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Running head: P.E.P.S.


P.E.P.S.I Case Study

Maya R. Labat

College of Southern Nevada

November 2016


In this P.E.P.S.I. Case Study a nine-year-old student named Anthony is being observed. I will

analyze his physical, emotional, philosophical, social, and intellectual characteristics as. In this

paper, the characteristics discussed will also be supported by research-based references.

References include published books, articles, and internet sources. The goal is to have a better

understanding of his characteristics and have a better understanding of students like him

P.E.P.S.I Case Study

Ralph Waldo Emmerson once said, “The secret in education lies in respecting the

student”. This still rings true today. To have respect for students one has to understand certain

characteristics that evolve through growth, experience, and knowledge. In this P.E.P.S.I. case

study I observed a nine-year-old student named Anthony. To protect his privacy his named has

been changed by him. I will analyze his physical, emotional, philosophical, social, and

intellectual characteristics. In this paper, the characteristics discussed will also be supported by

research-based references.

Physical Characteristics

Anthony is a very active fourth grader that has a lot of energy. He has been involved in

an afterschool soccer team for four years and loves the sport. Afterschool programs have

become a promising approach to help improve the health and wellness of students, from

providing students with access to nutritious foods to promoting healthy habits (Hall & Wiecha,

2013). Anthony does not struggle with his weight; however he likes snacks. I observed that he

did like to eat a lot. Students at that grade level have an increased appetite and a need for more

sleep (Developmental Milestones for Fourth and fifth Graders, n.d.). As far as height, he is about

average to the other boys in his classroom. He is about four feet tall. In a years’ time, the

average child of this age will grow about 2-3 inches and gain about 5 to 7 pounds (Snowman &

McCown, 2015).

Emotional Characteristics

At this age, peers play a role in his life. How peers feel about him can affect his mood

for the whole day. Anthony compares himself to his peers. For example, he told me how many

points he scored in his last soccer game compared to his friends who were also playing soccer

with him. During this period, children develop a more global, integrated, and complex self -

image (Snowman & McCown, 2015, p. 90). Anthony’s self- perceptions are distinguished by

his self-concept, self-description, and self-esteem. Self-descriptions are simply how people

describe themselves to others (Snowman & McCown, 2015, p. 90). Anthony’s self-description

seems a bit over exaggerated, almost fictional. When he is describing himself, I get a sense of a

cartoon superhero like quality. Self-Concept is comprised of birth descriptive and evaluative

beliefs that children hold about certain characteristics (Burnett, 1994). Anthony does have a

sense of self-concept. At this age he is aware that his voice is getting deeper. He also has a strong

connection to his cultural heritage which is African American. Self-esteem is a way of thinking

and feeling about yourself. Characteristics of kids with self-esteem include feeling good about

themselves and are proud of what they can do (Kids Self Esteem, n.d.). Characteristics of low

self-esteem include being hard on themselves or giving up easily (Kids Self Esteem, n.d.).

Anthony’s self-esteem can vary. One day he might have higher self-esteem, other days lower. I

feel like this is based on environmental surroundings at home and with his peers.

Philosophical Characteristics

I will be using Piaget’s Model of Cognitive Development as well as Erikson’s Theory

Psychosocial Development to describe Anthony’s philosophical characteristics. Piaget believes

that the principal goal of education is to create learners who are capable of doing new things, not

simply repeating what other generations have done (Hardscastle & Parkay, 2001). In Piaget’s

theory, Anthony would be in the Constructive Operations stage. During this stage, one gradually

becomes less influenced by perceptual centration, irreversibility, and egocentrism (Snowman &

McCown, 2015, p. 42).


Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development he bases his development on epigenetic

principle (Snowman & McCown, 2015, p. 28). Anthony is a very smart and curious student that

always wants to know how things work. He is also given a lot of positive encouragement from

his teacher which reflects in his work. Based on Erikson’s theory, Anthony would be in the

Industry vs. Inferiority stage. In this stage, if children are encouraged and reinforced for their

initiative, they begin to feel industrious and feel confident in their ability to achieve goals

(Mcleod, 2013).

