Marketing research is the intelligence service of a business enterprise.
American Marketing Association defined marketing research as “the gathering, recording and analyzing of all data about problems relating to the transfer and sale of goods and services from producer to consumer.”

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

377 vues

Marketing research is the intelligence service of a business enterprise.
American Marketing Association defined marketing research as “the gathering, recording and analyzing of all data about problems relating to the transfer and sale of goods and services from producer to consumer.”

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Marketing Research Project
- Marketing Research
- Marketing Research
- Done - Assignment - Marketing Research
- Sales and Distribution Management
- Marketing Research Process
- Marketing Research
- Marketing Research Report
- Marketing Research Text and Cases
- Marketing Research
- Marketing Research tool
- Marketing Research - Part 1
- Attitude Measurement and Scaling Techniques- Marketing Research
- MBA Internship Report in Marketing Research
- Basic Marketing Research
- Marketing Research SCDL
- Marketing Research
- Data Collection
- Marketing Research
- Marketing Research

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ROLE OF MARKETING

Customer

RESEARCH

Groups

Consumers

Employees

Shareholders

Suppliers

Uncontrolla

Controllabl Marketing ble

e

Research Environment

Environme factors

nt Economy

Assessing Providing Marketing

factors

Product Technology

Informatio Decision

Price Competition

informatio n Making

Promotio Regulations

n Political

n

needs factors

Distributi

on Social &

MarketIngManagers Cultural

Market Segmentation factors

Target market

selection

Marketing

??????????????????

• Research is a process (or

series of iterative steps), and followed often when

management is faced with a “problem” and/or

“opportunity”, management needs further information in

order to make a decision – the need for market(ing)

research is an issue that is likely to need addressing...

The question is

research?”

When to Conduct Market(ing)

Research

Yes Yes Yes Yes

Constraints of Data Decision Costs Conduct

Is sufficient Is the Is the Does the value Market

time information decision of of the research Research

available? on hand considerable exceed the cost?

inadequate? importance?

No No No No

(2) Will people drink tomato soup from a plastic jar?

(3) Whose machine tools do our potential customers buy?

(4) Which medicine is more preferred for a decease?

When Research Should be

Done

•If it clarifies problems or investigates

changes in the marketplace that can

directly impact your product

responsibility

•If it resolves your selection of

alternative courses of marketing action

to achieve key marketing objectives

•If it helps you gain a meaningful

competitive advantage

•If it allows you to stay abreast of

Questions addressing the various

stages of the Research Process

Stage in the Process Typical Questions

1. Formulate problem What is purpose of study - solve a

problem? Identify opportunity? Is

additional

background info necessary? What info is

needed to make decision? How will info

be utilized? Should research be

conducted?

2. Determine research How much is already known? Can

hypothesis

design – Exploratory / conclusivebe formulated ? What types of

questions need Descriptive and causal to be answered ?

What type of study best address

research questions ?

3. Determine data collection Can existing data be used to

advantage?

Questions addressing the various

stages of the Research Process

Stage in the Process Typical

Questions

4. Design data collection Should structure or unstructured

items used in

forms collecting data? Should purpose of

study be made

known to respondents? Should rating scale

be used?

What type of rating scale would be most

appropriate?

population

elements available? Is sample necessary? Is

Probability

sample desirable? How large should sample be?

What

operational procedures will be followed? What

methods will be used to ensure quality of data

collected?

The research process

The research process

Is a set of iterative steps and

relationships....

The Concept of Total Error

All research has error and this impacts on the research outcome – its

usability and accuracy

Poorly Written

Research Report

definition formulation

Improper use of

Statistical

Total

Procedures Error

Inadequate sample

methods

size Inadequate

sample design

Problem definition

steps

Management problem

definition process

Please note that sometimes this is

called

Research question or research

problem.....

“research problem”... and that

research questions are objectives that fit

underneath the research problem.....

Problem Definition

• Management problem:

management has to make and is

action oriented (i.e. once the

information is obtained a course of action will be

required)…. The management problem may

include:

select course of action to regain it.

decide how to seize opportunity (opportunity

identification)

Formulate Formulate

Management Problem Research Problem

Problem

Definition

• The research problem: How to

provide relevant, accurate, and unbiased

information that manages can use to solve their

marketing management problems.

• The research problem is information

oriented and researchers need to do some

investigation (e.g., ask questions, read information)

before defining the research problem – Researchers

ask yourself: is the issue that management is

seeking answers to merely a symptom of X?

– Remember the iceberg principle

• The symptoms are what we can see (e.g. falling sales)

• The issues (causes) are generally what we cant see and

generally the issue (below the surface) is what needs

investigating

and therefore forms the research problem …………..

Examples of

Management Problem Research

Problem

Develop package for new Evaluate

effectiveness of

designs.

current image of

the store.

Ok, so we have a problem,

how do we write the problem

definition????

So you think you have a

problem – how do you

write it????

Management Research Problem

Information oriented

Problem

Should a new

Decision product

/ action be

oriented To determine consumer

introduced? preferences and purchase

intentions for the proposed new

Should the advertising campaign product

To determine the effectiveness of

be changed? the current advertising campaign

Should the price of the brand be To determine the price elasticity of

increased? demand and the impact of sales

and profits of various levels of

price changes

To help you develop and write the research problem and research objectives

you should consult other sources of information: ask questions, rely on

experience,

search industry info, academic journals (theory)...... This is an iterative and

The problem definition process

How much is this information worth?????? Estimate the value of

information

Marketing Research

research research

Market Share Research Segmenting

Image Research Research

Market Characteristics Product Research

Research Pricing Research

Sales Analysis Research Promotion

For casting Research Research

Business Trends Research Distribution

Research

Problem solving research

Segmenting Research: Basis of segmentation, find out

response of segments, selection of

target segment

modification, positioning and repositioning

customer response

other tools, media decision , testing,

effectiveness

2nd Session

Marketing Research Defined

(AMA)

“Marketing research is the function

which links consumers and the

consumer to the organization

through information- Information

used to identify and define marketing

problems; generate, refine, and

evaluate marketing actions ; monitor

marketing performance; and improve

our understanding of marketing as a

process.”

