituents of
Bio Geography. For all types of Tourisms Sustainability there should be a perfect balance in the
constituents of Bio Geography.
Bio-Geography deals with Biomes, Biodiversities, Environments, Ecosystems and Ecology
(1) Bio-Diversity: Means variations in Biological components (Human, Flora and Fauna) including
their Physical surroundings. Without Biodiversity there is no question of survival of Tourism
because it is variations which motivate Human behavior to Travel.
(2) Ecology: Ecology is the science of study of relationship between living to living organisms
and their interrelationship with their physical surroundings. It is Ecology and Biodiversity
which create platform for all types of Tourism its balanced is must for the survival of Tourism
specially to make Tourism sustainable.
(3) Biomes: Biomes are huge Geographic entities having Homogeneous characters of both
Physical and Biological Traits.
(4) Environment: The Sum Total of our all types of surroundings is termed as Environment.
If analyzed indepthly, it can be argued with certainty that all Tourisms have their foundations
and origin in Bio Geography and its constituents directly or indirectly.

Review Question

1) Fill in the Blanks:


a) The Sum Total of our all types of surroundings is termed as ___________.
b) ________Means variations in Biological components (Human, Flora and Fauna) including their
Physical surroundings.
b) ________ is the science of study of relationship between living to living organisms and their
interrelationship with their physical surroundings.

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7.2 Flora and Fauna of India


India has a wide variety of Flora and Fauna like the diverse cultures and religions in India. The
Indian subcontinent’s Flora and Fauna is an eye candy for its nature lovers. Around 23.68% of
India is covered by forests. Flora and Fauna is the mirror of a country. The richness of Flora and
Fauna is reflected in the combination of India’s Climate and Topography. The Flora (Vegetation
or forests) provides home to many Rare and Unique Species (Fauna or animals). These vary from
region to region and each have some unique feature be it is Flora and fauna. These Flora and
Fauna have huge potentials as Tourism Bio Geographical Resources.

a) Flora
All Species of Plant Kingdom that are found in a particular region, period, or special environment
is altogether termed as ‘Flora’ deriving the term from the Roman Goddess. The Indian Flora has
around 15,000 Species.

b) Fauna
All of the living beings that fall in Animal kingdom of any particular region or time is known as
‘Fauna’ of the country. Around 400 varieties of Mammals, 1250 species of Birds, 10,000 types of
Insects, 2546 variety of Fish, 197 species of Amphibians and 408 reptile species are found in India.
Now let us discuss the Tourism products available out of Bio Geographical Resources:

Review Question
1) Define
a) Flora
b) Fauna

7.3 Eco Tourism


a) Definition
Environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas to enjoy
and appreciate nature (and any accompanying cultural features, both past and future).

b) Characteristics
- Travel that promotes conservation has low negative visitor impact and provides for beneficially
active social-economic involvement of local populations.

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- Covers unpolluted nature-based areas e.g. national parks, coral reefs, wetland areas.
- Tourists have responsible attitude towards what and whom they come into contact with in
the nature-based areas.
- Education is part of the Tourists’ experience while they enjoy and appreciate what they
learn about nature and any accompanying traditions and cultures of the local communities.
Education also on the importance of conservation.
- Caters to small groups of Tourists → Minimise negative impacts on the Natural Environments
and Local communities e.g.
i) Flora and Fauna not disturbed.
ii) Local communities not displaced.
iii) No need to clear large areas to make way for built up Environment to accommodate
droves of Tourists.
- Encourages the active involvement of local communities in the planning and promotion of
ecotourism in their nature based areas e.g. locals serve as guides, run businesses related to
providing accommodation, food and selling their crafts and works of art.
- Creates awareness among tourist and local communities of the need to protect and conserve
the natural and cultural assets in their nature-based areas to sustain their attractions as
ecotourism destinations.
- Money earned from Ecotourism contributes to the funding of conservation, management of
natural and protected areas, Biodiversity and research
- Ensures that Tourism development does not exceed the Social and Environmental limits of
acceptable change as determined by researchers in cooperation with local residents.

Review Questions
1. Define Eco Tourism.
2. What are the characteristics of Ecotourism?

7.4 Wildlife Sanctuaries


India  has over 441  animal sanctuaries, referred to as  Wildlife Sanctuaries. Among these, the
28  Reserves are governed by  Project Tiger and are of special significance in the conservation of
the  Tigers. Some Wildlife Sanctuaries are specifically named  Bird Sanctuary.
Wildlife Sanctuaries of National importance to conservation are main attractions for Tourists.

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Top 10 Wildlife Sanctuaries in India


a) Ranthambore Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan
The Ranthambore is one of the last sanctuaries where the Royal Bengal Tiger roams free.
Spread over 392 sq kms and located just 130 kms away from Jaipur, the deciduous forests
of Ranthambore make for great wildlife viewing and though besides the tigers, Tourists can spot
other animals like sambar, chital and panthers. It is primarily the tiger that Tourists comes here
for. Early morning and late afternoon safaris will take them to possible spots where a tiger and
some of its cubs may cross their path. 
b) Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand
One of India’s prime destinations for spotting the wild at their natural best is the Corbett National
Park  located in the foothills of Himalayas at Uttarakhand. Corbett is not just about the Tigers
that steal the Tourists heart as it shelters a vast diversity of rare flora and fauna making it the
wildlife hub of India. For a close encounter with the striped beasts Tourists take elephant safari
and keep their binoculars handy. Identify distinct deer species at the water fills or indulge in
some quality bird watching. Corbett gives them endless possibilities of interacting with the wild,
so they come and connect with these magnificent creatures and discover that unique bond they
share with nature.
c) Bandhavgarh National Park, Madhya Pradesh
Sheltered in the Vindhyas of Madhya Pradesh, the Bandhavgarh National Park was the original
home of the precious white tigers where they were first sighted in Rewa. The lush greens of this
wild paradise are spread across 437 sq. Kms of land. So there’s a lot the wildlife enthusiasts
can look forward to. Nilgai, Chinkara and Wild boars are amongst those easily sighted. Spotting
a fox could be tricky. The park boasts of a healthy population of tigers which translates into
extremely favorable chances of a sighting. Tourists can meet all of them and the others at the
woods of  Bandhavgarh, where pristine nature embraces the wild. 
d) Periyar National Park, Kerala
Perched high on the Western Ghats in God’s own country Kerala is the picturesque Periyar
National Park and tiger reserve also called Thekkady. The park is widely known for the large
herds of Indian elephants which thrive on the Periyar River nestled in the dense forests capping
the Cardamom Hills. Once Tourists are here there are just too many things to do. Capture playful