Social Characteristics

Social acceptance within peers is very important in Anthony’s life. Peer acceptance is

how likable a child is to his/her peers (Wery Well, n.d.). For example, children start to think are

they worthy to be a friend. Anthony is surrounded with friends at school. I did not observe any

conflicts or bullying when it came to him. He has a very diverse group of friends, more boys

than girls. Around this age students start to pick friends based on personalities rather than liking

the same toy (Wery Well, n.d.). While Anthony likes praise from his teacher, he does not like

adult supervision. Peer groups become more powerful and begins to replace adults as the major

source of behavioral standards and recognition of achievement. (Snowman & McCown, 2015, p.

90). The peer group is a major socializing agent in higher elementary grades. Peers establish a

certain moral order that may differ somewhat from that established by adults (Hughes, 2010).

Intellectual Characteristics

Intelligence, operationally defined, is the aggregate or global capacity to act purposefully,

to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment (Hardscastle & Parkay, 2001, p.

302). To describe Anthony’s intellectual characteristics, I will be using Gardner’s Multiple

Intelligence Theory. In his theory, Gardner describes eight different types of intelligences on can

have. Some might be proficient in a specific few, while others in another category. Also, there

are no limits as to how many multiple intelligences you can have. As Anthony might have more,

the intelligences that I observed were Logical/Mathematical and Linguistic. Logical/

Mathematical Intelligences is described as sensitivity to, and capacity to discern, logical or

numerical patterns; ability to handle long chains of reasoning (Snowman & McCown, 2015, p.

125). He was great in solving longer math problems and describing them to the class. Linguistic

intelligence is to think in words and use language to express and understand complex meanings

(Multiple Intelligence: Definitions and Examples, 2002). He is great with reading out loud and I

noticed he memorized a few words ahead before looking down at the book.

In conclusion, Anthony is a great student that shows characteristics of a successful

student. He has a hefty appetite and loves snacks. Anthony can continue his active lifestyle by

mastering soccer or any other physical activity. This will encourage a long and healthy lifestyle.

As with most kids his age he can get emotional. We all have our good days and bad days. As

long as he is surrounded with positive encouragement he will achieve his goals.



(n.d.). Retrieved from Wery Well: https:www.verywell.com/your-9-year-old

Burnett, P. C. (1994). Self-Concept & Self-Esteem in Elementary School. Journal: Psycology in

the Schools, Vol. 31, Issue 2, 164-171.

Developmental Milestones for Fourth and fifth Graders. (n.d.). Retrieved from understood:



Hall, D. G., & Wiecha, D. (2013). Kids on The Move: Afterschool Programs Promoting Healthy

Eating and Pysical Activities. Retrieved from Afterschool Alliance:


Hardscastle, B., & Parkay, F. W. (2001). Becoming a Teacher. In F. W. Parkay, & B. Hardscastle,

Becoming a Teacher. Needham Height: Allyn & Bacon.

Hughes, F. (2010, July 20). General Characteristics of the School Age child. Retrieved from

Education: http://www.education.com/referance/article/characteristics-school-age-child/

Kids Self Esteem. (n.d.). Retrieved from Kids Health: http://Kidshealth.org/en/kids/self-


Last Name, F. M. (Year). Article Title. Journal Title, Pages From - To.

Last Name, F. M. (Year). Book Title. City Name: Publisher Name.

Mcleod, S. (2013). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from Simply Psychology:


Multiple Intelligence: Definitions and Examples. (2002). Retrieved from Enhancing Education:


Snowman, J., & McCown, R. (2015). Psychology Applied to Teaching. In J. Snowman, & R.

McCown, Psychology Applied to Teaching (p. 88). Stamford: Cengage Learning.


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