The role of marketing research within the

marketing system

THE ROLE OF MARKETING

RESEARCH

MARKETING RESEARCH

ENVIRONMENT

a) specifying

b) collecting

c) analyzing

d) interpreting

FOR

a) planning

b) problem-solving

c) control

NATURE OF MARKETING

RESEARCH

Often based on cost-benefit analysis

Vital for implementation of marketing

concept

Value of information declines with time

Dynamic (ongoing)

DRIVERS OF MARKETING

RESEARCH

Shift from production to customer-

orientation

Declining cost of unit information

(digital age)

Increase intensity of competition

Globalization

Technology and commercialization

Factors shaping the Marketing Research

Industry

Low cost

survey Surveys to

Competitor providers generate

Intelligence sales & PR

The nature

Customer Internet,

and future of

Analytics e.g. online

Marketing

panels

Research

‘Value for

money’ ‘Respondent’

marketing ‘Strategic’ rewards

consultants

Reasons for Doing Marketing

Research: The Five Cs

✂ Customers: To determine how well customer needs

are being met, investigate new

target markets, and assess and test

new services and facilities.

✂ Competition: To identify primary competitors and

pinpoint their strengths and

weaknesses.

✂ Confidence: To reduce the perceived risk in making

marketing decisions.

✂ Credibility: To increase the believability of

promotional messages among

customers.

✂ Change: To keep updated with changes in

Reasons for Not Doing

Marketing Research

✂ Timing: It will take to much time.

✂ Cost: The cost of the research is too

high.

✂ Reliability: There is no reliable research

method available for

doing the research.

✂ Competitive intelligence: There is a fear

that

competitors will learn

about the organization’s

Five Key Requirements of

Marketing Research

Information

✂ Utility: Can we use it?

Does it apply to

us?

✂ Timeliness: Will it be

available in

time?

✂ Cost-effectiveness: Do the benefits

outweigh the costs?

✂ Accuracy: Is it accurate?

Classification of marketing research

Examples of problem-solving research

Problem Definition Process

E n v ir o n m e n t a l C o n t e x t o f t h e p r o b le m

T a s k s in v o lv e d in p r o b le m d e fin it io n

D is c u s s io n w it h I n t e r v ie w s w it h S e c o n d a ry d a ta Q u a lit a t iv e

d e c is io n m a k e r s e x p e rts a n a ly s is re s e a rc h

Factors to Consider -

Environmental Context

•Past information and forecasts

•Resources and constraints

•Objectives (organizational &

decision maker)

•Buyer behavior

•Legal environment

•Economic environment

•Marketing and technological skills

Defining the Research

Problem

Allow the researcher to obtain all the

information needed to address the

management decision problem

research design

guidelines for the subsequent steps involved in

the project e.g.

So you think you have a problem –

how do you write it????

Information oriented

Problem

Should a new

Decision product

/ action be

oriented To determine consumer

introduced? preferences and purchase

intentions for the proposed new

Should the advertising campaign product

To determine the effectiveness of

be changed? the current advertising campaign

Should the price of the brand be To determine the price elasticity of

increased? demand and the impact of sales

and profits of various levels of

price changes

Define Research Design

conducting the marketing research

project.

obtaining the information needed to

structure or solve marketing

research problems

A Classification of Marketing Research Designs

Research Design

Differences Between

Exploratory and

Conclusive Research

Exploratory Conclusive

relationships.

Characteristics: Information needed defined loosely.

Information needed is clearly

Research process

defined.

flexible/unstructured.

Research process is formal and

Sample is small and

structured.

nonrepresentative.

Sample is large and representative.

Analysis of primary data is

qualitative. Data Analysis is quantitative.

Findings: Tentative. Conclusive.

Outcome: Followed by conclusive research. Findings input into decision making.

Exploratory Research:

Characteristics : Overview

flexible, versatile, but not conclusive

Useful for :

discovery of ideas and insights,

Formulating problems more precisely,

Identifying alternative courses of action,

Establishing priorities for further research

Methods Used :

case studies

secondary data

focus groups

qualitative research

When done?

Generally initial research conducted to clarify and define the

nature of a problem

Does not provide conclusive evidence :

Subsequent research expected

Descriptive Research:

Characteristics : Overview

Describes characteristics of a population or phenomenon

Some understanding of the nature of the problem

preplanned, structured, conclusive

Useful for :

describing market characteristics or functions

Methods Used :

Surveys (primary data)

panels

scanner data (secondary data)

When Used:

Often a follow-up to exploratory research

Examples include:

Market segmentation studies, i.e., describe characteristics of

various groups

Determining perceptions of product characteristics

Price and promotion elasticity studies

Examples of Descriptive Studies

•Market studies that describe the size of the market, buying power of

the consumers, availability of distributors, and consumer profiles

perceived by a company and its competitors

product line, type of account size of account

its products

number and location of distributors

changes and probable response to proposed price changes

audience profiles for specific television programs and magazines

A Comparison of Basic Research

Designs

ideas characteristics effect

Characteristics:

Flexible, Manipulate

Prior formulation of

versatile. independent variables.

hypothesis. Planned,

Control of other

Front end structured design

variables.

research.

Experiments

Methods: Secondary data Surveys

Classification of Marketing

Research Data

Marketing

Research Data

Data

Descriptive Causal

Other Data Data

Relationship among Exploratory,

Descriptive and causal Research

3rd Session

Sampling Design

Management

information systems

Exploratory

analysis

Causal

Sampling

Non-probability Probability

Sample or Census

A population is the aggregate of all the

elements that share some common set of

characteristics, and that comprise the

universe for the purpose of the marketing

research problem.

numbers, such as the proportion of

consumers who are loyal to a particular

brand of toothpaste.

Sample or Census

A census involves a complete enumeration

of the elements of a population. The

population parameters can be calculated

directly in a straightforward way after the

census is enumerated (specify

individually).

selected for participation in the study.