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elephants in their camera or look for the rare lion tailed macaque and take the Periyar cruise
for some gorgeous views of the park aboard a luxury boat. All they need is to leave leave hassles
behind and let Periyar  work its magic on them.
e) Kaziranga National Park, Assam
Habitat of the one horned rhinoceros, paradise for wild elephants and water buffalos, a prominent
tiger reserve and a world heritage site in the state of Assam, the Kaziranga National Park is a
haven for the wild. Hog deer, sloth bears, capped langoors and some of the largest pythons in
the world can be spotted by Tourists, or stick close to its rivers and they can probably see the
Gangatic Dolphins in full swing.
f) Sunderbans, West Bengal
Enshrined in the swamped mangroves at the tip of Bengal is the kingdom of Royal Bengal tigers
known as Sunderbans National Park. A UNESCO World Heritage Site, the  Sunderbans  are spread
over a massive land mass of 4264 sq Kms, disappearing towards the south into the sea. The swamps
help Tourists to locate the striped beasts seen resting in the Estuarine mangroves, escaping the
scorching heat. Tourists can also enjoy snakes, crocodiles and fishing cats and other marine species.
g) Kanha National Park, Madhya Pradesh
One of India’s best tiger reserves, the Kanha National Park is in the valleys of Banjar and Halon in
Madhya Pradesh. Wildlife lovers from all corners of the world flock to Kanha to catch a glimpse of
its tigers, spotted deers and wolves. The spectacular sunset at Bamni Dadar tops every itinerary
along with a photographic moment with barasinghas or the swamp deer that are naturally endowed
to give great poses. 
h) Mudumalai National Park, Karnataka
The Mudumalai National Park is a passage to its neighbouring wildlife reserves situated at the
crossroads of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka in the northwest of the Nilgiris. It has a large
variety of fauna and an interesting mix of flora with tropical green forests in one corner and dry
deciduous in the other. Tourists can enjoy exciting safari at  Mudumalai. Animals found here are
Sambhar, Chiltals, wild boars, primates and elephants with the exclusive tigers.
i) Gir Wildlife Sanctuary, Gujarat
The last preserve of the Asiatic Lion, Gir Wildlife Sanctuary sits at the brink of peninsular Gujarat
in the South Western belt of dry deciduous forests. One of India’s prime wildlife attractions, Gir is

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a flourishing hub for the big cats, which includes lions as well as leopards. In fact, Gir has the
largest number of leopards in the country. The sanctuary’s waters are known to be infested with
numerous crocodiles catering to the reptilian interests of Tourists.
j) Keoladeo National Park, Rajasthan
Keoladeo  is in Rajasthan and ha many varieties of birds. Formerly a duck hunting reserve of the
Maharajas, it has now become one of the largest areas for migratory birds. Tourists enjoy the famous
Siberian Crane, Warblers, and Babblers, Red Kite, Cinereous vulture and Sociable Lapwing among
others. With lush green lands and lovely lakes, this place is truly a treat for Tourists enjoyment.
k) Lok Tak National Park, Manipur
Lok Tak National Park which is also known by the name Keibul Lamjao National Park along Lok
Tak Lake in Manipur .It is the last natural refuge of the endangered  Sangai  or Manipur brow-
antlered deer.
Considering the Ecological status and its Biodiversity values, it was initially designated as a Wetland
of International importance  under the  Ramsar Convention  on March 23, 1990.
l) Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir
Dachigam National Park is located 22 kilometers from Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir. It covers
an area of 141 square kilometers. The name of the park literally stands for “Ten villages” in
memory of the Ten villages those were relocated for its formation.
The park has been a protected area since 1910, first under the care of the Maharaja of Jammu and
Kashmir and later under the observation of the concerned government authorities. It was initially
created to ensure clean drinking water supply for the city of Srinagar. It was finally upgraded and
declared a National Park in the year 1981. The main animal species that Dachigam is most famous
for are the  Hangul or the  Kashmir Stag. The other species are Musk Deer, Leopard, Himalayan
Grey Langur, Leopard Cat, Himalayan Black Bear, Hill Fox and Otter etc.

Review Question
1. Write a short note on any two of India’s famous wildlife sanctuary.

7.5 Top 10 Famous Bird Sanctuaries of India


India is a home for many species of Birds local as well as migrant birds. Bird sanctuaries in India are
therefore a hot spot for personality lovers and birdwatchers. Some of the beautiful local inhabitants

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like The National Bird of India “Peacocks”, Great Indian bustard, Indian Horn-bill, Kingfishers and
Indian Eagle “Garuda”, a Sacred Bird of Hindus. The Great Indian Horn-bill is the largest amongst
all the horn-bills found in the forests of India. There are over 1200 species of birds found in the
India, so one can enjoy birding or bird watching in India. Kulik (Raiganj) Bird Sanctuary is one of
the largest bird sanctuaries in Asia. Nawabganj is one of the luckiest sanctuaries that have such
enormous range of wildlife creatures in India. is an ideal tourist destination for birding, twitching
and Bird watching in India. Twitching is refer to those who travel long distances to see a rare
bird that would called as twitcher.

a) Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary


The famous Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary also known as Keoladeo Ghana National Park is situated
in Rajasthan. Bharatpur bird sanctuary is one of the best bird sanctuaries in India and one of the
finest bird parks in the world. Apart from the Great Thar Desert, Big forts and beautiful lakes,
Birds of Bharatpur sanctuary are one of the major tourist attractions in Rajasthan. Thousands
of rare and highly endangered birds come here during the winter season. The Bharatpur bird
sanctuary is paradise for the bird lovers’ to watch some of the most exotic birds in the world.

b) Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary


Sultanpur Bird sanctuary is home for several colorful winged migratory species, located at Gurgaon
district of Haryana. Its small area comprising with shallow freshwater Sultanpur lake, where 100
of migratory bird species visit to feed every year. The Sultanpur National Park also known for its
rich variety of wild animals and flying predators along with beautiful birds.

c) Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary


The Salim Ali bird sanctuary is home to many varieties of local and migratory birds, situated in
Chorao Island along the river Mandovi in Goa. Salim Ali Bird sanctuary is one of the best known
bird sanctuaries and very famous bird sanctuary in India. It is one of the smallest bird sanctuaries
where flying Sparrows, Beautiful peafowl, Parrots, pelican, Indian giant squirrel and other rare
species of fauna can be spotted. Beyond the Beaches of Goa, Salim Ali bird sanctuary is one of
the major tourist attractions in Goa.

d) Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary


Kumarakom Bird sanctuary also known as Vembanad Bird sanctuary is situated at in land of
attraction Kerala, near to the famous Vembanad lake. It offers a home to a large number of
migratory birds like Flycatcher, Teal, Siberian Stork, Crane, Parrots and Wood Beetle. by riding

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a houseboat will be the best way for bird watching in Kerala. It is a favorite spot for migratory
birds and paradise for the bird lovers. Other bird sanctuaries in Kerala are Mangalavanam and
Thattekkad bird sanctuary, situated on the banks of the Periyar River and famous for some of the
rarest species of birds and other unique fauna.

e) Ranganthittu Bird Sanctuary


Ranganathittu Bird sanctuary is situated near to the banks of the Kaveri river in Karnataka. The
exotic migratory birds like light Ibis, Egret, Partridge, Heron, River Tern, Snake Bird, stone Plougher
are the attraction for the tourist. This is an important tourist destination of Mysore and is located
about 20 kilometers from the famous Brindavan garden lies adjoining the Krishnarajasagara dam.

f) Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary


The Vedanthangal Bird sanctuary is the oldest bird sanctuary in India, situated in Tamil Nadu.
The Vedanthangal lake region attracted a variety of birds such as pintail, garganey, grey wagtail,
blue-winged teal, common sandpiper. One sixth of landmass of Tamil Nadu is covered with forests,
which is paradise for animal lover and bird watchers. Kunthakulam bird sanctuary and Pulicat
lake bird sanctuary are also famous for bird watching situated at border of Andhra Pradesh and
Tamil Nadu.

g) Kaundinya Bird Sanctuary


Kaundinya Bird sanctuary is one of the best Bird sanctuaries in India, situated near Chittor in
Andhra Pradesh. The habitat is rugged with high hills and deep valleys and Kaigal and Kaundinya
are two beautiful streams, which flow through the sanctuary. Kaundinya sanctuary offers the best
of wildlife and bird watching in India. Kolleru lake bird sanctuary also offers variety of migratory
birds to its largest fresh water Kolleru Lake.

h) Chilka Lake Bird Sanctuary


Chilka Lake Bird sanctuary is very popular among Tourists, located near puri in Orissa. The Chilka
lake is the most beautiful brackish water lake in Asia and famous for a rich variety of birds. Chilka
Lake serves as a bird sanctuary and is the largest wintering ground for migratory birds in India.
The pear-shaped Chilka lake is one of the best bird watching spots in India.

i) Mayani Bird Sanctuary


The Mayani Bird sanctuary is globally reckoned for its gigantic range of species for migratory birds
situated in Satara district of Maharashtra. Many migratory birds pass through the area, such as

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flamingos from Siberia come in large numbers. It is one of the most prominent and famous bird
sanctuaries in India.

j) Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary


Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary comprising of a huge lake and ambient marshes, is situated in
Ahmadabad, Gujarat. Nal Sarovar bird sanctuary is the largest wetland bird sanctuary in Gujarat,
and one of the largest in India, spot birds like Flamingos, Pelicans, Spoonbills, Avocets, Coots,
Pintails, small Cormorants, small Grebes and Shovellers. It is count as one of the busiest tourist
attraction spot in India.

Review Question

1) Match the Following :


Column A Column B
a) Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary Orrisa
b) Dachigam National Park Madhya Pradesh
c) Bandhavgarh National Park Ahmadabad, Gujarat
d) Chilka Lake Bird sanctuary Jammu and Kashmir

7.6 Botanical Gardens of India


A Botanical Garden is a place where plants, especially ferns, conifers and flowering plants, are
grown and displayed for the purposes of research, education and recreation. This distinguishes
them from parks and pleasure gardens where plants, usually with showy flowers, are grown
for public amenity only. Botanical gardens that specialize in trees are sometimes referred to as
Arboretums.
India owing of richness in Flora has thousands of Botanical Gardens in it those are enjoyed by
Tourists with great enthusiasm.
It is not possible to describe each and every Botanical Garden of India therefore prominent one
have been listed below:
- Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden, Shibpur, Kolkata
- Agri -Horticultural Society of India, Alipore, Kolkata
- Assam State Zoo-cum-Botanical Garden, Guwahati
- Botanical Garden, Near Sarangpur, Chandigarh

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Map 7.2: Wild Life Sanctuaries In India

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- Empress Garden, Pune


- Garden of Medicinal Plants, North Bengal University, West Bengal
- Government Botanical Gardens, Ootacamund, Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu
- IFGTB Botanical Garden - The Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding (IFGTB),
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
- Jammu and Kashmir Medicinal Plants Introduction Centre, Sonamarag, Kashmir
- Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute (TBGRI), Trivandrum, Kerala
(Biggest in India and conserves the largest number of plant species in Asia).
- Jhansi Botanical Garden, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh
- Lalbagh, Bangalore, Karnataka
- Lloyd’s Botanical Garden, Darjeeling, West Bengal
- Saharanpur Botanical Garden, Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh
- Semmozhi Poonga, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
- TNAU Botanical Garden, Agriculture University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
- Vellayani Agricultural College, Trivandrum, Kerala
Beside above mentioned Tourism Bio Geographical Resources, India has a large numbers of Zoos
and Parks etc.

Review Question
1. Define Botanical Gardens. Name any Three India’s famous Botanical Gardens.

7.7 Key Terms Used in the Unit


1. Bio Geographical Resources
Bio Geographical Resources are the Resources which are the resulted resources of Bio Life and
surrounding Physical Environment of respective Region or an Area.

2. Flora
All Species of Plant Kingdom that are found in a particular region, period, or special environment
is altogether termed as ‘Flora’ deriving the term from the Roman Goddess.

