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Project :

NEW ASSIUT

Simple Cycle Power Project

8x 9E - 1000 MW

REFERENCE NUMBER :1012711 100 I90 CA 001 REVISION : B

ECH / SCALE DATE 2015/03/16 2015/03/17 2015/03/17


None NOM / NAME Lim,Sorya Barbier,Marc Tenaille,Thierry
FORMAT / SIZE VISA Lim,Sorya Barbier,Marc Tenaille,Thierry
A4 REDIGE / MADE VERIFIE / CHECKED APPROUVE / APPROVED

TITRE / TITLE
GAS TURBINE WITH ASSOCIATES ITEMS-CALCULATION NOTE

A016, CALCULATION NOTE, GCP PROTECTION - units GT1 / GT2 / GT3


GE : LAVIE JEAN-FRANCOIS; MOINE JOSE;
ORASCOM : El Dessouky Mohamed; El Shamy
FOR INFORMATION Ahmed; El Tohamy Alaa; Mohammed Ahmed;
PGESCO : Amr Souidan; Esham Sami; M. Said;
Wael Mourad;

Ce document, propriété exclusive de REVISION


GE Energy Products France SNC
est strictement confidentiel. Il ne peut
être communiqué, copié ou reproduit
sans son autorisation écrite préalable
GE Energy -
INSTRUCTION DE
MODIFICATION

This document, exclusive property of ECO0185669


GE Energy Products France SNC N° 116T2671 Section Doc.
is strictly confidential. It must not be
communicated, copied or reproduced
without our previous written consent. SHEET. N°
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GE Power & Water ASSYUT GT 1,2,3(E1431) Doc number : 116T2671


Product Engineering Department Protection calculation note Revision : -
Date : 16/03/2015

GE Power & Water

Protection Calculation Note

Project name : ASSYUT GT 1,2,3


Order number : E1431
Customer : Egyptian Armament Authority (“GoE”)
Location : EGYPT

GCP engineer : R. Cuzon


Document number : 116T2671
Document revision : -
Date : 16/03/2015

Input documentations Number Revision


Trip logic diagram 115T8225 B
Single line diagram 115T2383 B
Generator data sheet 115T2866 A
GCP drawings 226B2343ED 01

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GE Power & Water ASSYUT GT 1,2,3(E1431) Doc number : 116T2671


Product Engineering Department Protection calculation note Revision : -
Date : 16/03/2015

Disclaimer
The settings suggested in this document is made based on GE data, but also on data
supplied to GE EPE that was used to perform the equipment electrical analysis under load and
fault conditions for this specific application, and under applicable rules of protection.

This setting document does not cover, or purport to cover, all variations which may be
encountered in the installation, operation and maintenance of the related equipment. Should the
user encounter variations not addressed by this document, the matter should be reported to GE
EPE.

GE EPE shall have no liability for any claim of any kind, including without limitation
negligence, for any loss or damage, including without limitation special incidental, indirect or
consequential damages from use of the settings herein included or from failure of them to
perform as intended.

Revisions history

Revision Date Modifications


- 16/03/2015 FIRST ISSUE

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Product Engineering Department Protection calculation note Revision : -
Date : 16/03/2015

Contents
Main values ______________________________________________________________
4
Generator calculations ______________________________________________________________
5
Main transformer and line calculations ______________________________________________________________
6
Unit auxiliary transformer calculations ______________________________________________________________
7
Generator protection relay (G60) configuration ______________________________________________________________
8
Block protection relay (T60) configuration ______________________________________________________________
9
27G Generator undervoltage ______________________________________________________________
10
59G Generator overvoltage ______________________________________________________________
11
81U Generator under-frequency ______________________________________________________________
13
81O Generator over-frequency ______________________________________________________________
15
24G Generator overfluxing ______________________________________________________________
18
51V Generator voltage restraint overcurrent ______________________________________________________________
20
32R Generator sensitive directional power ______________________________________________________________
23
40G Generator Loss of excitation ______________________________________________________________
25
51GN95% Generator stator earth fault 95% ______________________________________________________________
28
60VTS Generator Voltage Transformer Failure ______________________________________________________________
30
50/27 breaker accidental energization ______________________________________________________________
31
50BF Breaker Failure ______________________________________________________________
32
46G Generator negative sequence ______________________________________________________________
34
87G generator stator differential ______________________________________________________________
37
78G Generator pole slipping ______________________________________________________________
40
21G Generator under impedance ______________________________________________________________
44
27TN 100% stator earth fault under voltage 3rd harmonic ______________________________________________________________
48
64B Leads earth fault ______________________________________________________________
52
27BN/BZ Bus voltage supervision ______________________________________________________________
55
27GN/GZ Generator voltage supervision ______________________________________________________________
56
87B Block differential protection ______________________________________________________________
57
Reference ______________________________________________________________
60

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GE Power & Water ASSYUT GT 1,2,3(E1431) Doc number : 116T2671


Product Engineering Department Protection calculation note Revision : -
Date : 16/03/2015

Main values
Generator data
Generator apparent power: Sn  145 MVA
Generator power factor: cos( )  0.85
Generator nominal Power: Pn  123.25 MW
Generator nominal reactive power : Qn  76.38 MVAr
Generator nominal voltage: Un  15 kV
Generator nominal current: In  5581 A
Generator power system frequency: f  50 Hz
Generator rated speed: RPM  3000 rpm
Generator max continuous I2 unbalance: I2  15 %
Generator max short-time negative sequence: k  8s
Generator saturated synchronous reactance: Xd  1.81 pu (Direct Axis)
Generator saturated transient reactance: Xpd  0.19 pu (Direct Axis)
Generator sc time constant: Tpd  0.95 s
Generator saturated subtransient reactance: Xppd  0.13 pu (Direct Axis)

Main Transformer data


Main Transformer apparent power: Stn  165 MVA
Main Transformer HV Voltage: Uhv  220 kV
Main Transformer LV Voltage: Ulv  15 kV
Main Transformer vector group: VG  "Yd1"

mt   14.67
Uhv
Main Transformer voltage ratio:
Ulv

 3  Uhv
ItnHV   433 A
Stn
Main Transformer HV nominal current:


3  Ulv
ItnLV   6351 A
Stn
Main Transformer LV nominal current:

Main Transformer short circuit impedance: Zcc  12.5 %

4
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Product Engineering Department Protection calculation note Revision : -
Date : 16/03/2015

Generator calculations
Generator base impedance:
2
Zb   1.552 
Un
Sn

ZXd  Zb  Xd  2.81 
Generator direct reactance impedance:

ZXpd  Zb  Xpd  0.29 


Generator transient direct reactance impedance which is the estimated short-circuit impedance:

Estimated Short Circuit at Generator busbar:

Icc   30168 A
Un
3  ZXpd

Estimated per unit Short Circuit at Generator busbar in generator base:

Iccpu   5 pu
Icc
In

At the secondary side of the CT:

Iccsec   3.77 A
Icc
CT ratio
where CT ratio  8000

At the secondary side of the CT in per unit:

Iccsecpu   3.77 pu
Iccsec
CT sec

5
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Product Engineering Department Protection calculation note Revision : -
Date : 16/03/2015

Main transformer and line calculations


Main Transformer base impedance on LV side:

ZbtLV   1.364 
2
Ulv
Stn
Main Transformer base impedance on HV side:

ZbtHV   293.333 
2
Uhv
Stn

 Sn   Ulv  2
Main Transformer short circuit impedance in generator base:

Zcctg  Zcc 
Stn  Un 
 11 %
  
Estimated short circuit current at HV transformer terminals:

IcctHV   1291 A
 
Uhv

 Zcc  ZbtLV  ZXpd  3  mt


2

Main Transformer base current on HV side:

IbHV   433 A
Stn
Uhv  3
Estimated per unit short circuit current at HV transformer terminals in transformer base:

Icctpu   2.98 pu
IcctHV
IbHV
At the secondary side of the CT:

IcctHVsec   4.3 A CT HVratio  300


IcctHV
CT HVratio
At the secondary side of the CT in per unit:

IcctHVsecpu  4.3 pu
IcctHVsec
CT HVsec

Line
ZLpu  5%
Line impedance calculation considering 5% of main transformer impedance at 80° angle:
in Transformer base
XLpu  ZLpu  sin ( 80°)  0.0492 pu
RL pu  ZLpu  cos ( 80°)  0.0087 pu

 Sn    Ulv    0.0439 pu


Line impedance in the generator base:

 Stn   Un  
ZLgpu  ZLpu 
2

    
XLgpu  XLpu  
 Sn    Ulv    0.0433 pu

 Stn  Un  
2

    
 Sn   Ulv  2

RLg pu  RL pu  
 Stn   Un  
  0.0076 pu
    

6
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GE Power & Water ASSYUT GT 1,2,3(E1431) Doc number : 116T2671


Product Engineering Department Protection calculation note Revision : -
Date : 16/03/2015

Unit auxiliary transformer calculations


Suat  16 MVA
Unit auxiliary transformer apparent power:

UuatMV  15 kV
Unit auxiliary transformer MV Voltage:

UuatLV  6.9 kV
Unit auxiliary transformer LV Voltage:

VGuat  "Dy11"
Unit auxiliary transformer vector group:

