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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

University of the City of Manila

College of Engineering and Technology

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

Introduction to Piping Components

To connect the various process and utility equipment contained within a process plant, it is necessary to use an assortment of piping components that, when used collectively, are called a piping system. This report introduces the reader to these components and explains their design function and how they are specified, manufactured, and installed. All components have their own characteristics, both positive and negative, and it is essential to be aware of their strengths and weaknesses. Specifying them can become complex, especially for valves and piping special items.

PIPES

Pipe is the main artery that connects the various pieces of process and utility equipment within a process plant. Although it can be considered to be the least complex component within a piping system, it is not without its peculiarities. Pipe used within a process plant designed to one of the ASME B31 codes generally is of a metallic construction, such as carbon steel, stainless steel, duplex, copper, or to a lesser degree, one of the more exotic metals like Monel or titanium.

Nonmetallic pipe such as one of the plastics, like PVC, glass reinforced epoxy, or glass-reinforced plastic, are not prohibited, and each has its own set of characteristics. Glass-reinforced plastic (GRP),is a plastic reinforced by fine fibers of glass. The plastic most commonly used is polyester or vinylester, but other plastics, such as epoxy, can be used to make glass-reinforced epoxy (GRE).

Pipe or Tube?

In the world of piping, the terms pipe and tube will be used. Pipe is customarily identified by "Nominal Pipe Size" (NPS), with wall thickness defined by "Schedule number" (SCH).

Tube is customarily specified by its outside diameter (O.D.) and wall thickness (WT), expressed either in Birmingham wire gage (BWG) or in thousandths of an inch

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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

University of the City of Manila

College of Engineering and Technology

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

Definition and Details of Nominal Pipe Size

Nominal Pipe Size

Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a North American set of standard sizes for pipes used for high or low pressures and temperatures. The name NPS is based on the earlier "Iron Pipe Size" (IPS) system.

That IPS system was established to designate the pipe size. The size represented the approximate inside diameter of the pipe in inches. An IPS 6" pipe is one whose inside diameter is approximately 6 inches. Users started to call the pipe as 2inch, 4inch, 6inch pipe and so on. To begin, each pipe size was produced to have one thickness, which later was termed as standard (STD) or standard weight (STD.WT.). The outside diameter of the pipe was standardized.

Nominal pipe size (NPS) is a dimensionless designator of pipe size. It indicates standard pipe size when followed by the specific size designation number without an inch symbol. For example, NPS 6 indicates a pipe whose outside diameter is 168.3 mm.

For a given NPS, the outside diameter stays constant and the wall thickness increases with larger schedule number. The inside diameter will depend upon the pipe wall thickness specified by the schedule number.

Pipe Schedule

So, at the IPS time only three wall thickness were in use. In March 1927, the American Standards Association surveyed industry and created a system that designated wall thicknesses based on smaller steps between sizes. The designation known as nominal pipe size replaced iron pipe size, and the term schedule (SCH) was invented to specify the nominal wall thickness of pipe. By adding schedule numbers to the IPS standards, today we know a range of wall thicknesses, namely:

SCH 5, 5S, 10, 10S, 20, 30, 40, 40S, 60, 80, 80S, 100, 120, 140, 160, STD, XS and XXS.

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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

University of the City of Manila

College of Engineering and Technology

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

Length of Pipes

Piping lengths from the factory not exactly cut to length but are normally delivered as:

Single random length has a length of around 5-7 meter

Double random length has a length of around 11-13 meter

Shorter and longer lengths are available, but for a calculation, it is wise, to use this standard lengths; other sizes are probably more expensive.

Ends of Pipes

Pipes are furnished by manufacturers either with plain ends for welding or threaded ends that will be joined by a threaded coupling. Bell and spigot ends are furnished in a few of lighter pipe weights

  • A. Plain End Pipes

Plain ends pipes are used for a pipeline in which the individual joints will be welded together. It is finished with a square cut end or a beveled end, depending on pipe size and wall thickness

The PE pipes will generally be used for the smaller diameters pipe systems and in combination with Slip On flanges and Socket Weld fittings and flanges.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
  • B. Threaded End Pipes

On pipes furnished with threaded ends, the coupling is screwed into one end of the pipe and a threaded protector is installed on the other end.

The TE implementation speaks for itself, this performance will generally used for small diameters pipe systems, and the connections

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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

University of the City of Manila

College of Engineering and Technology

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

will be made with threaded flanges and threaded fittings.

  • C. Bell and Spigot Ends A pipe joint in which a pipe ending in a bell-like shape is joined to a pipe ending in a spigotlike shape.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
  • D. Beveled Ended Pipe

Pipe beveling

is

the process

where an

angle is formed between the edge of the end of a pipe or tube and a plane perpendicular to

the surface. A standard pipe bevel angle for welding is 37.5 degrees. Other angles and special forms such as J-Bevels can also be produced on the ends of pipe or tube using automatic beveling machines.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

Beveling of pipe or tubing is most commonly used to prepare the ends for welding. It can also be used for deburring the cut ends for safety and aesthetic reasons

II. Classifications of Pipes

  • A. Line Pipe

These hollow tubes are used for long distance piping projects. Steel line pipes tend to have a higher resistance to corrosion and are used for the transportation of oils and gases.

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University of the City of Manila

College of Engineering and Technology

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

B. Seamless

Standard

seamless

pipes

are

more

commonly used than welded pipes and they tend to be more pressure resistant. Because of their lighter weight and thin

walls,

they

are

transportation.

used

in

liquid

Advantages:

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
  • The main perceived advantage of seamless pipes is that they don’t have a weld seam. Traditionally, the seam of welded pipes has been viewed as a weak spot, vulnerable to failure and corrosion. For many years, this fear was probably justified. However, in recent years improvements in the manufacturing process for welded steel pipes and other welded pipes have boosted the strength and performance of the weld seam to levels indistinguishable from that of the rest of the pipe.