3. Fauna
All of the living beings that fall in Animal kingdom of any particular region or time is known as
‘Fauna’.

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Flora Nal Sarovar Bird Santuary, Ahamdabad

Flora and Fauna, India Sunderbans National Park, West Bengal

Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam Lalbagh Botanical Garden, Bangalore

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4. Biome
Biomes are huge Geographic entities having Homogeneous characters of both Physical and
Biological Traits.

5. Biodiversity
Biodiversity means variations in Biological components (Human, Flora and Fauna) including their
Physical surroundings. Without Biodiversity there is no question of survival of Tourism because
it is variations which motivate Human behavior to Travel.

6. Ecology
Ecology is the science of study of relationship between living to living organisms and their
interrelationship with their physical surroundings.

7. Eco Tourism
Environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas to enjoy
and appreciate nature (and any accompanying cultural features, both past and future).

8. Wildlife Sanctuary
A Wildlife Sanctuary is an area specially designated where it is illegal to interfere in any way with
the natural life there. Hunting, shooting and fishing would be prohibited. 
Sanctuary is a place where killing or capturing of any animal is prohibited except under orders of
the authorities concerned. they provide protection and optimum living conditions to wild animals.

9. Botanical Garden
A Botanical Garden is a place where plants, especially ferns, conifers and flowering plants, are
grown and displayed for the purposes of research, education and recreation.

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review question
Fill in the blanks:
1. ………….. National Park is widely known for the large herds of Indian elephants.
2. ……………. is the habitat of one horn rhinoceros.
3. Enshrined in the swamped mangroves at the tip of Bengal is the kingdom of ……………………
known as Sunderbans National Park?
4. The ……………….. National Park is a passage to its neighboring wildlife reserves situated at
the crossroads of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka in the northwest of the Nilgiri.
5. …………. Wildlife Sanctuary is a flourishing hub for big cats, which includes lions as well as
leopards.
6. The name of Dachigam National park literally stands for …………….
7. Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary also known as ……………… National park.
8. The ……………. Bird Sanctuary is the oldest bird sanctuary in India, situated in Tamil Nadu.
9. The …………. Lake is the most beautiful brackish water lake in Asia, famous for a rich variety
of birds.
10. ………………. Bird Sanctuary is the largest wetland bird sanctuary in Gujarat.

Short Question Answer:


1. Define Bio-Diversity.
2. What is Ecology?
3. What is Biome?
4. What do you understand by Environment?
5. Define Eco tourism.
6. What is mean by Botanical Garden?

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Long Question Answer:


1. What is Bio-Geography? Write a detail note on flora and fauna of India with their significances
in tourism.
2. What are the characteristics of Ecotourism? Mark the places of Ecotourism on India’s map.
3. Name and describe in brief any ten Wildlife Sanctuaries in India.
4. Name and describe in brief any ten Bird Sanctuaries of India.
5. Discuss any ten Botanical Gardens of India in brief.

7.8 Practical Activity


1) On the Political Map of India locate Bio Geographical Regions of India.

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Unit-8
Tourism Cultural Resources in India

Contents
8.0 Unit Overview and Description
l Overview
l Skills and Knowledge
l Resource Material
l Learning Outcomes
l Assessment for Teachers
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Built Up Tourism Cultural Resources
8.3 Religious Tourism Cultural Resources
8.4 Sport Resources
8.5 Conservatories Of India
8.6 Entertainment Resources
8.7 Indian Cuisines As Tourism Resources
8.8 Art, Artifacts And Handlooms
8.9 Transportation Network And Tourist Infrastructure
8.10 Key Terms Used In the Unit
8.11 Practical Activities

8.0 Unit Overview & Descriptions


This Chapter deals with the fundamentals of Tourism Cultural Resources in India.

This Unit will impart following Skills and Knowledge


- The Concept of Tourism Cultural Resources
- The Characteristics of Tourism Cultural Resources

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- The Categories of Tourism Cultural Resources


- The significances of Tourism Cultural Resources
- The Spatial distributions and resulted Tourism products out of Tourism Cultural Resources

Resource Material:
1. A.K. Bhatia - Tourism Development: Principles and Practices, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd,
2002
2. Krishna Lal and M. Bhattacharyya – Cultural Tourism in India, D.K. Print World, 2002,
3. Kapila Vatsyayan - Arrested Movements: Sculpture and Paintings, Under the Incredible India
Series, Wisdom Tree Publications, New Delhi, 2007
4. Pushpesh Pant - Cuisines, Under the Incredible India Series, Wisdom Tree Publications, New
Delhi, 2007

Learning Outcomes:
UNIT-8 OUTCOMES
Tourism Physical Resources- Rivers After Studying these Sub-Units:
8.1 Introduction Students will be able to understand different aspects
of Tourism Cultural Resources in India.
8.2 Built Up Tourism Cultural Resources Students will be able to understand the about the
Built Up Tourism Cultural Resources
8.3 Religious Tourism Cultural Students will be able to understand about Cultural
Resources Resources as Tourism resource of India such as
Fairs and Festivals
8.4 Sport Resources Students will be able to understand about the Sports
of India as Tourism Resources
8.5 Conservatories of India Students will be able to understand about the Major
Conservatories of India
8.6 Entertainment Resources Students will be able to understand about the
Entertainment resources of India such as Music,
Cinema, Dances ect as Tourism Resources

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8.7 Indian Cuisines as Tourism Students will be able to understand about the
Resources various Indian Cuisines as Tourism Resources
Entertainment
8.8 Art &Artifacts and Handlooms Students will be able to understand about the
various Art &Artifacts And Handlooms Tourism
Resources Entertainment
8.9 Transportation Network and Tourist Students will be able to understand about the
Infrastructure Transportation Network as a support to Tourism
Industry

Assessment Plan: (for the Teachers)


Unit-8 Topic Assessment Method Time Plan Remarks
8.1 Introduction Questions & Answer

8.2 Built Up Tourism Questions & Answer


Cultural Resources
8.3 Religious Tourism Questions & Answer
Cultural Resources
8.4 Sport Resources Questions & Answer

8.5 Conservatories of Questions & Answer


India

8.6 Entertainment Questions & Answer


Resources
8.7 Indian Cuisines as Questions & Answer
Tourism Resources
8.8 Art &Artifacts and Questions & Answer
Handlooms
8.9 Transportation Questions & Answer
Network and Tourist
Infrastructure