Unit auxiliary transformer voltage ratio:

muat   2.17
UuatMV
UuatLV

Unit auxiliary transformer MV nominal current:

 
IuatMV   616 A
Suat

3  UuatMV

Unit auxiliary transformer LV nominal current:

 
IuatLV   1339 A
Suat

3  UuatLV

Zccuat  10 %
Unit auxiliary transformer short circuit impedance:

UA Transformer base impedance on MV side:


2
ZbuatMV   14.063 
UuatMV
Suat

MV estimated short circuit:

 
IccuatMV   6158 A
UuatMV

3 Zccuat ZbuatMV

MV estimated short circuit in per unit:

IccuatMVpu   10 pu
IccuatMV
IuatMV

7
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Product Engineering Department Protection calculation note Revision : -
Date : 16/03/2015

Generator protection relay (G60)


configuration

PATH : Settings -> System setup -> AC Inputs -> Current


PARAMETER CT F1 CT M1
Phase CT primary 8000 8000
Phase CT secondary 1,00 1,00
Ground CT primary 250 N/A
Ground CT secondary 1,00 N/A

PATH : Settings -> System setup -> AC Inputs -> Voltage


PARAMETER VT F5 WT M5
Phase VT connection Wye Wye
Phase VT secondary 57,74 100,00
Phase VT ratio 150,00 150,00
Auxiliary VT connection Vn Vn
Auxiliary VT secondary 240,00 33,33
Auxiliary VT ratio 50,00 259,81

PATH : Settings -> System setup -> Signal sources


PARAMETER SRC1 SRC2 SRC3 SRC4
Source name neutral line MV bus N/A
Phase CT F1 M1 None None
Ground CT F1 None None None
Phase VT F5 None M5 None
Aux VT F5 None M5 None

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Product Engineering Department Protection calculation note Revision : -
Date : 16/03/2015

Block protection relay (T60) configuration

PATH : Settings -> System setup -> AC Inputs -> Current


PARAMETER CT F1 CT F5 CT M1
Phase CT primary 8000 1600 2000
Phase CT secondary 1 1 1
Ground CT primary N/A N/A N/A
Ground CT secondary N/A N/A N/A

PATH : Settings -> System setup -> AC Inputs -> Voltage


PARAMETER WT M5
Phase VT connection None
Phase VT secondary N/A
Phase VT ratio N/A
Auxiliary VT connection None
Auxiliary VT secondary N/A
Auxiliary VT ratio N/A

PATH : Settings -> System setup -> Signal sources


PARAMETER SRC1 SRC2 SRC3 SRC4
Source name HV MV UAT
Phase CT M1 F1 F5 None
Ground CT None None None None
Phase VT None None None None
Aux VT None None None None

PATH: Settings -> System setup -> Transformer


SETTING PARAMETER
Number Of Windings 3
Reference Winding Selection 2
Phase Compensation internal(software)
Load Loss At Rated Load N/A
Rated Winding Temperature Rise 80°C (dry)
No Load Loss N/A
Type Of Cooling forced cooled
Top-oil Rise Over Ambient 35°C
Thermal Capacity 100.00 kWh/°C
Winding Thermal Time Constant 10.00 min

PARAMETER WINDING 1 WINDING 2 WINDING 3


Source SRC1 SRC2 SRC3
Rated MVA 165 MVA 145 MVA 16 MVA
Nominal Phs-phs Voltage 220 kV 15 kV 6,9 kV
Connection WYE DELTA WYE
Grounding WITHIN ZONE NO WITHIN ZONE WITHIN ZONE
Angle Wrt Winding 1 -330 0 -330
Resistance 2.0300 ohms 2.0300 ohms 2.0300 ohms

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Date : 16/03/2015

27G Generator undervoltage


• Causes and risks:
Undervoltage can occur during short circuit on the network, if the reactive power provided is not
sufficient. Undervoltages can have an impact on the turbine auxiliaries operation: they involve an important
decrease of the motor torque, etc. Nevertheless, an undervoltage is not critical for the generator itself.

• Operations and actions:


The 27 function protect the machine against this failure, but the voltage restraint overcurrent protection
(51V) is also protecting the generator: if the voltage decrease at a constant generated power, the current
provide will increase and the overcurrent protection will operate.

• Inhibition:

_27GA  "60VTS or deadbus or 52G off"


The protection is blocked in case of :

• Settings:
According to our experience, to the grid code requirement, and to the IEC60034 standard, the settings
are the following ones :

• Alarm step:
Pickup 27GA  0.9 pu Delay27GA  10 s
• Trip step:
Pickup 27GT  0.7 pu Delay27GT  3 s
SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> GROUPED ELEMENTS -> SETTING GROUP 1(6) -> VOLTAGE ELEMENTS -> PHASE
UNDERVOLTAGE
PARAMETER PHASE UV1
Function: Enabled
Signal Source: SRC1

Pickup 27GA  0.9 pu


Mode: Phase to Ground
Pickup:

Delay27GA  10 s
Curve: Definite Time
Delay:

_27GA  "60VTS or deadbus or 52G off"


Minimum Voltage: 0.100 pu
Block:
Target: Latched
Events: Enabled
PARAMETER PHASE UV2
Function: Enabled
Signal Source: SRC1

Pickup 27GT  0.7 pu


Mode: Phase to Ground
Pickup:

Delay27GT  3 s
Curve: Definite Time
Delay:

_27GA  "60VTS or deadbus or 52G off"


Minimum Voltage: 0.100 pu
Block:
Target: Latched
Events: Enabled

10
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GE Power & Water ASSYUT GT 1,2,3(E1431) Doc number : 116T2671


Product Engineering Department Protection calculation note Revision : -
Date : 16/03/2015

59G Generator overvoltage


• Causes and risks:

Overvoltages can occur in several cases: during a reactive power over-production, during load decrease,
or during a voltage regulation malfunction.
The biggest impact of an overvoltage is the risk of stator windings insulation destruction which can involve
many others damages.
These perturbations can also have repercussions on many devices like the turbine auxiliaries or other devices
connected on the network.

• Operations and actions:

The relay software will activate an alarm if an overvoltage is seen on one of the three phases, if this
overvoltage is higher than the trip step pickup.

• Inhibition:

There is no inhibition on this protection function which is always in operation.

• Settings:

According to our experience, to the grid code, and to the IEC60034 standard, the settings are the
following ones:

• Alarm step:
Pickup 59GA  1.1 pu Delay59GA  10 s
• Trip step:
Pickup 59GT  1.2 pu Delay59GT  3 s

SOFTWARE PATH: SETTING -> FLEXLOGIC -> FLEXELEMENTS -> FLEXELEMENT


PARAMETER FLEXELEMENTS 3
Function: Enabled
Name: 59G-1A
InputPlus: SRC1 Vag RMS
InputMinus: Off
InputMode: ABSOLUTE
Compare Mode: LEVEL

Pickup 59GA  1.1 pu


Direction Type: OVER
Pickup:
Hysteresis: 3.0 %
DeltaTUnits: Milliseconds

Delay59GA  10 s
DeltaT: 20
Pickup Delay:
Reset Delay: 0.000 s
Block: OFF
Target: Disabled
Events: Enabled

11
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Date : 16/03/2015

SOFTWARE PATH: SETTING -> FLEXLOGIC -> FLEXELEMENTS -> FLEXELEMENT


PARAMETER FLEXELEMENTS 4
Function: Enabled
Name: 59G-1B
InputPlus: SRC1 Vbg RMS
InputMinus: Off
InputMode: ABSOLUTE
Compare Mode: LEVEL

Pickup 59GA  1.1 pu


Direction Type: OVER
Pickup:
Hysteresis: 3.0 %
DeltaTUnits: Milliseconds

Delay59GA  10 s
DeltaT: 20
Pickup Delay:
Reset Delay: 0.000 s
Block: OFF
Target: Disabled
Events: Enabled

SOFTWARE PATH: SETTING -> FLEXLOGIC -> FLEXELEMENTS -> FLEXELEMENT


PARAMETER FLEXELEMENTS 5
Function: Enabled
Name: 59G-1C
InputPlus: SRC1 Vcg RMS
InputMinus: Off
InputMode: ABSOLUTE
Compare Mode: LEVEL

Pickup 59GA  1.1 pu


Direction Type: OVER
Pickup:
Hysteresis: 3.0 %
DeltaTUnits: Milliseconds

Delay59GA  10 s
DeltaT: 20
Pickup Delay:
Reset Delay: 0.000 s
Block: OFF
Target: Disabled
Events: Enabled

SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> GROUPED ELEMENTS -> SETTING GROUP -> VOLTAGE ELEMENTS -> PHASE
OVERVOLTAGE1
PARAMETER PHASE OV1
Function: Enabled

Pickup 59GT  1.2 pu


Source: SRC1
Pickup:
Delay: Delay59GT  3 s
Reset Delay: 0.000s
Block: Off
Target: LATCHED
Events: ENABLED

12
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Date : 16/03/2015

81U Generator under-frequency


• Causes and risks:

An underfrequency occurs when the active power available by the grid is higher than the supplied
power. They can also occur because of a regulation failure.
Underfrequencies can seriously impact the gas turbine : the frequency of the generated power being
linked to the turbine rotating speed, under 94% of the gas turbine nominal speed begins the compressor
surge zone. This phenomenon can destroy the compressor blades which could lead to many damages.