  • Seamless pipes provide peace of mind. Although there should be no issues with the seams of welded pipes supplied by reputable manufacturers, seamless pipes prevent any possibility of a weak seam.

  • Seamless pipes have better ovality, or roundness, than welded pipes

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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

University of the City of Manila

College of Engineering and Technology

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

C. Welded Pipes

Welded pipes are not typically used in high-pressure projects and are heavier than seamless pipes. They transport gas more often than liquid.

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

Advantages:

  • Welded pipes are typically more cost effective than their seamless equivalents.

  • Welded pipes are usually more readily available than seamless. The longer lead time required for seamless pipes can not only make timing problematic, but it also allows more time for the price of the materials to fluctuate.

  • The wall thickness of welded pipes is generally more consistent than that of seamless pipes.

  • The internal surface of welded tubes can be checked before manufacturing, which isn’t possible with seamless

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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

University of the City of Manila

College of Engineering and Technology

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

D. ERW Pipes

ERW

pipes

means Electric

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

Resistance Welded Pipes. Electric resistance welded (ERW) pipe is manufactured by cold-forming a sheet of steel into a cylindrical shape. Current is then passed between the two edges of the steel to heat the steel to a point at which the edges are forced together to form a bond without the use of welding filler material. Initially this manufacturing process used low frequency A.C. current to heat the edges. This low frequency process

was used from the 1920’s until 1970. In 1970, the low frequency

process was superseded by a high frequency ERW process which produced a higher quality weld.

Over time, the welds of low frequency ERW pipe was found to be susceptible to selective seam corrosion, hook cracks, and inadequate bonding of the seams, so low frequency ERW is no longer used to manufacture pipe. The high frequency process is still being used to manufacture pipe for use in new pipeline construction.

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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

University of the City of Manila

College of Engineering and Technology

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

VALVES

Valves are mechanical devices that controls the flow and pressure within a system or process. They are essential components of a piping system that conveys liquids, gases, vapours, slurries etc. Some valves are self-operated while others manually or with an actuator or pneumatic or hydraulic is operated.

  • A. Functions of Valves:

    • To slow down or stop the flow of a fluid

    • To reduce or increase the flow rate of a fluid.

    • To control the direction of a flow

    • To regulate process pressure.

  • B. Basic Parts of Valves

  • 1. Valve Body

    • The valve body, sometimes called the shell, is the primary boundary of a pressure valve. Serves as the main element of a valve assembly because it is the framework that holds all the parts together.

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Body

    Valve

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    • 2. Valve Bonnet

    • The cover for the opening in the body is the bonnet, and it is the second most important boundary of a pressure valve. A bonnet acts as a cover on the valve body, is cast or forged of the same material as the body. It is commonly connected to the body by a threaded, bolted, or welded joint.

    The

    attachment of the bonnet to the body is considered a pressure boundary, this means that the weld joint or bolts that connect the bonnet to the body are pressure-retaining parts.

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Valve Bonnet

    • 3. Valve Disk

    • The disc is the part which allows, throttles, or stops flow, depending on its position. The disk is the third most important primary pressure boundary. With the valve closed, full system pressure is applied across the disk, and for this reason, the disk is a pressure related component. Most valves are named, the design of their disks.

    • 4. Valve Seat/s

    • The seat or seal rings provide the seating surface for the disk. A valve may have one or more seats. A valve may have one or more seats. To improve the wear-resistance of the seal rings, the surface is often hard- faced by welding and then machining the contact surface of the seal ring.

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    5.Valve Stem

    • The valve stem provides the necessary movement to the disc, plug or the ball for opening or closing the valve, and is responsible for the proper positioning of the disk. It is connected to the valve hand wheel, actuator, or the lever at one end and on the other side to the valve disc. Stems are usually forged, and connected to the disk by threaded or other techniques. To prevent leakage, in the area of the seal, a fine surface finish of the stem is necessary.

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Valve Stem

    • 6. Valve Stem Packing

    • For a reliable seal between the stem and the bonnet, a gasket is needed. This is called a Packing. Valve packaging must be properly happen, to prevent damage to the stem and fluid or gas loss. When a packing is too loose, the valve will leak. If the packing is too tight, it will affect the movement and possible damage to the stem.

    • 7. Actuator (Hand wheel)

    • Operates the stem and disk assembly. An actuator may be controlled manually or automatically.

    • 8. Yoke

    • Yoke connects the valve body or bonnet with the actuating mechanism. The top of the Yoke holding a Yoke nut, stem nut, or Yoke bushing and the valve stem passes through it. Structurally, a Yoke must be strong enough to withstand forces, moments, and torque developed by the actuator.

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    C. Classifications of Valves

    The following are some of the commonly used valve classifications, based on mechanical motion:

    Linear Motion Valves

    The valves in which the closure member, as in gate, globe, diaphragm, pinch, and lift Check Valves, moves in a straight line to allow, stop, or throttle the flow.

    Rotary Motion Valves.

    When the valve-closure member travels along an angular or circular path, as in butterfly, ball, plug, eccentric- and Swing Check Valves, the valves are called rotary motion valves.

    Quarter Turn Valves.

    Some rotary motion valves require approximately a quarter turn, 0 through 90°, motion of the stem to go to fully open from a fully closed position or vice versa.

