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The Trail

History and Civics for ICES Middle School


Class 8
Jayanti Sengupta
Preface

The revised edition of The Trail, a series of history and civics books for classes 6 to 8, is
designed as per the New Curriculum released by the Council for the Indian School Certain
Examination (CISCE) in November 2016.

The only constant factor in life is change. History seeks to record, interpret and explain these
changes that have transformed the life of humans-for better or for worse. Down the ages,
ideas, events, movements, personalities and processes have changed, shaped and defined
our present world. Some changes were dramatic and sudden, while others were slow and
barely perceptible. History did not always repeat itself – more often than not it threw up
unpredictable surprises and new challenges. Human adapted to the changed circumstances,
faced these challenges and made history, again and again.

There are two ways of looking at every turning point in history. One is to recreate the event or
the process as it happened at that particular point in time. The other is to review and analyze
it in the light of developments that preceded and followed it. This helps us to interpret major
turning points in the past and enables us to understand our present and determine our future.
Humans are the makers of their own destiny – history is the facilitator. This series seeks to
present truths objectively with a view to creating a clear understanding of our past.

Many accepted facts of history, in general, and prehistory, in particular, are places under the
scanner and researched. Continuous research and increasing speculation have often
converted widely accepted historical issues into contentious and variable ones. However, at
the middle school level, we do not seek to raise the heat and variable ones. However, at the
middle school level, we do not seek to raise the heat and dust but to inform and enlighten on
the basic of generally accepted truths and to generate and sustain a healthy curiosity that will
in the future make the student a seeker of the truth.

The primary objective of The Trail is to help children enjoy and appreciate the study of history,
civics and the evolution of society. The presentation and layout of the book is basically
designed to facilitate the learning process for 11-13 year olds, keeping in mind their maturity
levels and skills at the middle school stage. The factual treatment is in accordance with the
ICSE requirements and trains students to adapt to the pattern prescribed by the council for
the Indian School Certificate Examination. The mathematically precise style of presentation of
facts facilitates retention and recall and stimulates further learning.

The book for Class 6 deals with the people and society in the Ancient Period and local self
government. The book for Class 7 deals with people and society in Medieval Period and the
Indian Constitution. The book for Class 8 deals with people and society in the Modern Period,
The Indian government and the role and services of the United Nations. Certain topics have
been included for the sake of continuity and a more comprehensive understanding of a
particular topic.
The Trail aims to make history and civics a living subject and enable the students to
understand society and the world they live in better. In order to achieve this, the series:

 Presents facts in an easy-to-understand, lively manner


 Enlivens the text through pictures, illustrations, photographs and maps
 Develops essential skills, through various features, as suggested by the CISCE curriculum
guidelines
 Provides timelines for a clear and authentic historical perspective
 Contains a medley of exercise which gradually prepares the students for the board
examinations at the senior level
 Provides interesting snippets of information through Did you Know?
 Contains term-wise test papers
 Includes website references
 Contains guidelines for project work
 It is my sincere effort to make the study of the past an enjoyable and fruitful experience
and to instil in learners a sense of pride in their Indian identity and an interest in the
contemporary world organizations and developments.

I dedicate this series to the memory of Ma and Baba. I would like to thank my family, friends
and well-wishers for their constant support, enthusiasm and good will during the making
of this series. I would also like to extend my appreciation team at OUP for their
commitment, hard work and vision.

I am deeply grateful for the enthusiastic and overwhelming response of teachers and
students alike to the previous editions of The Trail. Changes in this revised adition have
been incorporated on the basic of feedback of valuable comments and positive
suggestions made by history teachers of various school. I look forward to further inputs
from teachers and students and welcome their recommendation in future.

JAYANTI SENGUPTA
Syllabus
History

Key Concepts Learning Outcomes


Theme 1: A Period of Transition Children will be able to:
 The Period of transition – basic  Create a general idea of events and
understanding. changes that occurred all over the
 Sources-Primary and Secondary. world during the period of study;
 Transition from Medieval to Modern  Identify the basic differences between
Age (a brief mention of Renaissance, primary and secondary sources;
Reformation, Voyages, discoveries).  Recognize, understand and reflect on
 The Industrial Revolution-meaning and the important movements such as
reasons why it began in England, major renaissance, reformation;
inventions, Impacts of Industrial  Analyse the radical changes brought
Revolution. about by the industrial revolution;
 Imperialism-its meaning, caused and  Evaluate the impact of imperialism on
impacts with special reference to South the world.
Asian Countries.

Theme 2: The Growth of Nationalism Children will be able to:
 The French Revolution-causes, the  Identify the earliest Nationalist
outbreak, impact, the post-revolution movements in history;
period, Napoleon Bonaparte (brief  examine major changes that occurred
study of the revolution). in the world due to the French
 The American War of Independence- revolution and the American War of
Colonies, causes, beginning, birth of the Independence;
United States of America.  analyse various factors leading to the
 American Civil War Background, cause, French revolution;
beginnings, Role of Abraham Lincoln  trace the history of the American war
and of Independence;
 Gettysburg Address.  identify the reasons for the Civil war;
 analyse the role played by Abraham
Lincoln;
 evaluate and assess the impact of the
civil war.
Theme 3: India in the 18th Century Children will be able to:
 decline of the Mughal Empire--)Major  Identify the Mughal ruled after
factors/cause). Aurangzed (late Mughals);
 Rise of independent/ regional  discuss factors responsible for the
kingdoms-Hyderabad, Awadh, Bengal, decline of the Mughal empire;
Rajputs, Sikhs, Mysore, Marathas  examine the rise of regional kingdoms;
(brief).  recognize the rising power of the
Marathas under the Peshawas.
Theme 4: Traders to Rulers Children will be able to:
 Advent of English East India Company –  understand and discuss the system of
a brief mention trade and commerce in India in the 17th
 Conquest of Bengal-Battle of Plassey, and 18th century;
Buxar-causes and results.  identify the intensive rivaly among the
 Dual Government-Drawbacks of Dual trading companies;
government.
 Policy of British Expansion (meaning  discuss the impact of the Battle of
and examples)-Doctrine of lapse, Plassey and Buxar in strengthening the
Subsidiary Alliance, Annexation of British position in India;
Awadh (pretext).  understand the expansionist policy of
the British with reference to dual
government, doctrine of lapse
subsidiary alliance and annexation of
Avadh.
Theme 5: British Policies and Impacts Children will be able to:
 Economic policy  Critically analyse and reflect on the
 Land Revenue system (Permanent economic policy of india under the
Settlement, Mahalwari, Ryotwari), company;
highlight Permanent Settlement only.  Identify the different land revenue
 Exploitation of artisans and weavers. systems introduced by the British;
 Drain of wealth.  discuss and examine the impacts of the
 Introduction of modern Education. British rule on the traditional
 Wood’d Despatch (What was wood’s industries;
despatch and its effects).  evaluate and analyse the educational
policy of the British.
Theme 6: The Great Uprising of 1857 Children will be able to:
 Reasons-political, socio religious,  Analyse the reasons for the great
economic, military uprising;
 Immediate causes  Trace and locate centres of the uprising
 Leaders and Spread of the uprising on an outline map of india;
 Consequences  Discuss the policy of laps;
 Nature of uprising  Examine the consequences of the great
uprising of 1857.
Theme 7: Socio-Religious Reforms Children will be able to:
 Contribution of Social Reformers in  Identify the socio-religious practices
brief: that existed in Indian society in the
 Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chand 19th century;
Vidyasagar, Dayanand Saraswati,  Discuss the importance of social
Swami Vivekanand, JyotibaPhule, reform movements during the 19th &
Annie Beasant, Veerasalingam, 20th century raising awareness about
Kandukuri, Sree Narayana Guru, Sir prevalent social practices;
Syed Ahmad Khan and Sigh Sabhas  Explain the efforts of the reformers to
deal with issues such as
castesystem, child marriage, sati
pratha, etc;
 Analyse the impact of the reform
movement on the Indian society;
 Appreciate the role of social
reformers.

Theme 8: India’s Struggle for Freedom Children will be able to:
Phase 1  Define nationalism and identify
 Rise of nationalism: Factors- factors giving rise to nationalism;
economic exploitation, spread of  State the objectives of the Indian
western education, role of the press, National Congress;
Repressive policy of Lord Lytton (to  Discuss and comprehend the
be covered briefly)\ methods and demands of the
moderates;
 Early Political associated-The Indian  Appreciate the ideas of Nationalism
Congress(formation and objectives), and Swadeshi;
The Moderates-leaders, methods  Identify the significance of the Home
demands Patition of Bengal-only the Rule Movement and the Lucknow
Anti Partition pact;
 Movement-Swadeshi and Boycott to  discuss various campaigns initiated
be covered briefly, Surat split-a brief by Gandhi;
understanding.  explain the various factors
responsible for the launching of Non-
Phase 2 Cooperation and Civil Disobedience
 Home Rule Movement-leaders and movement and Quit India movement
objectives, Lucknow Pact (1916)-as  discuss the impact of the mass
Unity Pact (a brief understanding). movements;
 Gandhian Era (1917-1947).  analyse the objectives of Forward
 Early campaigns-kHeda, Bloc and the INA;
Champaran,  examine the various clauses of the
 Ahmedabad (a brief description). Indian Independence Act;
 Mass Movements-Non Cooperation  appreciate and reflect on the
(causes, withdrawal, impact), Rowlatt sacrifices made by our national
Act, Jallianwala,Khilafat (Chauri- heroes.
Chaura).
 Civil Disobedience Movement-cause
Simon Commision, Lahore Session
 Quit India-Forward Bloc and INA
(objectives only) Independence and
partition-Cabinet Mission Plan,
Mountbatten plan,
 Indian Independence Act (only
clauses).
Civics

Key Concepts Learning Outcomes


Theme 1: The Three Main Organs of the Children will be able to:
Indian Government: Legislature, Executive,  Discuss the composition of the Indian
Judiciary parliament – the Lok Sabha and Rajya
 Legislature-Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha;
Sabha, composition, term, election,  Compare and understand the working
qualifications, Preseidency officer. of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya
Powers & functions of the Union Sabha;
Parliament.  Describe the related between the two
 Executive-The president, The Vice – house;
President, Prime Minister and Council  Explain the powers and the functions
of Ministers-qualifications, election of the Union Parliament;
(menthod not procedure) powers and  State the qualifications, elections,
functions. powers and functions of the President,
 The Judiciary-The Supreme Court Prime minister and Council of
and high Court-Composition, ministers;
qualifications of judges, appointment,  Discuss the composition of the
Jurisdiction and functions: Original, Supreme court and High court and
Appellate, Revisory, Judicial Review, High court and state the qualifications
Court of Record, Writs-what are and appointment of judges to the
Write, a few examples. Supreme court and High court and
state the qualifications and
appointment of judges to the Supreme
court and High Court;
 Discuss the concept of judicial review
and court of record;
 Explain the term ‘writ’ giving
examples.

Theme 2 United Nations Children will be able to:


 Aims and principles, Organs (all SLR  Understand and sescribe the aims
mention in brief)- General Assembly, and principles of the United Nations
 Security Council, International Court (U.N.);
of  Outline the organs of the U.N.;
 Justice(details)- Composition and  Discuss the composition of the
functions. General Assembly, Security Council
 Agencies of UN-UNESCO, and the International Court of Justice;
UNICEF,WHO-functions only.  Highlight the functions of the U.N.
Agencies (UNESCO, UNICEF,WHO);
 Appreciate the role and services
provided by U.N. Agencies.
Contents
Preface .................................................................................................................................................... 2
Syllabus ................................................................................................................................................. 4
1. The Beginning of the Modern World .................................................................................................. 9
2. The Industrial Revolution and the Rise of Imperialism ..................................................................... 20
3. The Age of Revolution ....................................................................................................................... 28
4. The American Civil War ..................................................................................................................... 37
5. Decline of the Mughal Empire .......................................................................................................... 42
6. Rise of independent Regional Powers .............................................................................................. 47
7. Rise of British Power in Bengal ......................................................................................................... 53
8. Expansion of British Power in India.................................................................................................. 62
9. British Policies and Their Impacts ..................................................................................................... 70
10. The Revolt of 1857 .......................................................................................................................... 80
11. Indian Renaissance –Social and Religious Reformers in India ........................................................ 90
12 Rise of Indian Nationalism ............................................................................................................... 98
13. The Indian National Movement (1885-1916) ............................................................................... 109
14. The Indian National Movement (1917-1934) ............................................................................... 119
15. The Indian National Movement (1935-47) ................................................................................... 127
16 The Union Legislature .................................................................................................................... 134
17 The Union Executive ...................................................................................................................... 143
18 The Judiciary .................................................................................................................................. 152
19 The United Nations ........................................................................................................................ 160
20 Specialized Agencies of the UN ...................................................................................................... 171
First term Paper .................................................................................................................................. 177
Second Term Paper ............................................................................................................................. 181
GUIBELINES FOR PROJECT WORK ....................................................................................................... 185
THEME 1: A PERIOD OF TRANSITIO

1. The Beginning of the Modern World


History in most countries is classified into three periods-ancient, medieval and modern.
Each period has some characteristics- political, economic, religious and social-that
sets it apart from other periods. This Classification helps to bring a sense of order and
continuity to the bewildering array of historical events and historical processes that
have taken place over centuries of evolution. It helps to put the past into perspective
and to see turning points and transition periods with greater understanding and clarity.

A PERIOD OF TRANSITION

Historical periods differ from country to country depending on the stage of


development of that region. In Europe the Modern Age started in the 15 th century. In
India the Modern period is generally regarded as having begun in the mid-18th century.

The major turning point in India’s transition, from the Medieval to the Modern Age, was
the conquest of India by the British. In the past, India had been invaded and conquered
by foreigners. However, unlike the earlier conquerors, the British did not settle down
and adapt to an Indian way of life. For the first time, India was ruled from outside by
foreigners and subjected to an alien rule for about 200 years. The sharp divide
between the British rulers and the Indians was never bridged.

Some of the characteristic features of the Modern Period are: urbanization,


technological advancement, democratic institutions, fundamental civil liberties,
rationalism and humanism and industrialization.

SOURCE MATERIALS

The vast range and quantity of source materials for the Modern Age in India helps us
to study the history of this period in great details and with great accuracy.

The source material for the Modern Period is of two kinds-primary and secondary.

Primary Sources

Many of these primary sources have ben preserved in archives and museums.They
include:

 Original documents like British official records


 Literary works like accounts of European residents, visitors and Indian officials,
novel, plays, short stories and poems by British and Indian authors of this period
 Historical works by contemporary historians
 Artistic works like paintings, sketches engravings and drawings.
 Photographs, audio cassettes, films and videotapes of incidents and interviews of
important personalities
 Newspapers in both English and in Indian languages
 Archaeological remains like monuments and artefacts
 Oral history
Secondary Sources

Secondary sources include books, reviews, reports and articles written by historians
and scholars who study and research primary source material, interpret evidence and
arrive at conclusions.

Since the Modern Age in India began with the advent of the British rule, the roots of
the transition from the Medieval period must be traced to Europe. To understand the
impact of British rule on Indian history, it is imperative to understand the changes that
were taking place in Europe.

MODERN PERIOD IN EUROPE

Europe entered the Modern Age in the 15th century. Important changes had occurred
by that time- feudalism had increased and the rights of the individual had become
stronger. Despite these changes, much of the European continent still remained feudal
in the 16th Century; eastern Europe remained backward till almost the 18th century.

THE RENAISSANCE

In the tree centuries between 1300CE and 1600 CE, a great movement of change and
discovery spread across Europe, which radically altered the pattern of people’s lives
and thinking.

This movement, representing a new spirit in every field of life , is referred to as the
Renaissance. It is a French word that means ‘rebirth’ or ‘revival’. The Renaissance
ushered in revolutionary changes in Europe and marked the transition from the
Medieval to the Modern age in Europe. The expansion of trade, the voyages of
discovery by Italian merchants, their interaction with various societies and their wealth
and prosperity were all important factors that contributes to the beginning of the
Renaissance.

Another important event was the capture of Constantinople, the capital of the
Byzantine empire (Eastern Roman Empire), in 1453 by the Ottoman Turks, which had
important effects.

A large number of Greek scholars fled from Constantinople, (a great centre of classical
Greek and Roman learning) to Italy with rare manuscripts. These scholars were
patronized and encouraged by the rulers, schools and the rich Italian merchants of
Rome, Florence, Milian and Venivce. Libraries were set up and universities were
established to promote classical and modern learning.

THINK AND ANSWER


Think of the period between 13000 and 1600CE in India. What do you think were the
major differences between India and Europe at this point of time?
The Renaissance, or the revival of classical Graeco-Roman learning inspired and
encouraged people to question and challenge long established ideas and institutions
that had been imposed on them by the church and their kings. They refused to blindly
accept the dictates of their rulers and the Church. They demanded to know the truth
based on logic and reason and rejected everything that did not satisfy the yardstick of
reason. This new spirit of rationalism led to the rise of a scientific temper and the spirit
of inquiry. This scientific temper and the desire to inquire or seek the truth led to new
and varied developments in the fields of art, architecture, sculpture, painting, literature,
science and technology.
Renaissance scholars and thinkers shifted the focus from divine affairs to human
affairs. The spirits of humanism was central tp new learning. Medieval preoccupation
with religion, afterlife, heaven and hell was replaced with a deep and abiding interest
in human affairs-their joys and sorrows, desires and fulfilment. Freedom and creativity.
The spirit of the Renaissance period found expression in the fields od art, architecture,
sculpture, painting, literature, science and technology, explorations and discoveries.
This period saw a great outburst of creativity and brilliance.
Dicuss
Which aspect of Renaissance thought do we still follow in our lives? Discuss.
VOYAGES OF DISCOVERY
The Renaissance also fostered a spirit of exploration and discovery. This period bred
a spirit of adventure and the desire to explore the unknown, which in turn led to
exploration and the discovery of many new lands.
In the middle of the 15th century CE, the Ottoman Turks captured Asian Minor and cut
off direct land links between Asia and Europe. The Turks also took control of the main
ports of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, raided European ships, and imposed heavy
taxes on goods passing through their lands. This was a great blow to European trade
with the East. This gave rise to an urgent need to find and alternate sea route to the
East. Great voyages of explorations were undertaken, leading to great discoveries of
new routes and new lands.
Important Discoveries
In the 15th century, a Portuguese prince, Henry the Navigator, sent out several
expeditions to explore the west coast of Africa. He prepared maps based on these
explorations. In 1498 CE, an expedition led by Bartholomew Diaz reached the
southern tip of the African continent. This came to be known as the Cape of Good
Hope because the prospects of finding India seemed bright. In 1497 CE another
Portuguese explorer, Vasco da Gama, followed the same route and then sailed around
the Cape of Good Hope. He crossed the Indian Ocean and reached Calicut (present-
day Kozhikode) on the west coast of India in 1498 CE. Vasco da Gama discovered
the sea route to reach India, which later became an important trade route for other
foreign powers to reach India.
In 1492, an Italian sailor living in Spain, Christopher Columbus sailed westwards from
Europe with the help of the king and queen of Spain. Columbus was sure that the
could reach the East if he sailed westwards from Europe. After sailing westwards
across the Atlantic Ocean for two months, he landed on the Caribbean Islands of
Central America. He undertook more voyages and discovered several more island in
the Caribbean Sea and the coast of Venezuela. Until his death, Columbus believed
that he had found a route to the East Little did he know that he had actually discovered
America, a new continent.
Spain and Portugal divided the newly discovered lands in the East and the West
between themselves.

These discoveries led to a steady growth of trade and commerce. A new class of rich
merchants emerged in society. These merchants accumulated enormous wealth and
helped their rulers to build prosperous, strong and stable states. The king’s
dependence on feudal lands gradually declined. The wealthy merchants and the
professional class consisting of doctors, lawyers, teachers etc., formed and the middle
class. The middle class in general and the merchants in particular became the most
influential section of society and contributed greatly to the progress of mankind. These
discoveries also enriched people’s knowledge of world geography, brought about
revolutionary economic changes in Europe and set in motion the process of
colonization of Asia, Africa and Latin America.

REFORMATION

During the Medieval Period, religion was central to human existence. The lives of all
in Europe revolved around the Roman Catholic Church and its supreme head the
Pope. The authority of the Pope was absolute and could not be questioned or
challenged.

A painting showing a group of Renaissance thinkers, discussing new theories in


science and mathematics

People were taught to focus only on divine and spiritual matters throughout their lives
and prepare for a life after death. Blind faith was propagated and people were
conditioned to believe that the only path to salvation was through complete and total
surrender to the doctrines of the Church.

Christian monasteries had become exclusive centres of education. The monopoly of


education armed the Church with absolute power and authority to increase its
stranglehold on society.

Opposition to the teachings of the Church (heresy) would incur the wrath of the papacy
and often lead to terrible punishments. Heretics were sometimes burnt alive, at the
stake.
Apart from spiritual powers the papacy was also deeply involved in the political affairs
of Christian European states. Ruler of these states were appointed and dismissed by
the Pope and subjected to the doctrines and regulations, of the Church.
As the Church became increasingly wealthy and powerful, the clergymen and priests
began to lead a worldly life of ease, luxury and opulence. They became corrupt and
immoral and lost interest in the welfare of the people.
Meaning of Reformation
The Reformation was a protest movement against the authoritarianism and evil
practices of the Roman Catholic Church. It was a revolt against its orthodoxy,
conservatism and blind faith that was stifling and regressive and a stumbling block to
the intellectual and spiritual advancement of the people. It was also known as the
Protestant Movement.
Cause
Renaissne
The Renaissance had radically altered the pattern of thinking and outlook of the
people. It had set in motion the advent of new and powerful ideas of humanism,
rationalism, scientific spirit and the spirit of Inquiry. These revolutionary ideas
unleashed unstoppable force that completely charged the way people thought and
behaved. It was like awakening of a sleeping giant.
People had finally found truthful and rational answers to their questions and
discovered the real truth about themselves and their environment. Everything based
on blind faith was questioned. The teachings of the Church were rejected and its
authority challenged.
The invention of the printing press helped to spread the ideas of the Renaissance
thinkers quickly and far and wide. The bible was translated from Latin to the regional
languages and everybody got to know the real facts about the teachings of the Bible.
Evil Practices of the Roman Catholic Church
During the early Medieval Period, the Pope and the clergy (priests) led pious, simple
and saintly lives dedicated to the services of the people.
With the passage of time the clergy, with some exceptions, began to lead immoral
lives of luxury, wealth and comfort. The monasteries owned nearly one-third of the
landed property in Europe. Religious duties and services to mankind were largely
ignored or forgotten.
The Roman Church levied various taxes such as ‘tithe’ and ‘Peter’s Pence’ on all
European Christians under their control. High fees were charged for conducting
religious services.
Bribery and corruption became common. Church offices were sold, bringing many
unworthy people into the Church.
The Church started the practice of selling ‘Indulgences’ to those who had committed
sins. It was like a certificate of pardon by God for their sins and a ‘passport to heaven’
without having to undergo ant penance.
Writings of Eminent Scholars
Learned scholars like John Wycliffe and John Huss, exposed the evil of the Church
through their writings and suggested reforms. Their ideas aroused he conscience of
the people and spread awareness about the real character of the Roman Catholic
Church.

Rise of Strong Rulers

With the decline of feudalism in Europe strong rulers emerged. They defied the
authority of the Pope and refused to let him interfere in their administrative affairs.
They resented the papal taxes and the drain of their wealth to Rome in the form of
papal taxes.

Rise of National Consciousness

As national consciousness began to take shape in Europe the people of nation states
wanted their own ruler to be independent and free from papal control. They also
wanted their own national churches.

The immediate cause of the Reformation was a protect movement by Martin Luther.

Role of Martin Luther

Martin Luther was as German Christine monk and preacher at the University town of
Wittenburg. A visit to Rome and his observations of the church left him shocked and
disillusioned. Enraged by the sight of the sale of indulgences he nailed on the door of
a local church, a list of objections (95 Theses) for public debate.

By his attack on indulgences issued by the Pope, Luther appeared to be challenging


the power and authority of the papacy. He immediately found himself in the eye of a
religious storm that would sweep through Europe, shake the very foundations of the
Papacy and set in motion the Reformation Movement.

Luther publicly announced that the authority of the Bible, not that of the Pope, was the
final authority on Christianity. Emboldened by the increasing support for his views, he
raised the pitch of protest and savagely attacked the Church practices and position of
the papacy. A national German Church (Lutheran Church) was established, free from
the control of the Roman Church. Luther was condemned as a heretic and
excommunicated by the Pope. In a show of open defiance, Luther Publicly burnt the
order issued by the Pope.