• Operations and actions:

This protection use three steps, an alarm step which allows the operator to do the required corrective
action, a frist trip step which open the line breaker (self reset) and a second trip step which involves the
opening of the generator and excitation breakers in order to limit the impact of the underfrequency failure on
these devices. The first trip step avoid to the generator trip due to grid code event. This protection has a
backup in the speedtronic.

• Inhibition:

UB  "52G open"
This protection is inhibited in case of

• Settings:
The settings for this protection function are determined in accordance with the IEC 60034 standard, grid
code requirements, generator manufacturer recommendations and GE experience.

• Alarm step:
Pickup 81UA  48 Hz Delay81UA  5 s
• Trip step (Open52L):
Pickup 81UT1  47 Hz Delay81UT1  0 s
• Trip step (Trip 52G + 41E):
Pickup 81UT2  47 Hz Delay81UT2  5 s

SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> CONTROL ELEMENTS-> UNDERFREQUENCY -> UNDERFREQUENCY 1


PARAMETER UNDERFREQUENCY 1

UB  "52G open"
Function: Enabled
Block:
Source: SRC1

Pickup 81UA  48 Hz
Min Volt/Amp: 0.10 pu
Pickup:
Pickup Delay: Delay81UA  5 s
Reset Delay: 0.000s
Target: LATCHED
Events: ENABLED

13
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Date : 16/03/2015

SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> CONTROL ELEMENTS-> UNDERFREQUENCY -> UNDERFREQUENCY 2


PARAMETER UNDERFREQUENCY 2

UB  "52G open"
Function: Enabled
Block:
Source: SRC1

Pickup 81UT1  47 Hz
Min Volt/Amp: 0.10 pu
Pickup:
Pickup Delay: Delay81UT1  0 s
Reset Delay: 0.000s
Target: LATCHED
Events: ENABLED

SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> CONTROL ELEMENTS-> UNDERFREQUENCY -> UNDERFREQUENCY 3


PARAMETER UNDERFREQUENCY 3

UB  "52G open"
Function: Enabled
Block:
Source: SRC1

Pickup 81UT2  47 Hz
Min Volt/Amp: 0.10 pu
Pickup:
Pickup Delay: Delay81UT2  5 s
Reset Delay: 0.000s
Target: LATCHED
Events: ENABLED

14
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Product Engineering Department Protection calculation note Revision : -
Date : 16/03/2015

81O Generator over-frequency


• Causes and risks:

An overfrequency occurs when the power supplied to the grid is higher than requested. Generally,
overfrequencies occur after a load diminution, or because of a turbine regulator failure.
An increase of the speed machine rotation can have several damages on the compressor part due to an
important tip speed of blade.

• Operations and actions:

This protection use three steps, an alarm step which allows the operator to do the required corrective
action and two trip step. A frist trip step which open the line breaker (self reset) and a second trip step which
involves the opening of the generator and excitation breakers in order to limit the impact of the
underfrequency failure on these devices. The first trip step avoid to the generator trip due to grid code event.
This protection has a backup in the speedtronic.

• Inhibition:

Some protections out of the GE scope could open the line or the unit breakers, in this case, the turbine
load will go from full load to no load instantaneously. Due to this load rejection, a speed rise and therefore an
overfrequency will occur during approximately 25 seconds. This speed overshoot is a normal behavior of the
turbine regulation. In order to adapt our protection, the trip step will be inhibited during 30 seconds.

A load rejection is detected on the opening of 52G or 52L breaker, but protection relay are also set to
detect a remote breaker opening by Rate Of Change Of Frequency (ROCOF) function.
This detection is also performed by the speedtronic to ensure a fast damping of the turbine speed
overshoot. Therefore our Protection relay has to be set like the speedtronic for the detection of this
phenomenon.
Speedtronic remote breaker openning requires 2 conditions :
• Turbine speed need top be over 101.5% of nominal speed.
• Turbine speed acceleration rate is over 3%/s.
Those 2 conditions are reflected in G60 soft in the "frequency rate of change" parameter.

• Settings:

The settings for this protection function are determined in accordance with the IEC 60034 standard, grid
code requirements, generator manufacturer recommendations and GE experience.

• Alarm step:
Pickup 81OA  51.5 Hz Delay81OA  5 s
• Trip step (Open52L):
Pickup 81OT1  52.5 Hz Delay81OT1  1 s
• Trip step (Trip 52G + 41E):
Pickup 81OT2  53 Hz Delay81OT2  0 s

15
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SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> CONTROL ELEMENTS -> OVERFREQUENCY -> OVERFREQUENCY 1
PARAMETER OVERFREQUENCY 1
Function: Enabled
Block: OFF

Pickup 81OA  51.5 Hz


Source: SRC1
Pickup:
Pickup Delay: Delay81OA  5 s
Reset Delay: 0.000s
Target: LATCHED
Events: ENABLED

SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> CONTROL ELEMENTS -> OVERFREQUENCY -> OVERFREQUENCY 2
PARAMETER OVERFREQUENCY 2
Function: Enabled
Block: LOAD REJECTION

Pickup 81OT1  52.5 Hz


Source: SRC1
Pickup:
Pickup Delay: Delay81OT1  1 s
Reset Delay: 0.000s
Target: LATCHED
Events: ENABLED

SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> CONTROL ELEMENTS -> OVERFREQUENCY -> OVERFREQUENCY 3
PARAMETER OVERFREQUENCY 3
Function: Enabled
Block: LOAD REJECTION

Pickup 81OT2  53 Hz
Source: SRC1
Pickup:
Pickup Delay: Delay81OT2  0 s
Reset Delay: 0.000s
Target: LATCHED
Events: ENABLED

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SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> CONTROL ELEMENTS -> FREQUENCY RATE OF CHANGE -> FREQ RATE 1

PARAMETER FREQ RATE 1


Function: Enabled
Source: SRC 1
Trend: Increasing
Pickup: 1.50 Hz/s
OV Supv: 0.700 pu
OC Supv: 0.200 pu
Min: 50.75 Hz
Max: 54.00 Hz
Pickup Delay: 0.000 s
Reset Delay: 0.000 s
Block: OFF
Target: Disabled
Events: Enabled

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24G Generator overfluxing


• Causes and risks:

The overfluxing of the generator is the result of a increase of the stator output voltage, or of a frequency
drop. These conditions involve a raise of the volt per hertz ratio which is reflecting the machine flux.
Overfluxing could occur during load variation when the generator is connected to the grid: if the
variation is too fast for the excitation regulator, an overvoltage can occur.

• Operations and actions:

This protection will provide two steps: an alarm step and an trip step. The alarm step will let the operator
to do the corrective action request.

• Inhibition:

VHzB  "Off"
The function is inhibited in case of:

• Settings:

According to our experience, to generator manufacturer and according to the grid code, the settings are
the following ones :
• Alarm step:

Pickup 24GA  1.06 pu Delay24GA  10 s


• Trip step:

Pickup 24GT  1.18 pu Delay24GT  2 s

Overfluxing curve
1000
Tri p
Alarm
100
Time (s)

10

0.1
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

U/f (V/Hz)
18
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PATH: SETTINGS -> GROUPED ELEMENTS -> SETTING GROUP 1(6) -> VOLTAGE ELEMENTS -> VOLTS/HZ
PARAMETER VOLTS PER HERTZ 1
Function: Enabled
Source: SRC1

Pickup 24GA  1.06 pu


VHZ Voltage Mode: Phase to Ground
Pickup:

Delay24GA  10 s
Curves: Definite Time
TD Multiplier:

VHzB  "Off"
T Reset: 0.000s
Block:
Target: Latched
Events: Enabled

PARAMETER VOLTS PER HERTZ 2


Function: Enabled
Source: SRC1

Pickup 24GT  1.18 pu


VHZ Voltage Mode: Phase to Ground
Pickup:
Curves: VHzC  "Inverse A"
TD Multiplier: Delay24GT  2 s

VHzB  "Off"
T Reset: 0.000s
Block:
Target: Latched
Events: Enabled

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51V Generator voltage restraint overcurrent

• Causes and risks:

Some dangerous overheating of the generator stator windings or of the busbars could be the result of
different causes, like overcurrent, overloads or phase faults. These overheating can damage the windings and
the machine more generally.

• Operations and actions:

The 51V is a standard overcurrent protection, but the tripping characteristic is linked to the voltage level
as depicted on the following curve:

The protection function continuously monitors the generator phase currents, and involves an electrical
trip if it sees any overcurrent. According to the IEC 60034-3 standard, all the generators which apparent power
is under 1200MVA shall have the capacity to support an overcurrent equivalent to 1,5 pu during 30s or all the
other combinations of current and time that give the same degree of additional heating, the curve described is
therefore a I²t one.
An overcurrent of 150% can be handled by the generator during 30s according to IEC standard.

Ipugene  150 % t  30 s a  Ipugene  1  t


2

a  37.5 s
The standard IEC 60034-3 curve is defined by the following expression:

t 
I 
37.5

 pugene  1
2

20
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• Inhibition:

_51VB  "60VTS"
The protection is inhibited in case of:

• Settings:

The protections settings of the 51V protection function are determined in order to be in accordance with
the standard requirements and generator manufacturer recommendations.