    Valve types

    Linear motion

    Rotary motion

    Quarter turn

    Gate Valve

     

    x

    Globe valve

     

    x

    Plug valve

     

    x

    x

    Ball valve

     

    x

    x

    Butterfly valve

     

    x

    x

    Diaphragm valve

     

    x

    Pinch valve

     

    x

    Swing Check

     

    x

     

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Gate Valves

    • Gate valves are primarily designed to start or stop flow, and when a straight-line flow of fluid and minimum flow restriction are needed. In service, these valves generally are either fully open or fully closed.

    • A gate valve functions by lifting a rectangular or circular gate out of the path of the fluid. When the valve is fully open, gate valves are full bore, meaning there is nothing to obstruct the flow because the gate and pipeline diameter have the same opening. This bore diameter also determines the valve size. An advantage of this full-bore design is very low friction loss, which saves energy and reduces total cost of ownership.

    Advantages

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    Gate

    valves

    opens

    or

    closes slowly, which

    prevents fluid hammer and subsequent damage

    to the piping system.

    Good choice for on-off service.

    Full flow, low pressure drop.

    Bidirectional (they can be used in two directions)

    Disadvantages

    It is not suitable for controlling flow

     

    It

    is

    prone to vibration

    in

    the

    partially open

    state.

    It is more subject to seat and disk wear.

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Globe Valves

    • Globe valves have a disk which can completely open or completely close the flow path. This is done with the perpendicular movement of the disk away from the seat. The annular space between the disk and seat ring gradually changes to allow fluid flow through the valve. Globe valves are commonly used as an on/off valve, but they may be used for throttling systems. The gradual change in spacing between the disk and seat ring gives the globe valve good throttling ability.

    • There are three primary body designs for Globe valves, namely: Tee Pattern or Z-body, Angle Pattern and Wye Pattern or Y-body body.

    a. Tee Pattern Globe valve

    is

    the

    most common body type,

    with a Z-shaped diaphragm. The

    horizontal setting of the seat allows the stem and disk to travel

    perpendicular to the horizontal line.

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    • b. Angle Pattern Globe valves The ends of this Globe valve are at an angle of 90 degrees, and fluid flow occurs with a single 90 degrees turn. Angle valves are designed so that the inlet and outlet are perpendicular. They are used for transferring flow from vertical to horizontal.

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    • c. Wye Pattern Globe valves

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    is an alternative for the high pressure drop, inherent in Globe valves. Seat and stem are angled at approximately 45 degrees, what gives a straighter flow path at full opening and offer the least resistance to flow.

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Advantages

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Recommended for throttling applications.

    Good for frequent operation.

    Easy to repair.

    Disadvantages

    Flow path causes a significant pressure drop.

    Globe valves are more costly than alternative valves.

    Typical Applications of Globe valves

    The following are some of the typical applications of Globe valves:

    Cooling water systems where flow needs to be regulated

    Fuel oil system where flow is regulated and leak tightness is of

    importance High-point vents and low-point drains when leak tightness and safety are

    major considerations Feedwater, chemical feed, condenser air extraction, and extraction drain

    systems Boiler vents and drains, main steam vents and drains, and heater drains

    Turbine seals and drains

    Turbine lube oil system and others

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Ball Valves

    • A Ball valve is a quarter-turn rotational motion valve that uses a ball- shaped disk to stop or start flow. If the valve is opened, the ball rotates to a point where the hole through the ball is in line with the valve body inlet and outlet. If the valve is closed, the ball is rotated so that the hole is perpendicular to the flow openings of the valve body and the flow is stopped.

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Applications of Ball Valves

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    The following are some typical applications of Ball valves:

    Air, gaseous, and liquid applications

    Drains and vents in liquid, gaseous, and other fluid services

    Steam service

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Advantages

    Quick quarter turn on-off operation

    Tight sealing with low torque

    Smaller in size than most other valves

    Can handle fluids with suspended solids.

    Disadvantages

    Conventional Ball valves have poor throttling properties In slurry or other applications, the suspended particles can settle and become trapped in body cavities causing wear, leakage, or valve failure.

    Butterfly Valves

    • A Butterfly valve is a quarter-turn rotational motion valve, that is used to stop, regulate, and start flow.

    • Butterfly valves are easy and fast to open. A 90° rotation of the handle provides a complete closure or opening of the valve.

     The flow control element is a disk of approximately the same diameter as the inside
    The flow control element is a disk of approximately the same diameter as
    the inside diameter of the adjoining pipe, which rotates on either a
    vertical or horizontal axis. When the disk lies parallel to the piping run,
    the valve is fully opened. When the disk approaches the perpendicular
    position, the valve is shut.
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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Applications of Butterfly Valves

    A Butterfly valve can be used in many different fluid services and they perform well in slurry applications. The following are some typical applications of Butterfly valves:

    Cooling water, air, gases, fire protection etc.

    Slurry and similar services

    Vacuum service

    High-pressure and high-temperature water and steam services

    Advantages

    Compact design requires considerably less space, compared to other valves Light in weight Quick operation requires less time to open or close Available in very large sizes Low-pressure drop and high-pressure recovery

    Disadvantages

    Throttling service is limited to low differential pressure

    Cavitations and choked flow are two potential concerns

    Disc movement is unguided and affected by flow turbulence

    Plug Valves

     

    A Plug Valve is a quarter-turn rotational motion Valve that use a tapered or cylindrical plug to stop or start flow. In the open position, the plug- passage is in one line with the inlet and outlet ports of the Valve body. If the plug 90° is rotated from the open position, the solid part of the plug blocks the port and stops flow. Plug valves are similar to Ball valves in operation.

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Applications of Plug Valves

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    A Plug Valve can be used in many different fluid services and they perform well in slurry applications. The following are some typical applications of Plug valves:

    Air, gaseous, and vapor services

    Natural gas piping systems

    Oil piping systems

    Vacuum to high-pressure applications

    Advantages

    Quick quarter turn on-off operation

    Minimal resistance to flow

    Smaller in size than most other valves

    Disadvantages

    Requires a large force to actuate, due to high friction. NPS 4 and larger valves requires the use of an actuator. Reduced port, due to tapered plug.

