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ECE 459

Power System Analysis

Professor G. Huang

Chapter 2
Single and three phase circuits

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Reading and Homework for Quiz

• For lectures 1 through 3 please be reading


Chapters 1 and 2

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Lecture 2

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Single-phase Circuits

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2.1 Basic definition

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

• Single phase circuit components: a I b

• Voltage or current sources L VL


V
• Impedances (resistance, inductance, R VR
and capacitance)
g
• The components are connected in
series or in parallel. 10
Vo
5
• The figure shows a simple circuit
v (t) 0
where a voltage source (generator)
5
supplies a load (resistance and
10
inductance in series). 0 60 120 180 240 300 360
deg

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

• The voltage source produces a sinusoidal voltage


wave
v (t ) = 2 Vrms cos(ω t + δ )
where: Vrms is the rms value of the voltage (volts)
ω is the angular frequency (rad/sec)

2π 1
ω = 2π f = rad/sec f= Hz
T T

f is the frequency (60 Hz in USA, 50 Hz in Europe).


T is the time period (seconds).

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

The rms value is calculated by:

1 T
Vrms = ∫0 v(t) dt
2

T
The peak value (max value) of the voltage is:

VMax = 2 Vrms

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

• The current is also sinusoidal


i (t ) = 2 I rms cos (ω t + φ )

where: I rms is the rms value of the current.


φ is the phase-shift between current and voltage.

• The rms current is calculated by the


Ohm’s Law:
Vrms
where: Z is the impedance I rms =
Z
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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Complex Notation

• Voltage and Current


phasors:
V= V e j δ or I= I e j φ

V= V ∠δ = V cos δ + j V sin δ
where : V is the rms value,
and δ is the phase angle
Note: The supply voltage
phase angle is often selected
as the reference with δ = 0

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Complex Notation

• Current phasor

V V e jδ
= [cos (δ − ϑ) + j sin (δ − θ )]
V j (δ −θ ) V
I= = jθ
= e
Z Ze Z Z

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2.2 Impedances

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

• The Ohm law states: Vo I o⋅ Z o

. Vo Vrms j ( δ− Φ ) Vrms j ( θ )
Zo ⋅e ⋅e
Io Irms Irms

Zo Z ⋅ ( cos ( θ ) + 1j⋅ sin ( θ ) )

Zo is the impedance

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

• The impedance has resistive and reactive part,


• The reactance depend on the frequency:

Ro + j Xo ( ω)
.
Zo
• The absolute value and phase angle is:

⎛ Xo ⎞ .
R o + X o ( ω)
2 2 Φ atan ⎜ ⎟
Zo
⎝ Ro

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Fig 2.02 Impedance Triangle

Z = Z e jθ

Z= R 2+ X2

X
φ = a tan ( )
R

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

• The impedances (in Ohms) are


:
– a) Resistance (R)
– b) Inductive reactance . XL j⋅ ω⋅ Lind

1
– c) Capacitive reactance Xc
j⋅ ω⋅ C cap

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Series connection

N
Ze ∑ Zk
k =1
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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Series connection Example: (resistance, capacitor,


and inductance connected in series)
1
Z e = Z R + Z L + Z C = R + jω Lind +
jω C cap
= Z e jθ = Z [cos(θ ) + j sin(θ )]

⎛ 1 ⎞
2 ⎜ ω Lind − ⎟
⎛ ⎞ ω C cap
θ = arctan⎜⎜ ⎟
⎜ 1 ⎟
Z = R + ω Lind −
2

⎜ ω C cap ⎟ R
⎝ ⎠ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎝ ⎠

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Fig 2.3 Parallel connection

1
Ze = N
1

k =1 Z k

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Single Phase Circuit
Review
Parallel connection
Impedance phasor: (resistance, capacitor, and
inductance connected in parallel)
1 1 1
Z= = =
Y 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + jωC
R jω L 1 R jω L
jω C
Two impedances connected in parallel