Sample characteristics, called statistics,

are then used to make inferences about

the population parameters. The inferences

that link sample characteristics and

Sample Versus Census

Condition favoring the

use of

Sample

Census

Budget Small

Large

Time Available Short

Long

Population Small

Large

Variance in Characteristics Small

Large

Sampling

is the process of selecting a sufficient

number of elements from the

population so that by studying the

sample, and understanding the

properties or characteristics of the

sample subjects, it would be possible

to generalise the properties or

characteristics to the population

elements.

the population, the more generalisable

are the findings of the research

Sampling design – key

terms

Population – entire group of people, events or things

of interest that the researcher wishes to investigate -

N

from which the sample is drawn

the specific research study - n

sample; could be a group ( could be a two stage

process)

that make up the population

Why sample?

time

cost

accuracy

population may be difficult to

access

greater depth of information

Managerial objectives of

sampling

Representative

Reliable

efficient as time permits

Errors associated with

sampling

Sampling frame error - an error that occurs

when certain sample elements are not listed or are

not accurately represented in a sampling frame

(occurs between the population and sampling

frame)

sampling frame and the planned sample for study

between a survey that includes only those who

responded and a perfect survey that would also

include those who failed to respond (occurs

between the planned sample and the respondents

Sampling design process

Step 1: Define Population

Entire group under study as defined by research objectives

list of sampling units from which a sample will be drawn;

the list could consist of geographic areas, institutions,

individuals or other units

method of selecting the sampling units

Probability (random) vs. non probability (non-random)

if non-probability sampling method –involves some

judgement based on time, cost, analysis required

if probability sampling – based on statistical determination

of sample size

follow procedures based on sampling technique selected

Classification of Sampling

Techniques

Sampling Techniques

Nonprobability Probability

Sampling Techniques Sampling Techniques

Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling

Random Sampling Sampling Sampling Techniques

Sampling

Non Probability Sampling

each sampling unit of the population being studied

does not have an equal chance of being included

in the study (due to the way the sample is

selected)

statistically inappropriate

factors are more important - time ; preliminary

information - then use non-probability

Non Probability Sampling

Common sampling

approaches

convenience

judgement

quota

snowball

Convenience Sample

Also known as haphazard or accidental sampling

based on convenient availability of sampling units

sample units happen to be in a certain place at certain

time – high traffic locations – shopping malls;

pedestrian areas

further research will use probability sampling

selection error

Judgement Sampling

be the researchers) selects the

sample based on personal

judgement about some

appropriate characteristics

suited to the study

method

Quota Samples

are represented based on pertinent

characteristics

may introduce bias

Snowball Sampling

Judgement sample that relies on

researchers ability to locate an initial set of

respondents with the desired

characteristics; these individuals are then

used as informants to identify others with

desired characteristic

to locate

Probability Sampling

In a probability sample each element in

the population has some known chance

or probability of being included in the

sample

the sample is important for

generalisability of results

eliminating bias

Probability Sampling cont.

statistical efficiency

same sample size and smaller

standard error of the mean is

obtained

economic efficiency

precision refers to the level of

uncertainty about the characteristics

being measured

precision is inversely related to

sampling error

precision is positively related to cost

Types of probability

sampling

Simple random sample

Systematic sampling

Stratified sampling

proportionate

disproportionate

Cluster sampling

Area sampling

Simple Random Sampling

Assures each element in the population of an

equal chance of being included in the sample

drawing out a sample of 100 (size has been

statistically calculated)

Random numbers

population – sometimes difficult to obtain

Systematic Sampling

A starting point is selected by a random

process and then every nth number on

the list is selected

Calculate skip interval = population list

size/ sample size (size has been statistically

calculated)

Danger of periodicity – if list has a

systematic pattern

Can be more representative than a

simple random sample

Stratified Sampling

Simple random sub samples are drawn

from within each stratum in the

population that are more or less equal

on some characteristic

Greater degree of representativeness

Two types

proportionate - sample size of each stratum

is relative to the size of each stratum in the

population

disproportionate –sample size of each

stratum does not reflect their relative

proportions in the population

Cluster Sampling

divides the population into groups

(clusters), any one of which can be

considered a representative sample

which the primary sampling unit is not the

individual element but a large cluster of

elements

Technique Strengths Weaknesses

Nonprobability Sampling Least expensive, least Selection bias, sample not

Convenience sampling timeconsuming, most representative, not recommended for

convenient descriptive or causal research

Judgmental sampling Low cost, convenient, Does not allow generalization,

not timeconsuming subjective

Quota sampling Sample can be controlled Selection bias, no assurance of

for certain characteristics representativeness

Snowball sampling Can estimate rare Timeconsuming

characteristics

Simple random sampling results projectable frame, expensive, lower precision,

(SRS) no assurance of representativeness.

Systematic sampling Can increase Can decrease representativeness

representativeness,

easier to implement than

SRS, sampling frame not

necessary

Stratified sampling Include all important Difficult to select relevant

subpopulations, stratification variables, not feasible to

precision stratify on many variables, expensive

Cluster sampling Easy to implement, cost Imprecise, difficult to compute and

effective interpret results

Choosing probability vs. non-

probability sampling

Probability Evaluation Criteria Non-probability

sampling sampling

Conclusive Nature of research Exploratory

errors of sampling and error

non-sampling error

[Heterogeneous] [Homogeneous]

Selecting an Appropriate

Design

degree of accuracy

resources

time

advance knowledge of the

population

national versus local projects

need for statistical analysis

Session - 4

Measurement and

Scaling

Measurement means assigning numbers

or other symbols to characteristics of

objects according to certain pre-specified

rules.

One-to-one correspondence between

the numbers and the characteristics

being measured.

The rules for assigning numbers should

be standardized and applied uniformly.

Rules must not change over objects or

Measurement and

Scaling

Scaling involves creating a continuum

upon which measured objects are

located.

Each respondent is assigned a number

from 1 to 100, with 1 = Extremely

Unfavorable, and 100 = Extremely

Favorable. Measurement is the actual

assignment of a number from 1 to 100 to

each respondent. Scaling is the process of

placing the respondents on a continuum

with respect to their attitude toward

Primary Scales of

Scale

Measurement

Nominal Numbers Finish

Assigned

7 8 3

to Runners

of Winners

Third Second First

place place place

Interval Performance

Rating on a 8.2 9.1 9.6

0 to 10 Scale

15.2 14.1 13.4

Ratio Time to

Finish, in

Primary Scales of

Measurement

The

Nominal Scale

numbers serve only as labels or tags for

identifying and classifying objects.

