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# AMPATUAN | MARANAN | RONCALES | SAZ

## TEMPERATURE AND HEAT CELSIUS AND FARENHEIT

TEMPERATURE SCALES
TEMPERATURE SCALES
- Upper fixed point: ice point
- Lower fixed point: steam point
1. Celsius
- An ice point of 0° C and steam point of
100°C
- Used worldwide
- There is a difference in writing the actual
temperature of the object (temperature of the human
body is about 37 °C, where the symbol °C stands for
“degrees Celsius.”) and the change of an object
in its temperature (the change between two
temperatures is specified in “Celsius degrees” (°8)
not in “degrees Celsius.”)
- Separation between ice and steam points is divided
into 100°C
- Size of the Celsius degree is larger than Fahrenheit
degree
- 1°C = 1K ; There are 100 divisions between their
ice points and steam points ; Related by:
T = 𝑇𝑐 + 273.15K

2. Fahrenheit 3. Kelvin
- An ice point of 32° F and steam - Referred to as the absolute zero
point of 212°F - Has greater significance than the two
- Commonly used in US : home medical thermometer - An ice point of 273.15K
- Separation between ice and steam points is divided - Was introduced by William Thompson
into 180°F - By INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENT, symbol K
is not written with a degree (°) sign nor is the word
"degrees"
- SI base unit for temperature
- 1°C = 1K ; There are 100 divisions between their
ice points and steam points

## COMPARISON OF KELVIN AND

CELSIUS

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AMPATUAN | MARANAN | RONCALES | SAZ

## COMPARISON OF TEMPERATURE - When cooled, pressure decreases

SCALES - Ex. Pressure of tires of an automobile rise after
the car has been driven as the tires become warm also
- 100𝐶 ° = 180𝐹°
- Consists of a gas-filled bulb to which pressure is
- 5𝐶 ° C= 180𝐹°
attached.
- If the temperature changes from 79° 𝐹 to 70°F (9
- Gas is usually hydrogen or helium at a low density
degrees), it means a decrease of 5𝐶 ° - Pressure gauge can be a U-tube manometer filled
with mercury
- Bulb is in thermal contact with the substance that is
being measured
- Volume of gas is maintained constant by raising or
lowering the right side of the U-tube manometer so
that the mercury level on the left side is at the same
reference level
- Absolute pressure of gas is proportional to the height
of the mercury on the right
- As temperature changes, pressure changes

CONVERSION OF TEMPERATURE
SCALES
- CELSIUS TO FARENHEIT:
9
𝑡𝑓 = 𝑡𝑐 + 32°
5
- FARENHEIT TO CELSIUS:
5
𝑡𝑐 = (𝑡𝑓 − 32°)
9
- Example 1: A plate of food cools from 160° 𝐹 to
65° 𝐹. What was the initial temperature in degrees
THERMOMETER
Celsius? What is the temperature in Celsius degree?
- Used to measure temperature
- Many make us of the fact that materials usually
1st Question:
5 expand with increasing temperature
𝑡𝑐 = (𝑡 − 32°) - Ex. A mercury-in glass thermometer consists of a
9 𝑓 mercury-filled glass bulb that is connected to a
5
𝑡𝑐 = (160° − 32°) capillary tube. Now, when the mercury is heated, it
9 expands into the capillary tube. The amount of
5(128°)
𝑡𝑐 = expansion is proportionate to the change in
9 temperature.
𝑡𝑐 = 71.1°𝐶
- A property that changes with temperature is
THERMOMETRIC PROPERTY (X) in
2nd Question:
T = kX
160°𝐹 − 65°𝐹
-can be expansion, electric resistance, wavelength
95°𝐹
-Ex. For a mercury thermometer, it is the length o
9°𝐹 = 5𝐶°
mercury column. For a constant-volume
thermometer, it is the pressure in the gas.
CONSTANT- VOLUME GAS
THERMOMETER THERMOCOUPLE
- Basis for the change in gas pressure with temperature - A thermometer used extensively in laboratories
- When a gas confined to a fixed volume is heated,
- Can also be used to measure high temperatures as
pressure increases
high as 2300° C or as low as −270° C

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AMPATUAN | MARANAN | RONCALES | SAZ

