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Chemical Engineering Laboratory Report

Heriot-Watt University Malaysia Campus

Stage 2
Chemical Engineering Laboratory Report

Name Wan Nur Khalisah

Group Number 11

Experiment Title Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium

Date of 19th February, 2018


Experiment

Demonstrator Dr Carynn Tan

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Chemical Engineering Laboratory Report

3. Derived Results & Discussion


Calibration Curve

Table 1: Calibration curve data

Weight Percentage,
Volume (ml) Mole Fraction Refractive
wt%
index
Water Ethanol Water Ethanol Water Ethanol
0 10 0.000 1.000 0.000 1.000 1.361
1 9 0.265 0.735 0.123 0.877 1.362
2 8 0.448 0.552 0.241 0.759 1.362
3 7 0.581 0.419 0.352 0.648 1.361
4 6 0.684 0.316 0.458 0.542 1.359
5 5 0.764 0.236 0.559 0.441 1.356
6 4 0.829 0.171 0.655 0.345 1.352
7 3 0.883 0.117 0.747 0.253 1.347
8 2 0.928 0.072 0.835 0.165 1.341
9 1 0.967 0.033 0.919 0.081 1.336
10 0 1.000 0.000 1.000 0.000 1.333

Figure 1: Calibration curve where Refractive index was plotted with respect to composition based on
weight percentage

The calibration curve above was used to determine the mass fraction of the
ethanol compositions in vapour and liquid phase. These compositions were
then used to plot the equilibrium curve.

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Chemical Engineering Laboratory Report

Equilibrium Curve

Table 2: Variables used to plot the T-X-Y and X-Y diagram

Total Volume (L) Temperature (°C Ethanol Mass Fraction


Methanol Water Liquid Vapour Liquid Vapour
0 2.5 99 89 0.310 0.325
0.3 2.5 91.9 88 0.118 0.287
0.5 2.5 89.5 85.7 0.073 0.428
0.9 2.5 86.4 83.6 0.082 0.588
1.6 2.5 83.6 81.9 0.107 0.662
2.5 2.5 80.8 82 0.178 0.697
2.5 0.3 77.7 77.2 0.442 0.638
2.5 0.5 78.4 77.8 0.649 0.682
2.5 0.9 79.5 78.7 0.655 0.697
2.5 1.6 80.7 79.6 0.550 0.689
2.5 2 81.3 80.2 0.481 0.682

From the calibration curve, the mass fraction of ethanl

Figure 2: T-X-Y diagram for ethanol-water using experimental data

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Chemical Engineering Laboratory Report

Figure 3: T-X-Y diagram for ethanol-water obtained from external source [1]

The graph above in figure 2 shows the T-x-y diagram for ethanol-water system using
experimental data obtained from the experiment. The trendline for both liquid and
vapour plots were made evident in the graph as the data gathered did not give a
clear curve or line. In comparison to the ideal T-X-Y diagram of ethanol-water system
in figure 3, the experimental T-x-y diagram deviates significantly from the predicted.
The liquid phase line shows the bubble point of ethanol. Whereas the vapour phase
line shoes the dew point of ethanol. The region between the two lines shows the
existence of a two-phase region where liquid and vapor phases exist
simultaneously. As this experiment was set in non-ideal conditions, the binary
mixture ultimately is also non-ideal which also led to the deviation of data when
compared to the ideal x-y diagram. The errors of this experiment will further be
discussed under “Experimental Errors” later on this report.

Figure 4: X-Y diagram for ethanol-water using experimental data

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Chemical Engineering Laboratory Report

Figure 5: X-Y diagram for ethanol-water obtained from external source [1]

As for the graph in figure 4, the black line is an azeotrope line where a mixture
of two liquids which consist of constant boiling point and also a composition
throughout distillation where Y=X. The experimental graph deviates slightly
in terms of the plotting of the graph as compared to the ideal X-Y diagram
was due to the difference in composition units in the experimental graph. The
composition used in the experimental graph was in mass fraction whereas
the ideal graph used molar compositions. Besides that, as mentioned
previously, the binary system is non-ideal as the experiment was set under
non—ideal conditions. However, the curvature of the experimental graph did
not deviate far from the graph obtained by an external source.