We can calculate the short circuit current from the secondary side of the CT:

Icc51V  Iccsecpu  3.77 pu

Icc51V  CT prim
We can calculate it in the generator base:

Icc51Vpu2   5.41 pu
In
Where: CT prim  8000 A

• Curve settings:
_51VC  "IEEE Extremely Inverse"
Pickup 51V  0.88 pu TD51V  0.28

Voltage restraint overcurrent


100

10
Time (s)

0.1
1 10

Igene (pu)
IEC Standard
Gene rator protecti on curve
Esti mated short circut

21
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SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> GROUPED ELEMENTS -> SETTING GROUP 1(6) -> PHASE CURRENT -> PHASE TOC1

PARAMETER PHASE TOC1


Function: Enabled
Signal Source: SRC1

Pickup 51V  0.88 pu


Input: RMS
Pickup:
Curve: _51VC  "IEEE Extremely Inverse"
TD Multiplier: TD51V  0.28
Reset: Instantaneous

_51VB  "60VTS"
Voltage Restraint: Enabled
Block A:
Block B: _51VB  "60VTS"
Block C: _51VB  "60VTS"
Target: Latched
Events: Enabled

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32R Generator sensitive directional power


• Causes and risks:
This protection function is mainly used to prohibit the generator to be feed by the grid which results as a
motor operation. This operating mode can have dangerous impacts for the turbine because it has not been
design to operate because it has not been designed to operate as this.

• Operations and actions:


This protection element monitors the generator output power and allows to detect two different levels:
• a low level generated power called "low forward power" (ANSI 32L)
• a level for a reverse power absorbed by the generator called "reverse power" (ANSI code 32R)

The "low forward power" is used during turbine shutdown requested by the operator. When the operator
request a turbine shutdown, the speedtronic starts a sequence which involves the decrease of the generated
power. When the generated power is under the low forward level (32L function), the portection relay will open
the generator and the excitation breakers without using lock-out relays.

The "reverse power" function allows to detect when the generator is fed by the grid : if the relay is seeing
the generated power under the 32R level, it will trip the excitation and unit breakers.

• Inhibition:

_32RB  "Off"
The "low forward power" is inhibited in case of :

_32LB  "deadBus or 60VTS or 94X1 or 52G off"


The "reverse power" is inhibited in case of:

• Settings:

According to our experience, levels are the following ones :

• Reverse power:
Pickup32R  5 % Delay32R  3 s
Pickup 32R  Pn
SMIN1   0.03 pu
CT prim  VTprim  3

• Low forward power:


Pickup 32L  2 % Delay32L  0
Pickup 32L  Pn
SMIN2   0.012 pu
CT prim  VTprim  3

23
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SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> GROUPED ELEMENTS -> SETTING GROUP 1(6) -> POWER -> SENSITIVE DIRECTIONAL
POWER -> DIRECTIONAL POWER 1(2)

PARAMETER SENS DIR POWER1


Function: Enabled
Signal Source: NEUTRL (SRC 1)
Sensitive Directional Power RCA: 0 deg

SMIN1  0.03 pu
Sensitive Directional Power Calibration: 0.00 deg
Stage 1 SMIN:
Stage 1 Delay: Delay32R  3 s
Stage 2 SMIN: SMIN1  0.03 pu
Stage 2 Delay: Delay32R  3 s
Block: _32RB  "Off"
Target: Latched
Events: Enabled

PARAMETER SENS DIR POWER1


Function: Enabled
Signal Source: NEUTRL (SRC 1)
Sensitive Directional Power RCA: 0 deg

SMIN2  0.012 pu
Sensitive Directional Power Calibration: 0.00 deg
Stage 1 SMIN:
Stage 1 Delay: Delay32L  0
Stage 2 SMIN: SMIN2  0.012 pu
Stage 2 Delay: Delay32L  0
Block: _32LB  "deadBus or 60VTS or 94X1 or 52G off"
Target: Latched
Events: Enabled

24
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40G Generator Loss of excitation


• Causes and risks:

A loss of excitation could have many different causes: it can be the result of a short circuit in the field
winding, a failure from the regulation or because of an unexpected field breaker trip, etc.
During a loss of excitation, the reactive power needed to magnetize the generator will be provided by
the network and, if the generator is loaded, it can lose his synchronism and/or work as an induction generator.
The consequences are, either, a network perturbation, and on the other side, overheating of the generator
windings, of the rotor circuits and of the magnetic body of the generator.
Some studies have shown that the machine impedance goes from the synchronous reactance (the
direct axis reactance of the machine in established conditions) to the sub-transient reactance (the reactance
of a stopped machine). In fact, the generator continues his rotation and the impedance seen by the protection
relay will be a bit smaller than the transient reactance.

• Operations and actions:

In order to detect a loss of excitation, the protection relay monitors the generator impedance, if the relay
sees generator impedance smaller than the transient reactance, it will trip the machine. In order to adapt the
protection settings to the generator load, the protection relay that we use provides two settings: the first one is
determined to provide a protection for load conditions of 30% of the generator load and higher, and the
second setting is adapted to every generator loads. Additionally this function is time delayed so as to avoid
too fast trip.

• Inhibition:

The protection is inhibited in case of 60VTS.

• Settings:

The stage 1 characteristic is typically set to detect a loss of excitation for load conditions of 30% of the
nominal or higher. This is achieved with a mho element with a diameter equal to the base impedance of the
machine and an offset equal to half the machine transient reactance (X'd).
The stage 2 characteristic is typically set to detect a loss of excitation for all load conditions. This is
achieved with a mho element with a diameter equal to the synchronous reactance of the machine and an
offset equal to half the machine transient reactance (X'd).

25
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• Zone 1 :

ratio 
CT ratio
We can set the ratio rate to have the value from secondary side,
V Tratio
Zb  ZXpd
Center 1 : c1   ratio  49.03 
2
Where: ZXpd  Zb  Xpd  0.287 
2
Zb   1.552 
Un
Sn

r1   ratio  41.38 
Zb
Radius 1 :

Delay40G1  0.5s
2
Delay1 :
• Zone 2 :
ZXd  ZXpd
Center 2 : c2   ratio  82.55 
2

r2   ratio  74.9 
ZXd
Radius 2 :

Delay40G2  1.6s
2
Delay2 :

Mho diagram
 100  50 0 50 100

 50
Reactance (ohm)

 100

 150

 200

Re sistance (ohm)
Zone 1
Zone 2

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Capability diagram
1.2

0.92
Active power (pu)

0.64

0.36

0.08

 1.2  0.72  0.24 0.24 0.72 1.2

 0.2

Re acti ve powe r (pu)


PQ Diagram
Zone 1
Zone 2
Theori tical PQ li mit

SETTING PARAMETER
Function: Enabled

c1  49.03 
Source: NEUTRL (SRC 1)
Center 1:
Radius 1: r1  41.38 

Delay40G1  0.5 s
UV Supervision Enable 1: Disabled
Pickup Delay 1:
Center 2: c2  82.55 
Radius 2: r2  74.9 

Delay40G2  1.6 s
UV Supervision Enable 2: Enabled
Pickup Delay 2:
UV Supervision: 0.700 pu
Block: 60VTS
Target: Latched
Events: Enabled

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51GN95% Generator stator earth fault 95%

• Causes and risks:

This type of fault occurs when the isolation between the stator winding and the generator body is no
longer effective. With this protection the last 95% of the stator winding are protected. Therefore, the
probability to have a failure in the first 5% of the stator winding where the voltage is very weak, is not
significant.
The current resulting from a generator stator earth fault could cause very important damage on the
insulation and on the magnetic body of the generator.

• Operations and actions:

In order to detect such a failure, the protection relay is monitoring the current flow in the grounding
connection, the protection will operate for current level above a pickup determined in order to avoid
unexpected operation of this protection for insignificant current in the neutral connection.
This protection is applicable for grounded generator, the grounding connection is done using
impedance, in order to limit the neutral currents during a stator winding earth fault.
The usual solutions are:
• High impedance by grounding the neutral of the generator through a transformer with a
resistance connected on secondary side.
• Low impedance using a neutral to ground resistor.

• Inhibition:

There is no inhibition on this protection function which is always in operation.

• Settings:
Based on our experience, the settings are the following ones:

• Curve stelection:
_51GNC  "Definite time"
• Pickup:
ImGN  0.05  GndVTratio
Pickup 51GN   0.1 A at CT secondary side
GndCT ratio
Where the ground max current ImGN  10 A
GndCT ratio  250 GndVTratio  50

Pickup 51GNpu   0.1 pu


Pickup 51GN
GndCT sec
GndCT sec  1 A
• Delay:
Delay51GN  0.2 s

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SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> GROUPED ELEMENTS -> SETTING GROUP 1(6) -> GROUND CURRENT -> GROUND TOC1

PARAMETER GROUND TOC1


Function: Enabled
Source: NEUTRL (SRC 1)

Pickup 51GNpu  0.1 pu


Input: Phasor
Pickup:
Curve: _51GNC  "Definite time"
TD Multiplier: Delay51GN  0.2 s
Reset: Instantaneous
Block: OFF
Target: Latched
Events: Enabled

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60VTS Generator Voltage Transformer


Failure
• Causes and risks:

The loss of any voltage reference could have many impact like an unexpected trip by a protection
function based on this voltage reference.