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Diaphragm Valves

    • Diaphragm valve is a manual or control type block valve which uses a diaphragm as the closing device. The diaphragm valve is usually used to isolate or block flow. Because the material of the membrane can chemically degrade, diaphragm valves are used under the conditions of low pressure and a limited temperature operating range.

    • Diaphragm valves may be used for regulation of most gases and liquids. Since diaphragms are subject to wear and tear, maintenance is frequently needed for valves that are used on a regular basis. When operating with a diaphragm valve, one must be aware of the operating pressures and temperatures of the process because the valve is restricted by the physical limitations of the diaphragm membrane.

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Advantages

    Diaphragm valves can also be used for throttling service. Its throttling characteristics are essentially those of a quick opening valve because of the large shutoff area along the seat. Diaphragm valves are particularly suited for the handling of corrosive fluids, fibrous slurries, radioactive fluids, or other fluids that must remain free from contamination. Many fluids that would clog , corrode, or gum up the working parts of most other types of valves will pass through a diaphragm valve without causing problems. Conversely, lubricants used for the operating mechanism cannot be allowed to contaminate the fluid being handled.

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Pinch Valves

    • Pinch valves, the simplest valve design, include any valve with a flexible elastomeric body that can be pinched close to cut off flow, using a mechanism or fluid pressure. They are linear motion valves that can be used to start, stop and throttle media through a system. Pinch valves are low maintenance, low weight, and can be used in systems requiring explosion-proof line closure. While the design of pinch valves provides extensive advantages for use in sterile lines and in situations where product purity is a high priority, these same design features do create some disadvantages. Due to their elastomeric bodies, pinch valves are not viable in situations where the transport media is at a high temperature. They are also not recommended for services that require high-pressure flow, and for use with gases.

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Check Valves

    • Check valves are "automatic" valves that open with forward flow and close with reverse flow. The pressure of the fluid passing through a system opens the valve, while any reversal of flow will close the valve. Exact operation will vary depending on the type of Check valve mechanism. Most common types of Check valves are swing, and lift (piston or ball)

    Types of Check valves

    a. Swing Check valve

    A basic swing Check valve consists of a valve body, a bonnet, and a disk that is connected to a hinge. The disk swings away from the valve-seat to allow flow in the forward direction, and returns to valve-seat when upstream flow is stopped, to prevent backflow. The disc in a swing type Check valve is unguided as it fully opens or closes. The valve allows full, unobstructed flow and automatically closes as pressure decreases. These valves are fully closed when flow reaches zero, in order to prevent backflow.

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

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    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    • b. Lift Check valve Lift Check valves are particularly suitable for high-pressure service where velocity of flow is high. Flow to lift Check valves must always enter below the seat. As the flow enters, the piston or ball is raised within guides from the seat by the pressure of the upward flow. When the flow stops or reverses, the piston is forced onto the seat of the valve by both the backflow and gravity.

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    FITTINGS

    Pipe fittings are widely demanded for any piping and plumbing systems used in industrial and commercial applications. Fittings allow pipes to be joined or installed in the appropriate place and terminated or closed where necessary. Fittings are available in various shapes and sizes. They can be expensive, require time, and different materials and tools to install. They are an essential part of piping and plumbing systems. There are thousands of specialized fittings manufactured. Each type of pipe or tube requires its own type of fitting, but usually all pipe fittings share some common features. Pipe fittings are available everywhere where plumbing materials are sold.

    How are pipe fittings connected to pipes?

    Pipe fittings are either male fittings or female fittings. In threaded pipe fittings, female threads are on the inside while male threads are on the outside. Pipe fittings that have one female end and one male end are called street fittings. Pipe fittings are used to connect pipes or tubes in two ways:

    By threading: Threaded pipes screw together to connect or join.

    Generally metal pipes are threaded and they have threaded fittings. By slip fit: Slip fit pipes use sleeves that slip into one another. The plastic pipes are either threaded or slip fit.

    Accordingly pipe fittings are organized as follows:

    Male threaded: Exterior threads. Are screwed into the inside of pipe end of a larger diameter with internal threading. Female threaded: Interior threads. Receive male threaded pipe fittings. Male slip fit: There are no threads. Receive a narrower. Female slip fit: Female slip fit: There are no threads. Made to slip into slightly larger male sleeve.

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Purpose of a pipe fitting:

    The basic purposes of any pipe fitting are as follows:

    Connecting the bores of two or more pipes or tubes.

    Connecting pipe sections.

    Connecting a pipe to a different apparatus.

    Changing the direction of fluid/liquid flow.

    Maintaining or regulating the flow.

    Closing and sealing a pipe.

    Selection criteria for pipe fittings:

    Pipe fittings are to be chosen considering certain factors. They are as follows:

    Connection types: When purchasing pipe fittings, you should be aware of the fact that a fitting can have two different connector types. One end of the fitting might be female threaded while the other female threaded. One end might be male slip while the other end is threaded, in the case of plastic fittings. They can also have matching ends which can accommodate any requirement. Materials of construction: As a rule, the pipe fitting should be of the same material as the material used in the making of the pipe in which it is to be fitted. However, in some cases, materials conforming to certain codes or standards can also be used in pipes of another material. Check for flow: To keep the flow consistent, the ends of pipe fittings should be slightly larger than the rest of the pipe so that they can accommodate connections without narrowing the inner diameter (ID) of the pipe. Type of fitting: Besides pipe materials, pipe fittings are identified by the type of fitting threaded or slip, male or female. Size: When measuring the size of pipe fittings, it is to be noted that the male threaded fittings are measured to the outside edge or OD, while female fittings are measured to the inside edge of the inlet or ID. Thickness: Just as pipes are available in a number of different thicknesses or "schedules", so also the pipe fittings.