Experimental Errors

Calibration Curve
There may be some form of contamination that had occurred during the
process of mixing these liquids. Contamination could occur from the washed
measuring cylinder which had water particles that were not removed before
ethanol was placed. As a result, unremoved water from the measuring
cylinder were mixed with ethanol which changes the concentration of pure
ethanol.

Equilibrium Curves
A change in composition of the ethanol may occur due to the constant
alternating between heating and cooling of the mixture. Besides that, it was
also uncertain that perfect mixing was achieved before the mixture
undergoes a series of heating processes. Ensuring an exact steady state
during the collection of sample was also difficult to determine which leads to
scattered plots in the T-x-y diagram which leads to inaccuracy.

4.Summary of Findings
In conclusion, the experiment was unsuccessful due to external error that had
occurred throughout the experiment. The equilibrium curve for the T-x-y diagram
was inconclusive but the x-y diagram was successful.

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Chemical Engineering Laboratory Report

5. References

References

[1] W. L. Luyben, Distillation Design and Control Using Aspen Simulation,


Wiley, 2013.

6. Appendix

Raw Data for Calibration Curve

Volume (ml) Mole (mol) Mole Fraction


water ethanol water ethanol water ethanol
0 10 0.000 0.171 0.000 1.000
1 9 0.056 0.154 0.265 0.735
2 8 0.111 0.137 0.448 0.552
3 7 0.167 0.120 0.581 0.419
4 6 0.222 0.103 0.684 0.316
5 5 0.278 0.086 0.764 0.236
6 4 0.333 0.069 0.829 0.171
7 3 0.389 0.051 0.883 0.117
8 2 0.444 0.034 0.928 0.072
9 1 0.500 0.017 0.967 0.033
10 0 0.555 0.000 1.000 0.000

Mass (g) Mass Fraction Refractive index


water ethanol water ethanol water ethanol
0 7.89 0.000 1.000 1.3615 1.361
1 7.101 0.123 0.877 1.3629 1.362
2 6.312 0.241 0.759 1.3627 1.362
3 5.523 0.352 0.648 1.3614 1.361
4 4.734 0.458 0.542 1.359 1.359
5 3.945 0.559 0.441 1.3558 1.356
6 3.156 0.655 0.345 1.3513 1.352
7 2.367 0.747 0.253 1.3469 1.347
8 1.578 0.835 0.165 1.3416 1.341
9 0.789 0.919 0.081 1.3373 1.336
10 0 1.000 0.000 1.3329 1.333

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Chemical Engineering Laboratory Report

Raw Data for Equilibrium Curve

Pressure (barG) Total Volume(L) Temperature©


Methanol Water Liquid Vapour
0.4 0 2.5 99 89
0.4 0.3 2.5 91.9 88
0.3 0.5 2.5 89.5 85.7
0.4 0.9 2.5 86.4 83.6
0.3 1.6 2.5 83.6 81.9
0.3 2.5 2.5 80.8 82
0.3 2.5 0.3 77.7 77.2
0.3 2.5 0.5 78.4 77.8
0.3 2.5 0.9 79.5 78.7
0.3 2.5 1.6 80.7 79.6
0.3 2.5 2 81.3 80.2

Refractive Index Composition (wt%)


Liquid Vapour Liquid Vapour
1.35 1.3507 0.30975 0.32494
1.3394 1.3489 0.1177 0.28672
1.3365 1.3549 0.073481 0.42767
1.3371 1.3596 0.082417 0.58803
1.3387 1.361 0.10678 0.66167
1.3431 1.3615 0.17838 0.69681
1.3554 1.3606 0.44166 0.63788
1.3608 1.3613 0.64941 0.68182
1.3609 1.3615 0.65543 0.69681
1.3587 1.3614 0.55039 0.68913
1.3567 1.3613 0.48055 0.68182

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