When used for identification, there is a strict one-to-

one correspondence between the numbers and the

objects.

The numbers do not reflect the amount of the

characteristic possessed by the objects.

The only permissible operation on the numbers in a

nominal scale is counting.

Only a limited number of statistics, all of which are

based on frequency counts, are permissible, e.g.,

Illustration of Primary Scales of

Measurement

Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio

Scale Scale Scale Scale

Preference Preference $ spent last

No. Store Rankings Ratings 3 months

1-7 11-17

1. Lord & Taylor 7 79 5 15 0

2. Macy’s 2 25 7 17 200

3. Kmart 8 82 4 14 0

4. Rich’s 3 30 6 16 100

5. J.C. Penney 1 10 7 17 250

6. Neiman Marcus 5 53 5 15 35

7. Target 9 95 4 14 0

8. Saks Fifth Avenue 6 61 5 15 100

9. Sears 4 45 6 16 0

10.Wal-Mart 10 115 2 12 10

Primary Scales of Measurement -

Ordinal Scale

• A ranking scale in which numbers are assigned

to objects to indicate the relative extent to which

the objects possess some characteristic.

• Can determine whether an object has more or

less of a characteristic than some other object,

but not how much more or less.

• Any series of numbers can be assigned that

preserves the ordered relationships between the

objects.

• In addition to the counting operation allowable

for nominal scale data, ordinal scales permit

the use of statistics based on centiles, e.g.,

percentile, quartile, median.

Primary Scales of Measurement -

Interval Scale

• Numerically equal distances on the scale

represent equal values in the characteristic being

measured.

• It permits comparison of the differences

between objects.

• The location of the zero point is not fixed. Both

the zero point and the units of measurement are

arbitrary.

• Any positive linear transformation of the form y

= a + bx will preserve the properties of the scale.

values.

• Statistical techniques that may be used include

Primary Scales of

Measurement -

Ratio Scale

• Possesses all the properties of the

nominal, ordinal, and interval scales.

scale values.

the form y = bx, where b is a positive

constant, are allowed.

Primary Scales of

Measurement

Scale Basic Common Marketing Permissible Statistics

Characteristics Examples Examples Descriptive Inferential

Nominal Numbers identify Social Security Brand nos., store Percentages, Chi-square,

& classify objects nos., numbering types mode binomial test

of football players

Ordinal Nos. indicate the Quality rankings, Preference Percentile, Rank-order

relative positions rankings of teams rankings, market median correlation,

of objects but not in a tournament position, social Friedman

the magnitude of class ANOVA

differences

between them

Interval Differences Temperature Attitudes, Range, mean, Product-

between objects (Fahrenheit) opinions, index standard moment

Ratio Zero point is fixed, Length, weight Age, sales, Geometric Coefficient of

ratios of scale income, costs mean, harmonic variation

values can be mean

compared

A Classification of Scaling

Techniques

Scaling Techniques

Comparative Noncomparative

Scales Scales

Comparison Order Sum Other Rating Scales Rating Scales

Procedures

Semantic Stapel

Likert

Differential

A Comparison of Scaling

Techniques

• Comparative scales involve the

direct comparison of stimulus objects.

Comparative scale data must be

interpreted in relative terms and

have only ordinal or rank order

properties.

• In non-comparative scales, each

object is scaled independently of the

others in the stimulus set. The resulting

data are generally assumed to be

Relative Advantages of

Comparative Scales

• Small differences between stimulus

objects can be detected.

• Same known reference points for

all respondents.

• Easily understood and can be

applied.

• Involve fewer theoretical

assumptions.

• Tend to reduce halo or carryover

Relative Disadvantages of

Comparative Scales

stimulus objects scaled.

Comparative Scaling

Techniques

•

Paired Comparison Scaling

A respondent is presented with two

objects and asked to select one according

to some criterion.

• The data obtained are ordinal in nature.

• Paired comparison scaling is the most

widely-used comparative scaling

technique.

• Under the assumption of transitivity, it is

possible to convert paired comparison data

to a rank order.

Obtaining Shampoo Preferences

Instructions: We are going to present you with ten pairs of shampoo

brands. For each pair, please indicate which one of the two brands of shampoo

you would prefer for personal use.

Recording Form:

Sassoon Shoulders

J hirmack 0 0 1 0

Finesse 1a 0 1 0

Vidal Sassoon 1 1 1 1

Head & Shoulders 0 0 0 0

Pert 1 1 0 1

Number of Times 3 2 0 4 1

Preferredb

a

A 1 in a particular box means that the brand in that column was preferred over

the brand in the corresponding row. A 0 means that the row brand was preferred

over the column brand. bThe number of times a brand was preferred is obtained

by summing the 1s in each column.

Paired Comparison Selling

The most common method of taste testing is paired comparison.

The consumer is asked to sample two different products and

select the one with the most appealing taste. The test is done in

private and a minimum of 1,000 responses is considered an

adequate sample. A blind taste test for a soft drink, where

imagery, self-perception and brand reputation are very

important factors in the consumer’s purchasing decision, may

not be a good indicator of performance in the marketplace. The

introduction of New Coke illustrates this point. New Coke was

heavily favored in blind paired comparison taste tests, but its

introduction was less than successful, because image plays a

major role in the purchase of Coke.

Comparative Scaling Techniques

Rank Order Scaling

Respondents are presented with several

objects simultaneously and asked to order

or rank them according to some criterion.

It is possible that the respondent may

dislike the brand ranked 1 in an absolute

sense.

Furthermore, rank order scaling also results

in ordinal data.

Only (n - 1) scaling decisions need be made

in rank order scaling.

Preference for Toothpaste Brands

Instructions: Rank the various brands of toothpaste in

order of preference. Begin by picking out the one brand

that you like most and assign it a number 1. Then find the

second most preferred brand and assign it a number 2.

Continue this procedure until you have ranked all the

brands of toothpaste in order of preference. The least

preferred brand should be assigned a rank of 10.

no right or wrong answer. Just try to be consistent.