• Operations and actions:

Monitoring the Voltage and current references, the 60VTS protection function allows to detecting a
failure of the voltage reference(s). We can define 2 classes of failures:
• Class A: Loss of one or two phases.
• Class B: Loss of all three phases.
The detection of a Class A failure is done by the monitoring of the voltage negative sequence level, if it is
significantly high, the protection is active.
The protection relay will detect a Class B failure when it see a positive sequence current and an
un-significant amount of positive sequence voltage.

• Inhibition:

There is no inhibition on this protection function which is always in operation.

• Settings:
The pick values of current and voltage are internal settled by GE multilin for both classes of
failure.

SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> CONTROL ELEMENTS -> MONITORING ELEMENTS -> VT FUSE FAILURE 1(4)
PARAMETER VT FUSE FAILURE 1
Function: Enabled

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50/27 breaker accidental energization


• Causes and risks:

Some heavy damages of the generator could be caused by the closure of the generator circuit breaker
when the generator is at standstill. During such a closure of the breaker, the generator could be compare to
an induction motor in a start-up sequence and start-up currents are very important. The generator is not
designed to support such currents, and if the failure remains, the generator could be damaged.

• Operations and actions:

In order to detect such a situation the protection function is monitoring the generator voltage, and the
generator current. The protection is armed when the machine is offline and 250 ms after the generator circuit
breaker closure, once armed, the protection function operates upon detecting an overcurrent in any of the
stator phases.

• Inhibition:

The protection is inhibited in case of a 60VTS.

• Settings:
According to our experience, the settings are the following ones :

• Arming Mode:
_5025AM  "UV AND OFFLINE"
• OC Pickup:
PickupOC 5027  0.3
• UV Pickup:
PickupUV5027  0.7
• Offline:
UNITBRK POS Off(P1a)

SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> GROUPED ELEMENTS -> SETTING GROUP 1(6) -> ACCIDENTAL ENERGIZATION

SETTING PARAMETER
Function: Enabled

_5025AM  "UV AND OFFLINE"


Source: NEUTRL (SRC 1)
Accidental Energization Arming Mode:
Accidental EnergizationOC Pickup: PickupOC 5027  0.3
Accidental EnergizationUV Pickup: PickupUV5027  0.7
Accidental EnergizationOffline: UNITBRK POS Off(P1a)
Block: 60VTS
Target: Latched
Events: Enabled

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50BF Breaker Failure


• Causes and risks:

The trip of the circuit breaker is essential to limit the impact of a fault which has been detected to the
grid and/or the machine. If the breaker do not open, the damage to the machine will be more important, the
stability of the grid could be affected.

• Operations and actions:

When the relays detects a fault or an abnormal operating condition, it closes an output contact to trip
the generator or the line breaker. The breaker failure protection will be armed for each tripping order sent by
the protection relays : if there is a current flow in one phase or more after a settable time delay, the breaker
failure protection will operate.
Therefore, this protection function will send a trip command to the required breakers to isolate the generator
from the grid. The function is realized by an overcurrent and timer block, activation occurs after a trip of the
monitored breaker.

• Inhibition:

There is no inhibition on this protection function which is always in operation.

• Settings:
According to our experience, the settings are the following ones :

Pickup50BF  14 %
• Pickup:

• Current from secondary side of the CT:


Pickup 50BF  In
I50BF   0.098 A
CT ratio

CT ratio  8000

• Current in pu:
I50BFpu   0.098 pu
I50BF
CT sec

CT sec  1 A

• Delay:
Delay50BF  0 ms

32
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Date : 16/03/2015

SOFTWARE PATH: SETTING -> FLEXLOGIC -> FLEXELEMENTS -> FLEXELEMENT


PARAMETER FLEXELEMENTS 6
Function: Enabled
Name: 50BFA
InputPlus: SRC1 Ia RMS
InputMinus: Off
InputMode: SIGNED
Compare Mode: LEVEL

I50BFpu  0.098 pu
Direction Type: OVER
Pickup:
Hysteresis: 3.0 %
DeltaTUnits: Milliseconds

Delay50BF  0
DeltaT: 20
Pickup Delay:
Reset Delay: 0.000 s
Block: OFF
Target: Disabled
Events: Disabled

PARAMETER FLEXELEMENTS 7
Function: Enabled
Name: 50BFB
InputPlus: SRC1 Ib RMS
InputMinus: Off
InputMode: SIGNED
Compare Mode: LEVEL

I50BFpu  0.098 pu
Direction Type: OVER
Pickup:
Hysteresis: 3.0 %
DeltaTUnits: Milliseconds

Delay50BF  0
DeltaT: 20
Pickup Delay:
Reset Delay: 0.000 s
Block: OFF
Target: Disabled
Events: Disabled

PARAMETER FLEXELEMENTS 8
Function: Enabled
Name: 50BFc
InputPlus: SRC1 Ic RMS
InputMinus: Off
InputMode: SIGNED
Compare Mode: LEVEL

I50BFpu  0.098 pu
Direction Type: OVER
Pickup:
Hysteresis: 3.0 %
DeltaTUnits: Milliseconds

Delay50BF  0
DeltaT: 20
Pickup Delay:
Reset Delay: 0.000 s
Block: OFF
Target: Disabled
33 Disabled
e
Events:
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46G Generator negative sequence


• Causes and risks:

Asymmetrical loads involve a current flow composed by a positive sequence, and a significant
level of negative sequence. The more is the load unbalanced, the more important the negative sequence level
is. An asymmetrical load could have many different causes, for example a phase disconnection on the grid,
single phase failures, etc.
An important level of negative sequence will involve reverse rotating component of the stator flux that
will induce Eddy currents in the rotor body. These currents will be the cause of dangerous overheating of the
rotor.

• Operations and actions:

The protection relay is able to monitor the current balance, it compute the negative sequence
thanks to the three line CT measures.
The negative sequence expression is the following one:
2
j
I2  Ia  a Ib  a Ic a e
1 2 3
With
3
• Inhibition:

_46GB  "OFF"
The protection function is inhibited in case of

• Settings:

According to the IEC 60034 standard a generator has to be able to support a certain level of permanent
negative sequence level. The standard explain also that a generator has to provide a negative sequence
capability which depict the time that the generator should be able to support a level of negative sequence
above the permanent level.

T 
k

 I2 
 
2

 In 
I2  15 % k  8s
The settings of this protection are based on the data provided by the generator manufacturer.
and

The typical setting for alarm stage is usually 80 percent of the generator negative sequence capability.
The trip characteristic of the protection function is determined as explained:
• The pickup corresponds to the level at the one the protection is active. It corresponds to the
permanent level of negative sequence in P.U.
• The K46G value is determined thanks to the value provided by the generator manufacturer and
taking a safety margin.
• T46Gmin corresponds to the minimum operate time of the protection: the function will not
involve a
trip before that time expires.
• T46Gmax correspond to the maximum operate time of the protection, this setting allow to limit
the tripping time for low level unbalances.
• K46Greset define the time needed by the relay to consider that there is no fault anymore.
34
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• Alarm step:

Pickup 46GA  0.8  I2  0.12 pu Delay46GA  6s


• Trip step:
Pickup 46GT  I2  0.15 pu

K46G  0.8  k  6.4 s

T46Gmin  0.25s

T46G max 
I2
K46G
with a upper limit at 1000s
2

T46Gmax  284.44 s

K46Greset  T46Gmax  0.4  113.78 s

Generator negative sequence


100000
Tri p
10000 Alarm
Standard IEC
1000
Time (s)

100

10

0.1
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

I2 (%In)

35
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SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> GROUPED ELEMENTS -> SETTING GROUP 1(6) -> GENERATOR UNBALANCE

SETTING PARAMETER
Function: Enabled

Inom  0.7 pu
Source: NEUTRL (SRC 1)
Inom:
Stage 1 Pickup: Pickup 46GT  15 %
Stage 1 K-Value: K46G  6.4 s
Stage 1 Tmin: T46Gmin  0.25 s
Stage 1 Tmax: T46Gmax  284.44 s
Stage 1 K-Reset: K46Greset  113.78 s
Stage 2 Pickup: Pickup 46GA  12 %
Stage 2 Pickup Delay: Delay46GA  6 s
Block: _46GB  "OFF"
Target: Latched
Events: Enabled

36
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87G Generator stator differential

• Causes and risks:

The generator differential protection function is based on the principle that the current entering and
leaving the protection zone has to be equal. Any difference between these currents is indicative of a fault
being present in the zone.
This difference can be caused by a winding failure like a phase to earth or a phase to phase failure. This
failure can have several damages on the stator windings and/or the magnetic circuit.

• Operations and actions:

The differential protection is designed in order to detect windings failures within a zone covered by the
CTs sets used. It means that it could protect the stator windings and eventually some others elements (bus
bars,etc.) according to the CTs sets positions.

The protection monitors the currents seen by the two CTs sets. If the protection function detects a
difference between the two measures, it means that there is a failure between the CTs sets.
In some cases of external failures involving a high current level, the current level seen by one CTs set can
be transiently greater than the current seen by the other one and there is a risk that the protection operate.

To improve the protections coordination, the differential protection should operate only when there is an
internal failure (within the zone covered by the CTs sets). Accordingly, a bias is inserted to the protection's
characteristic for high current level, so as to avoid protection unexpected operation for transient overcurrent
resulting from external failures.