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Design: Each pipe or tube is designed to carry certain specific types of fluids, liquids, gases, chemicals under varying conditions. Accordingly, the pipe fittings are also available in variety of designs. Standards and codes: There are certain standards and codes set by various organizations by which the different pipe fittings are graded. For example, ASTM, ASME, BSP etc. are certain standards assigned to pipe fittings and those standards dictate their use.

    Types of pipe fittings:

    Depending on the purposes served, pipe fittings can be categorized as under:

    Pipe fittings to extend or terminate pipe runs: For example, Couplings, Adapters, Unions , Caps and Plugs Pipe. Fittings to change a pipe's direction: For example , Elbows Pipe fittings to connect two or more pipes: For example: Tees, Cross, Side-inlet Elbows, Wyes Pipe fittings to change pipe size: For example, Reducers, Bushings, Couplings Pipe fittings to manage or regulate flow: For example, Valves Pipe fitting tools: For example, Pipe fasteners Pipe flanges

    On the basis of the above categories, we give below an idea about the various types of pipe fittings available in the market.

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and TechnologyCompression Fittings Pipe Elbow Pipe Plug Pipe Tee Pipe Wyes Pipe Sleeve Pipe Valves V a l v e s a n d 27 | P i p e s , , F i t t i n g s , C o n n e c t i o n s " id="pdf-obj-26-2" src="pdf-obj-26-2.jpg">

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and TechnologyCompression Fittings Pipe Elbow Pipe Plug Pipe Tee Pipe Wyes Pipe Sleeve Pipe Valves V a l v e s a n d 27 | P i p e s , , F i t t i n g s , C o n n e c t i o n s " id="pdf-obj-26-10" src="pdf-obj-26-10.jpg">
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and TechnologyCompression Fittings Pipe Elbow Pipe Plug Pipe Tee Pipe Wyes Pipe Sleeve Pipe Valves V a l v e s a n d 27 | P i p e s , , F i t t i n g s , C o n n e c t i o n s " id="pdf-obj-26-12" src="pdf-obj-26-12.jpg">
    Pipe Adapters
    Pipe Adapters
    Pipe Cap
    Pipe Cap
    Pipe Ferrule
    Pipe Ferrule
    Pipe Reducer
    Pipe Reducer
    Bulkhead Fittings
    Bulkhead Fittings
    Pipe Coupling
    Pipe Coupling
    Pipe Nipples
    Pipe Nipples
    Pipe Union
    Pipe Union
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and TechnologyCompression Fittings Pipe Elbow Pipe Plug Pipe Tee Pipe Wyes Pipe Sleeve Pipe Valves V a l v e s a n d 27 | P i p e s , , F i t t i n g s , C o n n e c t i o n s " id="pdf-obj-26-32" src="pdf-obj-26-32.jpg">
    Pipe Elbow
    Pipe Elbow
    Pipe Plug
    Pipe Plug
    Pipe Tee
    Pipe Tee
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and TechnologyCompression Fittings Pipe Elbow Pipe Plug Pipe Tee Pipe Wyes Pipe Sleeve Pipe Valves V a l v e s a n d 27 | P i p e s , , F i t t i n g s , C o n n e c t i o n s " id="pdf-obj-26-46" src="pdf-obj-26-46.jpg">
    a n d
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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and TechnologyCompression Fittings Pipe Elbow Pipe Plug Pipe Tee Pipe Wyes Pipe Sleeve Pipe Valves V a l v e s a n d 27 | P i p e s , , F i t t i n g s , C o n n e c t i o n s " id="pdf-obj-26-53" src="pdf-obj-26-53.jpg">

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    Pipe Fasteners
    Pipe Fasteners
    Pipe Flanges
    Pipe Flanges

    Pipe Fittings Applications

    Pipe and pipe fittings go hand-in hand. Just as pipes are used for a variety of residential, public and industrial applications, so also the pipe fittings. No pipes can be connected without the use of proper fittings and flanges. Pipe fittings allow pipes to be installed and connected or joined where necessary and

    terminated

    in

    the

    right

    place.

    Pipe fittings include a wide range of products in various shapes, sizes and materials. With rapid developments in the field of industrial fittings and continuous research work in this industry, various new products are manufactured. Some fittings have certain special features so that they can be fabricated on different principles like hydraulics, pneumatic depending on the end usage. Fittings include a comprehensive range of products depending on various applications in which they are applied.

    Categories of fittings

    Fittings can be grouped in one of the following categories:

    Fittings that extend or terminate pipe runs

     

    o

    Couplings

     

    o

    Adapters

    o

    Caps and Plugs

    Fittings that change a pipe's direction

     
     

    o

    Elbows (ells)

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

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    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Fittings that Connect two or more pipes

    o

    Reducers

    o

    Bushings

    o

    Flex couplings

    o

    Fitting reducers

    o

    Adapters

    Applications of pipe fittings:

    There is no end to applications of pipe fittings so long there is no end to the applications of pipes . While the list of piping applications continues to expand, its strength, flexibility, very good flow rates and high chemical resistance are qualities which are uniquely suited for the movement or transfer of liquids, steam, solids and air from one point to another. With piping, pipe fittings have many other uses like as follows:

    The transfer of extremely hazardous materials such as chemical and waste. Protection of sensitive equipment from high pressures. Protection from corrosion and other extreme weather conditions. Resistance to household and industrial chemicals.