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8.1 Introduction
India is rich in Cultural Tourism Resources. India’s Cultural Tourism Resources consist of Ancient
Temples and Shrines sacred for the people of different faiths. There are numerous sites which
were once abodes of the Saints. These are the Pilgrimage Centers visited every year by lakhs of
devotees. Their number is the largest and these are most widely distributed as compared to all
other Tourist centers. The Images, Symbols, Diverse Architecture and Legends resulted in the
origin of Ancient Temples those have an appeal even for the curious Tourists.
The style of Temple buildings, the Minerates and the Arches vary from one part of the country
to other. The examples are the Gompa (Buddhist monasteries) of Ladakh and Sikkim, Gopurams
with complex patterns of Hindu Temples of Tamil Nadu and other Southern states.
Hindus have shown keen sense of direction in locating different Pilgrim centers in every major
corner of the whole Country. There are four places of the highest order of pilgrimage called
‘Dhams’. Visiting them in one’s lifetime is considered as great act of devotion. These are Badrinath
in the North, Rameswaram in the South and Dwarka in the West shrines. There is Puri in the East,
Kanchipuram in the South, Varanasi (Kashi puri), Ujjain(Avantika puri) and Ayodhya (Ayodhya puri)
in the Center and Dwarka Puri in the West. In mythological terms there are the twelve most sacred
Shiva Temples spread all over the India. These are named as the “Fifty one places” recognised
as ‘Shakti Peeths’ respected by the devotes worshipping various Goddesses, Symbolizing power.
Mathura-Virndavan is another tract renowned for Hindu pilgrimage because of its association
with the life of lord Krishna.
Great flexibility in matters of belief has given rise to numerous sects and to such a large number of
places of Hindu Pilgrimage. Ancient Temples occupy remarkable Sites, Hilltops, River confluences,
River or Lake Sites, Island, Forest Groves or a nucleus around which the whole city has grown
and expanded.
Next in order are Historic Cities, Ruins of Ancient Cities and the Rock-cut Temples inside the
Caves. These are the remants of the Great halls or the ‘Chaityas’, ‘Stupas’, ‘Tower’ and the Arches
of Buddhist places of worship. There are the Temple sites partially or wholly submerged in Sea or
lying in ruins. At some such sites new Temples sites, new Temples or shrines have been rebuilt.
These are still visited for worship or prayers by the followers and Foreigner Tourist alike. The
sites associated with life of Gautama Buddha are marked in Bihar and the adjoining areas and
are the centers of International and Domestic Tourists attraction.
The Jain shrines are scattered in Gujarat, Bihar, Rajasthan and Karnataka. Within them are the

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beautiful images of Jain Saints and Sculptures of their life stories. On Mt.Parasnath near Hazaribagh
in Bihar is situated the most sacred center of pilgrimage for Jains.
The Great Sikh shrines exist in Punjab like Har Mandir Sahib at Amritsar, in Bihar, Karnataka,
Maharashtra and in parts of the Himalaya.
India has the pride of retaining some old Churches especially in Goa and Kerala and centers of
worship of the Jews and the Parsis.
The Great Dargahs like Khwaja Moin-ud-din Chisti in Ajmer, Hazrat Nizam-ud-din Aulia in Delhi
and numerous other prominent Dargahs elsewhere in India and Great Mosques and thousands
of known and unknown Mosques with their minarets and big quadrangles are sprawling in India
as Tourist Cultural Resources. Some of the prominent examples are Jama Masjid at Delhi, Mecca
mosque at Hyderabad, Taj mosque at Bhopal, the Old Shah Hamadan and the Hazratbal mosques
at Srinagar.
The Two Great ruined cities continue to be number one Tourist attractions. One is Hampi in the
state of Karnataka and the other is Fatehpur Sikri near Agra in Uttar Pradesh. Hampi’s ruins are
impressive as a bed of the old rocks of Decean Plateau. These include remains of Palaces, Temples,
Markets, Reservoirs of water close to the banks of Tungabhadra River. It remained capital of the
Great Vijaynagar Empire for two centuries. The empire extended from the shores of Arabian Sea
to those of the Bay of Bengal and included Goa in the kingdom.
These Forts were built by the Rajputs, Mughals, Marathas and other powerful rulers of their times
for needs of defense or for their own grandeur. Victory Tower like Qutub Minar at Mehrauli near
Delhi and Kirti Stambh inside the massive Chittorgarh fort in Rajasthan attract all types of Tourists.
A few forts of different styles were added by the British rulers such as Fort William at Kolkata,
Fort St.George Chennai and a Portuguese fort at Kochchi. India’s Tourism Cultural Resources also
includes places or sites known for the Heroism and the Indepenance of country’s Great sons.
Haldighati near Udaipur, Jallianwala Bagh at Amritsar, Cellular jail at Port Blair, Vivekananda rock
memorial at Kanya Kumari, Gandhi ji’s Ashram at Sabarmati in Ahmadabad and Sewagram in
Maharashtra and the Aurobindo Ashram at Pudducherry are examples of these types. One cannot
leave out the birth place of Adi Sankaracharya at Kaladi near Alwaye in Kerala.

The Museums, Art Galleries and Archives are custodians of India’s Cultural significance.

Review Question
1. India is rich in Cultural resources. Comment.

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Fairs and festivals of India

Holi Durga Puja

Pongal Eid

Ganesh Chaturthi Gurupurab

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Fairs and festivals of India

Christmas Goa Carnival

Marwar Festival, Jodhpur Kumbh Mela

Museums of India

Hawa Mahal Museum, Jaipur State Museum of Tripura

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Cusines of India

South Indian Cuisine Mughlai Cusisine

Famous Cuisine of
Kashmir Gushtaba

Handlooms and Handicrafts of India

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Handlooms and Handicrafts Products of India

Bandhej Miniatue Arts

Famous Handloom Kanzivaram of Tamil Nadu A Typical Kerala Mural Paintings

Terracotta works Mural Art

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8.2 Built Up Tourism Cultural Resources


Built Up Tourism Cultural Resources are always visited by Tourists because they are the Speaking
Stones of authentic Architectural and Historical details. Some of India’s Built Up Tourism Cultural
Resources are Mohan- Jo-Daro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Hampi, the Epitome of endless love - Taj Mahal,
Qutub Minar, Red Fort, Konark Sun Temple, Rameswaram and Meenakshi Temple (Tamilnadu),
Forts and Palaces of Rajasthan, Agra Fort, Ajanta Caves & Ellora Caves, Humayun’s Tomb, Victoria
Memorial and Palaces of Kolkata, Shershah Suri Tomb(Sasaram, Bihar), Khajraho, Gwalior Fort
and the Walled city of Fatehpur Sikri, Gate Way of India(Mumbai) and architecture of Raisena
Hills (Delhi) and Walled city of Delhi etc. are mentionable .