Therefore, the more is the current level high, the less is the protection sensitive in order to allow to the
appropriate protection function to operate.

• Inhibition:

There is no inhibition on this protection function which is always in operation.

• Settings:

The protection settings are determined in order to provide an accurate protection of the generator
and a good coordination with other protections in case of short circuit.

• Pickup

The current pickup is also called "system error", it represent the minimum differential current that makes
the protection function active under very low loading conditions. Pickup setting shall be greater than the sum
of combined errors of CTs under low load conditions and protection relays analog to digital converters error.
PX class CTs error under low load condition can be considered as less than 2% and G60 analog to digital
converter error is less than 1% therefore pickup setting is:

Pickup87G  0.05 CT secondary

37
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• Slope 1

Slope 1 setting represents the protection sensitivity for load around generator nominal current. It setting
results from a compromise between a very strong sensitivity of the protection (a weak slope) that will protect
the generator for low differential currents and the spurious trips that could be given because of CT errors in
case of too strong sensitivity. Usually, PX CTs error is very low (less than 2%), therefore, Cumulative Rated Error
of CTs and safety margin bring this setting to 10%.

Slope187G  10 %
• Break point 1

Break point 1 defines the stop of the Slope 1 zone and the beginning of the transition zone. It is also the
restrained current limit at which one the «CT saturation detection» logic begins. The break point 1 shall be set
over the rated operating current, we choose to set the 87G Break point 1 to the value of 51V pickup setting in
order to have a standard behavior differential protection for load conditions up to rated one and to provide a
good coordination between differential and overcurrent protection.

BP187G  Pickup 51V with a lower limit at 1 pu


BP187G  1 pu
• Slope 2

On a theoretical point of view, slope 2 settings correspond to the maximum CT saturation under the
maximum fault current. It is very hard to get such kind of information so the typical setting applied is 80%.

Slope287G  80 %
• Break point 2

Break point 2 is the starting point of the Slope 2 zone. It shall therefore be placed before the maximum
fault current. Therefore it is typically placed at the magnitude of generator transient (Xpd) contribution to a 3
phases short circuit at generator terminals.

ZXpd  0.287 

Icc 
Un
3  ZXpd
Icc  30168 A

Iccsecpu  3.77 pu At secondary side of the CT.

BP287G  Iccsecpu  3.77 pu

38
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Generator stator differrential


10
87G
Break point 1
8 Break point 2
Slope 1
Slope 2
6
Id (pu)

0
0 2 4 6 8 10

Ir (pu)

SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> GROUPED ELEMENTS -> SETTING GROUP 1(6) -> STATOR DIFFERENTIAL

SETTING PARAMETER
Function: Enabled
Line End Source: LINE (SRC 2)

Pickup 87G  0.05 pu


Neutral End Source: NEUTRL (SRC 1)
Pickup:
Slope 1: Slope187G  10 %
Break 1: BP187G  1 pu
Slope 2: Slope287G  80 %
Break 2: BP287G  3.77 pu
Block: OFF
Targets: Latched
Events: Enabled

39
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78G Generator pole slipping


• Causes and risks:

A loose of synchronism can be caused by either an apparition of a remaining short circuit on the grid
next to the plant, an increase of the connection impedance above the stability limit or an increase of the
internal angle of the machine.
During a synchronism loss, the resulting high peak current and of frequency operation may cause winding
stresses, pulsating torques and mechanical resonances that are potentially damaging to the turbine and the
generator. Therefore to limit hazardous behavior, the generator has to be isolated from the grid.

• Operations and actions:

In order to detect a loss of synchronism the protection relay monitors the system impedance. When a
generator loses his synchronism, the impedance locus seen at the generator terminals will move according to
the internal angle variation.
During a loss of synchronism, the rotor flux and the stator flux will have different speeds. So the internal
angle (between the 2 fluxes) will not be stable anymore. This variation has an impact on the generator
impedance seen at the terminal boards; if this one is represented in a Mho shape the impedance locus motion
will follow an elliptic trace.
The protection relay will detect the loss of synchronism using blinders: in a mho shape, some blinders
are set on both sides of the system impedance. The relay monitors continuously the impedance locus motions,
and could detect if the generator is doing a "stable" slip or an unstable oscillations:
• if the impedance locus crosses the right blinders in a first time and the left blinders a few time
after, that mean that the oscillations reflects a non-stable system behavior and the protection operates.
• if the time between the first blinders crossing and the second blinder crossing is too important, or
if the impedance locus cross only one side blinders, the relay is considering that the oscillation detected is
stable and the protection did not operate.

• Inhibition:

_78GB  "60VTS"
The protection is inhibited in case of:

• Settings:

This protection is based on two blinders: outer and inner blinders on each side (2 modes).
So as to determine the blinders positions on the X axis (resistive component) of a mho chart (see above), we
have first to determine the "system" impedance composed by generator, transformer and line impedance. We

introduce the ratio between CT and VT elements: Ratio 


CT ratio
V Tratio
We can calculate the impedance of the system in per unit:

Zspu  Xpd  Zcctg  XLgpu  RLg pu  0.34 pu


2 2

Zs  Zspu  Zb  Ratio  28.04 


The system impedance at secondary side of the CT/VT is:

We can calculate the system impedance argument assuming that the generator resistance and the

 Xpd  Zcctg  XLgpu 


transformer resistance are equal to zero:

 s  arctan   88.71 °
 RLg pu

40
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• Forward reach:
Zt  Zcct g  Zb  Ratio  9.09 
FWD reach  1.5  Zt  13.64 
• Forward RCA:
FWD rca   s  88.71 °
• Reverse Reach:
Zg  XpdZb  Ratio
REVreach  2  Zg  30.62 
• Reverse RCA:
REVrca   g  90 °
• Outer blinder (limit angle θ IN 60°):
 180°   IN
tan   Zs
 
 
Offset   48.57 
2
sin  s

 180°   IN Zs
Right blinder position:

tan  
  2 
   
RBLD   24.63 
2 Zg
sin  s tan  s
• Left blinder position:
LBLD  Offset  RBLD  23.94 
• Outer blinder (limit angle θ OT 120°):
 180°   OT 
tan   Zs
 
 
Offset 2   16.19 
2
sin  s

41
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 180°   OT  Zs
Right blinder position:

tan  
  2 
   
RBLD2   8.44 
2 Zg
sin  s tan  s
• Left blinder position:
LBLD2  Offset 2  RBLD2  7.75 

Considering a maximum oscillation of fosc  5Hz, we can determine the pickup delay 1
Timer settings:

180°   IN 180°   OT
corresponding to the time taken by the impedance locus to move from the outer blinder to the inner blinder:


Delay178G   0.017 s
2 2
360°  fosc
180°   OT
Delay378G   0.033 s
360°  fosc

Pole slipping
2

1
Reactance (ohm)

1

2

3
2 1 0 1 2

Re sistance (ohm)
Mho el eme nt
Oute r Right (120°)
Inner Ri ght (60°)
Inner Left (60°)
Oute r Le ft (120°)
Syste m impedance

42
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PATH: SETTINGS -> GROUPED ELEMENTS -> SETTING GROUP 1(6) -> POWER SWING DETECT

SETTING PARAMETER
Function: Enabled
Source: NEUTRL (SRC 1)
Shape: Mho Shape
Mode: Two Step

FWD reach  13.64 


Supv: 0.300 pu
Fwd Reach:
Quad Fwd Mid: N/A

FWD rca  88.71 deg


Quad Fwd Out: N/A
Fwd Rca:
Rev Reach: REVreach  30.62 
Quad Rev Mid: N/A

REVrca  90 deg
Quad Rev Out: N/A
Rev Rca:
Outer Limit Angle:  OT  120 deg

 IN  60 deg
Middle Limit Angle: N/A
Inner Limit Angle :
Outer Rgt Bld: RBLD  24.63 
Outer Lft Bld: LBLD  23.94 
Midle Rgt Bld: N/A

RBLD2  8.44 
Midle Lft Bld: N/A
Inner Rgt Bld:
Inner Lft Bld: LBLD2  7.75 
Delay 1 Pickup: Delay178G  0.017 s
Delay 1 Reset: 0.050 s

Delay378G  0.033 s
Delay 2 Pickup: N/A
Delay 3 Pickup:
Delay 4 Pickup: Delay478G  0.033 s
Seal-In Delay: Seal78G  0.133 s

_78GB  "60VTS"
Trip Mode: Delayed
Block:
Target: Latched
Event: Enabled

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21G Generator under impedance


• Causes and risks:

A decrease of impedance appears during failure like short-circuit. In order to avoid to the the generator
to supply the failure the protection have to operate. Otherwise the failure could damage the machine and its
auxiliaries.

• Operations and actions:

In order to detect short circuits, the protection monitors the generator impedance locus. If the
impedance seen by the protection relay is going into the defined locus, the protection is active.

For the distance protection, the relay monitors different impedance zones. Thoses zones are determined
by the VT position. These are thus two zones:
• One first zone before the VT which is corresponding to the generator
• The second zone after the VT which monitors the defects on the busbar and the transformer
In order to provide a good coordination with the loss of excitation protection which also monitoring an
impedance locus, the phase distance will work only for line current above the generator nominal current.