    Considering the various purposes of pipe fittings, these pipe fittings are used in various industries like:

    Chemical / Petrochemical

     

    Municipal

    Food, Beverage, and Dairy

    Oil and Gas

    Power

    Process Instrumentation

    Pulp and Paper

    Semiconductor

    Marine & dredging

    Sanitation

    Irrigation

    Residential

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    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
      Road & highway construction Ventilation etc.
    Road & highway construction
    Ventilation etc.

    In all the above-mentioned industries pipes are used to transfer liquid, gas, slurries, and other solids and fluids from one area to another and accordingly different categories of pipe fittings are used . Thus, pipe fittings play a vital role for proper functioning of pipe and tubes in various applications

    Some photographs depicting the applications of different pipe fittings:

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technologyjoin t in cast-iron pipe. Each length is made with an enlarged diameter or bell at one end into which the plain or spigot end of another piece is inserted. The joint is sealed by cement, oakum , lead , or rubber caulked into the bell around the spigot. The Bell & spigot joint is the most reliable type of joint, as well as being the quickest to install and check, for pipelines within the public works sector. Due to its design and perfect machining, the joint is able to provide absolute water tightness, which is easy to demonstrate even under the most extreme conditions. The Bell & Spigot joints with two O-rings are equipped with a water tightness check valve, by means of which the cavity between the two O- rings can be pressurized, thus enabling the water tightness of the joint to be checked quickly and easily. This test is carried out on site once each pipe has been assembled, before moving on to the next one. 31 | P i p e s , V a l v e s , F i t t i n g s , a n d C o n n e c t i o n s " id="pdf-obj-30-2" src="pdf-obj-30-2.jpg">

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technologyjoin t in cast-iron pipe. Each length is made with an enlarged diameter or bell at one end into which the plain or spigot end of another piece is inserted. The joint is sealed by cement, oakum , lead , or rubber caulked into the bell around the spigot. The Bell & spigot joint is the most reliable type of joint, as well as being the quickest to install and check, for pipelines within the public works sector. Due to its design and perfect machining, the joint is able to provide absolute water tightness, which is easy to demonstrate even under the most extreme conditions. The Bell & Spigot joints with two O-rings are equipped with a water tightness check valve, by means of which the cavity between the two O- rings can be pressurized, thus enabling the water tightness of the joint to be checked quickly and easily. This test is carried out on site once each pipe has been assembled, before moving on to the next one. 31 | P i p e s , V a l v e s , F i t t i n g s , a n d C o n n e c t i o n s " id="pdf-obj-30-10" src="pdf-obj-30-10.jpg">
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technologyjoin t in cast-iron pipe. Each length is made with an enlarged diameter or bell at one end into which the plain or spigot end of another piece is inserted. The joint is sealed by cement, oakum , lead , or rubber caulked into the bell around the spigot. The Bell & spigot joint is the most reliable type of joint, as well as being the quickest to install and check, for pipelines within the public works sector. Due to its design and perfect machining, the joint is able to provide absolute water tightness, which is easy to demonstrate even under the most extreme conditions. The Bell & Spigot joints with two O-rings are equipped with a water tightness check valve, by means of which the cavity between the two O- rings can be pressurized, thus enabling the water tightness of the joint to be checked quickly and easily. This test is carried out on site once each pipe has been assembled, before moving on to the next one. 31 | P i p e s , V a l v e s , F i t t i n g s , a n d C o n n e c t i o n s " id="pdf-obj-30-12" src="pdf-obj-30-12.jpg">

    Connections

    Bell and Spigot Connections

    A connection between two sections of pipe, the straight spigot end of one section is inserted in the flared out end of the adjoining section; the joint is sealed by a caulking compound or with a compressible ring. The most commonly used joint in cast-iron pipe. Each length is made with an enlarged diameter or bell at one end into which the plain or spigot end of another piece is inserted. The joint is sealed by cement, oakum, lead, or rubber caulked into the bell around the spigot. The Bell & spigot joint is the most reliable type of joint, as well as being the quickest to install and check, for pipelines within the public works sector.

    Due to its design and perfect machining, the joint is able to provide absolute water tightness, which is easy to demonstrate even under the most extreme conditions. The Bell & Spigot joints with two O-rings are equipped with a water tightness check valve, by means of which the cavity between the two O- rings can be pressurized, thus enabling the water tightness of the joint to be checked quickly and easily. This test is carried out on site once each pipe has been assembled, before moving on to the next one.

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technologyjoin t in cast-iron pipe. Each length is made with an enlarged diameter or bell at one end into which the plain or spigot end of another piece is inserted. The joint is sealed by cement, oakum , lead , or rubber caulked into the bell around the spigot. The Bell & spigot joint is the most reliable type of joint, as well as being the quickest to install and check, for pipelines within the public works sector. Due to its design and perfect machining, the joint is able to provide absolute water tightness, which is easy to demonstrate even under the most extreme conditions. The Bell & Spigot joints with two O-rings are equipped with a water tightness check valve, by means of which the cavity between the two O- rings can be pressurized, thus enabling the water tightness of the joint to be checked quickly and easily. This test is carried out on site once each pipe has been assembled, before moving on to the next one. 31 | P i p e s , V a l v e s , F i t t i n g s , a n d C o n n e c t i o n s " id="pdf-obj-30-44" src="pdf-obj-30-44.jpg">
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technologyjoin t in cast-iron pipe. Each length is made with an enlarged diameter or bell at one end into which the plain or spigot end of another piece is inserted. The joint is sealed by cement, oakum , lead , or rubber caulked into the bell around the spigot. The Bell & spigot joint is the most reliable type of joint, as well as being the quickest to install and check, for pipelines within the public works sector. Due to its design and perfect machining, the joint is able to provide absolute water tightness, which is easy to demonstrate even under the most extreme conditions. The Bell & Spigot joints with two O-rings are equipped with a water tightness check valve, by means of which the cavity between the two O- rings can be pressurized, thus enabling the water tightness of the joint to be checked quickly and easily. This test is carried out on site once each pipe has been assembled, before moving on to the next one. 31 | P i p e s , V a l v e s , F i t t i n g s , a n d C o n n e c t i o n s " id="pdf-obj-30-46" src="pdf-obj-30-46.jpg">