The Pope directed the German Emperor (Charles V) to punish Luther for heresy.
Luther was ordered to withdraw all his anti-church statements. He boldly, fearlessly
and firmly refused to do so, knowing fully well that his life was now in grave danger.

The Duke of Saxony hid Luther in his castle for about a year during which time, Luther
translated the Bible (New Testament) from Latin into German. A large number of
German ruling princes supported Luther and broke away from the Roman Catholic
Church. Lutheran churches were established in many German states. Their followers
come to be known as Protestants.

A long and bloody civil war broken out between the supporters of the Catholic Church
in Rome and Protestant Church in Germany. By the end of the war (1555 CE), Europe
was split into two camps-Roman Catholics and Protestants. The seed of protest that
Luther had planted in a German principality within the Holy Roman Empire flowered,
bore fruit and gave birth to some of the great Protestant churches in northern and
Western Europe.

Impact of Reformation

 The church was split up permanently.


 Civil wars broke out in many countries between the Catholics and the Protestants.
 Religious intolerance, hatred and persecution of Protestants in Catholic countries
and Catholics in Protestant countries became the order of the day, and led to many
wars in Europe.
 Religious persecution of the Protestants in England was a major reason for their
migration to and colonization of North America (New England). By the end of the
18th century the colonists would establisg the United States of America.

Counter Reformation

The Reformation had a positive impact on the Catholic Church. The Pope realized that
it was imperative to introduce reforms to revive and revitalize the Catholic Church and
restore its lost position and prestige.

The reform movement within the Catholic Church in response to the Protestant
Movement is known as the Counter Reformation. The Catholic Church became
virtuous, liberal and compassionate and more tolerant of different and opposing views.

Rise of Nation States

The Protestants championed the cause of independent and strong rulers, totally free
from the control of the Catholic Church. Several European rulers assumed power as
head of the Church as well as the government. The loyalty of the people was now
confined only to their own ruler (who was both their temporal as well as spiritual leader)
and no longer divided between the Roman Church and their government. This marked
the beginning of the evolution of nation states comprising of people bound by common
ties of culture, history language and territory, united under one government and one
ruler.

Economic Development

After the Reformation, the drain of wealth form Christian countries to Rome came to
an end. The ruler of these nation states used their improved financial resources to
introduce various reforms and improve the economic conditions of the people. Trade
agriculture and industry flourished. The welfare of the people was a primary concern
of the ruler who won the loyalty and support of the people and became strong and
powerful.

VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS

We should challenge and question every belief and idea that does not satisfy the
yardstick of reason. We must be guided by a pririt of rationalism and should not accept
all things blindly.

 What will you do if you are not convinced of certain beliefs that are imposed on you
by your family members?

List of Images

1.1 A painting depicting British conquest of India in the ‘war of Seringapatnam’.


Modern Age in India began with the conquest of India by the British.

1.2 The Victoria Memorial in Kolkata-an archaeological source of the Modern Period
in India.

1.3 A news report of the French newspaper, Le Petit Parisien, showing the famine of
1897 in India.

1.4 A painting showing European explorers discovering new land.

1.5 Martin Luther was a German monk and preacher who protested against the evil
practices of the Catholic Church.

Important Words

The Modern Period started in Europe in the 15th century and India in the mis-18th
century. The major turning point in India’s transition from the Medievel to the Modern
Age was the conquest of India by the British.

Primary sources are the original documents, official records, literary works, works
of art, photographs, newspapers and archaeological monuments and artefacts.

Secondary sources include books, reviews, reports and articles written by


historians and scholars who study and research the primary source material,
interpret evidence and arrive at conclusions.

Middle class during the Renaissance in Europe comprised the wealthy merchants
and professionals, consisting of doctors, lawyers, teachers, etc.,

Humanism is a system of thought that considers that solving human problem with
the help of reason is more important than religious beliefs.
Rationalism is a philosophy or belief that all behaviour, opinions, etc. should be
based on reason rather than on emotions or religious beliefs.

Reformation was a protest movement against the evil and authoritarian practices of
the Catholic Church with a view to reform the Catholic Church.

Counter Reformation refers to the reform movement within the Catholic Church in
response to the ideas and action of Protestant Reformation

Nation States refers to the rise of strong and independents countries, in 14th century
Europe, that had a common territory, with a well-defined boundary, and whose
people were bound by common ties of culture, history, language and territory. The
people of these nation states were also lived united under one government/ruler.

Exercises

A. Fill in the balnks:


1. The Modern Age in India began with the conquest of India by the - .
2. India was ruled by the British for nearly - years.
3. The two kinds of source material for the Modern period are - sources and -
sources.
4. The - ushered in revolutionary changes in Europe and marked the transition from
the - Age to the - Age.
5. The four characteristic features of the Renaissance period are - , -, and -.
B. Match the following:
A B
1. Archaeological sources (a) Humanism
like monuments
2. Renaissance (b) Primary source
3. Constantionople (c) Martin Luther
4. Reformation (d) Taxes levied by
Roman church
5. Tithe and Peter’s Pence (e) Capital of the
Byzantine empire
C. Choose the correct answer:
1. In India the Modern Period is generally regarded as having begun in the mid-
15th/mid-18th/mid-16th century.
2. The primary sources for the study of the Modern Period are preserved in archives
/banks/factories.
3. The wealthy merchants and the professional class consisting of doctors, lawyers,
teachers etc., formed the upper class/ middle class/lower class.
4. The invention of the printing press/telegraph/telephone helped to spread the ideal
of the Renaissance thinkers far and wide.
5. Martin Luther was an Italian /a German/a French Christian monk.
D. State whether the following questions in one or two words/sentences:
1. The source material of the Modern period is of two kinds-primary and secondary.
2. Primary sources of history includes books, reviews, reports and articles.
3. Renaissance scholars shifted the focus from divine affairs to human affairs.
4. The voyages of discoveries led to a decline of trade and commerce.
5. The Reformation was also known as the Protestant Movement.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/ sentences:
1. The history of most nations can be divided into a number of periods. Name them.
[2]
2. What distinguishes one historical period from another? [2]
3. In what way is the classification of historical period useful to us? [2]
4. When did the Modern Period begin in (a) Europe (b) India? [2]
5. Mention any four characteristic features of the Modern Period. [2]
6. Mention any two (a) primary and (b) secondary source materials of the Modern
Period. [2]
7. Why is it important to study developments in Europe to understand the history of
modern India? [2]
8. What is the meaning of Renaissance? [2]
9. What is meant by Reformation? [2]
10. What do you understand by nation states? [2]
F. Answer the following briefly:
1. The capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks led to the beginnings of
Renaissance in Europe. With reference to this statement answer the following
questions:
(a) How did it lead to the revival of classical Greek and Roman learning in Europe?
[3]
(b) What effect did it have on the outlook and attitudes of the people of Europe?
[4]
(c) What effect did it have on trade? [3]
2. With reference to the causes of the Reformation, how did the following contribute
to the movement:
(a) Renaissance [3]
(b) Evil practices of the Roman catholic Church [4]
(c) Rise of strong and powerful rulers
G. Picture study:
This is a portrait of the German monk who opposed certain activities of the Catholic
Church.
(a) Identify the person in the picture.
(b) With which great religious movement is his name associated?
(c) Where was he born and in which country did he lead his movement?
(d) Mention any four effects of the movement started by him.

DO AND LEARN

Use your imagination:


Imagine you were Martin Luther, teaching at the University of Wittenberg. Prepare a
lecture to give in class, explaining why you oppose the priests and challenged the
power and authority of the Catholic Church of his time.

Project work:

1. Collect pictures and information on the impact of the Renaissance and make a
scrapbook.
2. Make a report to show how in post Refoemation period religion has affected the
political history of Europe.

Websites:

For more information, go to:

 http://www.mrdowling.com/704renaissance.html (Accessed on 11 december


2016)
 http://www.history.com/topics/reformation (Accessed on 11th december 2016)
2. The Industrial Revolution and the Rise of Imperialism
During the Medieval Period, agriculture was the main occupation of the people. Was
the main occupation of the people. Everybody was associated with land in some way
or the other. The needs of the villagers were simple and few. Whatever they needed
was made by the artisans and the craftspeople of the villages. Every village was self-
sufficient and had its own blacksmiths, weavers, carpenters and other skilled people.
Simple tools were used and the craftspeople and artisans made goods at home with
the help of family members. Merchants supplied the raw materials to the artisans
and sold the finished products. This system of production was known as the
domestic system.
The exploration and discovery of new lands led to an increase in overseas trade and
commerce. This in turn led to the growth of towns and cities and the emergence of
the wealthy middle class. The demand for consumer and luxury items increased
greatly. The domestic system could not cope with this growing demand. The
methods of production were too slow and inadequate. A new system became the
need of the hour. Initially a new system evolved, called the putting out system, under
which merchants supplied the raw materials to the artisans and sold the finished
products. This system came after the domestic system, with the revival of trade and
the growth of markets. It was a precursor to the factory system.
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
By the middle of the 18th century a series of remarkable inventions led to an
economic revolution in England known as the Industrial Revolution. It transformed
the entire economy and society of 18th century England and other countries
subsequently.
This great and radical transformation in industry which fundamentally altered all the
methods, techniques and organization of production and distribution is known as the
Industrial Revolution.
Features of the Industrial Revolution
The main features of the Industrial Revolution were as follows:
The domestic system of production was replace by the factory system.
Manual labour was replaced by machines.
Small-scale production gave way to large scale production.
Large-scale mass manufacture of goods was carried on in factories instead of the
homes of the artisans. Power-driven machines replaced simple tools. These
factories including the resources and the means of production, were owned by rich
merchants known as capitalists, or people who owned the capital.
Causes of the Industrial Revolution in England
There were a number of factors that paved the way for the Industrial Revolution In
England.
Surplus Capital
Economic growth and an increased overseas trade led to an accumulation of
enormous wealth in England. This surplus capital was used in the development of
new industries and setting up of new factories.
Stable Government
Political stability in England provided conditions that were favourable for economic
growth.
Agricultural Revolution
There was an agricultural revolution that preceded the Industrial Revolution. This
was due to the consolidation of land holdings through the enclosures and
improvement in agricultural methods, such as, alternating between fallow and tillage
land, which increased England’s agricultural output.
Availability of Cheap Labour
The mechanization of agriculture led to large scale unemployment of farmers who
migrated to town and cities in search of jobs, and were ready to work in factories at
low wages.
The Enclosure Movement had led to the takeover of land by rich landlords and so
the small landless farmers also migrated to towns and cities in search of employment
factories. They provided a readily available pool of cheap labour.
Availability of coal and Iron
Coal and iron-the two essential resources necessary for the growth of industries
were available in abundance in northern England. Many industrial town and cities
were located in this region.
New Inventions
Political and social stability in England created conditions that were condusive to
creativity. The first phase of the Industrial Revolution was based on mechanization of
the cotton industry, and Lanchashire (Manchester) become the centre of the cotton
industry. This was followed by further revolutionary inventions. New machines such
as the Hargreave’s Spinning Jenny, Kay’s Flying shuttle, Arkwright’s Water Frame,
cartwright’s power loom and Eli Whitney’s Cotton gin improved the textile industry.
Newcomen’s Pump and James Watt’s Steam Engine using steam power and Davy’s
Safety Lamp helped extract coal from the coal mines and increased the production of
coal and iron.
There was a need for better transport facilities and communication. George
Stephenson’s Stem Locomotive, John Macadam’s road building technique, Thomas
Edison’s Incandescent Lamp, Graham Bell’s Telephone and Marconi’s Telegraph
were some inventions in this field.
DID YOU KNOW?
In the early 18th century, English iron maker and his son Abraham Darby discovered
how to make iron using coal, which was more easily available than wood. This led to
the rapid growth in the production of iron which was used to make tools and
machinery. Darby’s son constructed the first iron bridge over the River Severn in
west Britain.
Naval Supremacy
Backed by a powerful navy the strongest in the world, England had acquired a large
number of colonies. These colonies were used as suppliers of cheap raw material
and ready markers for finished products. This stimulated industrial growth.
Spread of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution that began in England was not a single event but a
continuing process which went through different phases and spread to different
countries at different times.
Mechanized industries were introduced in France, Germany, USA and Japan.
Germany made rapid progress after its unification (1870) and became one of the
leading industrial nations in Europe. Britain Gradually lost its lead by the end of the
19th century.
The USA also surged ahead of British and made major progress in the iron and steel
industry. It soon became one of the leading industrial nations of the world.
Industrialization in Russia was very slow but picked up after the Russian Revolution
(1917). Japan was the first Asian country to become industrialized.
Impact of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution radically changed the entire fabric of western society. The
transformation was so profound that conditions of life changed beyond recognition.
Economic Impact
Urbanization
The Industrial Revolution led to the growth of many towns and cities where factories
were set up. People from the villages began to migrate to these industrial towns and
cities in search of jobs. The shifting of the population from rural to urban areas was
an important development of the Industrial Revolution.
Factory System
The Industrial Revolution led to the destruction of the domestic system of production.
Workers went to work in factories and machine-made goods were manufactured on
a large scale. The work was divided between people according to their ability and
capability.
Division of Labour
One of the characteristic features of the industrial revolution was the division of
labour, i.e. each person or a group of people performed a specialized task.
Capitalism and Economic Disparity
The Industrial Revolution led to the concentration of wealth in the hands of the
capitalists-a few rich people who owned the means of production (capital). The vast
majority of worker were employed by the capitalists in their factories and worked
under them for wages. The workers were exploited by the capitalists and lived in
poverty and misery. There was a wide gulf between the rich capitalists and the poor
workers. The capitalists were thus the haves, while the worker were the have-nots.
Economic inequalities led to social inequalities which eventually led to the growth of
socialism.
The advent of machines led to a lot of people losing their jobs as fewer people were
required to produce the same goods. This also led to unemployment and there was
a general anger against machines.
Expansion of Trade and Commerce
Large-scale production of goods led to the expansion of trade and commerce.
Surplus goods were sold to other countries. Increasing profits made the
industrialized nations rich and prosperous. Trade also expanded because
steamships were being used, which were superior to the earlier ships.
As production increased further further, these nations began to look for new markets
for the sale of finished products. This in turn led to competition among the European
nation to acquire colonies in distant lands. These colonies would be used not only as
ready markets for manufactures goods but also as constant suppliers of raw material
for the industries. Colonial rivalry between industrialized countries eventually lead to
the First World War.
Socialism
Socialism was a reaction to the evils of capitalism. Socialism is a system under
which there is no private ownership of capital. People in a socialist set-up would not
be divided into rich and poor classes. The means of production (capital) is owned by
society as a whole and everybody would work and share equally the profits, i.e., the
fruit of their labour. Thus, exploitation would be wiped out and a classless society
based on economic and social would be established.
Social Effects
Social Inequality
The economic disparity between the rich capitalists and the poor workers led to
gross social inequalities. There was a wide gulf between the social status of the
capitalists and the workers.
Harsh living Conditions of the workers
The Industrial Revolution led to the migration of people from the village to the
industrial towns in search of jobs. Cities grew rapidly and without any proper
planning. As the population grew, the cities became overcrowded and people were
forced to live in crowded homes in squalid surrounding and without proper sanitation
facilities. A large number of slums sprang up. Black smoke filled the air and in the
absence of basic amenities, the health of the workers broke down. Diesease and
epidemics took a heavy toll of human lives. According to a report on a slum in
Manchester, in 1837, almost all the inhabitants died of cholera.
Exploitation of Workers
The capitalists amassed enormous wealth at the expense of the workers, the
majority of whom were totally dependent on their employments.
Workers had no job security and they could be dismissed at any time. They worked
on very low wages and under extremely harsh conditions. The capitalists exploited
the workers by forcing them to work for almost sixteen hours a day, without a break.
They were not allowed to go on strike.
Women and small children were employed in large numbers in deep and dangerous
coal mines. They worked from dawn to dusk on extremely low wages. No
compensation was paid to workers for injury or death due to accident in mines and
factories.
The extremely stressful working and living conditions led to a decline of moral values
among the workers. Life became a struggle for survival, community bonds broke
down and people tried to forget their miseries by drinking and gambling.
Political Effects
Rise of the Capitalists
Prior to the Industrial Revolution, landowners enjoyed great wealth, privileges and
political influence. The Industrial revolution led to the emergence of the wealthy and
powerful capitalist class as a dominant force in the British Parliament. Government
policies were influenced by the interests of the capitalist class.
DISCUSS
Revolution has become history today. Discuss and substantiate your answer with
examples.
Trade Unions
The ruthless exploitation of the workers by the capitalists led to protests by the
workers. They united and organized themselves into Trade unions to fight for fight for
their rights and better working conditions. The trade unions faced strong resistance
from the employers. In many countries, the clash between the trade unions and the
capitalists led to bloodshed.
The struggle of the trade unions was long and arduous. The vast majority of workers
did not have the right to vote.
The determination and efforts of the trade unions eventually bore fruit. The
government passed several factory laws to improve the conditions of the workers
and grant them certain rights.
THINK AND ANSWER
Indutrial revolution was a mixed blessing. Do you agree with this statement? Give
reasons for your answer.
THE RISE OF IMPERIALISM
In the 17th century, many trading companies were set up by the different European
countries. The English East India company was one such trading company. These
companies set up trading posts in many parts of Asian, Africa and Latin America. In
due course, these areas were colonized and brought under complete political and
economic control of the European powers.
Between the 16th and 18th centuries, the Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, French and
the English had established colonies in these territories. Colonial expansion led to
rivalry, competition and numerous wars between the colonial powers.
Colonialism is a policy by which one nation acquires control over another country,
either partly or wholly. The conquered country becomes the colony of the
conquering nation, known as the colonial power. For example, India became a
colony of Great Britain, the colonial power.
The colonial rivalry between Great Britain and France led to several wars, which
were fought both in Europe and in the colonies. For example, Britain and France
fought three wars, known as the Carnatic wars in India. The victory of the British over
the French shattered the French dream of colonizing India and establishing a French
empire in India.
The Industrial Revolution led to a scramble for overseas possessions. This led to a
wave of colonial expansion in the 19th century. There was a movement to acquire
more colonies and expand empires. Imperialsm implies systematic extraction of raw
materials, captive markets, shifting of industrial development, control over financial
institutions.
In the middle of the 18th century, the British had established their rule in Bengal. The
expenses and responsibilities of governing India proved to be a great burden.
Towards the end of the 18th century, the British government decided not to embark
on any further large-scale expansion. They concentrated instead on consolidating
the territories under their control.
In the 19th century, the British reversed their policy and followed an active policy of
territorial conquests. To sustain the rapid industrial growth, the British needed a
bigger market for their manufactured products and a steady supply of raw materials
for their industries. They also needed new areas where they could invest their
surplus capital. The solution lay in acquiring new territories.
By the middle of the 19th century the British conquered almost the whole of India.
India became the ‘jewel’ in the British crown and Britain became an economic giant.
In many ways, it was the Industrial revolution that culminated in British imperialism
and the rise of colonialism.
VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS
We should respect our domestic helpers and be kind to them. We should be
sensitive to their needs and provide them with a safe working environment. We
should pay them good salary and ensure timely payment to them. They should never
be exploited and should always be given their due holidays and.
If you were the owner of a factory how would you treat your workers?
List of Images
2.1 A painting showing machines making cotton thread at a mill in Lancashire in
1835
2.2 A spinning jenny dating to 1820
2.3 A prototype of James Watt’s steam engine, one of the most important new
inventions of the Industrial Revolution
2.4 A painting showing the steamship HMS Warrior, the first ironclad worship in the
British Navy.
2.5 An engraving showing child workers working at a factory
2.6 Time line:
1750: Industrial Revolution took place in England and British established their rule in
Bengal.
1800: A wave of colonial expansion took place and British followed a policy of
territorial conquests.
Important Words
Capitalism is an economic system in which the industry and business are controlled
and run for profit by private owners rather than by the government.
Colonialism is a policy by which one nation acquires control over another country,
either partly or wholly. The conquered country becomes the colony of the conquering
nation, known as the colonial power.
Domestic system was the system of the production of goods by crafts persons and
artisans at home with the help of their family members using simple tools. The
merchants supplied raw material to the artisans and sold the finished products.
Factory system was the system where the goods were produced in factories on a
large scale using machines instead of simple tools.
Spinning Jenny was a spinning machine which enabled one person to spin eight
threads simultaneously. It was invented by James Hargreaves and was named after
his wife.
Socialism is a set of economic theories based on the belief that everyone has an
equal right to a share of the country’s wealth and that the government should control
the main industries.
Trade union is an organization of workers, usually in a particular industry, that exists
to protect their interests, that exists to protect their interests, improve conditions of
work, etc.
Urbanization refers to the growth of towns and cities.
Exercises
A. Fill in the balnks:
1. – and - are the two basic resources essential for industrial growth.
2. Colonies were used as - of cheap raw material and - for finished products
3. Socialism was a reaction to the evils of-.
4. - and - were employed in large numbers in dangerous coal mines.
5. Between the 16th and 18th centuries, the -, -, -, - and - established colonies in
Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
B. Match the following:
A B Answers
Industrial Revolution Trading company
Socialism Colonies
Trade unions Factory system
Imperialism Equal share of wealth
The English East India Better working conditins
Company of workers
C. Choose the correct answer:
1. The main occupation of the Europeans in the Medieval Age was
agriculture/mining.fishing.
2. James Watt invented the Steam Engine / Safety lamp/ Power Loom.
Archives/banks/factories.
3. The first Asian country to become industrialized was -Japan/India/China.
4. The capitalists/landlords/workers organized themselves as trade unions to fight for
their rights.
5.The victory of the British over the French/Spanish in the Carnatic Wars shattered
French/ Dutch/Spanish dreams of colonizing India.
D. State whether the following are true or false:
1. Manual labour was replaced by the machines during the Industrial Revolution.
2. Small-scale production flourished during the Industrial Revolution.
3. Capitalists were the have-nots.
4. There was a wide gulf between the capitalists and the workers.
5. Capitalism is a set of economic theories based on the belief that the government
should control the main industries.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentence:
1. Explain the term ‘domestic system’. [2]
2. Define the term ‘Industrial Revolution’. [2]
3. What is meant by colonialism? [2]
4. Give one example of each of the following: (a) a colony (b) a colonial power.
[2]
5. What do you understand by imperialism? [2]
F. Answer the following questions briefly:
1. In the context of the Industrial Revolution answer the following questions:
a. Mention the three important features of the Industrial revolution. [3]
b. Give any four important reasons to explain why the Industrial Revolution started in
England. [4]
c. Briefly discuss the spread of the Industrial Revolution. [3]
2. In the context of the economic impact of the Industrial Revolution, answer the
following questions:
a. What effect did the Industrial Revolution have on the domestic system of
production? [3]
b. How it create a wide gap between the rich and the poor? [4]
c. What effects did it have on trade and commerce? [3]
3. With reference to the following points explain the social effects of the Industrial
Revolution:
a. Social inequality [3]
b. Harsh living conditions of workers [4]
c. Exploitation of workers. [3]
4. With reference to the Industrial Revolution explain the following:
a. The basic features of socialism [3]
b. The growth of trade unions [4]
c. The rise of imperialism [3]
G. Picture Study:
This is a picture of a machine invented during the Industrial Revolution.
Identify the machine in the picture.
Who invented it?
Which industry did it revolutionize?
Mention any four impacts of the Industrial Revolution?
DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination
Imagine you were a socialist leader invited to speak on television on the benefits and
evils of the Industrial Revolution. Prepare your speech and read it out in class.
Project work:
1. Make a report to on the investors of the period of Industrial Revolution along with
pictures of some of the machines. Include a timeline showing the major inventors as
part of your report.
2. With the help of your teacher, organize a visit to a factory. Write a report on the
conditions of the workers and share it with class.
Websites
For more information, go to:
http://www.history.com/topics/industrial-revolution (Accessed on 11 December
2016)
http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/lockwoodm/imperialism/whatis.htm
(Accessed on 11December 2016)
3. The Age of Revolution
The late 18th century was a period of revolutions in America and France. The
American Revolution (1775-83) was a landmark which inspired the people of other
countries to overthrow their colonial masters and showed the path to democracy.
The French revolution (1789-95) was political, social, religious and economic in
nature and it ended the rule of kings. It also strengthened the middle class, gave
hope to the downtrodden people of society and introduced democratic ideas.
THE AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
The American War of Independence or the American Revolution was the first
organized political revolution in the history of the world in which people asserted their
right to rule themselves. It led to the birth of the United States of America as a
nation, the end of autocratic rule and the establishment of a democratic form of
government.
CAUSE OF THE AMERICAN WAR OF INDPENDENCE
The discovery of the American continent-the New World- was followed by the
establishment of permanent European settlements in the 16th century. By the middle
of the 18th century, 13 British colonies had been established along the east coast of
North America.
These colonies were under the control of the British government which gave them
considerable liberty to manage local affairs but kept a tight control on economic
policies. The government of England believed that colonies existed for the benefits of
the mother country. This was greatly resented by the colonists who were
independent-minded Britishers, who had left their homes in England and settled in
the New World in search of freedom and a better life.
By the mid-18th century, these 13 colonies had developed into prosperous
agricultural settlements, mainly in the south, with small but flourishing industries in
the north and a thriving overseas trade.
Each colony had its own Assembly elected by the people of the colony but the
Governor of the colony was appointed by the British government. The Governor was
not responsible to the Assembly. He governed the colony in the interest of England,
the mother country, and not the colonists. This caused great resentment among the
American settlers who worked very hard but could not enjoy the fruits of their labour.
The British government collected heavy taxes from them and imposed many
restrictions on their business and commerce. These restrictions greatly hampered
the economic development of these colonies.
Socially and culturally, the American colonists were different from the British. The
colonists were simple and liberal, unlike the British puritans who were rigid and
conservative. Over the years, the colonists had developed a distinct identity of their
own-an American identity that aspired for freedom to grow and develop as a
separate independent nation.
As the mother country, Britain expected obedience. Matters came to a head when
the colonists demanded the right to have a say in matters affecting them. The
colonists argued that the British Parliament had no right to tax the colonists since
they had no representatives in the Parliament. ‘No taxation without
representation’ became the clarion call (a clear message) of the colonists.
The American revolutionaries were greatly influenced by the ideas of European
philosophers like Locke, Voltaire and Rousseau who inspired them to fight for
liberty.
The demand for representation in the British Parliament gave way to the demand
for total freedom from the British rule. The colonies began to assert their right to
sovereign authority and argued that the right to govern should be based on the
consent of the governed. The unjust, oppressive and exploitative British government
had forfeited its right to govern the American colonists and must, therefore, be
overthrown.
THE COLONIES IN AMERICA
The conflict eventually led to an open revolt of the colonies. The revolt, known as the
American War of Independence, was sparked off by an incident known as the
Boston Tea Party.
In 1773, a group of colonists, disguised as native Americans, raided british ship in
Boston harbour and threw 340 crates of tea into the sea. This incident was a protest
against the new taxes, including a tax on tea, imposed on the colonies. The Boston
Tea Party was seen as an act of open defiance of the colonists against British
Authority.
The Beginning of War
The representatives of the colonies met in Philadelphia in 1774 and appealed to their
British ruler, King George III, to withdraw all unjust and oppressive acts. The king
regarded this as an act of rebellion and declared war on the colonists. The british
troops were sent to suppress the rebellion in Massachusetts. The colonists raised
their own army. Fighting broke out in Lexington and Concord in April 1775. The
colonists chose George Washington as commander-in-chief of their troops.
In 1776, the representatives met again in Philadelphia to sign the Declaration of
Independence, which clearly stated that the American colonists had the right to free
themselves from the oppressive and exploitative British government and form their
own government.
The declaration of Independence contained revolutionary ideas and proclaimed that
all men are born equal and are endowed with certain rights as the rights to life and
liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
Birth of the United States of America
The war ended in 1781 with the defeat of the British forces. In 1783, the Treaty of
Paris was signed between the British government and the colonists. According to
this treaty, the British government recognized the independence of the 13 colonies
which came to be known as the United States of America.
In about 200 years, the United States of America transformed itself into the most
powerful country in the world. It is the unchallenged superpower in the world today.
The 4th of July is celebrated as the American Independence Day.
RESULTS OF THE AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
 The American War of independence ended British rule in the American colonies
and led to the emergence of the United States of America.
 A written Constitution was framed.
 A federal, democratic, republican government was set up.
 The new government guaranteed to all its citizens the rights to freedom of
speech, press, religion and justice under the law.
 The country would be ruled by an elected President who would govern according
to the laws written down in the Constitution and not according to his personal
whims and fancies.
DID YOU KNOW?
George Washington’s perseverance and get kept his army going in the American
War of Independence. Often his troops were famished and sometimes they went
barefoot in the snow. In 1789, when he was unanimously elected the first President
of the United States of America, he accepted the job, and was re-elected in 1792,
but he refused a third term. America’s capital city was named in his honour.
In 1789, George Washington was unanimously elected the first President of the
United States of America.
The Constitution of the United Stated of America has served as a model and an
inspiration to several countries including India. The framers of the Indian Constitution
adopted various features like the federal form of government, the incorporation of
Fundamental Rights like the American Bill of Rights and the system of checks and
balances.
DISCUSS
The American Declaration of Independence proclaimed that all men are born equal
and have certain birthrights such as the rights to life and liberty and pursuit of
happiness. Discuss your views on this.
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
The French Revolution of 1789 was a milestone and a major turning point in human
history. It revolutionized the social, economic and political fabric, not only of France
but of all Europe and subsequently of almost the entire world.
Causes of the French Revolution
An unequal, unjust social order
To understand the nature of this momentous event, we must examine the features of
the Ancient Regime-the then existing feudal society in France.
The French society was essentially feudal in nature. It was divided into three main
classes, called Estates.
 The First Estate consisted of the clergy (Church Officials).
 The Second Estate consisted of the nobles and their families.
 The Third Estate was composed of 95 percent of the population. It included the
peasants, artisans, workers and the middle class (consisting of merchants,
manufacturers and professional such as lawyers, doctors, teachers, etc.).
The First and Second Estates enjoyed numerous privileges. They owned practically
all the land in France but did not have to pay any taxes. They were very wealthy and
led comfortable and luxurious lives.
The Third Estate, on the other hand, shouldered the entire burden of taxation but
was not entitled to any of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the nobles. Taxes
were imposed on everything including basic necessities like salt. Life was very hard,
especially for the poor peasants who had to pay additional taxes to their feudal lords.
Growing Power of the Middle Class
The French merchants, traders, manufacturers, lawyers, doctors, teachers and other
professionals had acquired great wealth and became economically powerful in the
18th century. However, they were denied social equality and political rights. This
caused great resentment among them. They used their economic power to
overthrow the Ancient Regime.
Influence of New Ideas
The revolutionary writings and ideals of great political philosophers like Voltaire,
Rousseau and Montesquieu created an intellectual ferment in France. The middle
class was greatly inspired by the revolutionary ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity and
popular sovereignty.
Through their writing, the philosophers exposed the evils of French society and
government and inspired the people to revolt and fight for their rights.
An Autocratic, Absolute Monarchy
The French king was an autocrat. He enjoyed absolute powers and his will was law.
There was no check on his powers by any Parliament. He ruled by Divine Right and
was answerable to God and not to the people.
Inefficient, Corrupt Administration
The administration was corrupt and inefficient. The officials were selfish and
unconcerned about the welfare of the people.
French philosophers, (left) Voltaire and (right) Jean-Jaques Rousseau
King Louis XVI was pleasure-loving and extravagant. He was completely ignorant of
and indifferent to the sufferings of the common people and was greatly influenced
by his beautiful and ambitious wife, Marie Antoinette. Together they wasted money
on Festivities and pleasures and emptied the royal treasury.
The economic bankruptcy was further aggravated by French involvement in useless
wars against England. The rich, who could afford to pay taxes, continued to be
exempted from it, while the poor were crushed under heavier taxation.
Influence of the American Revolution
The French generals and soldiers, who had fought in the American Revolution,
returned to France with revolutionary ideas and inspired the people to fight against
their unjust, despotic government. The success of the American revolutionaries
enthused the French people and encouraged them to rebel.
The Outbreak- the Storming of the Bastille
On 17 June 1789,the members of the Third Estate declared that the third Estate
would constitute itself as the National Assembly. On 20 June 1789, the Third Estate
met at a tennis court and took an Oath not to separate until a new constitution was
drawn up for France. This is known as the Tennis Court Oath.
On 14 July 1789, a great mob attacked Bastille, the state prison for political prisoners
and a much hated symbol of the Ancient Regime. The prisoners were released and
they joined the revolutionaries.
The storming of the Bastille symbolized the victory of the people of France and the
fall of monarchy. It marked the beginning of the revolution. 14 July is celebrated as a
national holiday in France.
The newly formed National Assembly, consisting of the representatives of the third
Estate, took over the control of the affairs of France. It adopted the famous
Declaration of the rights of Man and Citizen-a landmark in the history of human
progress. By 1791, a new Constitution was drawn up for France.
Louis XVI and the Queen tried to escape to Germany but were captured and later
publicly executed. Monarchy was abolished. France became a democratic replublic.
Results of the French Revolution
 The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen established the following
principles:
1. All men are born free and have equal rights. Everyone is equal in the eyes of law.
2. Every citizen is entitled to freedom of speech and expression, religion and a fair
trail.
 Liberty, Equality, Fraternity-the battle cry of the Revolution-became the guiding
principle of the French republic.
 The Revolution of 1789 marked the end of absolute monarchy and paved the way
for the establishment of a republic.
 The revolution laid the foundation of a democratic government, i.e. a government
based on the consent of the governed.
 Feudalism and serfdom were abolished and the power of the Church was brought
under the control of the government.
 Happiness for all’ was proclaimed as the ultimate goal of the government. New
reforms were introduced and the condition of the people improved.
Influence of the French Revolution outside France
There revolutionary ideas of the French Revolution spread to all European countries.
The slogans of liberty, equality and fraternity became the guiding principles of the
freedom loving people all over the world. Oppressed people in Europe rose in revolt
against their tyrannical, hereditary rulers and established new social and political
systems based on popular sovereignty. It inspired mass movements all over the
world and instilled the spirit of nationalism among people.
THINK AND ANSWER
The ideals of the American and French Revolutions inspired many nations, including
India to achieve their independence. To what extent are these ideals being followed
in India today?
VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS
All the citizens of India are guaranteed certain rights and freedom by the
Constitution. As responsible citizens it is our duty to see that no one in the country is
denied social equality and political rights. If we feel that our freedom is threatened
and the government is being oppressive and exploitative, then we should protest
against the government ensure that our voice is heard.
List of figures
3.1 A painting depicting the landing of the early british settlers, famously known as
the Pilgrim Fathers, on the east coast of America
3.2 A painting showing the Boston Tea Party attack
3.3 The signing of the declaration of Independence
3.4 A painting depicting a French mob attacking the prison of Bastille
3.5 Time Line
1750: Thirteen British colonies established in North America.
1773: Boston Tea Party
175 -1781: American War of Independence
1776: Declaration of Independence
1783: Treaty of Pairs
1789 - 1795: French revolution
Important Words
No taxation without representation was the clarion call of the American colonists.
Boston Tea Party was an incident which sparked off the American Revolution in
1773. A group of American colonists, disguised as native Americans, raided British
Ships in Boston Harbour and threw 340 crates of tea into the sea.
Declaration of Independence was adopted by American colonists in Philadelphia in
1776. It clearly stated that American colonists had the right to free themselves from
the oppressive and exploitative British government and form their own government.
First Estate in French society consisted of the clergy.
Second Estate in French society consisted of the nobles and their families.
Third Estate in French society consisted of the peasants, artisans, workers and the
middle class (merchants, manufacturers and professionals).
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity was the battle cry of the French revolution and also
became its guiding principle.
Exercises
Fill in the balnks:
1. The American war of Independence was the first - political revolution in the history
of the world.
2. The discovery of the American continent was followedby the establishment of –
European settlements in the 16th century.
3. The colonists argued that the British Parliament had no right to tax the colonists
because they had no - in the -.
4. - was chosen as the commander of the American troops in the war against the
British.
5. In 1776, the representatives of the colonists met at Philadelphia and adopted a -.
6. In about 200 years, the united States of America transformed itself into the most -
country of the world.
7. The Constitution of the United States has served as a - and an - to several
countries.
8. French society was divided into three main classes, namely -, -, and -.
9. The revolutionary writings of political philosophers like - , - and - greatly influenced
the middle-class intellectuals in France.
10. The French administration was - and -.
B. Match the following:
A B Answers
Boston Tea Party 1789
Declaration of Protest against new
Independence taxes
Treaty of Paris Middle class
French Revolution 1776
Third Estate British government and
the colonists
C. Choose the correct answer:
1. By the mid-18th century eleven/thirteen/nineteen British colonies had been
established on the east coast of North America.
2. 4 July/ 14 July/ 17 June is celebrate as American Independence Day.
3. The Second Estate consisted of the clergy/peasants/nobles.
4. Marie Antoineete was the Queen of England/France/Austria.
5. 14 July/ 4 July/ 20 June is celebrated as a national holiday in France.
D. State wheather the following are true or false:
1. By the middle of the 18th century eleven British colonies had been
established along the east coast of North America.
2. The American Colonists were rigid and conservative.
3. The American revolutionaries were greatly impressed by the ideas of European
Philosophers.
4. George Washington was the first elected President of the united States of
America.
5. The French revolution laid the foundation of a democratic government.
E. Answer the following question in one or two words/ sentences:
1. Which particular incident sparked off the American War of Independence? What is
the importance of this event? [2]
2. Name any two European philosophers whose ideas inspired and influenced the
American revolutionaries.[2]
3. What is the significance of the 4th of July in American history? [2]
4. Mention two characteristic features of the French monarchy.
5. In what way did the American Revolution influence the India Constitution? [2]
6. Why is the French Revolution of 1789 considered a turning point in human
history? [2]
7. Mention the role of the political philosophers in the overthrow of the French
monarchy [2]
8. What effect did the American Revolution have on the French people? [2]
F. Answer the following questions briefly:
1. The American War of Independence was the first organized political revolution in
the history of the world. In this context answer the following questions:
(a) How was an American colony governed? Why were the colonists resentful?
[3]
(b) How did the American colonists differ from the British? [3]
(c) Why did the American colonists refuse to pay taxes imposed by British
Parliament in London? Give an account of the Boston Tea Party incident. [4]
2. The British monarch King George III, refused to withdraw the unjust and
oppressive acts imposed on the colonists and declared war on them. In this context
discuss:
(a) The revolutionary principles and ideas in the declaration of Independence in
1776. [3]
(b) The terms and long term impact of the Treaty of Paris. [3]
(c) The important features of the newly established Untied States of America. [4]
3. The French revolution of 1789 was a milestone and major turning point in Human
history. In this context discuss the following causes:
(a) An unjust, unequal social order of the ancient regime [4]
(b) The growing power of the middle class [3]
(c) An inefficient, corrupt administration [3]
4. With reference to the French Revolution, discuss the following:
(a) The Tennis Court Oath [3]
(b) The Storming of the Bastille [3]
(c) The adoption of the declaration of the rights of Man and Citizen and its
fundamental principle. [4]
5. With reference to the consequences of the French revolution, answer the
following:
(a) Mention any four revolutionary changes that took place in France after the
Revolution of 1789. [4]
(b) What effect did the French revolution have on the rest of Europe? [3]
(c) What impact did the French revolutionary principles have on political
development in India in the middle of the 19th century? [3]
G. Picture study: [5]
This picture depicts a very important event in world history wherein a great mob is
shown attacking a state prison.
1. Mention the event.
2. In which country did it take place and when?
3. What is the significance of this event?
4. Give a brief account of the development that followed this event.
DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination:
Imagine you are the daughter/son of British immigrant parents who have arrived in
Boston in search of a better life. Write a letter to your friend in Britain describing your
observations, experiences, and emotions during the first few months after you
arrival.
Project work:
1. Dramatize the Boston Tea Party incident.
2. Compare the important features of the American Constitution with those of the
Indian Constitution.
3. Recreate the important events of the French Revolution with the help of charts,
paintings, models (Using cardboard, clay or thermocol) and organize a group
presentation in the class.
Websites:
For more information, go to:
http://www.history.com/topic/american-revolution (Accessed on 12 December 2016)
http://www.history.com/topics/french-revolution (Accessed on 12 December 2016)
4. The American Civil War
The first half of the 19th century saw great changes taking place in the United States
of America. The two major developments that took place during this period were:
The great westward expansion and
Industrial growth and development.
THE BACKGROUND
While the northern states developed as manufacturing and shipping centres, the
southern states developed great plantation industries, the most important being the
cotton growing industry. Much of this cotton was shipped to the cotton mills in
Lancashire in England, where the Industrial revolution had created a huge demand
for raw material.
The cotton-growing industry gave rise to serious problem in the United States. As the
plantations increased, so did the demand for labour. The only available source of
labour in those days was the slaves brought in from Africa and living in America. The
issue of slavery would eventually turn into an explosive problem that would threaten
the very existence of the America Union.
By the middle of the 19th century, slavery had been abolished throughout the British
empire. Perceptions of slavery also changed in other countries, where it was now
looked upon as an evil. An anti-slavery movement began in the northern states of
America.
The industrialized northern states did not need slave labour in their industries and,
on the whole, did not approve of slavery. The southern states on the other hand
claimed that they needed slaves for their cotton and sugar plantations. Thus, slaves,
who provided cheap labour were considered a ‘necessity’ in the predominantly
agricultural southern states.
The southern were often needlessly cruel and harsh in their treatment of slaves. This
outraged many northerners and the tension between the slave states of the South
and the abolition states of the North began to grow.
In 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe published her famous book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin
which highlighted and exposed the horrors of slavery and the miseries of the
slaves. This book had a profound influence on the northern states and their anti-
slavery campaign began to gather momentum. The southern states threatened to
secede or break away from the union and forma confederacy of their own.
THINK AND ANSWER
Do you agree that slavery in the southern states can be justified as a’ necessary
evil’? Why?
ABRAHAM LINCOLN
Abraham Lincoln became the 16th President of the United States in 1860. During
this time the country was passing through a very critical phase, sharply divided over
the burning issue of slavery.
Lincoln’s views on slavery were well known. He thoroughly despised slavery which
he believed was a vicious and brutal system. He was uncompromisingly opposed t
slavery. Human bondage was a negation and gross violation of democracy. The
foundations of democracy rested on the premise that ‘all men are created equal’. He
would not allow any extension of slavery in the newly created states in the West.
The southern states seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of
America. Jefferson Davis was appointed President of the Confederacy.
Lincoln was determined to save the Union at all costs-at the cost of war, if
necessary. Civil war broke out in 1861. In 1863, Lincoln abolished slavery in the
South. He remains enshrined in the hearts of free men as the ‘Great Emancipator’.
THE GETTYSBURG ADDRESS
In the famous Gettysburg address in 1863, Lincoln justified the abolition of slavery
on grounds of the cherished principles of liberty and equality of the founding father of
the United States of America. ‘Four score and seven years ago,’ he declared, ‘our
fathers brought forth upon this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and
dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal… It is rather for us to be
here dedicated to the great task remaining before us…that this nation, under God,
shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people,
for the people, shall not perish from the earth.’
The American Civil War (1861-65) was one of the most bitter civil wars in history;
nearly 7 lakh
DID You Know?
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States of America, gave to the
world the concept of the democratic principle of ‘Government of the people, by the
people and for the people’. Lincoln is remembered and revered today as America’s
prophet of democracy. His views on democracy and definition of the American
government have come to be universally accepted as the briefest yet most
comprehensive definition of democracy itself.
People lost their lives. The Civil War, however, was not fought over the issue of
slavery. It was fought because the southern states had left the Union, i.e., on the
issue of secession. According to Lincoln, no state had the right to secede from the
Union. Therefore, the Confederacy had to be defeated and the Union restored.
The southerners fought with determination and courage. They had brilliant generals
like Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson under whose leadership they initially won
a number of victories.
Gradually, however, the North with its superior resources wore down the
Confederacy. Lee surrendered to the Union General, Ulysses Grant, in April 1865.
The Civil War came to an end. It had established the fact that the American
federation was an indestructible Union of States and no state had the right to
secede.
DISCUSS
Abraham Lincoln defined democratic government as a ‘government of the people, by
the people and for the people’. This is the briefest yet most comprehensive definition
of democracy. Does this definition apply to the Indian government? Give reasons for
your answer.
The war had been fought mainly in the South, and had resulted in the
improverishment of the southerners. Lincoln made plans to repair the damages of
the war and heal the wounds of the South. Unfortunately for the United States, 10
days after the victory of the Union, Abraham Lincoln, the greatest American,
President since the birth of the American Republic, was shot dead by john Wilkes
Booth, an actor, in a Washington theatre.
VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS
Wars have devastating impact on countries and people. We should ensure solutions
through negotiations and talks and avoid violence. We should also be sensitive and
develop a sense of empathy for victims of war and other human rights violations.
Do you agree that war was the only solution to prevent southerners from seceding?
Give reasons for your answer.
List of figures
4.1 A painting showing slave labour loading sacks of cotton on cart to be taken for
dressing and ginning, in southern states of America.
4.2 A portrait of Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the US
4.3 A painting depicting President Lincoln reading out the Emancipation
Proclamation, which declared all slaves as free men and women.
4.4 Time Line:
1850: Slavery was abolished throughout the British empire
1860: Abraham Lincoln became the 16th President of the United States of America
1861-1865: American Civil war
1863: Lincoln abolished slavery in America
Important Words
Slave states were those states of the southern part of United States of America who
were in favour of slavery, as they claimed they needed slaves for their sugar and
cotton plantations.
Abolition states were those states of the northern part of United States of America
who were not in favour of slavery and wanted its abolition.
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States of America who led
the American Civil War and won it. He also abolished slavery in America.
American Civil War (1861-65) was one of the most bitter civil wars in history, in
which 7 lakh people lost their lives. It was fought to restore the American Union, as
the southern states had seceded from the Union.
Secession The fact of an area or group becoming Independent from the country or
larger group that it belongs to.
EXERCISES
A. Fill in the blanks:
1. In the first half of the 19th century the only available source of labour in the United
States of America was slaves_.
2. The issue of slavery_ posed a serious threat to the integrity of the American
nation.
3. The famous book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin_, was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe.
4. Abraham Lincoln, who became the President of the United States of America in
1861_ was determined to - at all costs.
5. The American Civil War was fought on the issue of cesession_.
B. Match the following:
A B Answers
Abolition states President of the Northern States
Confederacy
Robert E. Lee 1861-65 General of the
Confederacy
President Jefferson Assassinated by John President of the
Davis Wilkes Booth Confederacy
American Civil War General of the 1861-1865
Confederacy
Abraham Lincoln Northern states Assassinated by
John Wilkes Booth
C. Choose the correct answer:
1. The anti-slavery movement began in the northern/ southern/eastern states of the
United States of America.
2. The book Uncle Tom’s Cabin exposed the horrors of slavery/war/famine.
3. Jefferson Davis/Abraham Lincoln/Stonewall Jackson was appointed President of
the Confederate States of America.
4. Abraham Lincoln/Jefferson Davis/ Ulysses Grant abolished slavery in America.
The northern/southern/eastern states decided to break away from the Union and
form a Confederacy of their own.