Preference for Toothpaste

Brands

Using Rank Order Scaling

Form

Brand Rank Order

1. Crest _________

2. Colgate _________

3. Aim _________

4. Gleem _________

5. Sensodyne _________

6. Ultra Brite _________

7. Close Up _________

8. Pepsodent _________

9. Plus White _________

10. Stripe _________

Comparative Scaling Techniques

Constant Sum Scaling

Respondents allocate a constant sum of

units, such as 100 points to attributes of a

product to reflect their importance.

If an attribute is unimportant, the respondent

assigns it zero points.

If an attribute is twice as important as some

other attribute, it receives twice as many

points.

The sum of all the points is 100. Hence, the

name of the scale.

Importance of Bathing Soap

Attributes Using a Constant Sum

Scale

Instructions

On the next slide, there are eight attributes of

bathing soaps. Please allocate 100 points among

the attributes so that your allocation reflects the

relative importance you attach to each attribute.

The more points an attribute receives, the more

important the attribute is. If an attribute is not at

all important, assign it zero points. If an attribute

is twice as important as some other attribute, it

should receive twice as many points.

Importance of Bathing Soap

Attributes

Using a Constant Sum Scale

Form

Average Responses of Three Segments

Attribute

Segment I Segment II8 Segment III 2 4

1. Mildness 2 4 17

2. Lather 3 9 7

3. Shrinkage 53 17 9

4. Price 9 0 19

5. Fragrance 7 5 9

6. Packaging 5 3 20

13 60 15

7. Moisturizing

Sum 100 100 100

8. Cleaning Power

Q – Sort Scaling

that uses a rank order procedure to

sort objects based on similarity with

respect to some criterion.

Session - 5

Non - comparative Scaling

Techniques

at a time, and for this reason

noncomparative scales are often

referred to as monadic scales.

of continuous and itemized rating

scales.

Continuous Rating Scale

Respondents rate the objects by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line

that runs from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other.

How would you rate Sears as a department store?

Version 1

Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Probably the best

Version 2

Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- -

Probably the best

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

100

Version 3

Very bad Neither good Very good

nor bad

Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

-Probably the best

RATE: Rapid Analysis and Testing

Environment

A relatively new research tool, the perception analyzer, provides continuous measurement of “gut

reaction.” A group of up to 400 respondents is presented with TV or radio spots or advertising

copy. The measuring device consists of a dial that contains a 100-point range. Each participant

is given a dial and instructed to continuously record his or her reaction to the material being

tested.

is fed to a computer, which tabulates second-by-

second response profiles. As the results are

recorded by the computer, they are superimposed

on a video screen, enabling the researcher to view

the respondents' scores immediately. The

responses are also stored in a permanent data file

for use in further analysis. The response scores

can be broken down by categories, such as age,

income, sex, or product usage.

Itemized Rating Scales

The respondents are provided with a scale

that has a number or brief description

associated with each category.

position, and the respondents are required to

select the specified category that best

describes the object being rated.

are the Likert, semantic differential, and

Likert Scale

The Likert scale requires the respondents to indicate a degree of

agreement or

disagreement with each of a series of statements about the stimulus

objects.

SD D Neither A SA

A or

D

1. Sears sells high quality merchandise. 1 2X 3 4 5

2. Sears has poor in-store service. 1 2X 3 4 5

3. I like to shop at Sears. 1 2 3X 4 5

The analysis can be conducted on an item-by-item basis (profile analysis),

or a total (summated) score can be calculated.

statements by the respondents should be scored by reversing the scale.

Semantic Differential

Scale

The semantic differential is a seven-point rating scale with end

points associated with bipolar labels that have semantic

meaning.

SEARS IS:

Powerful --:--:--:--:-X-:--:--: Weak

Unreliable --:--:--:--:--:-X-:--: Reliable

Modern --:--:--:--:--:--:-X-: Old-fashioned

side of the scale and sometimes at the right.

This controls the tendency of some respondents, particularly

those with very positive or very negative attitudes, to mark the

right- or left-hand sides without reading the labels.

Individual items on a semantic differential scale may be scored

on either a -3 to +3 or a 1 to 7 scale.

A Semantic Differential Scale for

Measuring Self- Concepts, Person

Concepts, and Product Concepts

1) Rugged :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Delicate

3) Uncomfortable :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Comfortable

Stapel Scale

The Stapel scale is a unipolar rating scale with ten categories numbered

from -5 to +5, without a neutral point (zero). This scale is usually

presented vertically.

SEARS

+5 +5

+4 +4

+3 +3

+2 +2X

+1 +1

HIGH QUALITY POOR SERVICE

-1 -1

-2 -2

-3 -3

-4X -4

-5 -5

The data obtained by using a Stapel scale can be analyzed in the same

way as semantic differential data.

Basic Non - comparative

Scales

Scale Basic Examples Advantages Disadvantages

Characteristics

Continuous Place a mark on a Reaction to Easy to construct Scoring can be

Rating continuous line TV cumbersome

Scale commercials unless

computerized

Itemized Rating

Scales

agreement on a 1 of attitudes administer, and time - consuming

(strongly disagree) understand

to 5 (strongly agree)

scale

Differential with bipolar labels product, and to whether the

company

images

Scale scale, - 5 to +5, of attitudes administer over

witho ut a neutral and images telephone

point (zero)

Itemized Scale Decisions

1) Number of categories Although there is no single,

optimal number,

traditional guidelines suggest that

there

should be between five and nine

categories

2) Balanced vs. unbalanced In general, the scale should

be balanced to

obtain objective data (Next Slide).

3) Odd/even no. of categories If a neutral or indifferent

scale response is

possible from at least some of the

respondents,

an odd number of categories should

be used

4) Forced vs. non-forced In situations where

the

respondents are

expected to have no opinion, the

accuracy of

the data may be improved by a non-

forced scale

5) Verbal description An argument can be made for

Balanced and Unbalanced

Scales

Jovan Musk for Men is Jovan Musk for Men is

Very good Very good

Good Good

Bad Somewhat good

Very bad Bad

Extremely bad Very bad

Rating Scale Configurations

A variety of scale configurations may be employed to measure the gentleness of

Cheer detergent. Some examples include:

1) Very harsh --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Very gentle

3) . Very harsh

.

.

. Neither harsh nor gentle

.

.