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Among these are the following advantages of spigot and bell pipes:

    Nearly universal corrosion resistance

    Safe to use in return air plenums

    Safe above and below ground

    Fire and smoke proof

    Longevity Life of the building installation

    No in tumescent fire stops

    Can be mechanically or chemically cleaned

    Outstanding abrasion resistance

    Suitable to 500°F (260°C)

    Solids will not cling to the wall

    Bell & Spigot with Locking Ring

    This type of joint is a variation on the Bell & Spigot joint, but with the addition of a locking ring located just after the two O-rings.

    A groove is machined into the Spigot and a rectangular hole is machined into the Bell. The locking ring, a strip of polypropylene, glass fiber reinforced nylon or other material, is then lodged in this cavity.

    These joints are specially designed to be able to withstand longitudinal forces and they are therefore used for the following aboveground and underground installations:

    • a) Fire protection networks.

    • b) Marine outfalls (with the installation involving pipes being pulled out from

    the coast).

    • c) Pipes buried on a steep gradient.

    • d) Groundwater intakes (for both the casing and pump column).

    • e) Installation of pipelines without concrete thrust blocks (the thrust forces

    generated at the changes in direction, or bends, are absorbed by the locking ring). The decision to use of this type of joint instead of concrete blocks means

    that the pipe configuration has to be redesigned, as the pipe must be able to

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    withstand not only the axial tensile strain caused by the pressure rating, but also longitudinal strain. f) Pipes running through culverts, relining pipes and jacking pipes.

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Flanged Joint

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    All connections between GRP(Glass Reinforced Polyester) pipes and mechanical elements, such as valves, pumps, air release valves, metal spools, etc., should be made using a flanged joint. These joints may consist of either fixed flanges or stub flanges with backing rings.

    The manufacturing process used for GRP flanges is the “Hand Lay-Up”, method, which involves manually building up layers of glass fiber, impregnated with resin. This means that when connecting these flanges to flat faced flanges, normally made of metal, a series of precautions should be taken. With regard to the sealing element between GRP and iron, the element which is in fact responsible for the water tightness of this rigid joint, PROTESA recommends using EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber) gaskets with a steel insert.

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    TYPES & APPLICATIONS

    Slip-On Flange

    The flange is slipped over the pipe and then welded both inside and outside to provide sufficient Strength and prevent leakage. This flange is used in preference to weld necks by many users because of its lower cost and the fact that less accuracy is required when cutting pipe to length.

    Blind Flanges

    This is a flange without a bore and is used to shut off a piping system or vessel opening. It also permits Easy access to vessels or piping systems for inspection purposes. Blind flange can be supplied with or without hubs at the manufacturers option.

    Weld-Neck flange

    This is designed to be joined to a piping system by buttwelding. It is relatively expensive because of Its long neck, but is preferred for high stress applications. The neck, or hub transmits stresses to the base of the hub to the wall thickness at the butt weld, provide important reinforcement of the flange. The bore of the flange matches the bore of the pipe, reducing turbulence and erosion.

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Threaded Flange

    This is similar to a slip-on flange in outline, but the bore is threaded, thus enabling assembly without welding. This obviously limits its application to relatively low pressure piping systems. The flange may be welded around the

    joint after assembly, but this increasing its applications.

    is not considered a satisfactory method of

    Socket Weld Flanges

    This is similar to a slip-on flange in outline, but the bore is counter-bored to

    accept pipe. The diameter of the remaining bore is the same as the inside diameter of the pipe. The flange is attached to the pipe by a fillet weld around the hub of the flange. An optional interval weld may be applied in high stress

    applications. It’s biggest use is in high pressure systems such as hydraulic and

    steam lines.

    Spectacle Flanges

    This is a pressure retaining plate with one solid end and one open end connected with a web or tie-bar. In normal operation, the open end forms the seal between two flanges and permits normal flow of fluid through pipe work. If the solid end is swung into position it effectively blanks of the pipe and halts the flow.

    Lap-Joint Flanges

    This is again similar to a slip-on flange, but it has a radius at the intersection of the bore and the flange face to accommodate a lap stub end. The face on the stub end forms the gasket face on the flange. This type of flange is used in applications where section of piping systems need to be dismantle quickly and easily for inspection or replacement.

    Orifice Flanges

    The function of an orifice flange is to provide access to a line for metering of gases or liquids. An orifice plate is clamped between a pair of flanges when

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    installed in a line and the whole assembly is refer to as an orifice flange union. Jack-screws within the assembly facilitate removal of the orifice plate. The orifice plate, the metering device, consists of a thin plate with a concentric, square edge, circular hole in the centre. Two pressure tap-holes are drilled in each flange to measure pressure difference through the orifice.

    Groove & Tongue Flanges

    The Groove and Tongue faces of these flanges must be matched. One flange face has a raised ring (Tongue) machined onto the flange face while the mating flange has a matching depression (Groove) machined into it's face.

    Tongue-and-groove facings are standardized in both large and small types. They differ from male-and-female in that the inside diameters of the tongue- and-groove do not extend into the flange base, thus retaining the gasket on its inner and outer diameter. These are commonly found on pump covers and Valve Bonnets.