Review Question
1. List any 5 Built up Tourism Cultural resources in India.

8.3 Religious Tourism Cultural Resources


India has strong roots of Spirituality and Religion. There are thousands of Religious and Spiritual
places and sites in India. There are seven sacred cities in India namely Mathura, Kashi, Hardwar,
Ujjain, Kanchipuram, Ayodhya and Dwarka. The other Holy cities of Religious significance are
Ajmer, Rishikesh, Amritsar, Shirdi, Puri and Bodhgaya etc.

Review Question
1) List seven sacred cities in India.

I Fairs and Festivals Tourism Cultural Resources


Fairs and Festivals are the mirrors of Cultural identities therefore are Tourism Cultural Resources
because Tourists want them to get knowledge and to participate in the joy, happiness, brotherhood
and humanity.
a) Festivals in India for Tourists
Festivals of India are characterized by color, gaiety, enthusiasm, prayers and rituals. Foreign
Tourists are struck by the scale and multiplicity of Indian Fairs and Festivals that have evolved
in the society.

Major Festivals of India are Makar Sankranti, Baisakhi, Diwali festival, Durga Puja, Dussehra, Onam,
Holi, Janmashtami, Karwa Chauth, Maha Shivaratri, Naag Panchami, Ganesh Chaturthi, Navratri,

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Pongal, Raksha Bandhan, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Lohri, Eid ul Fitr, Muhorram, Ram Navami, Christmas,
Good Friday, Onam, Baisakhi, Pongal, Mahavir Jayanti, Buddha Jayanti, Guru Purnima, Raksha
Bandhan, Krishna Janmashtami, Gandhi Jayanti, Kumbh Mela, Children’s day, Ganesh Chaturthi,
Jamshed Navroz, Buddha Purnima, Hems Gompa etc. and many more festivals.

Gandhi Jayanti, Independence Day and Republic Day are National Festivals of India.

B) Fairs in India for Tourists


Raasmela (Bilasipara, Assam), Brahamotsavam (Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh), Sonepur Mela (Sonepur,
Bihar), Somnath Fair (Patan, Gujarat) Gangor Mela (Sirsa, Haryana), Surajkund Mela (Surajkund,
Haryana), Kisan Mela (Karnal, Haryana), Dehati Mela (Ladana, Haryana), Minjar Fair (Chamba,
Himachal Pradesh), Dussehra (Kullu, Himachal Pradesh), Jhiri Mela (Jhiri, Jammu & Kashmir),
Kunda Fair (Pratappur, Jharkhand), Dassara (Mysore, Karnataka), Godachi Fair (Godachi, Karnataka),
Hampi Festival (Hampi, Karnataka), Pooram Festival (Trichur, Kerala), Makara Vilakku (Malappuram,
Kerala), Chirappu (Kottayyam, Kerala), Omallor Fair (Omallor, Kerala), Magara Jyoti (Sabarimala,
Kerala), Sri Sundareswar (Kannur, Kerala), Utsavam (Malappuram, Kerala), Aranmula Vallamkali
(Aranmula, Kerala), Kerala Village Fair (Kovalam, Kerala), Kartik Mela (Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh),
Kadam Mela (Kharagpur, Madhya Pradesh), Gwalior Trade Fair (Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh), Makar
Sankranti (Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh), Nimar Utsav (Maheshwar, Madhya Pradesh), Kumbh Mela
(Nashik, Maharashtra), Sharda Utsav (Nagpur, Maharashtra), Ganesh Festival (Sangli, Maharashtra),
Rath Yatra (Puri, Odisha), Joranda Mela (Joranda, Odisha), Dhanu Jatra, (Bargarh, Odisha), Bali
Yatra (Cuttack, Odisha), Chatar Yatra (Kalahandi, Odisha), Rural Olympics (Quila Raipur, Punjab),
Hollah Mohllah (Anand Pur Sahib, Punjab), Baisakhi (Talvandi Sahib, Punjab), Mag Mela (Muktsar,
Punjab), Ramteerth Mela (Kaler, Punjab), Sahidi Jod Mela (Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab), Sodal Mela
(Jalandhar, Punjab), Chappar Mela (Chappar, Punjab), Khatu Shyam ji (Sikar, Rajasthan), Urs
Ajmer (Ajmer, Rajasthan), Pushkar Fair (Pushkar, Rajasthan), Ramdevra (Ramdevra, Rajasthan),
Dussehra Mela (Kota, Rajasthan), Beneshwar Fair, (Dungerpur, Rajasthan), Chanderbhaga Fair
(Jhalawar, Rajasthan), Khetlaji Fair (Bundi, Rajasthan), Ranisati Mela (Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan), Kaila
Devi Fair (Karauli, Rajasthan), Kallaji Ka Mela (Banswara, Rajasthan), Marwar Festival (Jodhpur,
Rajasthan), Peria Kirthigal (Trupparankundram, Tamil Nadu), Panimaya Matha Festival (Tuticorin,
Tamil Nadu), Eallazhagar Bannaral (Bannaral, Tamil Nadu), Kundam (Chikkaram, Tamil Nadu),
Bemoli Katra Mela (Bemoli Katra, Uttar Pradesh), Kailash Mela (Agra, Uttar Pradesh), Makar
Sankranti (Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh), Kumbh Mela (Haridwar, Uttar Pradesh),Barabanki Mela(Deva

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Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh),Ramnavami Mela (Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh), Sharvan Jhoola (Faizabad,
Uttar Pradesh), Nauchandi Mela (Meerut, Uttar Pradesh), Chitrakoot Ramlila (Chitrakoot, Uttar
Pradesh), Rambarat (Agra, Uttar Pradesh), Cattle Fair (Dadri, Uttar Pradesh), Gokulanand Mela
(Gokulpur, West Bengal), Sankranti Mela (Ganganagar, West Bengal), Phool Walon ki Sair, Books
& Trade fairs etc (Delhi) and Goa Carnival etc.