. Very gentle

Very Harsh Somewhat Neither harsh Somewhat Gentle Very

harsh Harsh nor gentle gentle gentle

5)

harsh nor gentle gentle

Measurement Error –

Difference between

observed score and true

score

Measurement Accuracy

The true score model provides a framework for

understanding the accuracy of measurement.

XO = XT + XS + XR

where

XT = the true score of the characteristic

XS = systematic error ( they affect the

observed in the same way each

time)score.

Potential Sources of Error on

Measurement

1) Other relatively stable characteristics of the individual

that influence the test score, such as intelligence, social

desirability, and education.

2) Short-term or transient personal factors, such as

health, emotions,

and fatigue.

3) Situational factors, such as the presence of other

people, noise, and distractions.

4) Sampling of items included in the scale: addition,

deletion, or changes in the scale items.

5) Lack of clarity of the scale, including the instructions

or the items themselves.

6) Mechanical factors, such as poor printing,

overcrowding items in the questionnaire, and poor

design.

7) Administration of the scale, such as differences among

Reliability

extent to which measures are free from

random error, XR. If XR = 0, the

measure is perfectly reliable. Random

error produces inconsistency leading

to lower reliability

Validity

extent to which differences in observed scale

scores reflect true differences among objects

on the characteristic being measured, rather

than systematic or random error. Perfect

validity requires that there be no measurement

error (XO = XT, XR = 0, XS = 0).

Relationship Between Reliability and

Validity

perfectly reliable. In this case XO = XT, XR =

0, and XS = 0. If a measure is unreliable, it

cannot be perfectly valid, since at a minimum

XO = XT + XR. Furthermore, systematic error

may also be present, i.e., XS≠0. Thus,

unreliability implies invalidity.

If a measure is perfectly reliable, it may or

may not be perfectly valid, because

systematic error may still be present (XO = XT

+ X ). Reliability is a necessary, but not

Session - 6

Questionnaire

Collection of Data

Data can be obtained :

Secondary Source

Internal Records

Primary source

Collection of Data

Primary Data :

(telephone and personal

interview)

Observation :

Questionnaire Definition

A questionnaire is a formalized

set of questions for obtaining

information from respondents.

Questionnaire Objectives

specific questions that the respondents can and will

answer.

the respondent to become involved in the interview, to

cooperate, and to complete the interview.

Questionnaire Design Process

Specify the Information Needed

Unwillingness to Answer

Individual Question

Content -

1.Is the Question

Necessary?

for the data resulting from a

question, that question should

be eliminated.

Individual Question Content ─

2. Are Several Questions Needed

Instead of One?

Sometimes, several questions are needed to obtain the

required information in an unambiguous manner. Consider

the question:

drink?” (Incorrect)

because two or more questions are combined into one. To

obtain the required information, two distinct questions should

be asked:

“Do you think Coca-Cola is a refreshing soft drink?”

(Correct)

Overcoming Inability To

Answer –

1. Is the Respondent

Informed?

In situations where not all respondents are

likely to be informed about the topic of

interest, filter questions that measure

familiarity and past experience should be

asked before questions about the topics

themselves.

uninformed responses without reducing the

Overcoming Inability To

Answer –

2. Can the Respondent

Remember?

How many gallons of soft drinks did you

consume during the last four weeks?

(Incorrect)

typical week? (Correct)

1. ___ Less than once a week

2. ___ 1 to 3 times per week

3. ___ 4 to 6 times per week

4. ___ 7 or more times per week

Overcoming Inability To Answer

–

3. Can the Respondent

Respondents Articulate?

may be unable to

articulate certain types of responses,

e.g., describe the atmosphere of a

department store.

such as pictures, maps, and

descriptions to help them articulate

their responses.

Overcoming Unwillingness To

Answer – Effort Required of the

Respondents

devote a lot of effort to provide

information.

Overcoming Unwillingness To

Answer

Context

Respondents are unwilling to respond to questions which

they consider to be inappropriate for the given context.

The researcher should manipulate the context so that the

request for information seems appropriate.

Legitimate Purpose

Explaining why the data are needed can make the request

for the information seem legitimate and increase the

respondents' willingness to answer.

Sensitive Information

Respondents are unwilling to disclose, at least accurately,

sensitive information because this may cause

embarrassment or threaten the respondent's prestige or

self-image.

Overcoming Unwillingness To

Answer – Increasing the Willingness

of Respondents

Place sensitive topics at the end of the questionnaire.

interest is common.

the question as if it referred to other people.

respondents are willing to answer. The entire list of

questions can then be asked quickly.

figures.

Use randomized techniques.

Choosing Question

Structure –

Unstructured Questions

Unstructured questions are open-

ended questions that respondents

answer in their own words.

Who is your favorite actor?

What do you think about people

who shop at high-end

department stores?

Choosing Question Structure

– Structured Questions

set of response alternatives and

the response format. A structured

question may be multiple-choice,

dichotomous, or a scale.

Choosing Question

Structure –

Multiple-Choice Questions

In multiple-choice questions, the researcher provides a

choice of answers and respondents are asked to select one

or more of the alternatives given.

months?

____ Definitely will not buy

____ Probably will not buy

____ Undecided

____ Probably will buy

____ Definitely will buy

____ Other (please specify)

Choosing Question

Structure –

Dichotomous Questions

A dichotomous question has only two response

alternatives: yes or no, agree or disagree, and so

on.

Often, the two alternatives of interest are

supplemented by a neutral alternative, such as

“no opinion,” “don't know,” “both,” or “none.”

months?

_____ Yes

_____ No

_____ Don't know

Choosing Question Structure –

Scales

Do you intend to buy a new car within the next six months?

Definitely

will not buy will not buy will buy

will buy

1 2 3 4 5

Choosing Question

Wording –

Define the Issue

Define the issue in terms of who, what, when, where, why,

and way (the six Ws). Who, what, when, and where are

particularly important.

(Incorrect)

at home during the last month?

In case of more than one brand, please list all the brands that

apply. (Correct)

Choosing Question

Wording –

Use Unambiguous Words

In a typical month, how often do you shop in department

stores?

_____ Never

_____ Occasionally

_____ Sometimes

_____ Often

_____ Regularly

(Incorrect)

department stores?