    Tongue-and-groove joints also have an advantage in that they are self-aligning and act as a reservoir for the adhesive. The scarf joint keeps the axis of loading in line with the joint and does not require a major machining operation.

    General flange faces such as the RTJ, T&G and the F&M shall never be bolted together. The reason for this is that the contact surfaces do not match and there is no gasket that has one type on one side and another type on the other side.

    Long Neck Flanges

    Owing to our rich industrial experience, we are offering a comprehensive range of Long Weld Neck Flanges. The professionals of our organization source these neck flanges from trusted vendors. These flanges are unique due to their simple connectivity with other pipes. Moreover, our products are extensively used in refining industries for linking purposes. Our esteemed patrons can avail these qualitative range of flanges from us at industry-leading prices.

    Flat Face Flanges

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    The Flat Face (FF) flange has a gasket surface in the same plane as the bolting circle face. Applications using flat face flanges are frequently those in which the mating flange or flanged fitting is made from a casting.

    Flat face flanges are never to be bolted to a raised face flange. ASME B31.1 says that when connecting flat face cast iron flanges to carbon steel flanges, the raised face on the carbon steel flange must be removed, and that a full face gasket is required. This is to keep the thin, bittle cast iron flange from being sprung into the gap caused by the raised face of the carbon steel flange.

    Raised Face Flanges

    The Raised Face (RF) type is the most applied flange face, and is easily to identify. It is referred to as a raised face because the gasket surfaces are raised above the bolting circle face.

    Laminated Joint

    This is the procedure for joining two pipes or pieces of GRP by wrapping layers of glass fiber saturated in resin around the two ends. These layers then harden providing a permanent joint.

    There are three general types of application for laminated joints in the

    installation

    of

    pipes

    and

    fittings.

    1. Butt & Wrap Joint: Designed to join straight sections of piping, i.e., “pipe to pipe”, “pipe to fitting” and “fitting to fitting”.

    2. Miter Joint: Designed to give a certain radius of curvature. It is carried out using straight sections of piping to form elbows with a standard radius factor

    (22.5º, 45º….90º) or a specific angle.

    3. Stub-in: Referring to the operation of laminating a branch line to a main pipeline, which can be done at an angle of 45º, 90º or with any specific layout. The composition of the laminate and its dimensions must be designed according to the type of installation for which it will be used and based,

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    essentially, on the service pressure that it will have to withstand. This composition is variable, as the safety factors to be used in the calculation must be compatible with the real working conditions.

    The quality of the resin used in the joint is dictated by the fluid that is to be transported, as well as by any external agents that may possibly damage the joint.

    Fields of application:

    • - To join GRP pipes for industrial purposes, both for aboveground and

    underground installations, for which the use of the Bell & Spigot joint is not

    permitted due to mechanical requirements.

    -

    Having

    great

    axial tensile

    strength,

    aboveground installations.

    this

    type

    of

    joint is widely used

    for

    • - To join any GRP fitting or special piece to the piping itself or to another piece. To create mitered elbows.

    For angular branch lines- To repair any flaws in the pipe, providing that there is no water and/or dampness in the line.

    To guarantee complete watertightness at the external joints between the pipes of a sewage network and its inspection chambers.

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Mechanical Joint

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    This type of joint consists of a mechanical coupling made up of a metal clamp or cover and an internal rubber seal. Its fields of application with regard to

    PROTESA’s pipes are, basically, as follows:

    • a) To join plain-ended pipes and to incorporate fittings and special pieces, both

    of GRP and other materials, into the line without resorting to a flanged joint.

    • b) It is a useful system for carrying out emergency repairs if it can be placed

    over the affected area (for small-scale impacts to the pipe), even with water in

    the line, although a definitive repair should subsequently be carried out by

    PROTESA’s Assembly Team.

    This type of joint has no axial tensile strength and is therefore most suitable for buried piping which has been restrained by the necessary anchoring elements (such as concrete thrust blocks at the changes in direction).

    When installing a mechanical coupling, the following requirements should be taken into account:

    • a) The two pipes to be joined must have the same outside diameter.

    • b) The outer surface of the pipes should be as smooth and even as possible to

    ensure that the coupling is properly seated and that the seal remains watertight.
    ensure
    that
    the
    coupling is
    properly
    seated and that
    the seal remains
    watertight.

    Welded Connections

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Butt welded joints

    A Butt Weld is a circumferential butt welded joint, and the most common type of joint employed in the fabrication of welded pipe systems. A butt joint is the most universally used method of joining pipe to itself, fittings, flanges, Valves, and other equipment. This welding technique is widely applied in situations where a quality weld desired, and the weld by X-ray technically should be investigated. When the material to be welded exceeds 3/16" in thickness, the ends of pipes, fittings and flanges must be chamfered at approximately 37.5°, flared on a small upright side (Root face); in practice we talk about the Welding Bevel. The most used bevels are the "Plain bevel" from wall thicknesses (t) 4 to 22.5 mm, and the "Compound bevel" for wall thicknesses above 22 mm.

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Fillet welded joints

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

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    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA

    University of the City of Manila

    College of Engineering and Technology

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology
    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

    Fillet welded joints such as tee, lap and corner joints are the most common connection in welded fabrication. In total they probably account for around 70 to 80% of all joints made by arc welding. No edge preparation is needed and assemblies in piping systems are simpler. Therefore, fillet welds are usually cheaper than butt welds. In pipe systems fillet welded joints are generally used for joining pipe to socket joints in sizes NPS 2 and smaller, and in systems where Slip On flanges will be used. The image below illustrates typical fillet welded joints in a Socket Weld pipe system.

    PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA University of the City of Manila College of Engineering and Technology

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