Review Questions:
1) List any 4 Fairs in India for Tourist
2) List any 4 festivals in India for tourists.

8.4 Sport Resources


a) International Sports
Cricket, Football, Basketball, Tennis, Chess, Motorsports, Badminton, Golf, Korf Ball, Volley Ball,
Floor Ball, Hand Ball, Throw Ball, Boxing, Cycling, Table Tennis, Kayaking, Biking, Rock Climbing,
Archery, Athletics, Weightlifting, Wrestling, Gymnastics, Billiards, Snookers and their respective
playing Spots which includes Play Grounds and Stadiums.

b) Traditional and Regional Sports


It is obvious that Tourists specially foreign Tourists have special appeal towards Desi (Traditional
and Regional) sports which include Gilli-Danda, Kanchae, Kite Flying, Kho-Kho, Kabbadi, Kabutar
Baji, Fowl Fighting etc.

Review Question
1) List any 3 Traditional and regional sport of India.

8.5 Conservatories of India


Conservatories include Museums, Archives and Art Galleries. India has number of conservatories
for Tourist. It is tough task to describe each of them. The Top Ten Conservatories of India are:

1. Hawa Mahal Museum


2.  Indian Museum
3.  Jaigarh Fort Museum
4.  Karnataka Museum

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5.  Maharajah Sawai Singh Museum


6.  National Archives
7.  Nehru Memorial Museum
8.  Prince of Wales Museum
9. State Museum Of Tripura
10. Stock Palace Museum

Review Question
1) Name any 4 conservatories of India.

8.6 Entertainment Resources


Each and every mode of Entertainment in India comes with its own sets of elegance and
sophistication. The number of programs that the people over here draw pleasure from is
innumerable. There are several other ideas of entertainment in the recent times that has been
imported from the western countries. Generally Indian entertainment prefers to stick to their
roots and draw immense pleasure from their own culture. Some of the prominent modes of
entertainment for Tourists in India are:

a) Music
India is being accepted world wide as the originator of this form of art. The Music Industry in
India is divided between the Modern day music and the Classical. Both of the forms of the music
have their own grounds as a commercial prospect. The biggest music house in the India is the
Hindi and several other Film Industries. Music is an integral part of the Indian panorama and has
fascinated everyone with its distinctive styles. Sarangi, Veena, Shahnai, Bansuri, Tabla, Sarod, Ragas,
Bhajans, Qawwali, Gazal, Thumri etc. are Indian Traditional Sources of Music enjoyed by Tourists.

b) Cinema/ Theater
Cinema captures the biggest share in the Entertainment in India. The Indian Film Industry is
touted to be the biggest in the whole World. The Hindi film industry along with the several other
Regional film industries are estimated to provide the maximum number of films in a calendar
year than any other country. The Hindi film industry is operated from the Mumbai (Bollywood).
The other prominent Regional film industries are Bhojpuri, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Haryanvi, the
Southern film industries and the Bengali film industry.

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c) Dances
In India Tourists apart from modern dances like Cabaret and Discos can also enjoy the Original,
Traditional and Regional Dances namely Bharatanatyam (Tamil Nadu), Kathak (Rajasthan, Punjab,
Delhi, Uttar Pradesh), Kathakali (Kerala), Kuchipudi (Andhra Pradesh), Manipuri (Manipur),
Mohiniyattam (Kerala), Odissi (Odisha), Sattriya (Assam), Garba & Dandia (Gujarat) and Bhangra
(Punjab) etc.

Review Question
1) What are the prominent modes of entertainment for tourists in India?

8.7 Indian Cuisines as Tourism Resources


a) Cuisines
To the Tourists unforgettable smell of India is the fragrance of  Spices  in cooking and preparing
Indian Foods. The Indian cook has about twenty-five spices (freshly ground as required) with
which to mix the recognized combinations or “Masalas”. They, like the basic ingredient vary from
region to region. Tourists probably eat more Non-vegetable dishes.
Meat dishes are more common in the North, notably Rogan Josh (Curried lamb), Gushtaba (Spicey
meat balls in yoghurt),  and the delicious Biriyani (chicken or lamb in orange flavoured rice,
sprinkled with sugar and rose water) will take Tourists salvia out of their mouths.
Mughlai Cuisine is rich, creamy, deliciously spiced and liberally sprinkled with nuts and saffron.
The ever popular Tandoori cooking (chicken, meat or fish marinated in herbs and baked in a clay
oven) and kebabs are also Northern cuisine.
In the South, curries are mainly vegetable and inclined to be hotter. Tourists in these areas may
enjoy Bhujia (vegetable curry), Dosa, Idli and Sambar (Rice pancakes, dumplings with Pickles
and Vegetable and Lentil curry), and Raitas (yoghurt with grated cucumber and mint). Coconut
is a major ingredient of South Indian cooking. On the West coast there is a wide choice of fish,
Bombay duck (curried or fried Bomnloe fish) and Pomfret (Indian salmon). Another specialty is
the Parsi Dhan Sak (lamb or chicken cooked with curried lentils) and Vindaloo vinegar marinade.
Fish is also a feature of Bengali cooking as in Dahi Maach (curried fish in yoghurt flavoured with
turmeric and ginger) and Malai (curried prawn with coconut).
One Regional distinction is that whereas in the South Rice is the staple food, in the North this is

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supplemented and sometimes substituted by a wide range of flat breads, such as Pooris, Chappatis,
Makki, Bajra Roti-Sarson Saag and Nan etc. Common throughout India is Dals (crushed lentil soup
with various additional vegetables), and Dhai, the curd or yoghurt which accompanies the curry.
Besides being tasty, it is a good “cooler”; more effective than liquids when things get too hot.
Sweets are principally milk based puddings, pastries and pancakes. Available throughout India is
Kulfi, the Indian ice cream, Rasgullas (cream cheese balls flavoured with rose water), Gulab Jamuns
(flour, yoghurt and ground almonds), and Jalebi (pancakes in syrup). Besides a splendid choice of
sweets and sweetmeats, there is an abundance of fruit, both Tropical – mangoes, pomegranates
and melons – and Temperate apricots, apples and strawberries. Western confectionery is available
in major centres. It is common to finish the meal by chewing Pan as a digestive. Pan is a betel
leaf in which are wrapped spices such as aniseed and cardamon.
Besides the main dishes, there are also countless irresistible snacks available on every street
corner, such as Samosa, Fritters, Dosa and Vada. For the Tourists Western cooking can always be
found. Indeed, the best styles of cooking from throughout the world can be experienced in the
major centres in India.