_____ Less than once

_____ 1 or 2 times

_____ 3 or 4 times

_____ More than 4 times (Correct)

Choosing Question Wording –

Avoid Leading or Biasing

Questions

A leading question is one that clues the respondent to what

the answer should be, as in the following:

Do you think that patriotic Americans should buy

imported automobiles when that would put American labor out

of work?

_____ Yes

_____ No

_____ Don't know

(Incorrect)

automobiles?

_____ Yes

_____ No

_____ Don't know

(Correct)

Choosing Question

Wording –

Avoid Implicit Alternatives

An alternative that is not explicitly expressed in the options

is an implicit alternative.

1. Do you like to fly when traveling short

distances?

(Incorrect)

distances, or would you rather drive?

(Correct)

Choosing Question

Wording –

Avoid Implicit Assumptions

Questions should not be worded so that the

answer is dependent upon implicit assumptions

about what will happen as a consequence.

1. Are you in favor of a balanced budget?

(Incorrect)

if it would result in an increase in

the personal income tax?

(Correct)

Determining the Order of

Questions

Opening Questions

The opening questions should be interesting,

simple, and non-threatening.

Type of Information

As a general guideline, basic information should

be obtained first, followed by classification, and,

finally, identification information.

Difficult Questions

Difficult questions or questions which are

sensitive, embarrassing, complex, or dull, should

be placed late in the sequence.

Determining the Order of

Questions

Effect on Subsequent Questions

General questions should precede the specific

questions (funnel approach).

Q1: “What considerations are important to

you in selecting a department store?”

important is convenience of location?”

(Correct)

Form and Layout

Divide a questionnaire into several parts.

numbered, particularly when branching

questions are used.

precoded.

numbered serially.

Example of a Precoded

Questionnaire

The American Lawyer

A Confidential Survey of Our Subscribers

(Please ignore the numbers alongside the answers. They are only to help

us in data processing.)

1. Considering all the times you pick it up, about how much time, in total, do

you spend reading or looking through a typical issue of THE AMERICAN

LAWYER?

Reproduction of the

Questionnaire

The questionnaire should be reproduced on good-quality paper

and have a professional appearance.

Questionnaires should take the form of a booklet rather than a

number of sheets of paper clipped or stapled together.

Each question should be reproduced on a single page (or

double-page spread).

Vertical response columns should be used for individual

questions.

Grids are useful when there are a number of related questions

they use the same set of response categories.

The tendency to crowd questions together to make the

questionnaire look shorter should be avoided.

Directions or instructions for individual questions should be

placed as close to the questions as possible.

Pretesting

Pretesting refers to the testing of the questionnaire on a

small sample of respondents to identify and eliminate potential

problems.

adequate pretesting.

question content, wording, sequence, form and layout,

question difficulty, and instructions.

The respondents for the pretest and for the actual survey

should be drawn from the same population.

actual survey is to be conducted by mail, telephone, or

Pretesting

After the necessary changes have been made,

another pretest could be conducted by mail,

telephone, or electronic means if those methods

are to be used in the actual survey.

pretests.

respondents for each wave.

used procedures in pretesting.

should be coded and analyzed.

Measurement of Central

Tendency

Session - 7

Classification of Data

Geographic i.e. Area wise classification – cities , districts

Female

characteristics- income

Formation of Frequency

Distribution

e.g. Refrigerator sold each day in Oct.

2008

Classification according to class

intervals

Class Limits

Class intervals

Class frequency

Tabulation

table

Frequency Distribution

In a frequency distribution, one

variable is considered at a time.

variable produces a table of

frequency counts, percentages, and

cumulative percentages for all the

values associated with that variable.

Measures of central tendency

Mean, median, mode, etc.

Quartile

Measure of variation

Range, interquartile range,

variance and standard deviation,

coefficient of variation

Shape

Symmetric, skewed, using box-

and-whisker plots

Coefficient of correlation

Summary Measures

Mean Mode

Median Range Coefficient of

Variation

Variance

Mean

Data:100, 78, 65, 43, 94, 58

divided by the number of data

43+58+65+78+94+100=438

438÷6=73

Mean is 73

Mean

Sample Mean

Sample Size

n

X X1 X 2 L X n

i

X

i 1

n n

Population Mean

Population Size

N

X i

X1 X 2 L X N

i 1

N N

Mean

Direct Method : X

Mean

• The most common measure of

central tendency

• Acts as ‘Balance Point’

• Affected by extreme values

(outliers)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12

14

Mean = 5 Mean = 6

Median

Robust measure of central tendency

Not affected by extreme values

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12

14

Median = 5 Median = 5

In an ordered array, the median is

the “middle” number

If n or N is odd, the median is the

middle number

If n or N is even, the median is the

average of the two middle numbers

Mode

A measure of central tendency

Value that occurs most often

Not affected by extreme values

Used for either numerical or

categorical data

There

Mode = 9

may be no mode orNoseveral

Mode

modes

1 2 34 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Quartiles

Q1, the first quartile, is the value such

that 25% of the observations are smaller,

corresponding to (n+1)/4 ordered

observation

Q2, the second quartile, is the median,

50% of the observations are smaller,

corresponding to 2(n+1)/4 = (n+1)/2

ordered observation

Q3, the third quartile, is the value such

that 75% of the observations are smaller,

Quartiles

Split Ordered Data into 4 Quarters

Q1 Q3

Q2 i n 1

Position of ith Quartile Qi

4

Data in Ordered Array: 11 12 13 16 16 17 17 18 21

1 9 1 12 13

Position of Q1 2.5 Q1 12.5

= Median 4= 16, Q3 = 17.5 2

Measures of Variation

Variation

Variation

Range Population

Variance Population

Standard

Deviation

Sample

Variance Sample

Standard

Deviation

Interquartile Range

Range

Measure of variation

Difference between the largest and the

smallest observations:

Range X Largest X Smallest

Ignore the way in which data are

distributed

Range = 12 - 7 = 5 Range = 12 - 7 = 5

7 8 9 10 11 7 8 9 10 11

12 12

Interquartile Range

Measure of variation

Also known as midspread

Spread in the middle 50%

Difference between the first and

third quartiles

Data in Ordered Array: 11 12 13 16 16 17 17 18 21

Variance

•Important measure of variation

•Shows variation about the mean

Sample variance: n

X X

2

i

S

2 i 1

n 1

N

Population variance

X

2

i

2 i 1

N

Standard Deviation

Most important measure of variation

Shows variation about the mean

Has the same units as the original

data n

Xi X

2

S

i 1

n 1

N

Xi

Population standard deviation: 2

i 1

N

Comparing Standard

Deviations

Data A

Mean = 15.5

s = 3.338

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

21

Data B

Mean = 15.5

s = .9258

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20 21

Data C

Mean = 15.5

s = 4.57

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

21

Coefficient of Variation

Measure of Relative Dispersion

Always in %

Shows Variation Relative to Mean

Used to Compare 2 or More Groups

Formula (Sample Coefficient of

Variation)

S

CV = ⋅ 100%

X

Session - 8

Review of Previous

Lecture

Range

The difference between the largest and smallest

values

Interquartile range

The difference between the 25th and 75th

percentiles

Variance

The sum of squares divided by the population size

or the sample size

Standard deviation

The square root of the variance

•Another Measure of Dispersion

•Skewness

•Kurtosis

Measures of Dispersion –

Coefficient of Variation

Coefficient of variation (CV)

measures the spread of a set of data

as a proportion of its mean.

It is the ratio of the sample standard

deviation to the sample mean

s

CV = ×100%

x

It is sometimes expressed as a

percentage

Measures of Skewness and

Kurtosis

A fundamental task in many

statistical analyses is to characterize

the location and variability of a

data set (Measures of central

tendency vs. measures of

dispersion)

Both measures tell us nothing about

the shape of the distribution

A further characterization of the

Skewness

Skewness measures the degree of

asymmetry exhibited by the data

Skewness

Positive skewness

There are more observations below the

mean than above it

When the mean is greater than the median

Negative skewness

There are a small number of low

observations and a large number of high

ones

When the median is greater than the mean

Shape of a Distribution

Describes how data is distributed

Measures of shape

Mean > median: right-skewness

Mean < median: left-skewness

Mean =

Left-Skewed

median: symmetric

Symmetric Right-Skewed

Mean < Median < Mode Mean = Median =Mode Mode < Median < Mean

Kurtosis

Kurtosis measures how peaked the

histogram is n

∑ (x − x)

i

4

kurtosis = i

4

−3

ns

distribution is 0

Kurtosis characterizes the relative

peakedness or flatness of a

Kurtosis

Platykurtic– When the kurtosis < 0,

the frequencies throughout the curve

are closer to be equal (i.e., the curve is

more flat and wide)

Thus, negative kurtosis indicates a

relatively flat distribution

Leptokurtic– When the kurtosis > 0,

there are high frequencies in only a

small part of the curve (i.e, the curve is

more peaked)

Thus, positive kurtosis indicates a

relatively peaked distribution

Kurtosis

k>3

Frequency

k=3

k<3

Value

• Kurtosis is based on the size of a distribution's tails.

• Negative kurtosis (platykurtic) – distributions with short tails

• Positive kurtosis (leptokurtic) – distributions with relatively long tails

TIME SERIES ANALYSIS

Statistical data which are collected,

observed or recorded at successive

intervals of time – such data are

referred as TIME SERIES :

-It helps in understanding the past

behavior.

-It helps in planning future operations

-It helps in evaluating current

accomplishments

TIME SERIES ANALYSIS

Components of Time Series:

-Secular trends – General movement

persisting over

long term

-Seasonal variations - pattern year after

year

-Cyclical variations – Fluctuations

moving up and

down every few years

-Irregular variations- Variations in

Methods of Measurement

Correlation Analysis

If two quantities vary in such a way that

movement in one are accompanied by

movement in another, these quantities

are said to be correlated. The statistical

tool for calculating such relationship is

known as correlation and is denoted by

= r.

- Positive and Negative;

- Simple, partial and multiple;

- Linear and Non - linear

Scatter Plots and

Correlation

A scatter plot (or scatter diagram) is used

to show the relationship between two

variables

Correlation analysis is used to measure

strength of the association (linear

relationship) between two variables

Only concerned with strength of the

relationship

No causal effect is implied

Scatter Plot Examples

Linear relationships Curvilinear relationships

y y

x x

y y

x x

Scatter Plot Examples

Strong relationships Weak relationships

y y

x x

y y

x x

Scatter Plot Examples

No relationship

y

Correlation Coefficient

The population correlation

coefficient ρ (rho) measures the

strength of the association between

the variables

The sample correlation coefficient r

is an estimate of ρ and is used to

measure the strength of the linear

relationship in the sample

observations

Features r

The closer to -1, the stronger the

negative linear relationship

The closer to 1, the stronger the

positive linear relationship

The closer to 0, the weaker the linear

relationship

Calculating the Correlation

Coefficient

r =

∑( x −x )( y −y )

[ ∑( x −x ) ][ ∑( y −y )

2 2

]

n∑ xy − ∑ x ∑ y

r=

[n( ∑ x 2 ) − ( ∑ x )2 ][n( ∑ y 2 ) − ( ∑ y )2 ]

where:

r = Sample correlation coefficient

n = Sample size

x = Value of the independent variable

y = Value of the dependent variable

For Example

Tree Trunk

Height Diameter

y x xy y2 x2

35 8 280 1225 64

49 9 441 2401 81

27 7 189 729 49

33 6 198 1089 36

60 13 780 3600 169

21 7 147 441 49

45 11 495 2025 121

51 12 612 2601 144

Σ=321 Σ=73 Σ=3142 Σ=14111 Σ=713

Tree n∑ xy − ∑ x ∑ y

Height,

y

r=

70

[n( ∑ x 2 ) − ( ∑ x)2 ][n( ∑ y 2 ) − ( ∑ y)2 ]

60

8(3142) − (73)(321)

50 =

40

[8(713) − (73)2 ][8(14111) − (321)2 ]

30

= 0.886

20

10

0

r = 0.886 → relatively strong positive

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

linear association between x and y

Trunk Diameter, x

Calculations of Correlation when

deviations are taken from Assumed

Mean

Rank Correlation

coefficient

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