First zone:
During a short-circuit near the generator, the current would have a specific behavior with several steps.
In a first time, the current will be limited only by the subtransient reactance then it will be the transient
reactance which will limit the current level and finally the synchronous reactance allows a current flow
equivalent to the half of the nominal current flow.

The detection of a short-circuit during subtransient step would be easy. However, trip the breaker with
the subtransient current flow will be hazardous for the breakers. We choose to trip at the transient short-circuit
current flow.

This protection is designed to detect short-circuits, this kind of faults can be internal to the generator, but
internal faults are detected earlier by generator differential and stator earth fault which will involve a turbine
trip, that's the reason why the 21 protection make only an electrical trip.

44
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Second zone:
For this zone the protection principle is the same as for the first one: the relay monitors the impedance
locus.
The relay monitors the impedance of the system and it will set a trip if that impedance moves into the
defined zones.

• Inhibition:

_21GB  "60VTS"
The protection is inhibited in case of:

• Settings:

ZT  Zcct g  Zb  0.17 
Before calculating the settings it is needed to determine the impedances at generator terminals:
Transformer impedance
Generator impedance ZXpd  0.29 

• First zone:
Dir1 21G  "Reverse"

Reach1  ZXpd  Ratio  15.31  Where Ratio 


CT ratio
V Tratio

RCA1  90°
Delay121G  0.7  Tpd  0.67 s

• Second zone:
The protection scope is : Z21G  "Transformer"

Dir2 21G  "Forward"

Reach2  ZS2  Ratio


Reach2  6.36 
 
Where ZS2 is equal either to 0.7 Zccg  Zb  if the protection scope is limited to the transformer itself
 

and 0.7 ZLgpu  Zccg Zb.
  
RCA2  90 °
Delay221G  1s

Main transformer vector group VG  "Yd1"

45
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Generator under impedance


10
Zone 1
Zone 2

 10
Reactance (Ohm)

0 10

 10

 20

Re sistance (Ohm)

SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> GROUPED ELEMENTS -> SETTING GROUP 1(6) -> DISTANCE

SETTING PARAMETER
Source: NEUTRL (SRC 1)
Memory Duration: 10 cycles
Force Self-Polar: OFF
Force Mem-Polar: OFF

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SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> GROUPED ELEMENTS -> SETTING GROUP 1(6) -> DISTANCE -> PHASE DISTANCE Z1(Z3)

PARAMETER PHASE DISTANCE Z1

Dir2 21G  "Forward"


Function: Enabled
Direction:

Z1C21G  "Dy11"
Shape: Mho
Xfmr Vol Connection:
Xfmr Curr Connection: Z1C21G  "Dy11"
Reach: Reach2  6.36 
RCA: RCA2  90 °
Rev Reach: N/A
Rev Reach RCA: N/A
Comp Limit: 90°
DIR RCA: 90°
DIR Comp Limit: 90°
Quad Right Blinder: N/A
Quad Right Blinder RCA: N/A
Quad Left Blinder: N/A

RB 21G  1.05 pu
Quad Left Blinder RCA: N/A
Supervision:

Delay221G  1 s
Volt Level: 0.000 pu
Delay:
Block: _21GB  "60VTS"
Target: Latched
Events: Enabled

PARAMETER PHASE DISTANCE Z3

Dir1 21G  "Reverse"


Function: Enabled
Direction:
Shape: Mho
Xfmr Vol Connection: None

Reach1  15.31 
Xfmr Curr Connection: None
Reach:
RCA: RCA1  90 °
Rev Reach: N/A
Rev Reach RCA: N/A
Comp Limit: 90°
DIR RCA: 90°
DIR Comp Limit: 90°
Quad Right Blinder: N/A
Quad Right Blinder RCA: N/A
Quad Left Blinder: N/A

RB 21G  1.05 pu
Quad Left Blinder RCA: N/A
Supervision:

Delay121G  0.67 s
Volt Level: 0.000 pu
Delay:
Block: _21GB  "60VTS"
Target: Latched
Events: Enabled
47
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Date : 16/03/2015

27TN 100% stator earth fault under voltage


3rd harmonic
• Causes and risks:

This type of fault occurs when the isolation between the stator winding and the generator body is no
longer effective. This protection can be used as a complement of the 51GN95% protection, but the purpose of
this protection is to detect the earth fault in the five first percent of the generator stator winding.
The current resulting from a generator stator earth fault could cause very important damage on the
insulation and on the magnetic body of the generator.

• Operations and actions:

The generator stator is coiled in order to provide a sinusoidal FEM, but because of the stator winding
manufacturing, the stator voltage is not a perfect sinus. The generator output voltage is composed by a
fundamental sinus and of odd rows harmonics. The most significant harmonic which is composing the
generator is the third one.
The signal period for the third harmonic is equal to the angle between two stator phases. The third
harmonics have thus the same angle, the same frequency and the same level for the three stator phases and
are forming a zero sequence system. In the neutral connection, the VT see the sum of the three phases third
harmonics, and in the case of a stator earth fault in the five percent, the third harmonics level seen by the last
VT will decrease. The protection allows to send an alarm information.

• Inhibition:

To prevent mis-operation of protection, we choice to enable protection with stator voltage over 80%
of rated stator voltage (VSUP) and disable the function in case we have Generator breaker OFF.

• Settings:

Since the third harmonic level is specific for each generator, the settings for this protection have to be
determined during the commissioning period. Take note that the settings could be different for the same type
of generators on the same power plant.

1pu NTRL voltage = Primary Auxiliary GND VT

Base 27TN  CT prim  VTprim3  207.85 MVA

 0.0722 pu
15MW
Base27TN
Follow this guide to tune the protection on site:

• Step 1
Complete the table below with the 3rd VN value recorded on G60 at different MW and power factor.
(G60 manuel chapter 6 Actual values metering)
a) Follow guide to display Power This voltage can be internally monitored under
ACTUAL VALUES -> METERING -> STATOR GROUND or by using a spectrum analyzer.

b) Follow guide to display STATOR GROUND VOLTAGE

48
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All the recorded V3rd Hamonics values must be given as read in secondary side.
The number of point on the table above are not restrictive.

c) Check Relays configuration

Aux. VT Secondary = GndVTsec  240 V = 1 pu


Set the relays AC input of VT secondary as following:

Aux. VT Ratio = GndVTratio  50


d) Draw the curve V3rd hamonics voltage recorded at different power and power factor ( from table
above)
- Read on curve recorded a minimal V3rd Hamonics voltage at a chosen minimun active power and plotted for
differents Pf and note its.
- Check that at least 90% of V3rd values are greather than the 3rd Vn chosen, if the points recorded give the
different shape curve as shown on the paste below contact Engineering department for settings assistance.
As Pmin and Pmax inhibit area, they have to be define carefully.

V3rd Recorded  1.39 V Read on Secondary side.


Delay27TN  5 s

Pmin27TN  0 MW
e) Read on curve recorded the Pmin and Pmax recorded and note its

Pmax27TN  20 MW
• Step 2 Relays Settings
V3rdRecorded  0.8
V3rdset   0.0046 pu (of VTsec)
GndVTsec
Pmin 27TN  0.95
PminSet 27TN   0 pu
Base27TN
Pmax27TN  1.05
PmaxSet27TN   0.101 pu
Base27TN

49
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Date : 16/03/2015

As it had been describe before the protection is inhibited between Pmin27TN and Pmax27TN

Example of a site records and draw curves

50
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SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS-> GROUPED ELEMENTS -> SETTING GROUP 1(6) -> STATOR GROUND -> 3RD HARM NTRL
UNDERVOLTAGE

F27TN  "Disabled"
SETTING PARAMETER
Function:
Pickup: V3rd set  0.0046 pu
Delay: Delay27TN  5 s
Max Power: PmaxSet27TN  0.101 pu
Min Power: PminSet27TN  0 pu
Volt Supervision 0.500 pu
Block: OFF
Target: Latched
Events: Enabled

51
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Date : 16/03/2015

64B Leads earth fault


• Causes and risks:

This type of fault occurs when the isolation between medium voltage phase (generator stator windings,
busducts and transformer) and the earth is no longer effective.
The current resulting from a lead earth fault could cause very important damage on the insulation and
on the magnetic body of the generator.

• Operations and actions:

In normal operation conditions, the three phases of a system are balanced and the angle between each
phases is 120°. In these conditions, the vectorial sum of the three phases voltages should be zero.
Nevertheless, during a fault, the voltage level from the phase in fault is equal to zero and therefore, the
vectorial sum of the three phases voltage isn't null anymore.
So as to perform this protection function, we use a voltage transformer with an "open delta"
connection at the sencondary side. This connection allows to provide a direct measure of the vectorial sum of
the three phases voltages. The protection relay is therefore set with an overvoltage function dedicated to
monitor the raise of the voltage level at the "open delta" transformer.