D. State whether the following are true or false:


1. The southern states of America began an anti-slavery movement. False. The
northern states began an anti-slavery movement.
2. Abraham Lincoln became the 14th President of the United States in 1860. False.
Abraham Lincoln was 16th, while Millard Fillmore was 14th
3. The Civil War, was fought over the issue of slavery. False. The Civil War was
fought over the issue of cesession, with slavery playing a less major roll.
4. The American Civil War (1861-65) was one of the most bitter wars in the history of
mankind. True.
5. After the American Civil War Lincoln made plans to repair the damages of the war
and heal the wounds of the South. True.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentence:
1. What were the two major developments that took place in the United States of
America in the first half of the 19th century? [2]
2. Why was raw cotton from the southern states in America sent to Lancashire in
England? [2]
3. Why were slaves considered a ‘ necessity’ in the southern states of America?
[2]
4. Why is Abraham Lincoln described as the ‘Great Emancipator’? [2]
5. Why did Lincoln declare war on the southern Confederacy? [2]
6. Why was the southern Confederacy defeated? [2]
7. What fact was permanently established as a result of the Civil War? [2]
8. Why had the Civil War impoverished the southerners? [2]
F. Answer the following questions briefly:
1. One of the great changes that took place in the United States of America in the
first half of the 19th century was industrial growth and development. In this context,
discuss:
a. The serious problems arising from the cotton-growing industry in the southern
states. [3]
b. The anti-slavery movement leading to the growing tensions between the slave
states and the abolitionist states. [4]
c. The impact of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s famous book on the north-south conflict.
[3]
2. Abraham Lincoln became the President of the United States during a very critical
phase of American history. In this context discuss:
a. Lincoln’s views on slavery [4]
b. The Gettysburg address in 1863 [3]
c. The Secession of the southern states and its consequence [3]
3. With reference to the American Civil War answer the following questions:
a. Explain briefly the nature and fundamental cause of the Civil War. [3]
b. Give a brief account of the course of the Civil War. [3]
c. State the positive and negative results of the war. [4]
G. Picture study: [5]
This is a portrait of the 16th President of the United States of America.
1. Name the President.
2. Discuss his view on the institution of slavery.
3. How did he define democracy?
4. Why did he declare war on the southern states?
DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination
Read an abridged version of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Imagine you were a slave in a
cotton plantation in America and describe a typical day in your life.
Project Work:
1. Divide the class into two group, representing the slave states and the abolitionist
states.
2. Organize a debate in class on the topic, ‘Slavery was a necessary evil in the
southern states.’
Read an abridged version of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Write a brief review of the book.
Websites:
For more information, go to:
http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war (Accessed on 12 December 2016)
http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/northamerica/after15000/people/slavery.htm
(Accessed on 12 december 2016)
http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/abraham-lincoln (Accessed on 12
December 2016)
5. Decline of the Mughal Empire
The transition from the Medieval to the Modern Period began the decline of the
Mughal empire in the first half of the 18th century. This was followed by the English
East India Company’s territorial conquests and the beginning of the political
domination of India in the middle of the 18th century. The Modern Period in India is
generally regarded as having begun in the mid 18th century.
During the first half of the 18th century, the great Mughal empire decayed and
disintegrated. The Mughal empire decayed and disintegrated. The Mughal emperors
lost their power and glory and their vast empire finally shrank to a few square miles
around Delhi. The unity and stability of the Mughal empire had already been shaken
during Aurangzeb’s long reign of 50years. The death of Aurangzeb, the last of the
great Mughals, was followed by a war of succession among his three sons. Bahadur
Shah eventually ascended the throne in 1707 at the age of 65. He became the first in
a line of emperors referred to as the Later Mughals.
THE LATER MUGHALS (1707-1857)
1. Bahadur Shah (1707-12)
2. Jahandar Shah (1712-13)
3. Farrukhsiyar (1713-19)
4. Muhammad Shah (1719-48)
5. Ahmad Shah (1748-54)
6. Alamgir II (1754-59)
7. Shah Alam II (1759-1806)
8. Bahadur Shah Zafar (1837-57)
Politics in the Mughal Court
There were four groups of nobles in the Mughal court – Iranis, Turanis, Afghans
and Hindustanis. The Iranis hailed from Persia, the Turanis hailed from
Transoxiana, and the Afghans came from the mountainous border regions across
the river Indus. The Mughal court was a house sharply divided from within. This
resulted in a constant struggle for power among these groups. Their mutual
jealousies and rivalries caused great harm to the Mughal administration and
undermined the prestige and authority of the Mughal emperor.
Jagirdari Crisis
In addition to the competition for political power and influence, there was a scramble
for the best and most profitable jagirs among rival nobles. The Mughal officers were
given jagirs as payment for their services. Towards the end of the 17 th century, there
were very few jagirs left. To satisfy the demands of the newly recruited officers,
crown lands were converted to jagir lands and given to the nobles. This led to a loss
of revenue for the royal treasury and a further decline in the power of the emperor.
Weak Military Organization and Administration
To maintain absolute power and control of the army, Akbar had reorganized the
Mughal army on the basis of the mansabdari system. This system, which worked
well under Akbar, began to break down towards the end of the 17 th century. Under
this system, mansabdars had to maintaina fixed number of troops. They were given
jagirs as the payment for doing so. Later, an increase in the number of mansabsand
a shortage of jagirs led to corruption and inefficiency in the system. The mansabdars
did not maintain their quota of troops and adopted corrupt methods. This led to a
decline of the military strength of the Mughal empire.
Wars of Succession
The death of a Mughal ruler was generally followed by wars of sucession among
rival claimants to the throne. These civil wars proved very costly and destructive.
They drained the resources of the empire, Cause frequent political upheaval and
made the empire unstable and weak.
DISCUSS
What religious policy did Akbar follow? If Akbar was alive what advice would he have
given to Aurangzeb to prevent the collapse of the Mughal empire?
Aurangzeb’s Policies
Aurangzeb’s was not very successful as an emperor. He failed to realize that the
progress and stability of such a vast empire depended on a policy of religious
tolerance and the support and unity of the people. His policy of religious intolerance
shook the foundations of the empire and resulted in the following:
1. The costly, long-drawn and ruinous Deccan campaign
2. Numerous wars with the Sikhs, the Marathas, the Jats and the Rajputs
3. Loss of support of the Loyal Rajputs who had earlier contributed greatly to the
stability of the Mughal empire but now became bitter foes
THINK AND ANSWER
There were many causes responsible for the decline of the Mughal empire. Do you
think the empire would have survived if Aurangzeb had not reversed Akbar’s Rajput
policy?Why?
Economic Bankruptcy
A major cause of the disintegration of the Mughal empire was its economic
bankruptcy. The enormous sums of money spent by Shah Jahan on magnificent
monuments like the Taj Mahal had drained the royal treasury. Aurangzeb’s Deccan
campaign was a financial disaster that ruined the empire and made its collapse
inevitable.
Foreign Invasions
The invasions of Nadir Shah, the ruler of Persia (Iran), and Ahmad Shah Abdali, the
ruler of Afghanistan, shattered the power and prestige of the Mughals. Nadir Shah
looted and plundered Delhi and carried away valuable treasures, including the
priceless Kohinoor Diamond and the Peacock Throne. Ahmad Shah Abdali
plundered northern India repeatedly.
Weak Successors
Aurangzeb ruled over a vast empire which he controlled with an iron hand. His
successors were pleasure-loving, weak and inefficient. They were puppets in the
hands of powerful, ambitious nobles who controlled the administration. The
provincial governors took advantage of the weak government at the centre and set
up independent kingdoms in the Mughal provinces. This led to the break-up and
collapse of the empire.
All hopes of the revival of the Mughal empire ended when the British decided to
challenge the authority of the Mughals. They took full advantage of its weaknesses
and began to pursue their plan of establishing control over India. Bahadur Shah
Zafar, the last of the Mughals, assumed leadership of the rebels in the Revolt of
1857 against the British. He was defeated and exiled to Rangoon where he died.
The Mughal empire came to an inglorious end.
DID YOU KNOW?
The Kohinoor Diamond is one of the largest and the most valuable diamonds in the
world. The word Kohinoor means ‘Mountain of Light’. Earlier, the Kohinoor Diamond
belonged to different rulers of India. During Shah Jahan’s reign it was mounted on
the Peacock Throne, the Mughal throne of India.
Later it was taken away by Nadir Shah to Persia in 1739. It was brought back to
Punjab in 1813 when the deposed ruler of Afghanistan, Shah Shuja Durrani, gave
away the diamond to Ranjit Singh, the founder of the Sikh empire. In return Ranjit
Singh helped him get back the Afghan throne. The British acquired the Kohinoor
Diamond after they conquered Punjab in 1849. Today it belongs to the British royal
family and is a part of the Crown jewels.
The Mughal empire had lasted for over three centuries. Its decline in the first half of
the 18th century led to intense rivalry among various ambitious powers to fill the
political vacuum. The struggle ended with the victory of the British who would rule
India for nearly 200 years. This marked the beginning of the Modern Period in India
history.
VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS
We are citizen of a multi-faith society and should accept what is good in all religious.
We must love and respect people of all religions. In this way different cultures coexist
in harmony. This help in the progress and development of a country.
What would you say to people who are intolerant of other people’s religious beliefs?
List of figures
5.1 Bahadur Shah Zafar-the last Mughal emperor
5.2 A painting depicting the Mughal court, showing Emperor Jahangir
5.3 Time Line
1705 – 1759: The Laters Mughals in power
1700 – 1750: Mughal empire began to decline.
1750: Modern period started in India
Impotant Words
Iranis, Turanis, Afghans and Hindusranis were the four group of nobles in the
Mughal court.
Transoxiana is the old name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding with
modern day Uzbekistan, and parts of Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan.
Crown lands were the lands belonging to the king and the revenue went directly to
the royaltreasury.
Nadir Shah was the ruler of Iran who invaded India in 1739, looted and plundered
Delhi and carried away enormous treasures.
Kohinoor Diamond is one of the most precious diamonds in the world. It was taken
away by Nadir Shah when he invaded India.
Peacock Throne was a magnificent throne and a valuable treasure of India, which
was taken away by Nadir Shah when he invaded India.
Exercises
A. Fill in the blanks:
1. During the first half of the - century, the great Mughal empire - and -.
2. The Mughal emperors who ruled India after the death of Aurangzeb are known as
the - Mughals.
3. There were - groups of nobles in the Mughal court.
4. Nadir Shah looted and plundered -. He carried away immense treasures including
the - and the -.
5.-, the ruler of Afghanistan, repeatedly attacked the Mughal empire.
6. The last Mughal Emperor,-, was defeated in the Revolt of 1857 and exiled to
Rangoon by the British.
B. Match the following:
A B Answers
Bahadur Shah mansabdari system
Akbar Financial crisis
Shah Jahan Nadir Shah
Kohinoor Diamond Exiled to Rangoon by the
British
Bahadur Shah Zafar First of the Later Mughals
C. Choose the correct answer:
1. Aurangzeb/Akbar/Shah Jahan followed a policy of religious tolerance.
2. The military campaign in the Deccan led by Shah Jahan/Aurangzeb/Akbar ruined
the Mughal empire financially.
3. The invasions of Ahmad Shah Abdali, the ruler of Afghanistan/Persia/Iraq
shattered the power and prestige of the Mughal empire.
4. The Mughal empire lasted for over 3/5/6 centuries.
5. The british ruled over India for a 100 years/nearly 200 years/ 300 years.
D. State whether the following are true or false:
1. Bahadur Shah ascended the throne after the death of Aurangzeb.
2. The Mughal court was united and stable.
3. The Mughal officers were given jagirs as payments for their services.
4.The Mughal ruler did not have a navy.
5. The successors of Aurangzeb were very strong and efficients.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:
1. When did the transition from the medieval to the Modern Period begin in India?
[2]
2. Name the first and the last emperors in the line of the Later Mughals. [2]
3. Name any two rival groups of nobles in the Mughal court. [2]
4. Mention any two reasons for the failure of the mansabdari system. [2]
5. What was the economic impact of the Mughal wars of succession? [2]
6. How did Aurangzeb’s religious policy affect the relationship between the Mughals
and the Rajputs? [2]
7. What led to the drain on the royal treasury during Shah Jahan’s reign? [2]
8. Which Mughal emperor assumed leadership of the Revolt of 1857? What
happened to him after the revolt [2]
F. Answer the following questions briefly:
1. Several factors were responsible for the decline of the Mughal empire. In this
context answer the following questions:
a. How did court politics undermine the authority and prestige of the Mughal empire?
[4]
b. To what extent was the jagirdari crisis responsible for a futher decline of the power
of the emperor? [3]
c. How did the wars of succession destabilize the Mughal empire? [3]
2. With reference to the decline and disintegration of the Mughal empire discuss the
following:
a. The breakdown of the Mansabdari system [4]
b. The weaknesses of the Mughal army [3]
c. Aurangzeb’s religious policy [3]
3. To what extent were the following factors responsible for the eventual collapse of
the Mughal empire:
a. Economic bankruptcy [4]
b. Foreign invasions [3]
c. Weak successors [3]
G. Picture study:
This is a portrait of the last of the Later Mughals.
1. Identify the Mughal emperor represented in this picture.
2. What part did he play in the Revolt of 1857?
3. What happened to the Mughal empire after his death?
4. Mention any four reasons for the decline of the Mughal empire.
5. Explain any two reasons.
DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination:
Imagine you were Aurangzeb’s chief advisor. What advice would you give him to
prevent the decline of the Mughal empire and restore its former glory and stability?
Project word:
Find out more about the Kohinoor Diamond and the Peacock Throne. Make a chart
with pictures or drawings.
Website:
For more information, go to:
http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/ooroutesdata/1700-
1799/latermughals/latermughals. Html(Accessed on 12 December 2016)
Http://www.historydiscussion.net/history-of-india/decline-of-the-mughal-empire-in-
india/1529 (Accessed on 12 December 2016
http://www.indianetzone.com/22/later_mughal_emperors.htm (Accessed on 12
Decemeber 2016)
http://www.slideshare.net/chintanmehta007/causes-of-mughal-decline
(Accessed on 12 December 2016)
6. Rise of independent Regional Powers
As the Mughal empire began to Aurangzeb and was released after the death of
disintegrate, the political vacuum the emperor in 1707. A war of succession broke
was Filed by a number of independent and semi-independent regional powers such
as Bengal, Awadh (Oudh), Hyderabad, Mysore and The Maratha, Sikh and
Rajput states.
Some, like the Marathon kingdom, were products of rebellion against Mughal
authority, while others, like Bengal, were established when governors of these
Mughal provinces took advantage of the decaying central authority and asserted
their independence
THE MARATHAS
The most important among the regional powers was the Maratha kingdom. In fact,
the Marathas alone had the power and the potential to establish an all-India empire
on the ashes of the Mughal empire.
Shahu, the grandson of Shivaji, had been imprisoned by out among the Marathas.
Shahu succeeded in capturing the Maratha throne with the help of Balaji
Vishwanath who was subsequently rewarded for his services and loyalty with the
post of Peshwa or chief minister (much pradhan) in 1713.
Shahu, ease-loving and weak, was gradually reduced to the position of ceremonial
head of the Maratha Kingdom while real power and authority was exercise by the
Peshwa. This was the beginning of the second phase of Maratha history. It was a
period of dominance of the Peshwas who ruled the kingdom and transformed it into
an empire (1713-1818).
Balaji Vishwanath took full advantage of the weaknesses of the Mughal
administration to extract important concessions and enhance the power and prestige
of the Marathas. All the territories that had once belonged to Shivaji but had been
conquered by Aurangzeb, were now restored to Shahu. Further, the right to levy
chauth and sardeshmukhi from six Mughal provinces in the Deccan was also
granted to the Marathas.
In 1719, Balaji Vishwanath marched to Delhi to help the Sayyidbrothers to overthrow
the Mughal Emperor, Farrukhsiyar. Balaji Vishwanath had made the Marathas a
formidable power. He laid the foundations of the hereditary, dynastic rule of the
Peshwas and was succeeded by his son baji Rao I.
Baji Rao I was a military genius. Under his bold and dynamic leadership, the
Maratha kingdom was transformed into the Martha empire after a series of brilliant
campaigns against the Mughal and other rivals.
A major development at this time was the rise of the prominent Maratha families-
the Sindhia, the Bhonsle, the Holkar and the Gaekwad.
The Peshwas divided the erstwhile Mughal provinces into ‘spheres of influence’ and
placed them under the chiefs of these Maratha families. These chief enjoyed
maximum autonomy within their respective regions. The peshwa was the official
head of this loose union of Maratha chief which is referred to as the Maratha
confederacy.
Baji Rao I was succeeded by his 18-year-old son, Balaji Baji Rao When Shahu
died, the Peshwa became the official head of the Maratha empire. Poona (now
Pune), the headquarters of the Peshwas, became the capital of the Maratha empire.
Balaji Baji Rao continued to follow the policy of expansion. During his reign the
Maratha empire reached the heights of its power and glory. In the north, the
Marathas became the power behind the Mughal throne.
The conquest of Punjab brought them into direct conflict with the Afghan general,
Ahmad Shah Abdali. A major struggle for mastery over North India began. The
Maratha army was decisively defeated by Ahmad Shah Abdali at the Third Battle of
Panipat in 1761. The Maratha ambition of replacing the Mughal empire lay scattered
on the plains of Panipat. The Afghans, too, failed to capitalized on their victory. The
conditions were ideal for the entry of another powerful conterder for supremacy – the
English East India Company.
DISSUSS
Do you agree that the history of India would have been different if the Marathas had
won the third Battle of Panipat? Give reasons for your answer.
BENGAL
Bengal was one of the richest provices of the Mughal empire. As the Mughal
authority declined, the governor of Bengal, Murshid Quli Khan took advantage of the
situation to free himself from imperial control. Although he continued to pay annual
tribute to the Mughal empire, he began to rule Bengal independently.
Murshid Quil Khan was an excellent administrator and a man of exceptional abilities.
He freed Bengal from external and internal dangers and established stability, peace
and prosperity in the state.
The most capable among his successors was Alivardi Khan. He recognized the
importance of promoting trade and encouraged merchants-Indian as well as foreign-
to carry on trade in Bengal. He, however, did not allow the French and british
merchants to fortify their factories in Chandernagore (now Chandannagar) and
Calcutta (now Kolkata), respectively.
The nawabs of Bengal, however, failed to understand the true nature and ulterior
motives of the British trading company. They believed that a trading company could
never challenge their authority. No effort were made to reorganize and strengthen
army. Corruption was rampant and even high ranking officials were susceptible to
bribes. These weaknesses made Bengal a happy hunting ground for the aggressive
and imperialistic ambitions of the British.
AWADH (OUDH)
The foundation of the independent state of Awadh was laid by Saadat Khan, the
governor of the Mughal province of Awadh. He was intelligent, efficient and daring.
He established an efficient administration, maintained law and order, introduced
revenue reforms and strengthened his army.
Saadat Khan was succeeded by his nephew Safdar Jung who brought stability,
peace and prosperity to Awadh. He was succeeded by his son Shuja-ud-Daulah.
The Prolonged period of peace and economic prosperity during the reign of the
nawabs stimulated the growth of a refined and distinct Lucknavi culture. Lucknow,
the capital city, blossomed into a centre for creative and performing arts, literature
and architecture.
HYDERABAD
The state of Hyderabad was founded by the Mughal viceroy of the Deccan, Nizamul-
Mulk Asaf Jah in 1724. He did not officially declare himself independent of Mughal
control, but he rules Hyderabad like an independent ruler. He consolidated his
position by establishing an efficient administrative system, removing corruption from
the revenue system, promoting trade and protecting the state from internal and
external threats.
The wars of succession that followed the death of Asaf Jah made Hyderabad a soft
target for the british and French Companies.
THE CARNATIC
The Carnatic, one of the subas in the Deccan, was under the control of the nizam of
Hyderabad. The nawab of the Carnatic, however, freed himself from the nizam’s
control and established hereditary rule in his state. This led to wars of succession
and political instability in the Carnatic, providing the European trading companies
opportunities to interfere in its internal affairs and make territorial, commercial and
financial gains.
MYSORE
The collapse of the powerful Vijayanagar empire in the 17 th century, gave rise to a
number of independent kingdoms, constantly at war with one another. The most
important of these was the kingdom of Mysore which had somehow managed to
preserve its independence despite repeated attacks by neighbouring kingdoms. In
the middle of the 18th century, Mysore, under the leadership of Hyder Ali emerged as
one of the most powerful kingdoms in the south.
Hyder Ali was a man of exceptional qualities and abilities. He rose from the ranks of
an ordinary solider in the Mysore army to the position of commander by sheer dint of
merit and determination.
In 1761 he overthrew the government and establishment his authority over the
Mysore state. Under his rule, Mysore became a prosperous and powerful state and a
formidable adversary of the English East India Company in the south.
Hyder Ali was succeeded by his son, Tipu Sultan, who proved to be a worthy
successor. He introduced many reforms to overhaul and reorganize the
administrative machinery. He modernized the army and strenghthened the economy
by encouraging agriculture and modern trade and industry. He posed the most
serious challenge to the rise of British power in India.
THE RAJUPUTS
The principal Rajput states like Jaipur (Amber), Jodhpur (Marwar) and Udaipur
(Mewar) took advantage of the declining power of the Mughals and asserted their
independence.
These resurgent Rajput states unfortunately did not unite and consolidate their
position. They made no efforts to establish a Rajput empire on the debris of the
Mughal empire.
On the contrary, they continued to follow individual goals and interests that were
often divergent and conflicting. They frittered away their energies and compromised
their independence by indulging in petty quarrels. The court intrigues, conspiracies,
treachery and corruption of the Mughal court were replayed in the courts of Rajput
rulers. It sapped their energies and made them vulnerable to the selfish designs of
the English East India Company.
DID YOU KNOW?
Raja Sawai Jai Singh, the ruler of Amber, was one of the well-known Rajput rulers in
the mid-18th century. He had keen interest in astronomy and built a number of
astronomical observatories (Jantar Mantar) in Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain, Mathura and
Benaras. He founded the city of Jaipur in Rajasthan, which was scientifically
planned. He was also a social reformer who introduced reforms that would prevent
evil pratices such as sati and female infanticide.
THE SIKH KINGDOM
Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth and lat Sikh guru, organized a military brotherhood of
Sikhs called the Khalsa. He instilled in the peace-loving Sikhs a martial spirit that
would help them to carry on their struggle against the persecution of the Mughals.
The invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali had weakened the Mughal
control in Punjab. Taking advantage of the situation, the Sikh moved in, brought
Punjab and Jammu under their control and rose to prominence in the last decades of
the 18th century.
The Sikhs were organized into a loose confederacy of twelve misls or groups. Each
misl was governed by a chief. Ranjit Singh, chief of one of the misls, was a born