b) Desserts
Some common Indian Sweets and Desserts include:
1. Barfi: A sweet made of dried milk with ground cashews or pistachios, often served with a
thin layer of edible silver foil as decoration.
2. Chikki: A sweet made out of peanuts and molasses.
3. Gulab Jamun: A dessert consisting of fried milk balls soaked in sweet syrup, such as rose
syrup or honey.
4. Jalebi: Dough fried in a coil shape dipped in sugar syrup, often taken with milk, tea, yogurt,
or Lassi.
5. Kulfi: An Indian ice cream in a variety of flavors such as mango, saffron, or cardamom.
6. Kheer: A sweet rice pudding usually made with rice and milk.
7. Malpoa: A type of pancake made of wheat or rice flour, deep fried and dipped in sugar
syrup.
8. Rasgulla: A popular sweetmeat, produced by boiling small balls of casein in sugar syrup.
9. Sandesh: A sweet made from cheese, kneaded with fine ground sugar and molasses.
10. Shrikhand: A creamy dessert made out of strained yogurt, often served with dried fruits

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such as mangoes.
11. Kaju Katli: Similar to Barfi, mainly comprises cashew powder along with ghee, cardamom
powder and sugar.
12. Rabri: Rabri is a sweet, condensed milk based dish made by boiling the milk on low heat
for a long time until it becomes dense and changes its color to pinkish. Sugar, spices and
nuts are added for flavor. It is chilled and served as dessert.
c) Beverages
1. Non-Alcoholic Beverages
While Masala Tea is a Staple Beverage across majority of India, Indian Filter Coffee is especially
popular in Southern India.
Lassi and Tea is a Staple Beverage throughout India. The Coffee is another popular Beverage,
mostly in South India.
Sharbat and Nimbu Pani (Lemonade), Chaas, Badam Doodh (Almond milk with nuts and cardamom),
and Coconut water, Cold drinks and in Southern India Beverages include “Panner Soda” or “Gholi
Soda”, which mixtures of Carbonated water, Rose water, and Sugar and Rose milk.
2. Alcoholic Beverages
All types of Alcoholic Beverages are available in India for the consumption of Tourists.

Review Question
1) Name any two famous Cuisines and Desserts of India.

8.8 Art & Artifacts and Handlooms


In India, Tourists have lot of Art & Artifacts and Handlooms works. Indian Art & Artifacts products
allurable to Tourists are Miniature Arts, Mural and Paintings, Terracotta works, Sculptures works,
Shell works, Silver, Gold and Copper made works etc.
As far as Handlooms are concerned in India, Tourists have keen interest in Bandhej, Zari, Shahtoosh,
Pashmina, Kanzivaram, Silk and Khadi works.

Review Question
1) Name any 3 types of Handlooms of the tourist’s interest in India.

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8.9 Tranportation Network and Tourist Infrastructure


For Tourist in India, accommodations are easily available from low slab rate to Five Star Hotels.
They can also found Motels along the major Highways.
Indian Tourist places are well connected by Airways, Waterways, Roadways and Railways. Indian
Tourism Sector has launched number of Tourist Trains among which prominent are Palace on
Wheels, Maharaja, Royal Orient, Mahaparinirvan Express etc. with many Toy Trains in Mountain
ranges.
From above discussion, it may be concluded that India have plethora of Tourism Cultural Resources
to support Indian Tourism Industry.

Review Question
1) Name any 3 prominent of Tourist Trains in India.

8.10 Key Terms Used in the Unit


1. Culture
Culture is considered to be group-specific behavior that is acquired, at least in part, from social
influences.

2. Monument
Monument is a type of structure either explicitly created to commemorate a person or important
event or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic
times or cultural heritage

3. Architecture
Architecture  is both the process and product of planning, designing and construction of Architectural
works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as  works
of art.

4. Cuisines
Cuisine is a characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions.

5. Beverages
Beverage, is a liquid which is specifically prepared for human consumption. In addition to fulfilling
a basic need, drinks form part of the culture.

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6. Conservatory
Conservatory  is a place entirely devoted to cultivating and displaying objects.

7. Museums
A  museum  is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific,
artistic, cultural, or historical importance and makes them available for display.

8. Archive
An archive is a collection of historical records, or the physical place they are located. Archives contain
primary source documents that have accumulated over the  time.

9. Miniture Art
A  miniature is a picture in an  ancient  or  medieval  illuminated manuscript.

10. Mural Painting


A  mural  is any piece of artwork  painted  or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other large
permanent surface.

11. Hotel
A commercial establishment providing lodging, meals, and other guest services.

12. Motel
An establishment that provides lodging for motorists in rooms usually having direct access to an
open parking area. Also called motor court, motor lodge.

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Review questions
Fill in the blanks:
1. The Hindus pilgrimage centers or Dhams are located is ………… in the East, in the South, and
…………… in the centre and …………….. in the West.
2. The Great Dargah of Khwaja Moin-ud-din Chisti is situated in……………..
3. …………….. is a regional festival of Tamil Nadu.
4. ………………… is a regional dance of Kerala.
5. Tandoori cooking (chicken, meat or fish marinated in herbs and baked in a clay oven) is a
……………… Cuisine.

Short Question Answer:


1. Name the traditional and regional sports in India? How they serve as tourist attractions?
2. Name any ten most popular Conservatories in India with their significances in tourism.
3. Name the entertainment resources in India available as means of tourist attractions.
4. What types of art and artifacts and handlooms work India offers for tourists?
5. Write few lines about the transportation network and tourist infrastructure in India?

Long Question Answer:


1. “India is a country of multivariate religion, region, culture and traditions.” Proof this
statement with appropriate examples.
2. How fairs and festival of India are diverse in characteristics? Discuss how this diversification
is being utilized in Indian tourism sector for generating tourist attractions.
3. How entertainment resources in India can be encashed for tourism?
4. The Indian cuisines, dessert and beverages are rich sources for tourism. Discuss with
examples.

8.11 Practical Activities


1) Role play : Explain to a international Tourist about Famous Built up Tourism Cultural
Resources to visit in India
2) Visit any nearby tourist site write a report prepare a scrape book.

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