In normal operation conditions:


 j 120°
V1  V3 
Vn Vn
j 0°
e e
Where Vn  100 V
3 3

Vopendelta V1  V2  V3  0V

Balanced electrical system


40

20

 20

 40
 40  20 0 20 40

V1
V2
V3
V ope nde lta

52
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Date : 16/03/2015

During a fault of one of the phases we can write:


 j 30°
V1d  V 2d  V3  0
Vn j 30°
Vn
3e 3e

Vdopendelta  V1d  V2d  V3d


3 3

 j 30°
Vdopendelta  
Vn Vn
j 30°

 
3e 3e
3 3
 j 30°
Vdopendelta  e
Vn j 30°
e
3
Vn  3 1
Vdopendelta   j  j 
3 2 2
1 3
2 2
Vdopendelta  Vn and Vn  100 V

Electrical system in fault

100

50

 40  20 0 20 40

V 1d
V 2d
V 3d
V dopendelta
• Inhibition:

The protection is inhibited in case of:

• Settings:
Based on our experience, in order to provide a sensitive protection, the protection pickup will be the

Voltpickup64B  12 %
following one:

Voltpickup64B  Vn
Pickup 64B   0.36 pu
VTM8sec
Where VTM8sec  33.33 V
Delay64B  1 s

53
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SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> GROUPED ELEMENTS -> SETTING GROUP 1(6) -> VOLTAGE ELEMENTS -> AUXILIARY OV1(2)

PARAMETER AUXILIARY OV 1
Function: Enabled

Pickup 64B  0.36 pu


Source: MV BUS (SRC 3)
Pickup:
Pickup Delay: Delay64B  1 s
Reset Delay: 0.00 s
Block: 94VT64BOFF On
Target: Latched
Events: Enabled

54
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Date : 16/03/2015

27BN/BZ Bus voltage supervision


• Causes and risks:

The risks around this portection is to close a breaker while it is energized, this could caused a current
peak that can damaged the equipements.

• Operations and actions:

The aim of this element is to be a permissive for deadbus synchronization: in case of deadbus closure, it
is a common practice to consider that a deadbus closure of the 52G or 52L could be done properly if line side
voltage is below 30% of the nominal value. This permissive has to be done by a equipment independent from
Speedtonic: the protection relay. Speedtronic performs a synchronization on 2 phases, therefore
synchronization VTs gives a single "phase to phase" VTs. Synchronization VT on breakers line side, also called
SVL are usually connected to G60 relay VT input VTM5 on phase A. In order to make this synchronization
permissive G60 is monitoring shall monitor voltage level on this phase.

• Inhibition:

There is no inhibition on this protection function which is always in operation.

• Settings:

Pickup 27BN  0.3 pu

SOFTWARE PATH: SETTING -> FLEXLOGIC -> FLEXELEMENTS -> FLEXELEMENT

PARAMETER FLEXELEMENTS 1
Function: Enabled
Name: 27BS-1
InputPlus: SRC3 Vag RMS
InputMinus: Off
InputMode: ABSOLUTE
Compare Mode: LEVEL

Pickup 27BN  0.3 pu


Direction Type: OVER
Pickup:
Hysteresis: 3.0 %
DeltaTUnits: Milliseconds
DeltaT: 20
Pickup Delay: 0.000s
Reset Delay: 0.000s
Block: OFF
Target: Disabled
Events: Disabled

55
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27GN/GZ Generator voltage supervision


• Causes and risks:

The risks around this portection is to close a breaker while it is energized, this could caused a current
peak that can damaged the equipements.

• Operations and actions:

The aim of this element is to be a permissive for 52L override: in case of 52L override, it is a common
practice to consider that breaker closure could be done properly if generator side voltage is below 30% of the
nominal value. This permissive has to be done by an equipment independent from Speedtonic : the protection
relay. Speedtronic performs a synchronization on 2 phases, therefore synchronization VTs gives a single
"phase to phase" VTs. Synchronization VT on generator side also called DV are usually connected to G60
relay VT input VTM5 on phase B. In order to make this synchronization permissive G60 is monitoring shall
monitor voltage level on this phase.

• Inhibition:

There is no inhibition on this protection function which is always in operation.

• Settings:
Pickup 27GN  0.3 pu

SOFTWARE PATH: SETTING -> FLEXLOGIC -> FLEXELEMENTS -> FLEXELEMENT

PARAMETER FLEXELEMENTS 2
Function: Enabled
Name: 27GZ
InputPlus: SRC3 Vbg RMS
InputMinus: Off
InputMode: ABSOLUTE
Compare Mode: LEVEL

Pickup 27GN  0.3 pu


Direction Type: OVER
Pickup:
Hysteresis: 3.0 %
DeltaTUnits: Milliseconds
DeltaT: 20
Pickup Delay: 0.000s
Reset Delay: 0.000s
Block: OFF
Target: Disabled
Events: Disabled

56
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87B Block differential protection


• Causes and risks:

The block differential protection function is based on the principle that the current entering and leaving
the protection zone has to be equal. Any difference between these currents is indicative of a fault being
present in the zone.
This difference can be caused by a winding failure like a phase to earth or a phase to phase failure. This
failure can have several damages on the stator windings and/or the magnetic circuit.

• Operations and actions:

The transformer differential protection monitors the currents seen by the CTs sets: in normal operation
conditions these currents should be the same. Therefore, if the protection function detects a difference
between the measures, it means that there is a failure somewhere between the CTs sets.
In some cases of external failures involving a high current level, the current level seen by one of the CTs
set can be transiently greater than the current seen by the other one and there is a risk that the protection
operates during this external fault.
To improve the protections coordination, the differential protection should operate only when there is
an internal failure (within the zone covered by the Cts sets). Accordingly, a bias is inserted to the protection's
characteristic for high current level, so as to avoid protection unexpected operation for transient overcurrent
resulting from external failures.
Therefore, the more the current level is high, the less is the protection sensitive in order to allow to the
appropriate protection function to operate.

• Inhibition:

There is no inhibition for this protection function which is always operating.

• Settings:

The protection settings are determined in order to provide an accurate protection of the generator and
a good coordination with other protections in case of short circuit.

• Pickup

The current pickup is the minimum level of the differential current for the one the protection should

IPickup87B  40 %
operate.

In  IPickup87B
Pickup 87B   0.28 A where CT ratio  8000
CT ratio

Pickup 87Bpu   0.28 pu


Pickup 87B
at secondary side of the CT
CT sec

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• Slope 1

Slope187B  30 %
• Break point 1

BP187B  1 pu
• Slope 2

Slope287B  90 %
• Break point 2

The second break point is determined according to the transient short-circuit value in order to
desensitive that protection for failure for a sub time of short subtransitory circuit:

 
BP287BAp   18928.54 A
Ulv
3   Zcc  ZbtLV  ZXpd

BP2 87BA   2.37 A


BP2 87BAp
CT ratio

BP2 87B   2.37 pu


BP2 87BA
CT sec

Transformer differential protection


10

6
Id (pu)

0
0 2 4 6 8 10

Ir (pu)
Tri p 87B
Tri p 87G

58
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SOFTWARE PATH: SETTINGS -> GROUPED ELEMENTS -> SETTING GROUP 1(6) -> TRANSFORMER -> PERCENT DIFFERENTIAL

SETTING PARAMETER

Pickup 87Bpu  0.28 pu


Function: Enabled
Pickup:
Slope 1: Slope187B  30 %
Break 1: BP187B  1 pu
Break 2: BP287B  2.37 pu
Slope 2: Slope287B  90 %
Inrush Inhibit Function: Adapt. 2nd
Inrush Inhibit Mode: Per phase
Inrush Inhibit Level: 10.0 % fo
Overexcitation Inhibit Function: Disabled
Overexcitation Inhibit Level: N/A
Block: OFF
Target: Latched
Events: Enabled

59
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Date : 16/03/2015

References
• G60 Generator Protection System - UR Series Instruction Manual

• T60 Transformer Protection System - UR Series Instruction Manual

• 73/23/EEC, Low Voltage Equipment, European Economic Community.

• 89/336/EEC, Electromagnetic Compatibility, European Economic Community.

• 93/68/EEC, CE Marking Directive, European Economic Community.

• ANSI/IEEE C37.101, IEEE Guide for Generator Ground Protection, Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers.

• ANSI/IEEE C37.102, IEEE Guide for AC Generator Protection, Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers.

• ANSI/IEEE C37.106, IEEE Guide for Abnormal Frequency Protection for Power Generating Plants,
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

• ANSI/IEEE C37.2, IEEE Standard Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers and Contact
Designations, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

• ANSI/IEEE C37.91, Guide for Protective Relay Applications to Power Transformers, Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers.

• ANSI/IEEE C50.13, IEEE Standard for Cylindrical-Rotor 50 Hz and 60 Hz Synchronous Generators Rated
10 MVA and above, Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers

• IEC 600341, Rotating Electrical Machines Part 1: Rating and Performance, International
Electrotechnical Commission.

• IEC 600343, Rotating Electrical Machines Specific Requirements for Cylindrical Rotor Synchronous
Machines, International Electrotechnical Commission.

• IEC 61508, Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems,


International Electrotechnical Commission.

• IEC 61511, Functional Safety: Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Sector

• IEC 60529, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code), International Electrotechnical
Commission.

• IEEE STD 242, Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial
Power Systems, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

• IEEE STD 502, IEEE Guide for Protection, Interlocking, and Control of Fossil-Fueled Unit-Connected
Steam Stations (ANSI), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

• NEMA 250, Enclosures for Electrical Equipment (1000 V Maximum), National Electrical Manufacturers
Association

60
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