leader. He brought all Sikh chiefs. West of the Satluj, under his control and made
himself master of Punjab by the end of the 18th century.
In 1809, Ranjit Singh signed a treaty of ‘perpetual friendship’ with Lord Minto, the
Governor General of the English East India Company. By this Treaty of Amitsar he
accepted the Satluj River as the boundary between the Sikh kingdom and British
territories. The British promised not to interfere in the affairs of the Sikh kingdom.
Checked in the east, Ranjit Singh began to conquer territories in the north and the
west. At the time of his death in 1839, he was master of a powerful kingdom which
extended from the Khyber Pass in the north to Sindh in the south.
THINK AND ANSWER
Ranjit Singh was an ambitious and powerful ruler. Why do you think he signed the
treaty of ‘perpetual friendship’ with the British that checked his expansion beyond the
Satluj?
VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS
A good leader of a country should promote unity among the people rather than
causing them to divide and have useless fights. He/she should be able to execute
the decision that he/she believes are right. A true leader. Upholds truth and integrity
and maintains the trust and confidence given to him by the people.
If you were given a chance to be the Principal of your school, what are the qualities
that you would inculcate in yourself? Given reasons.
Important Words
Chauth was one fourth of the Total revenue the cultivators paid to their ruler, i.e., the
Mughals or the Deccan sultans.
Sardeshmikhi was an additional one tenth of the land revenue which was a form of
tribute to the Maratha king.
Khalsa means pure and was the name given by Guru Gobind Singh to all Sikhs who
have been baptized by taking ‘amrit’ in a ceremony called Amrit Sanchar.
Treaty of Amritsar was the treaty signed between the British and Ranjit singh,
wherein Ranjit Singh accepted the Satluj River as the boundary between the Sikh
kingdom and British territories. The British also promised not to interfere in the affairs
of the Sikh kingdom.
List of figures
6.1 A painting showing Peshwa Baji Rao I with his ministers
6.2 A portrait showing Saadat kahn, who founded the independent state of Awadh
6.3 Ranjit Singh made Punjab a very strong independence kingdom.
6.4 Time Line
1713: Balaji Vishwanath was awarded the post of Peshwa.
1724: Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah founded the state of Hydrabad
1750: Mysore emerged as a powerful kingdom in South India.
1761: Hydar Ali established his authority over the Mysore State
1809: The Treaty of Amritsar was signed between Ranjit Singh and English East
India Company.
Exercises
A. Fill in the blanks:
1. Balaji Vishwanath laid the foundation of the - - rule of the peshwas.
2. - was the capital of Awadh.
3. Mysore, under the leadership of - - , became the most formidable adversary of the
English East India Company in the south.
4. -, the tenth Sikh guru, organized a military brotherhood of Sikhs called -.
5. The Sikhs were organized into a loose confederacy of - misls or groups.
B. Match the following:
A B Answers
Shahu Sikh kingdom
Murshid Quli Khan Awadh
Shuja-ud-Daulah Mysore
Tipu Sultan Bengal
Ranjit Singh Maratha king
C. Choose the correct answer:
1. The Marathas/Sikhs/Rajputs had the power and potential to establish an all-India
empire after the collapse of the Mughal empire.
2. Shahu was an ease-loving and weak Maratha/Sikh/Rajput ruler.
3. The Maratha empire reached the heights of its power and glory during the reign of
Balaji Vishwanath/Baji Rao/Balaji Baji Rao.
4. Shuja-ud-Daulah was the Nawab of Hyderabad/Avadh/Bengal.
5. The state of Hyderabad/Awadh/Mysore was founded by the Mughal vicerory of the
Deccan, Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah.
D. State whether the following are true or false:
1.Bengal was one of the poorest provinces of the Mughal empire.
2.The most capable among the successors of Murshid Quli Khan was Alivardi
Khan.
3. Lucknow was the cultural centre of Bengal.
4. the most powerful kingdom in the south was Mysore.
5. Ranjit Singh became the master of Punjab by the end of the 18th century.
E. Answer the following question in one or two words/sentence:
1. What folloed the disintegration of the Mughal empire? [2]
2. What is the significance of the Third Battle of Panipat? [2]
3. What advantage did Murshid Quil Khan take of the decline in the power of the
Mughal empire? [2]
4. How did political and economic stability in Awadh impact cultural development in
Lucknow? [2]
5. How did political Instability in the Carnatic benefit the Europe trading companies?
[2]
6. Name any two principle Rajput states that took advantage of the declining power
of the Mughals and asserted their independence. [2]
7. What made the Rajputs vulnerable to the selfish designs of the English India
Company? [2]
8. Name the signatories of the Treaty of Amritsar. [2]
F. Answer the following questions briefly:
1. The second phase of Maratha history was a period of dominance of the peshwas.
In this context answer the following question:
a. State the circumstances that led to the growth of peshwas dominance in the
Maratha kingdom. [3]
b. Discuss the achievements of (i) Baji Rao I and (ii) Balaji Baji Rao. [4]
c. How was the Maratha confederacy established? [3]
2. With reference to the rise and growth of Bengal as regional power discuss the
following:
a. The achievements of Murshid Quil Khan [2]
b. The rule of Alivardi Khan [4]
c. The Failure of the Nawabs of Bengal [4]
3. The collapse of the Vijaymagar kingdom was followed by emergence of the
powerful kingdom of Mysore. In this context discuss the following:
a. The collapse of the Vijaynagar empire [2]
b. The achievements of Hyder Ali [4]
c. The contribution of Tipu Sultan [4]
4. With reference to the rise of independent Rajput states and the establishments of
the Sikh kingdom, answer the following questions:
a. Why did the resurgent Rajputs fail to establish an empire in India? [4]
b. To what extent was Guru Gobind Singh responsible for the transformation of the
peace-loving Sikh into a martial race? [2]
c. Discuss the achievements of Ranjit Singh. [4]
Picture study:
This is a picture of the founder of the kingdom that extended from the Khyber Pass in
the north to Sindh in the south.
1. Identify the person in the picture.
2. Name the kingdom founded by him.
3. What did he do to expand his kingdom?
4. Name the treaty signed between him and the English East India Company.
5. What effect did this treaty have on his policy of expansion?
DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination:
Imagine that the ruler of one of the powerful Rajput states has invited you to his royal
court. Write a report on your experiences and observations.
Project work:
1. On an outline map of India, mark the independent states that emerged after the
break-up of the Mughal empire.
2. Make a PowerPoint presentation on various aspects of ‘Lucknawi culture’ e.g. the
creative arts, literature and architecture and share it in class.
Websites
For more information, go to:
http://www.gatewayforindia.com/history/maratha.htm (Accessed on 15 December
2016)
http:// www.newagepublishers.com/samplechapter/001178.pdf (Accessed on 15
December 2016)
7. Rise of British Power in Bengal
The British first came to India as traders in the 17th Century. However, by the middle
of the 19th century, the British succeeded in eliminating all their rivals and
established an all-India empire. In their scramble for political power, the conquest of
Bengal proved to be an important milestone for the British. It set the stage for further
conquests and the establishment of the British as the rulers of India.
THE ENGLISH EAST INDIA COMPANY
In 1600CE, a company popularly known as the English East India Company was
established by a small group of British merchants. The Queen of England, Elizabeth
I, granted the Company the exclusive right to trade with the East.
A portrait of Queen Elizabeth I
The Company made enormous profits by buying Eastern goods and then selling
them at high prices in the European market. The Queen received a share of the
Company’s profits.
The English East India Company set up its factory in Surat in 1612 CE. A factory
was a trading settlement consisting of a warehouse for goods, an office for keeping
records and residential quarters for the servants (employees) of the Company.
Nothing was manufactured in these factories.
By 1623 CE, the British had established factories in Surat, Broach, Ahmadabad,
Agra and Masulipatam. Sir Thomas Roe, the British ambassador to the court of
Jahangir, had obtained many trade concessions for the Company from the Mughal
emperor.
In 1639 CE, Madras was given to the British by a Local ruler. They established a
trading settlement which they fortified and named Fort St George.
In 1688 CE, Charles II gave the Company, at a nominal rent of 10 pounds per year,
the island of Bombay (which he had received as dowry when he had married a
Portuguese princess). In course of time, Bombay became the chief settlement of the
British on the western coast.
In 1690 CE, a British trading settlement was established and fortified in Calcutta. It
was named Fort William.
Madras, Bombay and Calcutta became the headquarters of the British settlements in
the southern, western and eastern regions, respectively. Each of these
headquarters, known as Presidencies, was placed under the charge of a Governor.
By the beginning of the 18th century, several British trading companies had joined
together and formed one company called the United East India Company.
In 1717, the Mughal Emperor, Farrukhsiyar, granted the Company the right to carry
on duty-free trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa (now Odisha). The Company made
enormous profits. In course of time, the Company began to interfere in the local
politics of the Indian rulers. By supporting one against another, they made territorial,
monetary and political gains. Their interference soon turned into active involvement
and they established the foundations of British rule in Bengal by the middle of the
18th the century.
THE FRENCH EAST INDIA COMPANY
The French East India Company was formed in 1664 CE. Its headquarters was
based in Pondicherry (now Puducherry). It also established trade settlement in Surat,
Masulipatam, Chandernagore and Mahe. When the French arrived in India, the
British were already well settled along the coastal regions.
ANGLO-FRENCH RIVALRY
By the 18th century, the two major European powers in India were the British and the
French. The Portuguese, by the beginning of the 17th century, had lost their influence
as well as their monopoly over India trade. The Dutch had also been edged out of
the competition by the British and the French.
The French and the British were both equally determined to establish trade
monopoly in India. An intense competition followed. They became arch-rivals in trade
and this rivalry eventually led to wars. A power struggle became inevitable as their
commercial rivalry intensified and the French tried to secure and use political
influence to ruin British trade.
The commercial rivarlry between the British and the French in India was aggravated
by the fact that these two countries were political rivals in Europe as well. Taking
advantage of the decline of the Mughal power and the unstable political conditions in
the country, they fought three wars in India to establish their supremacy. These wars
are referred to as the Carnatic Wars.(Carnatic was the name given to the
Coromandel Coast and its hinterland).
The outcome of the three Carnatic wars saw the British establish their political
influence over the Carnatic. The Third Carnatic War shattered French dreams of
building an India empire. Freed of all European rivals, the English East India
Company, with the help of the army and its vast resources in India, now set out to
conquer India.
RISE OF BRITISH POWER IN BENGAL
Bengal in the 18th century was the richest and the most fertile province in India.
Known as ‘the paradise of the earth’, the province of Bengal attracted traders from
Holland, France and England. European trading companies from these countries
established trading settlements in Bengal, which became a profitable base for their
trade and commerce.
The largest and the most prosperous of these European settlements was the British
settlement at Calcutta. In 1717, the Mughal emperor, Farrukhsiyar issued a farman,
granting the English East India Company the right to carry on duty-free trade in
Bengal, i.e. to export and import goods from and to Bengal without paying any taxes
to the government. They were given the right to issue passes or dastaks for the free
movement of their goods.
The employees of the Company were permitted to carry on private trade but they
were not entitled to the Company’s privilege of duty-free trade. They had to pay
taxes like other Indian merchants.
BATTLE OF PLASSEY (1757)
In 1756, the Nawab of Bengal, Alivardi Khan, died and was succeeded by his
grandson, Siraj-ud-Daulah, who wanted to curb the growing power of the British.
Siraj-ud-Daulah’s task was not an easy one, since he had many enemies both within
and outside his court, and that made his position insecure and unstable.
Siraj ordered the British to pay taxes to him like all other Indian merchants. The
British refused to do so. This angered the young Nawab.
In anticipation of a war with the French, who had a trading settlement in
Chandernagore, the British began to fortify Calcutta. This amounted to an attack on
the Nawab’s sovereignty.
Siraj was willing to let the Europeans stay in his kingdom as traders but certainly not
as masters. He ordered both the British and the French to dismantle their
fortifications and not fight their private wars his territory. The French agreed. The
British refused.
Siraj-ud-Daulah was enraged. The British had openly challenged his authority and he
was determined to teach them a lesson.
Capture of Calcutta
Siraj marched towards Calcutta with a large army and captured Fort captured Fort
William in June 1756.
Recovery of Calcutta
Robert Clive, the hero of Arcot, arrived from Madras with a strong military force and
reconquered Calcutta by January 1757. The Nawab was complelled to restore
trading privileges and possessions to the East India Company and concede the right
to fortify Calcutta.
Siraj-ud-Daulah had given in to all demands of the British Company. The British,
however, were not satisfied. They had greater ambitions. Their objective was to
replace Siraj-ud-Daulah with a puppet ruler.
Conspiracy to Replace Siraj-ud-Daulah
Robert Clive now hatched a plot with some of the influential men in the nawab’s
court to overthrow Siraj-ud-Daulah. Mir Jafar, the commander-in-chief of the nawab’s
forces, would be made the nawab of Bengal in return for a large amount of money
and important trading privileges.
When the negotiations with Mir Jafar were finalized, a secret treaty was signed and
the British presented Siraj-ud-Daulah with an impossible set of demands. War
became inevitable.
Battle of Plassey
Robert Clive led the British forces to Plassey (near Murshidabad, the capital of the
nawab of Bengal). Siraj-ud-Daulah also advanced at the head of a large army of
50,000 men.
The Battle of Plassey was fought on 23 June 1757. A major part of the nawab’s army
under the command of Mir Jafar did not take any part in the battle. Realizing that he
had been betrayed, the nawab fled from the battlefield. He was captures and put to
death. Mir Jafar was proclaimed the nawab of Bengal.
Results
 The English East India Company was granted the undisputed right to free trade in
Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
 The Company was given the zamindari of the 24 Parganas.
 Mir Jafar paid the Company and its officials over 300 lakh rupees.
Importance
The Battle of Plassey was a major turning point in the history of India.
 It paved the way for the establishment of British rule in Bengal and, eventually,
the rest of India.
 It transformed a trading company into a political power.
 The nawab of Bengal was reduces to a puppet in the hands of the British, who
became the virtual rulers of Bengal.
 It placed at the disposal of the British the vast resources of Bengal. These
resources helped them to win the Tird Carnatic War and finance military
expeditions in other parts of India in the future.
Mir Jafar was aweak ruler. He had the responsibility of ruling Bengal but virtually no
power to do so. The British used their control over the nawab to drain the wealth of
Bengal.The Company and its officials openly and shamelessly plundered Bengal.
When Mir Jafar was unable to meet the demands of the British, they deposed him
and made his son-in-law, Mir Qasim, the new nawab of Bengal in 1760. Mir Qasim
rewarded the Company by granting it the zamindari of the districts of Burdwan,
Midnapur and Chittagong.
THINK AND ANSWER
Do you think the history of India would have been different if Mir Jafar had not
betrayed Siraj-ud-Daulah? Why? What conclusions can you draw about Mir Jafar’s
character form his actions in the conspiracy and the Battle of Plassey?
BATTLE OF BUXAR (1764)
Mir Qasim was a competent and efficient ruler, determined to free himself from
foreign control. He soon came into conflict with the British.
To strengthen his position, he improved the financial position of Bengal and raised a
modern, disciplined and well-equipped army trained by the Europeans. This made
the British increasingly hostile.
The employees of the Company misused their trade privileges. They sold their duty-
free trade permits to Indian merchants who also used them to carry on duty-free
trade. This deprived the nawab of large revenues and was unfair to those local
merchants who had to pay heavy duties.
To put an end to the corrupt practices of the British, Mir Qasim abolished all duties
on internal trade. This made the British furious.
They refused to accept an equal status with the Indian merchants.
In 1763, war broke out between Mir Qasim and the British. The Nawab was
defeated. Mir Jafar was reinstated on the throne.
Mir Qasim was determined to recover his throne. He escaped to Awadh, where he
formed an alliance with Shuja-ud-Daulah, the nawab of Awadh and the Mughal
emperor, Shah Alam II.
The combined forces of the three allies clashed with the Company’s troops at Buxar
in 1764, and were decisively defeated by the British.
Importance
 The victory of the British in the Battle of Buxar firmly established them as masters
of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
 It gave them the political influence and control over Awadh and the Mughal
emperor.
 It laid the foundation of British rule in India.
 At this time, Robert Clive returned to India as Governor of Bengal.
The Treaty of Allahabad (1765)
In 1765, Clive signed the Treaty of Allahabad with Shuja-ud-Daulah and Shah Alm II.
According to the terms of this treaty:
 Awadh was returned to Shuja-ud-Daulah. However, the two districts of Kora and
Allahabad were taken away from the nawab.
 The Nawab of Awadh had to pay awar indemnity of 50 lakh rupees to the
Company.
DID YOU KNOW?
Robert Clive had made a fortune in India-has jagir yielded an annual income of
$40,000. This helped to raise his social standing and he was made a Peer! Robert
Clive had to face a Parliamentary enquiry when he returned to England for abuse of
power in Bengal. However this charge was rejected.
The British agreed to defend the nawab of Awadh against his enemies. The nawab
would have to pay for the cost of the British troops. Awadh became a buffer state
between the British possessions in Bengal and the Marathas.
Of 26 lakh rupees. In return, the emperor (the nominal head of the Mughal empire)
granted the Company the Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, i.e. the right to collect
revenue from these provinces and judge civil cases. The Company’s control over
Bengal was made legal.
The puppet nawabs of Bengal continued to sit on the throne but they had no military
and administrative powers.
After Mir Jafar’s death in 1765, his son was made the nawab of Bengal. He had to
sign a treaty with Clive, according to which he had to disband most of his army. He
also had to transfer the ‘Nizamat’ power (general administration and criminal justice)
to a deputy nawab appointed by the British. The deputy nawab could not be
dismissed by the nawab. The nawab was given an allowance of 53 lakh rupees
which was sudsequently reduced. Thus, the English East India Company became
the real ruler of Bengal from 1765.
1848-56 Lord Dalhousie
Governors of Bengal
1757 – 60 Robert Clive
1760-65 Henry Vansittart
1765-67 Robert Clive
1767-69 Harry Verelst
1769-72 Cartier John
1772-73 Warren Hastings
Governors General of India
1773-85 Warren Hastings
1785-86 Sir John Mac Pherson
1786-93 Lord Cornwallis
1793-98 Sir John Shore
1798-1805 Lord Wellesley
1805-07 Sir George Barlow
1807-13 Lord Minto
1813-23 Marquess of Hastings
1823-28 Lord Amherst
1828-35 Lord William Bentinck
1836-42 Lord Auckland
1842-44 Lord Ellenborough
1844-48 Lord Hardinge
1848-56 Lord Dalhousie
DUAL GOVERNMENT IN BENGAL (1765-72)
Clive introduced Dual Government in Bengal in 1765. Bengal now had two masters-
the in 1765. Bengal now had two masters – the nawab and the Compnay.
The nawab was responsible for general administration, maintenance of law and
order and justice (i.e., criminal cases). The Company had military power and the
right to collect and use the revenue of Bengal. This arrangement was known as Dual
Government.
The Company enjoy power without any responsibilities. The nawab, on the other
hand, was burdened with the responsibility of administration without the resources
necessary for running it efficiently i.e. responsibility without power.
The revenue was collected by Indian officials appointed by the Company. The greed,
corruption and oppression of these officials reduces the peasants to conditions of
utter misery. The Company took no interest in the welfare of the people.
The conditions of the people worsened when Bengal was hit by a terrible famine in
which one third of the population perished. Nobody cared, neither the Company nor
the nawab, who in any case had neither the authority nor the resources to lessen the
miseries of the people. The Company, through its power to nominate the deputy
nawab, only interfered in the general administration without assuming any
responsibility.
The evils of the Dual Government began to manifest themselves. The administration
and economy collapsed. In 1772, the Court of Directors of the Company appointment
Warren Hastings as Governor of Bengal. In 1773, by the Regulating Act, he was
made the Governor General of British territories in India. The Governor General was
now the most important functionary of the East India Company.
End of Dual Government (1772)
Warren Hastings abolished the Dual
Dual Government in Bengal (1765-72)
Nawab (Nizamat powers)
1. General administration 1. Collection of revenue
2. Maintenance of law and order 2. Justice (civil cases)
3. Justice (criminal cases) 3.Defence and military power
4.The nawab had the responsibility of 4.The financial resources were in the
administration without the financial hands of the Company that did not have
resources necessary to run it efficiently. anyresponsibility.
Government, and Bengal was brought under the direct and complete control of the
Company. The nawab was deposed and pensioned off. The treasury was shifted
from Murshidabad to Calcutta, which now became the capital of Bengal, and later, of
India.
Warren Hastings was a competent administrator. He introduced many reforms in the
administration and laid the foundations of an organized system of government in
Bengal.
DISCUSS
The dual system of government in the Mughal provinces worked very successfully
durning Akbar’s reign. Why in your opinion, did the Dual Government introducted by
Clive fail?
VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS
We should always be honest and trustworthy. Being honest means we must not tell
lies or cheat others. Dishonesty can lead to greed and corruption which might
hamper the progress of the society.
What are the ways in which you can create a corruption-free society?
7.1 A portrait of Siraj-ud-Daulah, the young
7.2 A painting depicting the Mughal emperor, Shah Alam II, granting the Diwani of
Bengal to Robert clive, the Governor of the provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa
7.3 Time line
1717 CE: The Mughal emperor issued a farman to English East India Company to
carry on duty-free trade in Bengal.
1757 CE: Battal of Plassey
1764 CE: Battal of Buxar
1765: Dual government in Bengal was introduced
1772: Warren Hastings became the Governor General of Bengal and abolished Dual
Government in Bengal
Important Words
Farman was a licence which granted the English East India Company the right to
carry on duty-free trade in Bengal, to export goods from and import them into Bengal
without paying any taxes to the government.
Buffer state is a small state between two powerful states that helps keep peace
between them.
Diwani is the right given to coolect revenue of a particular area.
Dual Government was a form of government introduced in Bengal by Robert Clive
in 1765, wherein there two masters of the state.
Exercises
A. Fill in the blanks:
1. -, - and - became the headquarters of the British settlements in the southern,
western and eastern, respectively.
2. In 1717, the Mughal emperor granted the Untited East India Company the right to
carry on duty-free trade in -, - and-.
3. The French east India Company was established in -.
4. The British and the French fought the - Wars in India to establish their monopoly in
trade.
5. Bengal in the 18th century was the - and the most - province in India.
6. In - Robert Clive recovered Calcutta which had been captured by Siraj-ud-Daulah
in -.
7. Mir Jafar was deposed because he was unable to meet the demands of the -.
8. In 1765, Awadh was returned to - but - and - were taken away and given to-.
9. Shah Alam II granted the Company the - of - , - and - in 1765.
10. Warren Hastings deposed and pensioned off the Nawab of Bengal and brought
Bengal under the - and - control of the Company.
B. Match the following:
A B
Carnatic Wars Warren Hastings
Farman Duty-free trade
Robert Clive Reconquered Calcutta
Battle of Plassey Siraj-ud-Daulah
Battle of Buxar Anglo-French rivalry
Governor of Bengal Mir Qasim