1 Z1 Z 2
Z= =
1 1 Z1 + Z 2
+
Z1 Z1
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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Fig 2.10 Delta-wye


transformation

Zb
Z
a

Z
Z1 Z 2
Za =
Z1 + Z 2 + Z 3
Z1 Z 3 Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za
Zb = Z1 =
Z1 + Z 2 + Z 3 Reverse Zc
Z2 Z3 Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za
Zc = Z2 =
Z1 + Z 2 + Z 3 Zb
Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za
Z3 =
Same values ZΔ = 3 ZY Za

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Example: Fig 2.4: Calculate the impedance of a


compensated line

Rmi := 0.32
Ω
Xmi := 0.75
Ω dline := 3mi
mi mi

Ccomp := 1572μF

Fig 2.4 Fig 2.5

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Single Phase Circuit
Review
Example: Fig 2.4: Calculate the impedance of a compensated line
The three impedances are connected in series

Ω Ω dline := 3mi
Rmi := 0.32 Xmi := 0.75
mi mi
Ccomp := 1572μF f := 60Hz ω := 2⋅ π ⋅ f ω = 376.991 Hz

1
Z line := R mi⋅ d line + 1j⋅ X mi⋅ d line +
1jω ⋅ C mi⋅ d line

Z line = 0.96 + 1.688iΩ

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Example: Fig 2.4: Calculate the impedance of a motor


and capacitor conncted in parallel

Fig. 2.7
Fig 2.6

Xmot := 23Ω Rmot := 20Ω C comp_M := 500μF

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Example: Fig 2.4: Calculate the impedance of a motor and


capacitor connected in parallel
Xmot := 23Ω Rmot := 20Ω C comp_M := 500μF

f := 60Hz ω := 2⋅ π⋅ f ω = 376.991Hz
1
X mot_C := X mot_C = − 5.305i Ω
1j⋅ ω⋅ C mot_C

1
Z mot :=
1 1
1
+ + Z mot = 2.125 − 6.163i Ω .
1jX mot R mot X mot_C

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

2.3 Power

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Instantaneous power is the product of the instantaneous


voltage and current

p (t ) = v(t ) i (t ) = 2 Vrms cos(ω t + δ ) 2 I rms cos(ω t + φ )


Using the trigonometric identity
cos(α ) cos( β ) = 12 cos(α − β ) + 12 cos(α + β )
The instantaneous power is:

p (t ) = Vrms I rms [cos (δ − φ ) + cos (2 ω t + δ + φ )]

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

The average or active


power is the integral
T
1
P=
T ∫ p (t ) dt = V
0
rms I rms cos (δ − φ )

Complex power S= *
Vrms I rms

S = Vrms I *rms = Vrms e jδ I rms e − jφ


= Vrms I rms cos(δ − φ ) + j Vrms I rms sin(δ − φ )
= P + jQ
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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Power Factor , Should be more than 0.8


P P
pf = = = cos (δ − φ )
Vrms I rms S

Fig 2.11 Power triangle

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

General impedance load:

Power on a resistive load


2
V
P=I 2
rms R= rms

R
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Single Phase Circuit
Review

2.4 AC Circuit

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

The circuit has voltage source and impedances


i(t)
a b

•Generator
L vL(t) current and
v(t)
voltage are in the
R
same direction
vR(t)
•Load: current
g and voltage are in
Fig. 2.13 Example single phase circuit opposite direction

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Lagging and leading current

v(t) iL(t) lagging iC(t) leading

Time

<0 >0

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

• The current is calculated by the Ohm Law

Vrms
I rms =
Z

Z = R + X ind
2 2

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Single Phase Circuit
Transmission line supplies a load

• The load voltage must be +/-


5% of the generator voltage
• Voltage regulation is calculated
Fig 2.19 Load served by a line
• The loss must be minimized
• The efficiency of transmission
is calculated

Fig 2.20 Equivalent circuit


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Single Phase Circuit
Review

• The load current is:


V load
I load I line
Z load

• The source voltage using loop equation is:

(
V gen := V load + I line R line + j⋅ X line )
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Single Phase Circuit
Voltage regulation
Vno −load − Vload
Voltage Regulation = × 100%
Vload

Vgen − Vload
Voltage Regulation = × 100%
Vload

Pnet Pgen − Ploss


Efficiency efficiency = =
Pgen Pgen

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2.5 Basic Laws

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Kirchhoff ’s laws:
I2
•Currents: The sum of the
I1 I3
currents entering any
node point is zero I4
I5

N N

∑i
k =1
k (t ) = 0 or ∑I
k =1
k =0

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

The sum of the currents entering any node


point is zero
IA
A

IAB ICA
node A : I A + I CA − I AB = 0
IB IBC
node B : I B + I AB − I BC = 0
B C
node C : I C + I BC − I CA = 0
IC

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Current division IT

Z par
Ik = IT I1
Z1
I2
Z2 ZN
IN

Zk

Z2
Two elements I1 = I T
Z1 + Z 2

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Nodal analysis
Network 1 Network 2
I1 − I 3 + I 2 = 0 Line 1 Line 2

V1 − V3 V3 V2 − V3
− + =0 Capacitor
R1 + j X 1 j X cap R2 + j X 2
V1 V2
+
R1 + j X 1 R2 + j X 2
V3 =
1 1 1
+ +
R1 + j X 1 j X cap R2 + j X 2

V1 − V3 V2 − V3 V3
I1 = I2 = I3 =
R1 + j X 1 R2 + j X 2 j X cap

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Nodal analysis V1 := 7.2kV V2 := 7.2⋅ e


− j ⋅ 60deg
⋅ kV ω := 2⋅ π⋅ 60Hz

X1 := 11Ω X2 := X1
Guess value
R1 := 4Ω R2 := R1
V3 = 6.2V-j4.5V
−1
Ccap := 100μF Xcap :=
ω⋅ Ccap
Given
V1 − V3 V3 V − V3
− + 2 =0
R1 + j X 1 j X cap R2 + j X 2

( )
Find V3 = 6.381 − 4.54jkV V3 = 7.831kV ( )
arg V3 = −35.434deg

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Kirchhoff’s Current low
Kirchhoff ’s laws:
•Voltages:
– The sum of the voltages around any loop is
zero.
• Other formulation is:
– The sum of generator voltages is equal to
the sum of load voltages.

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Voltage division
I a

VS − VR − VX = 0 L VX

or VS b

VS = I R + I j X R VR

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Voltage division

Zk
Vk = VT
Z ser
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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Loop Analysis

V1 − I L1 (R1 + j X 1 ) − (I L1 + I L2 ) j X cap = 0

V2 − I L2 (R2 + j X 2 ) − (I L2 + I L1 ) j X cap = 0

⎡ R1 + j (X 1 + X cap ) j X cap ⎤ ⎡I L1 ⎤ ⎡ V1 ⎤
=⎢ ⎥

⎣ j X cap R2 + j (X 2 + X cap )⎦ ⎣I L2 ⎦ ⎣V2 ⎦
⎥ ⎢ ⎥

I=Z V
-1
Solution

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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Thevenin’s theorem
• The source is the open circuit voltage of the network.
• The impedance is the short circuit impedance of the
network.
• A power network short circuit impedance is an
inductive reactance, the open-circuit voltage is the
rated line-to-neutral voltage
ZTh

Vln
Xnet = j Voc

I short
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Single Phase Circuit
Review

Loads
S Load = VLoad I *Load = Vrms _ load I rms _ load e jθ Load
• Constant power
PLoad jθ Load
• Constant power = S Load e jθ Load =
pf Load
e
factor
*
• Voltage within +/- ⎡ S Load ⎤
5% I Load =⎢ ⎥
V
⎣ Load ⎦
• Phase angle:
– Positive ---Lagging I Load =
PLoad
e m j arccos( pf Load )
– Negative---Leading VLoad pf Load

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Summary
• Why complex representation?
• Why phasors?
• Why complex power?

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