## - Consists of wires of different metals, welded

together at two junctions
LINEAR THERMAL
- Metals are often copper and constantan (copper-
nickel alloy)
EXPANSION
- One of the other junctions is "hot junction"
which is placed in thermal contact with the object SOLID
being measured - Length of an object changes when it temperature
- Another junction is "reference junction" which is changes
kept at a known constant temperature (ice-water
mixture at 0° C
- Generates a voltage that depends on the difference
in temperature between the two junctions

ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE
THERMOMETER
- Platinum is utilized as it has an excellent mechanical - Coefficient of Linear Expansion:

DL = a Lo DT
and electrical properties in the temperature ranging
from −270° C to 700° C
- Resistance of platinum wire is known to be the
function of temperature - Common Unit for the Coefficient of Linear
Expansion:

THERMODYNAMICS
THERMODYNAMICS
- Branch of physics that is built upon the fundamental - Change in length is equivalent to Initial Length
DL µ Lo
laws that heat and work follow.
- The collection of objects on which attention is being
focused is called the system
- Everything else is called the surroundings
- Walls that permit heat to flow through the system and
surroundings are called diathermal walls
- Walls that do not permit heat to flow through the
system and surroundings are called adiabatic walls
- Physical condition is also known as state of system

ZEROTH LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
- Deals with the concept of thermal equilibrium
- Systems are in equilibrium when there is no net flow
of heat between them when brought in to thermal
contact
- If two objects A and B are separately in equilibrium
with a third object C, then objects A and B are in
thermal equilibrium with each other.
- Establishes temperature as the indicator of thermal
equilibrium and implies that all parts of a system must
be in thermal equilibrium if the system is to have a
definable single temperature
- In other words, there can be no flow of heat within a
system that is in thermal equilibrium

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AMPATUAN | MARANAN | RONCALES | SAZ

VOLUME THERMAL
EXPANSION
- Volume of an object changes when it temperature
changes
- Coefficient of Volume Expansion:

DV = b Vo DT
- Common Unit for the Coefficient of Volume
Expansion:

## - Example 3: A small plastic container, called the

coolant reservoir, catches the radiator fluid that
overflows when an automobile engine becomes
has an expansion coefficient of 4.0x10-4 (Co)-1. If the
- Example 2: A concrete sidewalk is constructed
radiator is filled to its 15-quart capacity when the
between two buildings on a day when the
engine is cold (6oC), how much overflow will spill
temperature is 25oC. As the temperature rises to
into the reservoir when the coolant reaches its
38oC, the slabs expand, but no space is provided for
operating temperature (92oC)?
thermal expansion. Determine the distance y
in part (b) of the drawing.

## y= (3.00047 m )2 - (3.00000 m )2 = 0.053 m

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AMPATUAN | MARANAN | RONCALES | SAZ

## HEAT AND INTERNAL GASES

- Value of specific heat of a gas depends on whether
ENERGY the pressure or volume is held constant
- Distinction is not important for solids
- OTHER UNITS:
- Heat is energy that flows from a higher-
 1 kcal = 4186J
temperature object to a lower-temperature object  1 cal = 4.186J
because of a difference in temperatures.
CALIROMETRY
- SI Unit of Heat: Joules (J)
- If there is no heat loss to the surroundings, the heat
- Heat that flows from hot to cold originates in the
lost by the hotter object equals the heat gained by the
internal energy of the hot substance
cooler ones
- Example 5: The calorimeter is made of 0.15 kg of
HEAT AND TEMPERATURE CHANGE aluminum and contains 0.20 kg of water. Initially,
(SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY) the water and cup have the same temperature of
- Heat supplied or removed in changing the 18.0oC. A 0.040 kg mass of unknown material is
temperature of a substance heated to a temperature of 97.0oC and then added to
SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS the water. After thermal equilibrium is reached, the
-Specific Heat Capacity temperature of the water, the cup, and the material is
Q = mcDT 22.0oC. Ignoring the small amount of heat gained by
the thermometer, find the specific heat capacity of the
- Common Unit for Specific Heat Capacity: unknown material.
J/(kg · Co)

## - Example 4: In a half-hour, a 65-kg jogger can

generate 8.0x105J of heat. This heat is removed from
the body by a variety of means, including the body’s
own temperature-regulating mechanisms. If the heat
were not removed, how much would the body
temperature increase?
Q = mcDT

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