C. Choose the correct answer:


1. The English East India Company was established in the year 1600/1700/1800 CE.
2. The English East India Company set up its first factory in Surat/Agra/Broach.
3. The largest and the most prosperous European settlement in Bengal was the
British settlement at Calcutta/Burdwan/Murshidabad.
4. Alivardi Khan was succeed by Mir Qasim/Siraj-ud-Daulah/Shuja-ud-Daulah.
5. Robert Clive hatched a plot with Mir Jafar/Mir Qasim/ Alivardi Khan to replace
siraj-ud-Daulah
6. The Battle of Plassey was fought in 1757/1764/1772.
7. The Dual Government in Bengal was introduced by Robert Clive/Warren Hastings/
Lord Cornwallis.
D. State wheather the following are true or false:
1. The Carnatic Wars were fought between the British and the French.
2. The employees of the Company were entitled to both private trade as well as duty-
free trade.
3. The English East India Company was given the right to issue passes or dastaks
for the free movement of their goods.
4. The British army was defeated in the Battle of Buxar.
5. The Treaty of Allahabad was signed between the British Company and Mir Qasim.
6. Warren Hastings laid the foundations of an organized system of government in
Bengal.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:
1. Who granted the English East India Company the exclusive right to trade with the
East? [2]
2. Name the British trading settlements in (a) Madras (b) Calcutta. [2]
3. What important right did the Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar grant the English East
India Company? [2]
4. Why were European trader attracted to the Bengal province in the 18th century?
[2]
5. What privileges did the farman of 1717 confer on the English East India
Company? [2]
6. Why did the farman of 1717 become a bone of contention between then nawabs
of Bengal and the British Company? [2]
7. Why did the British fortify trade settlement in Calcutta? [2]
8. Why did Siraj-ud-Daulah attack Calcutta in 1756? [2]
9. What important trading right was granted to the English East India Company after
their victory in the Battle of Plassey? [2]
9. State the political significance of the battle of Buxar. [2]
10. Name the India Signatories of the treaty of Allahabad. [2]
11. In which year was the Dual Government abolished and by whom? [2]
F. Answer the following questions briefly:
1. The Battle of Plassey was a major turning point in the history of India. In this
context answer the following questions:
a. Give an account of the events leading from the conspiracy to replace Siraj-ud-
Daulah to his eventual defeat in the Battle of Plassey. [4]
b. State the results of Battle of Plassey. [3]
c. Why is this battle considered a major turning point in the history of India?
[3]
2. Mir Qasim was a competent ruler, determined to free himself from foreign control.
In this context answer the following:
a. What steps did Mir Qasim take to strengthen his position? Why did he all duties on
internal trade [4]
b. Trace the events from the outbreak of war (1763) between Mir Qasim and the
British up to the Battle of Buxar in 1764. [3]
c. Explain the importance of the Battle of Buxar. [3]
3. With reference to the Treaty of Allahabad and its impact answer the following:
a. Mention the terms of agreement between Robert Clive and Shuia-ud-Daulah in
this treaty. [3]
b. Explain how the treaty between Robert Clive and the Mughal emperor, Shah Alam
II legalized the English East India’s Company’s control over Bengal. [3]
c. Give an account of the events that followed the death of Mir Jafar leading to the
establishment of the Company as the real ruler of Bengal. [4]
4. With reference to the establishment of Dual Government in Bengal (1765-72)
answer the following:
a. Why was the government introduced in Bengal by Robert Clive referred to as
‘Dual Government’?
b. What were the advantages and disadvantages of this system for the Company
and the Nawab respectively? [4]
c. The evils of the dual Government led to the collapse of this administration and the
economy. Explain. [3]
G. Picture study:
This picture portrays a momentous event in 1765, involving a British Governor and a
Mughal emperor where in the Mughal emperor is conveying the grant of the diwani to
the Governor.
1. Identify the Mughal emperor and the British governor.
2. What is the significance of this grant of the diwani?
3. Give a brief account of the battle that preceded this event. When did it take place?
What is the important of this battle?
DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination:
Imagine yourself to be a peasant living in Bengal under the Dual Government.
Describe a day in your life.
Project work:
Dramatize the conflict between (i) Siraj-ud-Daulah and the English East India
Company, and (ii) Mir Qasim and the English East India Company. The class can be
divided into groups. Each group can be assigned a specific responsibility, e.g. script,
dialogue, costumes, acting, narration, music, etc.
Websites:
http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/history/British/Plassey.html (Accessed on 15
december 2016)
http://www.indhistory.com/burax-battle,html (Accessed on 2 May 2015)
http://www.indianetzone.com/47/dual_government_bengal.htm (Accessed on 15
December 2016)
8. Expansion of British Power in India
The English East India Company, which had started out as a trading company in
1600, had become by 1773, one of the major contenders for supreme power in India.
The British also realized that fighting wars with the different regional rulers to expand
their power was not always feasible. Wars were usually expensive and added severe
strain on the British resources. To avoid fighting wars, the British devised strategic
policies that would help them eliminate all their rivals one by one and establish an
all-India empire. They fought wars only when the peaceful ways of annexing a
territory failed. Thus, the British policy of expanding power in India was based on a
two-pronged strategy of peaceful annexation and military conquests. The British also
annexed some territories under the pretext of maladministration, or misgovernment.
SUBSIDIARY ALLIANCE
The Subsidiary Alliance system was a method perfect by Lord Wellesley, the
Governor General of India, from 1797 until 1805, to subjugate India powers without
the cost and bother/trouble of war.
Any Indian ruler whose security was threatened was encouraged to seek help from
and enter into alliance with the British, who promised to protect the ruler from
external attacks and internal revolts. The Indian ruler had to accept certain terms and
conditions. This arrangement was known as the Subsidiary Alliance. The conditions
were as follows:
 British troop (for the protection of the Indian ruler) would be permanently placed
in the territory of the subsidiary state.
 The Indian ruler would have to pay for the maintenance of the troops. Payment
could be made in cash or in kind, i.e. by ceding part of his territory.
 He had to keep a British official (Resident) at his court.
 He could not employ any Europeans (except the British) in his service or dismiss
those who were already there.
 He could not form an alliance with any other power or declare war against any
power without the permission of the British.
He would acknowledge the British Company as the paramount power.
Effects
The British maintained large armies at the expense of the Indian rulers.
The British acquired valuable territories as subsidiary payment. This led to the
expansion of the British empire in India and an increase in its resources.
The influence of European rivals, especially the French, was excluded from the court
of the Indian rulers.
The British controlled the foreign policy of the subsidiary states.
Disadvantages for the Indian Rulers
The Subsidiary Alliance had disastrous effects on the Indian states:
 The Indian rulers of subsidiary states lost their independence. They became
virtual puppets in the hands of the British.
 The payment of huge subsidies led to a heavy drain on their resources and the
impoverishment and decay of the states. The administration collapsed.
 When the administration collapsed, the British used it as an excuse for annexing
the kingdom on grounds of misgovernment.
 The Indian rulers were fully protected by the British against external and internal
enemies. They lost interest in the welfare of the people and neglected them as
they were no longer afraid of revolts. The people suffered untold miseries under
irresponsible and oppressive rulers.
 The Subsidiary Alliance aided the British in subjugating the powerful kingdom of
the Marathas.
SUBJUGATION OF THE MARATHAS
The Third Battle of Panipat (1761) was a major turning point in the history of India.
The defeat of the combined forces of the Mughals and the Marathas at the hands of
the Afghan chief, Ahmad Shah Abdali, proved disastrous for the country. It left India
drained and fragmented.
The Maratha empire broke up into five virtually independent states. The power of the
peshwa, the former head of the Maratha empire, had declined. The four other
centres of Maratha power were the Gaekwad family of Baroda in Gujarat, the
Bhonsle family of Baroda in Gujarat, the Bhonsle family of Nagpur in Berar, the
Sinshias of Gwalior and the Holkars of Indore. Maharashtra was under the peshwa,
who was based in Poona.
The Marathas, who controlled most of western and central India, made a remarkable
recovery after the Third Battle of Panipat. Despite being a house divided, the
Marathas proved to be formidable rivals. It took the British 43 years (1775-1818) and
three wars to bring the Marathas under their control.
The First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82)
The First Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the Britsih during
the Governor-Generalship of Warren Hastings.
Causes
In 1773, Peshwa Narayan Rao was murdered. A civil war broke out over the issue of
succession between the supporters of Madhav Rao II, the infant peshwa (the son of
Narayan Rao) and the supporters of Raghunath Rao (Raghoba), one of the
contenders for the throne.
Raghunath Rao appealed to the British in Bombay for help. They readily agreed to
do so in the hope of getting valuable territory and some political influence in Maratha
affairs. In return for Salsette and Bassein (which would serve as important naval
bases) the British sent an army to support Raghunath Rao.
Events
All the Maratha chiefs were united under the able leadership of Nana Phadnavis,
the guardian and supporter of the infant peshwa.They defeated the British army sent
from Bombay. Warren Hastings, the Governor General of India, sent an army from
Bengal to recover the lost prestige and position of the British.
The war dragged on for 7 years. Neither side was able to win a decisive victory.
Meanwhile, the British became involved in their second war with Mysore and were
facing problems having to deal with two strong rivals at the same time.
Result
The Maratha War was brought to an end by the Treaty of Salbai in 1782.
The British acknowledged Madhav Rao II as the peshwa and were allowed to retain
Salsette.
Raghunath Rao was pensioned off. The First Maratha War brought little material
rewards for the British but it established the dominance of British influence and
control in Indian politics. The Treaty of Salbai is an important landmark in the history
of India. It gave the British 20 years of peace with the Marathas-a period utilized by
the Company to strengthen its position in Bengal and subjugate Mysore.
The Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-05)
Cause
Peshwa Madhav Rao II died in 1796 and was succeeded by Peshwa Baji Rao II, a
weak and indecisive ruler.
With the death of Nana Phadnavis, the great statesman and pillar of Maratha unity,
the Maratha chiefs were consumed by conflicting ambitions and mutual rivalries. This
was a dangerous development in view of the fact that the British had revived their
policy of aggressive imperialism. The lack of unity among the Maratha chiefs and the
power struggle power struggle between them proved to be their undoing.
Blind to the real danger of the rapidly advancing foreigners, the Maratha chiefs
frittered away their energies in a fierce struggle to control the peshwa and establish
their influence at Poona.
In 1802, Peshwa Baji Rao II, supported by Sindhia, was defeated by Holkar. Baji
Rao II fled to Bassein where he signed the Subsidiary Treaty as aprice for British
protection and support. He was escorted back to poona by British soldiers.
Lord Wellesley, the Governor General, assumed that all the other Maratha chief
would authomatically accept the terms and conditions of the Subsidiary Treaty, since
it had been signed by the Peshwa, the nominal head of the Marathas. He was
wrong.The Marathas would not give up without a struggle.
Events
Sindhia and Bhonsle declare war against the British in 1803. The combined forces of
Sindhia and Bhosle were defeated.
Result
Both of them had to accept the Subsidiary Alliance, surrender large tracts of valuable
territory and acknowledge the British as their overlords. British troop up arms
Residents were posted in their territories.
Holkar took up arms against the British. While the war still on, Wellesley was recalled
THINK AND ANSWER
The First Anglo-Maratha War was a long-drawn-out war which neither side won.
What conclusions can you draw from this? Why do you think the Second Maratha
War was won decisively and easily by the British?
From India because the government in England was unhappy with the enormous
expenditure involved in Wellesley’s policy of wars and expansion.
Wellesley’s successor, George Barlow, signed a peace treaty with Holkar and
returned his territories. The Company obce again reverted to the policy of non-
intervention.
The defeat in the Second Anglo-Maratha War was a severe blow to the power and
prestige of the Marathas.
The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-18)
Causes
Peshwa Baji Rao II began to resent the stifling and rigid control of the British
Resident. He was completely at the mercy of the British. He was forced to sign
another humiliating treaty, surrender more territory and renounce all claims to the
headship of the Marathas. Peshwa Baji Rao II decided to make one last attempt to
recover his independence.
Events
With the support of Bhonsle and Holkar, the Peshwa took up arms against the
British. The Peshwa attacked the british Residency at Kirkee near Poona and burnt
it.
The British, however, struck back and decisively defeated the peshwa, Bhosle and
Holkar. The Maratha were completely subjugated.
Results
 Peshwa Baji Roa II was deposed and exiled to Bithur (near Kanptur) as a
pensioner of the British.
 His territories were annexed.
 A small state, Satara, was carved out from his territories and a descendant of
Shivaji was placed on the throne.
 Bhonsle and Holkar ceded large parts of their territories to the British.
 Holkar accepted the Subsidiary Alliance.
 The Maratha power was finally extinguished6
MILITARY CONQUESTS
TheBritish had to resort to fighting wars to subjugate some independent regional
powers like Mysore and the Sikhs. Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore was a powerful and
fiercely independent ruler. The Sikhs under Ranjit Singh had also developed into a
strong state that was fiercely protective of their freedom.
Subjugation of Mysore
Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore, was a brilliant general, an efficient administrator and a
shrewd diplomat. A man of remarkable courage and amibition, he extended his
kingdom up to the Krishna River. He strengthened his position by introducting
various reforms and setting up a sound administrative system. The administration
was strict, but efficient, and the kingdom was united and strong. His son TipuSultan
was also an extremely gifted soldier and efficient ruler. The British considered
Mysore efficient ruler. The British considered Mysore a major threat to the
establishment of their supremacy in India. As a result, they fought four wars, first with
Hyder Ali and following his death, with Tipu sultan, over a span of 32 years (1767-
99), to crush the power of Mysore.
Annexation of the Sikh Kingdom
The Sikh kingdom became a very powerful and independent state under the
leadership of Ranjit Singh. However after his death, the Sikh kingdom was torn by
internal strife and a struggle for power. The British used this opportunity to strike
against the Sikh and fight two wars, known as Anglo-Sikh wars(1845-49). The Sikhs
fought fiercely to retain their freedom but suffered a decisive loss. The Anglo-Sikh
wars ended in the complete annexation of Punjab by Lord Dalhousie, the then
Governor General of India.
With the annexation of Punjab in 1849, the conquest of India was complete. India
now consisted of British Indian provinces under direct British rule and the
subordinate states (e.g., Awadh) indirectly controlled by the British. Dalhousie
decided to bring the subordinate states under direct British rule.
DALHOUSIE’S POLICY OF EXPANSION
Lord Dalhousie, the Governor General of India from 1848-56, adopted a number of
methods to give the final touches to the work of empire-building in India. The
methods he adopted were:
 War—Punjab
 Doctrine of Lapse-Satara, Jhansi and Nagpur
 Annexation on the grounds of maladministration-Awadh
As we have studied earlier, Dalhousie subjugated the Sikhs in the second Anglo-
Sikh War and annexed Punjab in 1849.
DOCTRINE OF LAPSE
The policy of Doctrine of Lapse was formulated by Lord Dalhousie as a peaceful
way of annexing subordinate Indian state and brining them under the direct rule of
the Company.
According to the Doctrine of Lapse, all subordinate states (subsidiary states and
states created by the British) where the rulers died without a natural male heir would
automatically ‘lapse’, i.e. pass into the hands of the British. Rulers without heirs
could not adopt sons, according to the age-old Hindu and Islamic traditions, without
the permission of the Company.
Dalhousie applied the Doctrine of Lapse to these states which included Satara,
Jhansi and Nagpur. The families of the former rulers were pensioned off and their
territories annexed.
The annexation of these states caused widespread resentment among the Indian
rulers and became a potent factor responsible for the outbreak of the Revolt of 1857.
This policy was also applies to titles and pensions of subordinate rulers without heirs.
This was a great blow to their pride and dignity. Nana Saheb, the adopted son of
Peshwa Baji Rao II, inherited his father’s personal property but was not given the
pension that had been paid to his father. Nana Saheb became one of the important
leaders of the Revolt of 1857.
DID YOU KNOW?
In Himachal Pradesh there is a British hill station called Dalhousie. This station is a
gift from the Governor General, Lord Dalhousie, to the state of Himachal Pradesh. It
is located on the western edge of the Dhauladhar Range, east of river Ravi.
Maladministration
Dalhousie also annexed some subordinate states on the grounds of
maladministration. Awadh was a subsidiary state, which was annexed under this
pretext. Even though it helped in the expansion of British power, policies such as
these created a lot of resentment against the British. These unjust policies would
also become one of the most important reasons for the revolt of 1857.
Annexation of Awadh
The Subsidiary Alliance which the nawab of Awadh had signed with Wellesley had
protected the nawab from external invasions and internal rebellions. It made the
nawabs complacent and unconcerned about the affairs of the state. The payment of
annual subsidies to the Company exhausted the state treasury. When the
administration was on the verge of collapse, Lord Dalhousie struck. He brought
charges of misgovernment or maladministration against the nawab. On those
grounds he deposed the nawab and annexed Awadh in 1856.
Many changes were introduced in the administration. This was greatly resented by
the people who preferred to be ruled by their own nawabs, than by foreigners.
Awadh became one of the main centres of the Revolt of 1857.
INDIA IN 1856
By 1856, the English East India Company had brought the whole of India under its
control. The parts of the country that were nominally under Indian rulers were
effectively under the control of the british. The British had eliminated all their rivals
and established themselves as the paramount power in India. The factors
responsible for the success of the British were:
Lake of unity among Indian rulers
Lack of organized and efficient administration in India states
Superior military resources of the Company
Superior economic resources of the Company
Navy supremacy of the British
DISCUSS
By 1856, the English East India Company had transformed ‘the British empire in
India into the British empire of India.’ Discuss your views in the light of this
statement.
The weaknesses of the Indian states were fully exploited by the Company. Backed
by superior resources-political, economic and military the Company transformed the
British empire in India into the British empire of India.
VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS
National unity is important for a country’s growth, peace and progress. In times of
crisis, such as war or economic emergency, we should put aside conflicting
ambitions and mutual rivalries and come together, to resolve the issue in the best
interests of the country.
Do you think the history of India would have been different if allthe Maratha powers
were united in their struggle against the British? Why? What lessons can learn from
them?
Important Words
Subsidiary Alliance was a method perfected by Lord Wellesley to subjugate India
powers without cost and bother of war.
Nana Phadnavis was the able leader of the Marathas and the pillar of Maratha unity
against the British.
Policy of non-intervention was a policy of the British which entailed the avoidance
of involvement and interference in India affairs.
Doctrine of Lapse was the policy of expansion adopted by Lord Dalhousie,
according to which all subordinate states where the ruler dies without a natural male
heir would automatically lapse, or pass into the hands of the British administration.
Subordinate states were those India states that were indirectly controlled by the
British.
Nana Saheb was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II, who became one of the
important leaders of the Revolt of 1857.
List of Images
8.1 A portrait of Nana phadnavis, the guardian of the infant Peshwa
8.2 Governor general Dalhousie was a great imperialist who annexed several states
on the basic of the Doctrine of Lapse.
Exercises
Fill in the blanks:
1. The five centres of Maratha power were:
(a) - of Gwalior (b) - of Indore
(c) - of Nagpur (d) - of Baroda
(e) - of Poona (Pune)
2. The Governor General during the First and Second Anglo-Maratha Wars
were - and -, respectively.
3. The Second Anglo-Maratha War was a severe blow to the - and - of the
Marathas.
4. - adopted three methods to make the British the paramount power in India.
5. Jhansi was annexed by Dalhousie on the basic of the -.
6. Dalhousie annexed Awadh on the grounds of-.
B. Match the following:
A B Answers
Subsidiary Alliance Ruler of the Sikh kingdom
Hyder Ali Paramount power in India
Ranjit Singh Ruler of Mysore
Doctrine of Lapse Lord Wellesley
English East India Lord Dalhousie
Company

C.Choose the correct answers:


1. The First Anglo-Maratha War was fought during the Governor-Generalship of Lord
Cornwallis/ Lord Wellesley/Warren Hastings.
2. The Maratha chiefs were united under the leadership of Nana Phadnavis/Baji Rao
II/Madhav Rao II during the First Anglo-Maratha War.
3. After the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the British placed a descendant of Shivaji on
the Throne of Nagpur/ Satara/Jhansi.
4. Punjab was annexed by Lord Minto/Lord Dalhousie/Lord Wellesley in 1849.
5. The widespread resentment against annexations expressed itself in the Revolt of
1849/1861/1857.
D. State wheather the following are true or false:
1. After Hyder Ali’s death, his son Tipu Sultan continued the Anglo-Maratha Wars.
2. The Subsidiary Alliance system was used by the British to bring Indian rulers
under British control without any war.
3. The Subsidiary Alliance proved very advantageous for the Indians.
4. The adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II was denied the pension that his father
used to get from the British.
5. By 1856, the English East India Company had brought the whole of India under its
control.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:
1. What was the main objective of the Subsidiary Alliance system? [2]
2. What happened when the administration of a subsidiary state collapsed? [2]
3. Why did Peshwa Baji Rao II sign the Subsidiary Alliance? [2]
4. Why was Wellesley recalled from India during the Second Anglo-Maratha War? [2]
5. How did the Subsidiary Alliance impact the (a) economy (b) administration in
Awadh? [2]
F. Answer the following questions briefly:
1. With reference to the Subsidiary Alliance System perfected by Lord Wellesley,
answer the following:
(a) Why did Indian rulers sign the Subsidiary Alliance? State two important military
terms and conditions imposed on the Indian rulers by this treaty. [3]
(b) The Subsidiary Alliance proved very beneficial for the British. Explain. [3]
(c) Discuss the disastropus effects of the Subsidiary Alliance on the Indian states.
[4]
2. Dalhousie was a great expansionist and adopted a number of methods to build an
all-India empire. In this context, answer the following questions:
(a) Mention the various methods adopted by Dalhousie and the territories annexed
on the basis of these methods. [3]
(b) Under what circumstances did a subordinate state automatically ‘Lapse’ and pass
into the hands of the British? How did the rulers react to this policy? [3]
(c) Why did Nana sahib became one of the leaders of the Revolt of 1857? [3]
3. With reference to the annexation of Awadh discuss:
(a) The effects of the Subsidiary Alliance on the administration in Awadh. [4]
(b) The political scenario in India by 1856 [3]
(c) Any three factors responsible for the success of the British over their Indian rivals
[3]
G. Picture Study:
1. Name the Government General.
2. What was the method adopted by him to subjugate the Indian territories?
3. Mention the terms and conditions under this method.
4. Did this method have any advantage for the Indian rulers> Why?
DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination:
Imagine you lived in Calcutta during the British period. You had gone to visit your
relative in Awadh which is a subsidiary state. What are you impressions of Awadh?
Is the situation similar to or different from the conditions in Bengal?
Project work:
Write an imaginary dialogue between (a) Lord Wellesley and the ruler of a subsidiary
state.
Lord Dalhousie and the Rani of Jhasi during the annexation of Jhasi.
On an outline map of India mark the territories controlled by the british in 1856.
Websites:
http://www.indianetzone.com/23/subsidiary_alliance_system.htm (Accessed on 15
December 2016)
http://www.gatewayforindia.com/history.british_history1.htm (Accessed on 15
December 2016)
http://www.historydiscussion.net/history-of-india/annexation-of-india/annexation-
made-by-dalhousie/2551 (Accessed on 15 December 2016)
9. British Policies and Their Impacts
Indian economy, before the advent of the British, was largely a rural economy. More
than 95 per cent of Indians lived in the villages. The rest lived in towns which were
either the political capitals of their kings or important centres of trade, industry and
commerce.
TRADITIONAL INDIAN ECONOMY
The Indian village were self-sufficient small economic units, intergrated with the
larger economy, with some production for the market. There was also stratification in
society based on control over land.
Agriculture was the chief source of livelihood, supplement and supported by the
handicraft industries. The peasants, the potters, the weavers, the carpenters, and
other artisans and craftspeople produced whatever was required by the village
community and some for outside markets. Their dependence on items from outside
their village was not much and their only link with the government was the annual
payment of revenue. The revenue was collected mainly in kind (i.e. part of the
agricultural produce) and sometimes in cash.
The revenue was collected either directly by the officials of the ruler or indirectly
through zamindars. These zamindars generally did not own land. They collected the
taxes on behalf of the rulers, kept a part of it as their commission and deposited the
rest in the royal treasury. The zamindar were primarily collectors of land revenue.
BRITISH REVENUE SYSTEM
( 1765-1793)
By the Treaty of Allahabad, the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II, granted the English
East India Company, the right to collect revenue from Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
Initially, the company officials followed the traditional methods of revenue collection.
However, they fixed the revenue at a higher rate and collected the payments in cash
only.
Since revenue payments had to be paid in cash, the peasants began to grow cash
crops like jute, cotton, sugarcane etc., which could be sold for ready cash in the
markets. The production of food crops like wheat and rice dropped sharply, leading
to shortage of food supplies and semi-starvation conditions.
The methods of revenue collection by the company officials and agents were often
oppressive and cruel. Sometimes, especially when the rains failed, the peasants had
to borrow money at high rates of interest from the moneylenders to pay the revenue.
In some cases, they had to mortgage or sell off their lands to make the revenue
payments.
The Bengal famine of 1770, one of the most terrible famines in human history,
devastated the countryside. One third of the population perished. The Company’s
revenue collection suffered a severe setback.
A large share of the revenue collected from territories conquered by the Company,
had to be paid to the British government as home charges. From 1767, the
Company had to pay the government 400,000 pounds annually. The revenue from
Bengal was also used to cover military expenses administrative costs such as
salaries of officials and to finance the trading activities of the company. Raw
materials for England’s growing industries were bought with the revenues collected
from Bengal. None of it was spent on the general welfare of those who paid the
taxes. Since tax on Land formed the main source of revenue for the Company, it
became imperative to introduce a regular and efficient system of revenue collection.
Warren Hastings, the Governor of Bengal, introduced the system of auctioning the
right to collect revenue from a particular area to the highest bidder for a period of five
years. The experiment was a dismal failure. The new zamindars, unsure of retaining
the contract at the next auction, had no permanent interest in the land and did
nothing to improve it. The peasants were fleeced to meet the revenue targets.
The Permanent Settlement 1793
To remove the defects of the revenue system and ensure a steady and stable inflow
of revenue Lord Cornwallis, the next governor of Bengal introduced the system
known as the Permanent Settlement of Bengal. The system had two special
features:
 Permanent of ownership of land and
 Fixed revenue
Permanent ownership of land
 The zamindars, collectors of land revenue, were made permanent legal owners
of the land from which they collected the land tax. The tax collector became the
landlord.
 The zamindar’s ownership rights became hereditary and he was given the
freedom to sell or mortgage his land.
 The cultivators of the land became the tenants of the Zamindar and lost their
ancestral rights. They had to pay a rent to the zamindar who could increase the
rent as and when they wanted to.
Fixed Revenue
 The land revenue was fixed on a permanent basis. The Company could not make
any further demands on the zamindars.
 The zamindar had to pay the land revenue once a year on a specific date. If he
failed to pay on time, his lands were confiscated and sold.
The Permanent settlement was introduced in Bengal and Bihar and later extended to
Orissa, the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh and to the north-west provinces.
Advantages
 The Company was assured of a fixed revenue at a fixed time even during natural
calamities.
 The collection of revenue was simpler and cheaper. The zamindars replaced
hundreds of paid tax officials.
 The British won the support and loyalty of the powerful and priviledged class of
zamindars that they had created.
 As permanent owners of the lands, the zamindars took several steps to increase
agriculture production whose benefits they would enjoy.
Disadvantages
 The cultivators were left at the mercy of the zamindar, who exploited and
oppressed them, increased their rents and evicted them from the land when they
unable to pay the high rents. This led to widespread poverty and misery of the
cultinators.
 Since the revenue was fixed, the government would not get a share of increasing
returns form the land.
 This system gave rise to a class of absentee landlords. These zamindars
preferred to live in cities and towns and sublet their land to tenants at high rates.
These tenants in turn sublet it to other tenants. As this process continued, the
rent rates increased with each successive layer. The entire burden of paying the
enhanced rates had to be borne by the actual cultivator- the last tenant.
 The absentee landlords did not take any interest in their land and did very little to
improve conditions and promote agriculture.
On the contrary, they invested their money in other activities like trade or banking or
even on personal luxuries and a lavish lifestyle.
DISCUSS
Do you agree that the British created a new class of faithful allies in the zamindars?
Why did they not make land revenue arrangement directly with the peasants?
The Ryotwari System
 The Ryotwari System was introduced in the Madras Presidency. Its features
were:
 The cultivator (ryot) was recognized as the owner of his land as long as he paid
the land revenue.
 The revenue was paid directly by the cultivator to the revenue officials.
 The revenue was fixed for 30 years after which it could be revised.
 The revenue was fixed at about half the total produce.
 Collection of revenue was rigid. There was no remission of revenue even when
the crops failed.
The Mahawari System
The Mahalwari system was introduced in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and parts of the
Madhya Pradesh.
‘Mahal’ means a group of villages. Under this system land was collectively owned by
the villagers. The revenue settlement was made with the village as a whole. The
talukdar or head of the mahal collected the revenue and handed it over to the British
collectors.
The Zamindari and Ryotwari systems introduced fundamental changes in the
traditional land systems of the country. Land became a commodity – a new form of
property – which could be bought, sold and mortgaged as and when the need arose.
The stability and continuity of the Indian villages were shaken and the traditional
structure of rural society began to disintegrate.
COMMERCIAL POLICY (1773-1857)
India, in the 17th and 18th centuries, though primarily an agricultural country, enjoyed
a primarily an agricultural country, enjoyed a prominent position in the field of trade
and industry. She was a major producer and exporter of handmade industrial goods.
She was also a major supplier of various goods like course cotton cloth, silk, etc.
Before the advent of British rule, the Indian craftspeople operated at two levels.
At the rural level, the craftspeople produced goods on a small scale to meet the
needs of the villagers. At the urban level, the craftspeople and artisans produced
goods in bulk to meet the demands of the Indian and European buyers.These
craftspeople were highly specialized and were usually engaged in hereditary
professions (e.g. weavers, goldsmiths, silversmiths). They lived in towns which
became renowned centres of their craft. There was a great demand for ‘Decca’
muslin and ‘Banarsi’ silk in England. An English author observed that Indian cloth
had ‘crept into our houses, our closets, our bed chambers, curtains, cushions, chairs
and at last beds themselves were nothing nut calicos or India stuffs’.
The Indian textile industry was the finest and largest in the world. Till the end of the
18th century quality to Indian steel was of superior quality to English steel; cities like
Vishakhapatnam, Sura, Goa were famous centres of a flourishing shipbuilding
industry.
Other urban centres specialized in gold and silver ornaments, copper and brass
ware and other items of high quality.
Most craftspeople were organized in guilds, which protected their interests and kept
a check on prices and quality of goods. They were patronized by their rulers who
received a share of the profits which became an important source of revenue for the
royal treasury.
The English merchants bought large quantities of Indian products and paid for them
in gold and silver.
Decline of Indian Crafts and Indutries
The first century of British rule resulted in the decay and destruction of traditional
Indian trade and industry.
 At the beginning of the 18th century, the British and other European countries
passed laws which prevented the entry of cotton and silk textiles from India even
thought there was a demand for it. Thus foreign markets for Indian goods virtually
disappeared.
 After the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the company used its political power to
destroy the Indian handicraft industry and promote British industries. The Indian
weavers were forced to sell their products to the Company at very low prices. To
add to their miseries, they were compelled to buy interior raw cotton at high price
from the Company officials who bought it from the Indian farmers at low rates.
 With the growth of the Industrial Revolution in England, Indian markets were
flooded with cheap, machine-made textiles. India became a dumping ground for
products manufactured in England. Indian handloom textiles could not complete
with the cheaper textiles of British mill
 With the establishment and expansion of the British empire in India, the royal
courts and the nobility of the ruling dynasties, (including the Mughals) collapsed
one by one. The craftspersons and artisans were deprived of royal patronage and
Indian handicrafts suffered a server setback.
 The member of the British Civil Service and the army were not interested in
Indian goods. They only used articles and goods made in England. The newly
educated Indian middle class was greatly influenced by British culture. They
developed a marked preference for European goods. This dealt a severe blow to
manufacturers of luxury items.
 To eliminate competition, the British transformed India into a supplier of raw
materials and a market for British products. They policy led to the ruin of India’s
traditional industries.
 The British government also obstructed the growth of modern Indian industries to
keep the country underdeveloped and economically backward. Almost everything
of daily use like needles, pins, sewing machines, thread, soaps, biscuits, cycles,
medicines, paper, etc. were imported from England.
The new class of Indian capitalists received no support from the government. The
trade, tariff, taxation and transport policies were stumbling blocks to the development
of modern industries. It was only as late as 1851, that a cotton mill was set up in
Bombay by a Parsi.
By 1850, India, which was earlier a major exporter of textiles to world markets,
became a major importer of English textiles, importing about one fourth of the textiles
produced in England.
Drain of Wealth
Dadabhai Naoroji one of the early nationalist of India, described British rule as an
‘everlasting… foreign invasion that was utterly thought gradually destroying the
country’. The exploitation of India economy led to continuous drain of wealth to
England in various forms.
 A greater part of the salaries of British officials and employees of the Company
(paid out of Indian revenues) was deposited in England as savings.
 Material resources like cotton, jute, indigo, tea, coffee, etc., were transported to
England.
 Goods purchased in India with revenues drawn from the country were sent to
England
 Huge sums of money which the officials received as bribes and gifts were sent
out of the country.
Transport and Communication
The transport and communication system in India in the 18th century was very
backward. The British realized the importance of developing proper communication
facilities to consolidate their position in India and promote their industrial and
commercial growth.
Steps were taken to link all the major cities, ports, agricultural centres and markets
through an elaborate network of roads, canals and railways. Metalled roads,
steamships and trains were introduced.
The first railway line was inaugurated in 1853 from Bombay to Thana by Lord
Dalhousie. The post and telegraph department was also opened in the same year.
The Grand Trunk Road (from Calcutta to Peshwar) was reconstructed.
While Indian cottage industries and craftspeople were adversely affected by British
rule, the Indian merchants enjoyed the benefits of Dalhousie’s measures. They
imported manufactured goods from Europe and exported cash crops like cotton, jute,
indigo, etc. Indian merchants and bankers also made substantial profits and became
wealthy. This group of wealthy Indians would form the nucleus of the capitalist class
in India.
DID YOU KNOW?
On 16 April 1853, a train with 14 railway carriages, 3 locomotives Sind, Sultan and
Sahib, and 400 guests left Bombay at 3.35pm. This was India’s first rail run. The
train left from Bori Bunder for Thana with a 21 gun salute and the Governor’s band to
see it off. The journey was completed in 1 hour and 15 minutes.
The Vastly improved communication system was established to serve British
interests and geared to suit colonial needs. The railways ensured quick transfer of
troops and ammunitions during revolts and other disturbances and the easy
transportation of raw material and manufactured goods.
The transport and communication system, however, would ultimately benefit Indians
in unexpected ways. Besides stimulating trade and commerce it would bring the
people of India closer to one another and infuse in them a sense of unity and
nationalism-a development that would have far-reaching effects on India’s future.
EDUCATIONAL POLICY
For more than half a century of its rule, the English East India Company-a trading,
profit-making Company-made no efforts to change the Indian system of education.
Education was mainly religious and the privilege of the rich upper classes of society.
Charter Act of 1813
The Charter Act of 1813 directed the Company to spend 1 lakh rupees on the
education of Indians. This was the first step taken by the British rulers towards the
encouragement of the study of literature and science in India. The Charter Act,
however, did not lay down any specific guidelines. The money sanctioned for the
education project lay untouched for 2 decades while a great controversy raged over
the content and medium of education project lay untouched for 2 decades while a
great controversy raged over the content and medium of education.
The Great Debate
One group favoured the promotion of traditional Indian learning through the medium
of classical (Sanskrit and Persian) and regional languages. This group was known as
the Orientalists. The other group led by Lord Macaulay (Law Member of the
Government General’s Council) insisted that Western education should be
introduced and imparted through the medium of English. This group was called
Anglicists.
William Bentinck supported Macaulay’s views. In 1835, the government passed a
resolution outlining its new education policy. The government would utilize its
educational funds on teaching Western science and literature through the medium of
the English language.
Introduction and Spread of Western Education
The government began to set up English medium schools and colleges for the
education of a limited number of Indians. In 1844.English became the official
language and the government announced that Indians educated in British schools
would be given jobs in government services. This helped the spread of English
education in India.
Wood’s Despatch
In 1854, Sir Charles Wood (President of the Board of Control) sent a despatch
(official report) outlining a comprehensive plan for the education of the Indians. This
plan, known as Wood’s Despatch, introduced further changes in the system of
education.
Purpose of Western Education
 The primary motive of the British government behind the introduction of Western
education in India was to create a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour,
but British in taste, opinions, moral and intellect. This class of Anglicized Indians
could be employed, on low salaries, as clerks in the Cinil Service.
 This would greatly reduce the heavy expenditure involved in running the
administration. Employing the British in these posts was both expensive and
difficult.
 Westernized Indians, it was hoped, would create a demand for British goods and
promote the interests of British manufacturers.
 Western education would inculcate in the Indians a sense of admiration and
respect for British rule. This would strengthen the foundations of the british
empire in India.
Effects of Western Education
 The British system of education produced English-speaking Indian graduates
who helped their British masters to run the empire.
 It also created a class of Indians who were westernized to the extent that they
rejected Indian culture and patronized anything and everything that was British
including British goods.
Western education, however, impacted Indian society in a way the british could
never have imagined.
 It aroused in them an awareness of the evil effects of foreign rule.
 The teachings of modern European philosophers instilled in them an admiration
for democratic institutions.
 Knowledge of contemporary nationalist movements in Europe fired the Indians
with an intense desire to build a new India- progressive, strong, prosperous and
united. In course of time, the best among them became leaders of the national
movement.
To build a national, it was imperative to establish bonds of unity. Once again the
imposition of English in the Indian educational system proved to be a boon in
disguise.
English became the medium of communication and exchange of ideas between
Indians from diverse regions speaking diverse languages.
English broke down regional barriers and united educated Indians. A spirit of
nationalism began to take shape.
VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS
We should to be compassionate and show sympathy towards people who work for
us. We should not be oppressive and cruel in dealing with them. We should be
sensitive to their needs and provide a conducive work environment for them
How can you show your domestic workers that you care for them?
THINK AND ANSWER
Do you think progress is not possible without knowledge of the English language?
Give reasons for your answer.
Important Words
Cash crops are crops such as jute, cotton, sugar cane, etc. which can be sold for
ready cash in the market.
Bengal Famine of 1770 was one of the most most terrible famines in human history
which devastated the countryside.
Home charges were a large share of revenue collected from territories conquered
by the Company which had to be paid to the british government.
Permanent Settlement was a system introduced by Lord Cornwallis to remove the
defects of the revenue system and ensure a steady and stable inflow of revenue.
Ryotwari System was a system introduced in the Madras presidency wherein the
cultivator was recognized as the owner of his land as long as he paid the land
revenue.
Mahalwari system was the system under which land was collectively owned by the
villagers.
Capitalists are people who own or control a lot of wealth and use it to produce more
wealth.
List of Figures
9.1 A painting showing starving people of Bengal praying to the bull god, Nandi, for
relief during the famine of 1770
9.2 A portrait of Warren Hastings
9.3 A Printing showing a traditional Indian artisan sewing cloth
9.4 Dadabhai Naoroji criticized British economic policies for the ways in which they
drained wealth out of India.
9.5 William Bentinck
9.6 Sir Charles Wood
9.7 Time line
1793CE: Permanent settlement of Bengal introduced by Cornwallis
1813 CE: Charter Act of 1813
1853 CE: First Railway line from Bombay to Thane
1854 CE: Wood Dispatch
Exercises
A. Fill in the blanks:
1. The - famine of 1770 was one of the most terrible famines in human history.
2. A large share of revenue collected by the Company in India had to be paid to the
British government as-.
3. Under the Mahalwari system the revenue settlement was made with the -.
4. To eliminate competition from India’s traditional industries, the British transformed
India into a - and a -.
5. Before the advent of the British the Indian craftspeople operated at two levels-the -
and the - levels.
6. Before the advent of the British the Indian textile industry was the - and the - in
the world.
7. After the Battle of Plassey the Company used its political power to - the Indian
handicraft industry and - British industries.
8. With the spread of the Industrial Revolution in England, Indian markets were
flooded with - - of British mills.
9. By 1850, India became a major - of - textiles.
10. - introduced the railway system in India in 1853.
11. The Grand Trunk Road from - to - was reconstructed by the British in the 19th
century.
B. Match the following:
A B Answers
Permanent Settlement Encouraged education of
Indians
Shipbuilding industry (b) Lord Dalhousie
Lord Macaulay Fixed revenue
Charter Act of 1813 Anglicist
Transport and Vishakhapatnam
communication
development
C. Choose the correct answer:
1. The Treaty of Allahabad/Madras/Benaras granted the English East India Company
the right to collect revenue from Bihar, Bengal and Orissa.
2. To remove the defects of the revenue system Lord Cornwallis introduced the
Permanent Settlement/Ryotwari system/Mahalwari system in 1793.
3. The Ryotwari system of revenue collection was introduced in
Madras/Calcutta/Bombay presidency.
4. The Charter Act of 1813 directed the Company to spend 1/10/15 lakh rupees on
the education of Indians.
5. The first railway line from Bombay to Poona/Thana/Calcutta.
D. State whether the following are true or false:
1. Before the advent of the British more than 95 per cent of Indians lived in villages.
2. The Indian peasants were satisfied with the Company’s revenue collection
methods.
3. The Permanent Settlement assured the Company a fixed revenue at a fixed time
even during natural calamities.
4. Lord Macaulay insisted that Western education should be imparted through the
medicine of vernacular languages.
5. The development of transport and communication systems did not benefit Indians
in any way.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:
1. Why did the Indian peasants begin to grow cash crops?
2. How did the Company utilize the revenues from Bengal?
3. What were the drawbacks of Warren Hastings’s five-year revenue settlement?
[2]
4. What was the significance of the Charter Act of 1813 in the context of British
educational policy in India? [2]
5. In what way would westernized Indians help to promote the interests of British
manufactures? [2]
6. How did knowledge of contemporary nationalist movement in Europe inspire the
Indians? [2]
7. Mention any two positive effects of the introduction of English in the Indian
educational system. [2]
8. Which section of Indians gained from the British commercial policies [2]
9. How would the improved transport and communication system benefit the Indians
later? [2]
F. Answer the following questions briefly:
1. In the context of permanent Settlement of Bengal answer the following:
a. Explain the special features of the Permanent Settlement. [4]
b. What are its advantages? [3]
c. Briefly describe its disadvantages. [3]
2. With reference to Ryotwari and Mahalwari system answer the following:
a. Explain the features of the Ryotwari system. [4]
b. What were the features of the Mahalwari system. [3]
c. What were the fundamental changes introduced by these two system in the
traditional land system of the country? [3]
3. The first century of British rule resulted in the decay and destruction of traditional
India trade and industry. Explain this statement with reference to the following:
a. Political powers of the Company [3]
b. Collapse of ruling dynasties and ruling courts [3]
c. Decline of modern Indian industries [4]
4. The Charter Act of 1813 passed by the British Parliament was the first major step
to introduce changes in the Indian system of education. In this context discuss:
a. The general directives issued to the Company in the Charter Act of 1813 ad its
inherent weakness. [3]
b. The Great Debate over the content and medium of education. [4]
c. The introduction and spread of Western education. [3]
5. The Wood’s Despatch introduced further changes in the Indian educational
system. With reference to the above statement answer the following questions:
a. What was the purpose behind the introduction of Western education in India?
[3]
b. How did the introduction of Western education benefit the British? [3]
c. Explain how (i) Western education and (ii) the English language led to the rise of a
spirit of nationalism among the Indians. [4]
6. With reference to the transport and communication system in India answer the
following questions:
a. Why and how did the British develop proper transport and communication
facilities in India? [3]
b. How did the railways serve the interests of the British? [3]
c. Explain how the improved transport and communication system proved beneficial
for the India. [4]
G. Picture study:
This is the picture of an Indian nationalist.
1. Identify the person.
2. What did he think about the British rule in India?
3. Explain any three ways in which he felt that the India economy was being
exploited by the British.
DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination:
Imagine you are a passenger on the first train on its maiden run from Bombay to
Thana in 1853. Write an account of your experience and adventures and feelings
during that event.
Project work:
Visit any handicraft fair/industry/emporium and note your observations. Make a
report and share it in class.
Websites
For more information, go to:
http://holisticthought.com/revenue-administration-and-economic-policy-of-the-
british/(Accessed on 15 December 2016)
http://www.kkhsou.in/main/education/wood_despatch.html (Accessed on 15
December 2016)
10. The Revolt of 1857
One hundred years after the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the smoldering ember of
resentment and anger against the unjust, exploitative and oppressive British
government exploded into flames and shook the very foundations of British rule in
India. British historians called it the ‘Sepoy Mutiny’; Indian historians refer to it as the
‘Great Revolt of 1857’ or the ‘First War of Indian Independence’.

CAUSES OF THE REVOLT

Political Causes

The aggressive expansionist policy of Lord Dalhousie caused widespread resentment


among the India rulers and their subjects. Dalhousie unjustly annexed several Indian
states to fulfil his objective of extinction of all native states.

 Dalhousie annexed the states of Satara, Nagpur and Jhansi by applying the
Doctrine of Lapse. The annexation transformed the courageous rani of Jhansi into
a staunch enemy of the British.
 Nana Saheb, the adopted son of Peshwa Bji Rao II (pensioner of the British), was
denied a pension after his father’s death. Nana Sahab became one of the leaders
of the Revolt.
 Bahadur Shah Zafar, the Mughal emperor, lived in Delhi as a pensioner of the
British. Dalhousie announced that Bahadur Shah Zafar’s successor would not be
allowed to stay on in the historic Red Fort. He would have to move to a place near
the Qutb Minar, on the outskirts of Delhi. This was a great blow to the dignity of the
Mughal emperor and deeply hurt the sentiments of the Muslims.
 The annexation of Awadh, on grounds of maladministration, outraged the people
of India, in general, and Awadh, in particular. Awadh had always been a friendly,
faithful and a subordinate ally. The Nawab of Awadh was exiled to Calcutta.
 The British Showed scant respect for the treaties that had been signed with the
Indians. Treaties were broken whenever it suited them to do so. This created a
sense of fear and insecurity among the rulers of subordinate states. The axe could
fall on them anywhere, at any time.
Economic Causes
The policy of economic exploitation by the British and the complete destruction of the
traditional economic structure caused widespread resentment among all section of
society.
 The land revenue system, introduced by the British, caused great Hardship and
misery among the peasants. Under the zamindari system, for instance, the
peasants were oppressed by the zamindars and exploited by the money-lenders.
If the cultivators failed to pay the land revenue to the zamindars or return the loans
to the moneylenders on time, they were often flogged, tortured or jailed. The
impoverishment of the peasantry led to numerous famines.
 Landlords also suffered from a sense of insecurity. Thousands of jagirs were
confiscated by Bentinck and Dalhousie when they were unable to produced written
title deeds of ownership.
 When Awadh was annexed, the estates of the zamindars and talukdars were
confiscated by the British. They became sworn enemies of the British rule.
 The interests of the Indian economy were sacrificed for the interests of British trade
and industry. This led to the utter collapse of traditional handicraft industries.
Nothing was done by the government to develop modern Indian industries. Indian
artisans and craftspersons were ruined.
 The annexation of Indian states was followed by large-scale unemployment and
economic distress. When Awadh was annexed, the administration was replaced
by Company administration. As such, hundreds of court officials and their
subordinates lost their means of livelihood. Poets, musicians, artists and artisans
dependent on royal patronage also lost their jobs.

Social and Religious Causes

The establishment of British rule in India was accompanied by the spread of Western
culture. People were disturbed by the rapid spread of an alien civilization, which they
considered to be a threat to Indian society and culture. Several measures adopted by
the British government alarmed and enraged the people.

 Social reforms such as the abolition of sati and female infanticide, the Window
Remarriage Act and the introduction of women’s education caused deep
resentment among the orthodox sections of society. They interpreted these
measures as deliberate attempts by the British to destroy the sanctity of their
religion and social customs.
 The efforts of the missionaries to convert people to Christianity caused great alarm.
Some of the missionaries ridiculed the religious beliefs and practices of the Hindus
and Muslims in their effort to convert people to their faith. This hurt the religious
sentiments of the people.
 The introduction of Western education undermined the position and importance of
the pundits and the maulvis and was seen as an attack on ancient traditons and
values. The office of the Inspector of School in Patna was referred to as the
‘shaitane daftar’.
 The introduction of the railways and posts and telegraphs aroused grave doubts
and fears, especially among the simple villagers. They thought that the telegraph
system was a form of Western magic. They grew fearful of the intentions of the
British.
 The British judicial system introduced the principle of equality. This was regarded
as a threat to the existing caste norms and privileges of the upper classes.
 The British looked down upon the Indians and followed a policy of racial
discrimination. They made no effort to interact socially with the Indians. They were
convinced of the superiority of the European race and treated the Indians with great
contempt.

Military Causes

The Revolt of 1857 started as a mutiny of the sepoys in the Company’s army. The
sepoys had, over the years, helped the Company to conquer India with dedication and
loyalty, By the middle of the 19th century, however, there was growing disaffection
among the sepoys, especially within the ranks of the upper-caste Hindus (Rajputs and
brahmanas). The sepoys had numerous grievances:

 The sepoys had helped the British to establish their empire in India, but they were
neither appreciated nor rewarded for their efforts. On the contrary, they were
treated with great contempt by the British officers.
 There was grave discrimination between the Indian sepoy and his British
counterpart. A capable and dedicated sepoy could not rise above the post of
subedar.
 An Indian soldier was paid much less salary than his British counterpart. Lodging
and boarding facilities for the sepoys were also far inferior to that of a British soldier.
 Many of the senior British officers were old and incompetent men who could not
command the respect of the Indian soldiers.
 In 1856, an Act was passed which made it compulsory for all new recruits to serve
overseas if required. This hurt the sentiments of the Hindus because they believed
that overseas travel would lead to a loss of caste. The sepoys interpreted the
regulation as another attack on their caste and religion.
 After the annexation of Awadh, the Nawab’s army was disbanded. The soldiers lost
their means of livelihood and their bitterness against the British increased.
 The Indian soldiers greatly outnumbered the British soliers. In 1856, the number of
sepoys in the British army was more than five times that of the British soldiers. This
emboldened the sepoys to take up arms against their foreign masters.

Immediate Cause of the Revolt of 1857

By 1857, the country was seething with discontent. All that was needed was a spark
to trigger off an explosion. The issue of the greased cartridges provided the spark. The
British had introduced a new rifle known as the Enfield Rifle, in the army. The cartridge
had a greased paper cover, which had to be bitten off before loading the rifle.

In January 1857, a rumour started at the Dum Dum cantonment (in Calcutta) that the
cartridges were greased with cow fat and pig lard. The rumour spread like wildfire
among the Hindu and Muslim sepoys. They were convinced that the government was
deliberately trying to defile their religion. A wave of indignation and anger swept
through all the military stations.

On 29 March 1857, Mangal Pandey, a sepoy at Barrackpore refused to use the


cartridge and attacked his senior officers. He was hanged to death. In the eyes of his
fellow sepoys, Mangal Pandey was not a rebel nut a martyr. On 9 May, 85 soldiers in
Meerut refused to use the new rifles and were sentenced to 10 years’ imprisonment.
They were publicly stripped of their uniforms, put in fetters in the presence of the entire
brigade and thrown into jail.

MAIN EVENTS OF THE REVOLTS

Meerut

Enraged by the humiliating treatment of their comrades, the sepoys of the Meerut army
rose in revolt the following day. The sepoys stormed the jail and freed their comrades,
shot their European officers, set their bungalows on fire and cut the telegraph line to
Delhi.

Delhi

The next morning they marched to Delhi, where they were joined by the local sepoys.
They killed the European officers and captured the city. On 11 May 1857, Bahadur
Shah Zafar was persuaded to accept the leadership of the Revolt. He was proclaimed
emperor of Hindustan. There was jubilation all around. The restoration of the Mughal
empire was proclaimed with the booming of guns. News quickly spread that the
Company Raj had come to an end. The sepoy revolt had been transformed into a war
of independence.

Inspired by the capture of Delhi, rebellions broke out over a wide area covering the
North-Western Province, Central India and Western Bihar.
The success of the Revolt proved to be shortlived. British reinforcement arrived from
Punjab, and Delhi was recovered in September 1857. A reign of terror followed.
Thousands of innocent people were massacred and hundreds were hanged without
trail.

Bahadur Shah Zafar was taken prisoner, tried and exiled to Rangoon. The royal
princes (two sons and one grandson of Bahadur Shah Zafar) were shot down and their
bodies displayed on the streets. The once great dynasty of the Mughals finally came
to an end.

Kanpur

The Revolt in Kanpur was led by Nana Saheb, the adopted son of the former Peshwa
Baji Rao II. He captured Kanpur and proclaimed himself the Peshwa. His victory was
shortlived. British reinforcement arrived and Kanpur was recaptured. The rebels were
punished severely. Nana Saheb escaped. His brilliant commander, Tanty Tope,
continued the struggle but was later arrested and hanged.

Lucknow

The sepoys in Lucknow (capital of Awadh) were joined by the disbanded soldiers of
the old Awadh army as well as the talukdars and the peasants. The Revolt was led by
Hazrat Mahal, the queen of the deposed and exiled Nawab of Awadh.

The British forces were defeated and besieged in the Lucknow Residency for several
months. Fresh reinforcements arrived from England, and Lucknow was recaptured. All
the rebels who were captured were hanged. The queen escaped to Nepal.

Jhansi

The Revolt in Jhansi in Central India was led by the ‘bravest and the best of the military
leaders of the rebels’, the 22-year-old Rani Lakshmi bai.

She fought gallantly against the British forces, but Jhansi was captured. Rani
Lakshmibai escaped, mobilized her forces and with the help of Tantya Tope, captured
Gwalior and drove out Sindhia-a loyal ally of the British.

Fierce fighting followed. The rani, dressed like a soldier, ‘using her sword with both
hands and holding the reins of her horse in her mouth,’ fought like tigress. The brave
Rani died, fighting to the very end. She symbolized courage and bravery and the spirit
of freedom. She became the most enduring symbol and the greatest inspirational force
for future generations of freedom fighters.

DID YOU KNOW?

It is said when Rani Lakshmibai died, her devoted followers immediately burnt her
body because they did not want the British to boast that they had caught her.
By July 1858, 14 months after the outbreak at Meerut, peace was declared. The Revolt
had been crushed. The British empire had survived.

RESULTS OF THE REVOLT

The great uprising of 1857 was an important landmark in the history of modern India.

 The rule of the English East India Company came to an end.


 India now came under the direct rule of the British Parliament and the Queen of
England. (Queen Victoria was declared the Empress of India in 1876 by the Royal
Title Act, 1876.)
 Queen Victoria issued a Proclamation promising to look after the welfare of the
Indian people.
 Treaties with Indian states would be honoured.
 The Doctrine of Lapse was abolished. The right to adopt sons as legal heirs was
acknowledged.
 A general pardon was granted to all the rebels, except those who had killed British
subjects.
 The British government would not interfere in the social and religious customs of
the people.
 Indian would be given opportunities to be associated with the administration. High
posts in government services would be given on the basis of merit, not race.
 The army was reorganized and strengthened. The number of British soldier was
increased
 And the artillery placed exclusively under their control.

The Revolt of 1857 had come as a great shock to the British. The Proclamation of
Queen Victoria was an attempt to Pacify the feelings and sentiments of the Indian
people and to convince them that their interests were now safe under the rule of
the British Crown.

THINK AND ANSWER

Do you think the time was appropriate for people to rebel against the existing British
government? Give reasons for your answer.

NATURE OF THE REVOLT

European historians have described the Revolt of 1857 as a ‘mutiny’ of sepoys.

Modern Indian historians have rejected the European point of view. According to them:

 The Revolt was the outcome of the accumulated grievances of different sections
of people and not the sepoys alone.
 Those who joined the Revolt had different reasons and different motives but they
were all united in their hatred of British rule and their determination to overthrow it.
 It had wide popular support of various of various sections of society. Even the
boatmen of Lucknow refused to carry British soldiers across the river.
 The struggle created a strong bonding and a sense of unity between the Hindus
and the Muslims. They fought shoulder to shoulder, as single brethren against a
common enemy.
 Of the estimated 1,50,000 people killed in the Revolt, 1,000,000 were civilians.

Hence, the revolt was not a mutiny. It was the first large-scale popular uprising
againstvarious social, religious and economic injustices of foreign rule. It was the first
large-scale expression of a desire for freedom from foreignrule. Thus, it would be more
appropriate to describe the Revolt as India’s first step towards freedom.

Management of Indian Affairs (1757-1947)

From Company Rule to Direct British Rule

1757-83 1784-1857 1858-1947


British Government British Government
(Secretary of State)
Board of Control

Court of Directors Court of Directors


Governor General Governor General Viceroy
Parliamentary Acts Regulating the Affairs of the Company

 Regulating Act – 1773


 Pitt’’s India Act – 1784
 Charter Acts of 1793,1813,1833 (Issued every 20 years after the Regulating Act
of 1773)

VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS

We must love and respect our country and develop a sense of belonging to it. Good
citizens are always patriotic and loyal towards their motherland. We must support
and defend our motherland and its interests at all times.

 What are the ways in which you can show love and respect for your country?

List of Figures

10.1 A painting showing rebel sepoys marching towards Delh Gate; The Revolt of
1857 was the first armed uprising of a large part of the Indian socirty against the
British.

10.2 The economic reforms of William Bentinck (left) and Dalhousie (right) caused
widespread resentment among the Indians.
10.3 The mutiny in the sepoy barracks was triggered when Mangal Pandey, a sepoy,
was executed for disobeying orders and attacking and attacking his senior officers.

10.4 A 19th-century engraving showing the capture of Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last
Mughal emperor, by the British

10.5 Time line

1773 CE: Regulating Act of 1773 was passed

1784 CE: Pitti’s India Act of 1784 passed

1813 CE: Charter Act of 1813 was passed

1833 CE: Charter Act of 1833 was passed

1853 CE: Charter Act of 1853 passed

1857 CE: Revolt of 1857 began

1858 CE: Revolt of 1857 was crushed by the British

1876: Queen Victoria was declared Empress of India.

Important Words
Great Revolt of 1857 was a revolution in India which was sparked off as a result of
the resentment and anger of eople against unjust, oppressive and exploitative British
rule.
Nana Saheb was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II, who became one of the
leaders of the revolt of 1857.
Greased cartridges were cartridges used by Britishers in a new rifle introduced by
them. These cartridges were greased with cow fat and pig lard and had to be bitten
off before loading the rifle.
Mangal Pandey was a sepoy who refused to use the greased cartridge and attacked
his seniors. He was hanged to death.
Rani Lakshmibai was the bravest and the best of the military leaders of the rebels
who led the revolt in Jhansi. She was only 22years old at the time of the revolt.
Exercises
A. Fill in the blanks:
1. Dalhousie annexed the states of -, - and - on the basis of the Doctrine of lapse.
2. Prior to the outbreak of the Revolt, Bahadur shah Zafar lived in Delhi as a - of
the British.
3. The Revolt of 1857 started as a - of the sepoys.
4. The immediate cause of the Revolt was the issue of the -.
5. The Revolt ended the rule of the - - - -.
B. Match the following:
A B Answers
1. Nana Saheb Confiscation of Jagirs
2. Bentinck and Dalhousie Exiled to Rangoon
3. Hindu and Muslim Adopted son of Peshwa
sepoys Baji Rao II
4. Bahadur Shah Zafar Tantya Tope
5. Commander of Nana Greased cartridges
Saheb
C. Choose the correct answer:
1. When Awadh/Nagpur/Jhansi was annexed, the estates of the zamindars and
talukdars were confiscated by the British.
2. The rumor regarding greased cartridges started in Madras/Calcutta/Delhi.
3. Mangal Pandey was a sepoy at Barrackpore/Nagpur/Satara who refused to use
the greased cartridge in 1857.
4. The Revolt in Lucknow/Meerut/Kanpur was led by Nana Saheb.
5. Nana Saheb/Hazrat Mahal/ Rani Lakshmibai led the revolt in Lucknow.
D. State whether the following are true or false:
1. Indian rulers were quite satisfied with Lord Dalhousie’s expansionist policies.
2. Peasants benefitted from the land revenue system of the British.
3. Social reforms such as the abolition of sati and female infanticide, and the
Window Remarriage Act caused deep resentment among the orthodox sections
of society.
4. The Doctrine of Lapse was abolished after the Revolt.
5. The Revolt of 1857 had come as a shock to the British.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/ sentences:
1. Why did Rani of Jhansi become a staunch enemy of the British? [2]
2. Why did Nana Saheb fight against the British during the Revolt of 1857? [2]
3. Why did the zamindars and talukdars became sworn enemies of the British?
[2]
4. What happened to the Nawab’s army when Awadh was annexed? [2]
5. When and where did the Revolt of 1857 begin? [2]
6. Mention any two taken by the British to reorganize the army after the Revolt?
[2]
7. What step was taken by the British to reorganize the army after the Revolt?
[2]
8. Mention any two important results of the results of the Revolt. [2]
F. Answer the following questions briefly:
1. In the context of the Revolt of 1857, answer the following questions:
(a) Mention any three political causes of the Revolt. [3]
(b) Mention any three economic factors that led to the outbreak of the great Revolt.
[3]
(c) Explain briefly any four social and religious causes that led to the Revolt of 1857.
[4]
2. In the context of the military cause of the Revolt of 1857, answer the following
questions:
(a) Mention any three grievances that the sepoys had against their British masters.
[3]
(b) How did the Act passed in 1856 by the British hurt the sentiments of the Hindu
sepoys? [4]
(c) Explain the immediate cause of the great Revolt. [3]
3. In the context of the Revolt of 1857, briefly discuss:
(a) The decline of the Mughal dynasty [3]
(b) Any four results of the Revolt of 1857 [4]
(c) Nature of the Revolt of 1857 [3]
G. Picture study: [5]
This is the picture of the queen who led the Revolt in Central India.
1. Identify the queen.
2. Name the city where she led the Revolt.
3. What were the economic causes of the Revolt of 1857?
4. What was the major outcome of the Revolt of 1857?
DO AND LEARN

Use your imagination:

Imagine you are a sepoy in the British Indian Army in Barrackpore. You are a
witness to the dramatic events taking place between January and May 1857. Write
an account of your experiences and reactions. Did you join the rebels?Why?

Project work:

Prepare a scrapbook on the key personalities of the Revolt of 1857.

Website:

For more information, go to:

 http://www.historydiscussion.net/history-of-india/the-revolt-of-1857-the-first-war-
of-independence/1581 (Accessed on 4 May 2015)
 http://history1800s.about.com/od/thebritishempire/ss/The-Sepoy-Mutiny.htm
(Accessed on 4 May 2015)
11. Indian Renaissance –Social and Religious Reformers in India
Western education, as we have seen, proved to be a blessing in the long run. With
the spread of Western education, a large number of Indians imbibed a modern,
rational, liberal, and progressive outlook.
The impact of modern ideas gave birth to a new awakening. A vast ancient country
like India had been enslaved by a handful of foreigners. It was a wake-up call for a
country stuck in a time warp. India slumbered as the world marched on.
The shock of enslavement galvanized the nation into action. Many Indian realized
the need for social and religious reforms to arrest the stagnation of Indian society.
Western scholars had delved deep into India’s ancient past and helped the Indians
to rediscover their glorious heritage. It was time now to move on-to look forward and
outward. It was also a time to look inwards and take a long, hard and critical look at
the weaknesses and strengths of their society. The stagnation, corruption and
degeneration of contemporary Indian society had to be faced with honesty and a
resolve to revive and revitalize it.
RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY
The central figure of this awakening was Raja Ram Mohan Roy-the pioneer of the
Modern Age in India. Described by Rabindranath Tagore as the ‘Father of Indian
Renaissance and the Prophet of Indian Nationalism’, Raja Ram Mohan Roy worked
fearlessly and tirelessly all his life to reform and regenerate the Indian society.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was a great scholar. He mastered several languages such as
Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, English, Latin, Greek and Hebrew. A comparative study of
the Vedas, the Koran and the Bible (the Old Testament and New Testament)
convinced Raja Ram Mohan Roy about the basic unity in the fundamental truths of
all religious.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was a staunch believer in the philosophy of the Vedanta
(Upanishads) which was based on rational thinking. He was also a great admirer of
the philosophies of Christianity and Islam.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy realized the importance of religion in society. Religion was
central to an individual’s life. Every aspect of social life revolved round religious
beliefs. To reform society, it was important to first reform religion. He propagated the
following religious ideas based on rationalism and the philosophy of the Vedas.
There is only one God who is the creator and preserver of the universe
(monotheism).
All men are children of the ‘one God of all human beings’ and therefore equal
(brotherhood of man).
It was not necessary to worship idols and perform rituals and sacrifices. God could
be reached through prayer and devotion.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy condemned the domination of the priests who were
responsible for misleading the people and perpetuating ritualism and socio-religious
practices like sati.
He published Bengali translations of the Vedas and the Upanishads to prove that all
the ancients religious texts preached monotheism.
DISCUSS
Do you agree with Raja Ram Mohan Roy’s views that there is a basic unity in the
fundamental truths/ principles of all religions? Give reasons for your answer.
Social Reforms
As a social reformer, Raja Ram Mohan Roy started a crusade against the social evils
sanctioned by the priestly class. He founded a society called the Brahma Sabha
(1828) which later became Brahmo Samaj. It attracted a large number of educated
young men who were influenced by the liberal and nationalist ideas of the West.
The Brahmo Samaj launched a relentless struggle against the following evil social
practices:
 Sati
 Caste distinctions and untouchability
 Child marriage
 Polygamy
The Brahmo Samaj supported:
 Education of women
 Widow remarriage
Raja Ram Mohan Roy’s passionate struggle against sati was supported by the
Governor General, Lord William Bentinck, who banned the practice in 1829. This
was a great victory for the Brahmo Samaj.
DID YOU KNOW?
Raja Ram Mohan Roy himself went to the cremation grounds to save women from
committing sati.
However, he was unable to save his brother’s window from committing sati.
Educational Reforms
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was a great champion of modern Western education. He
believed it would serve as an instrument for the spread of progressive ideas and
accelerate the pace of social change. He believed that the salvation of India lay in
adopting Western principles of reason and humanism and acquiring the knowledge
of modern science. Raja Ram Mohan Roy did not, however, believe in blindly aping
the West; nor did he believe in blindly relying on India’s own past. The ideal situation
would be to balance the best of the East and the West and reconstruct society
accordingly. He opened an English medium school which combined traditional Indian
learning with Western knowledge. He assisted David Hare, a Scottish watchmaker,
to establish the Hindu College in Calcutta (which later developed into the Presidency
College). He also founded the Vedanta College which offered courses of study in
Indian learning and Western sciences.
ISHWAR CHANDRA VIDYASAGAR
Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar was another outstanding social and religious reformer.
He was a great humanist and a champion of the poor and downtrodden. He worked
fearlessly and tirelessly to free society from the shackles of blind faith and orthodoxy.
Social Reforms
 Vidyasagar denounced caste discrimination and as the Principle of the Sanskrit
College he admitted non-brahmana students. He was strongly oppesed to the
monopoly of the brahmanas on the study of Sanskrit and the ancient Vedic texts.
 He was receptive to Western philosophy and culture and his principles
represented a happy blend of the best of the East and the West. He introduced
the study of Western philosophy in the Sanskrit College.
 Vidyasagar’s most outstanding contribution to social reforms was his efforts to
improve the status of women in society.
Vidyasagar was a staunch supporter of women’s education and helped Drinkwater
Bethune to establish the first Indian school for girls in Calcutta in 1849. As inspector
of schools he opened 35 school for girls.
Orthodox Hindus claimed that the Hindu religion did not permit the education of
women and tried to block his efforts. There was a great deal of prejudice against the
education of women in those days. Some even believed that an educated gilr would
became a window. Vidyasagar’s struggle to free women from such crippling
prejudices proved to be a Herculean task. He was, however, fearless and
determined. He overcame all obstacles and continued his struggle.
 Vidyasagar also campaigned against polygamy and child marriage.
 The great misery and sufferings of the Hindu windows in Bengal pained him
deeply. He started a bold movement advocating the remarriage of windows. This
triggered off a powerful reaction from orthodox Hindus. At times his life was
threatened and he was physically attacked, but nothing could deter him from his
chosen path. His efforts bore fruit. Lord Dalhousie passed the Window
Remarriage Act in 1856. The first legal Hindu window remarriage was celebrated
in Calcutta in December 1857, with the support of Vidyasagar. It was a great
victory for the champions of women’s emancipation.
Thus, the first stirring steps towards the modern age through social and religious
reforms were taken in the first half of the 19th century. The process of social
regeneration gathered momentum in the second half of 19th century. The ground was
prepared for the rise of nationalism and the growth of the national movement.
DAYANAND SARASWATI
Dayanand Saraswati was one of the greatest reformers of Hindu society in the 19th
century. He believed that the Vedas were the fountainhead of all knowledge and
contained the essence of Hinduism. Swami Dayanand launched a vigorous
campaign against the irrational and evil practices that had crept into Hindu society
and tried to restore to Hinduism its original purity.
Like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Dayanand propagated the following ideas based
on rationalism and Vedic philosophy.
 There is only one god.
 All men are equal.
 It is wrong to worship idols and perform meaningless rituals.
 The brahmana priests were responsible for misleading the people and supporting
irrational practices.
Swami Dayanand founded a society called the Arya Samaj in 1875 which launched
an attack on the following social practices:
 Caste system and untouchability
 Child marriage
The Samaj supported and encouraged:
 Education for women
 Window remarriage
After his death a number of Dayanand Anglo-Vedic (DAV) schools were set up. The
curriculum of these institutions was based on a harmonious blend of traditional
Indian learning and Western scientific studies. These school played a major role in
instilling the spirit of self-reliance and self-respect among Indians.
RAMAKRISHNA PARAMAHANSA
Ramakrishna Paramahansa was a priest in a temple of Goddess kali at
Dakshineshwar near Calcutta. He did not receive any formal education but had a
clear understanding of Vedantic philosophy. His teachings were simple, but had a
deep impact on the people. He regarded all religions as different paths to reach the
one true God. According to him, service to humanity was service to God.
Paramahansa’s simple teachings attracted many followers-the greatest and most
aedent of his followers being Narendranath Datta, later known as Swami
Vivekananda.
SWAMI VIVEKANANDA
Swami Vivekananda proclaimed the essential unity of all religions and emphasized
the importance of religious tolerance, brotherhood, peace and harmony among
Indians.
Vivekananda believed that Indians were themselves responsible for the decadence
and degradation of Indian society and the regeneration of society was therefore the
social responsibility of every Indian.
He condemned the caste system, social and economic inequalities, superstitions and
ritualism and urged Indians to act responsibly.
He established the Ramakrishna Mission which sought to transform Indian society
through selfless social service, spread of education and removal of ignorance and
social inequalities.
JYOTIBA PHULE
Jyotirao Govindrao Phule and his wife, Savitribai Phule, were dedicated social
reformers in Maharastra. Jyotorao was popularly known as Mahatma Phule. He
challenged the superiority of the brahmanas and the authority of the scriptures. He
took up the cause of the low-caste members of society. He organizedSatyashodhak
Samaj in 1873 to mobilize the low-caste members and oppressed sections of society
in amovement for equality. He also pressed for the education of girls.
Savitribai was the first woman teacher in modern Maharastra. She married Jyotiba
when she was nine and studied with his support. They opened several schools in
Pune and a special one for girls from the lower caste. They opened orphanages for
windows, opposed idolatry and challenged the cause of peasants and workers.
ANNIE BEASANT
Annie Besant was a brotish social reformer, philanthropist, writer and activist, who
was also actively involved in social work and political activism in India. She was a
supporter of Irish Home Rule League and started the Home Rule Movement in India.
The Theosopphical Society was founded in 1882 in Madras by Madam Blavatsky
and Colonel Olcott. Later, Annie Besant joined the Society. Its aim was to revive
Hinduism and encourage the study of Indian religions and philosophy in depth.The
Society played a significant role in fostering a sense of pride and interest in national
culture.
Veasant’s contribution was mainly in the field of education. Many schools were set
up by the society. Beasant founded the Central Hindu School at Benaras, which later
became the Benaras Hindu University. She also played a key role in the Indian
freedom struggle.
REFORM MOVEMENT IN WESTERN INDIA
The Prarthana Samaj
The Prarthana Samaj was founded in Bombay under the supervision of R.G.
Bhandarkar and Mahadev Givind Ranade. It worked on the same lines as the
Brahmo samaj. The Samaj advocated various reforms aimed at the modernization of
Indian society. It worked for the abolition of the caste system.
It stressed on:
 Inter-caste marriage
 Raising the marriageable age
 Abolition of polygamy
 Window remarriage
 Women’s education
 Welfare of the so-called ‘outcaste’
REFORM MOVEMENT IN SOUTH INDIA
Kandukuri Veeresalingam, a prominent social reformer in South India, was deeply
disturbed by the deplorable condition of women in general and the social taboo
against window remarriage and education for women in Particular. He was referred
to as the ‘Vidyasagar of South India’.
Sri Narayan Guru carried on a lifelong struggle against the caste system. His
crusade was based on the principle of ‘one caste, one religious, one God for
mankind’.
REFORMS AMONG THE PARSEES
The reform movement among the Parsees was pioneered by social reformers like
Dadabhai Naoroji and other like-minded people. The Religious Reform Association
was set up and it started a movement against religious orthodoxy. Modern ideas and
changes were introduced to elevate the position of the Parsee women.
Education of women, raising the marriageable age of girls and widow remarriage
were some of the major concerns of the reformers.
Western education and culture were enthusiastically imbibed by the Parsee
community which became, in the course of time, one of the most progressive and
westernized communities in India.
REFORM MOVEMENT AMONG THE MUSLIMS
Like the Hindus, the Muslims were also victims of religious orthodoxy, superstition
and socio-economic backwardness. As a result, some of the educated Muslims
realized the need for social, religious and educational reforms for the progress of the
Muslim community.
The most outstanding figure among the Muslims at that time was Sir Syed Ahmed
Khan. He started a reform movement called the Aligarh Movement. Like Ram Mohan
Roy, he, too, believed that only through Western education and knowledge of
English could the Muslim community progress and scientific temper be developed.
His greatest achievement was the foundation of Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental
College at Aligarh in 1875. This college became the centre of modern learning. This
college grew into the Aligarh Muslim University.
Sir Syed Ahmed reinterpreted Islam and stressed its simplicity and purity to suit the
needs of modern society. To introduce social reforms, he focused on the backward
condition of the women. He advocated the removal of purdah and spread of
education for women, and opposed polygamy. Sir Syed Ahmed played a significant
role in awakening the Muslims to the need to change with the times.
Badruddin Tyabji was another nationalist Muslim reformer who dedicated his life to
social and political causes.
THINK AND ANSWER
The social reform movement focused mainly on women-centric issues. What
insights does this give you into the position of women in 19th century India?
REFORMS AMONG THE SIKHS
The Singh Sabha was set up in Amritsar and Lahore for the religious and social
reforms among the Sikhs. It set up the Khalsa College in Amritsar and opened many
schools and promoted the Gurumukhi script and Punjabi literature.
The Sikh reformers Launched the Akali Movement LED BY Shiromani Gurudwara
Prabandhak Committee (SGPC) against the corrupt management of the gurudwaras
and freed them from the control of the mahants (managers of the gurdwara).

VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS


In order to build a progressive society we must be rational and liberal in our
thinking and behaviour. We must develop modern outlook and get rid of the
social evils that can stagnate and make it decadent and backward.
Mention some of the evil social practices that are still prevalent in today’s Indian
society. What changes will you suggest to reform the society?
11.1 A postage stamp with an imprint of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the pioneer of
Modern Age in India
11.2 Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar was a remarkable scholar and social reformer.
11.3 A portrait of Swami Dayanand Saraswati
11.4 A portrait of Annie Besant
11.5 A portrait of Kandukuri Veeresalingam
11.6 A portrait of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, an extraordinary social and educational
reformer
11.7 The Aligarh Muslim university, at Aligarh in Uttar Pradesh, was set up by Sir
Syed Ahmad Khan.
11.8 Time Line
1828 CE: Raja Ram Mohan Roy founded the Brahma Sabha
1829: William Bentinck banned the practice of Sati
1849: Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar established the first indian school for girls in
Calcutta.
1855: LordDolhousie passed the Widow Remaariage Act
1875: Arya Samaj was founded by Dayanand Saraswati
1875: Sir Syed Ahmed founded the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College at
Aligarah.
Important Words
Brahmo Samaj was a society founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy, which attracted a
large number of educated yound men, who were influenced by liberal and nationalist
ideas of the West.
Humanist is a person who believes in humanism.
Arya Samaj was founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswati in 1875. It encouraged
social reforms like inter-caste marriage, abolition of the caste system, opposed child
Marriage and laid emphasis on the education of women.
Ramakrishna Mission was founded by Swami Vivekananda to propagate the
teachings and ideals of Ramakrishna Paramahansa.
Prarthana Samaj was founded by Bhandarkar and Ranade which worked on the
same lines as the Brahmo Samaj. It aimed at the modernization of the Indian society
and the abolition of the caste system.
Singh Sabha was set up in Amritsar and Lahorefor the social and religious reforms
among the Sikhs.
Akhali Movement was launched by the Sikh reformers against the corrupt
management of the gurudwaras.
Exercises
A. Fill in the blanks:
1. Sati was banned by Lord William Bentinck with the support of progressive Indians
like -.
2. The first Indian school for girls was established in - in 1849 by - with the support of
-.
3. - was a great champion of window remarriage which was legalized by Lord -.
4. The most ardent follower of Ramakrishna Paramahansa was -, later known as -.
5. - started the Home Rule Movement in India.
6. The Prarthana samaj was founded by - and -.
B. Match the following:
A B Answers
Raja Ram Mohan Roy Ramakrishna Mission
Ishwar Chandra Arya Samaj
Vidyasagar
Dayanand Saraswati Prarthana Samaj
Swami Vivekananda Ban on sati
Mahadev Govind Ranade Window remarriage
C. Choose the correct answer:
1. Swami Dayanand/Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar/Raja Ram Mohan Roy founded the
Arya Samaj in 1875.
2. Veeresalingam/Sri Narayan Guru/R.G. Bhandarkar was referred to as the
‘Vidyasagar of SouthIndia’.
3. Dadabhai Naoroji/Mahadev Govind Ranade/Syed Ahmed Khan was an
outstanding socialreformer in Parsee society.
4. Swami Dayanand/Syed Ahmed khan/Dadabhai Naoroji founded the
Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875.
5. The Sikh reformers launched the Akali Movement/Aligarh Movement/Arya Samaj
against the corrupt management of the gurudwaras.
D. State whether the following are true or false:
1. Raja Ram Mohan Roy propagated window remarriage.
2. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar supported Lord William Bentinck in banning sati.
3. Dayanand Saraswati believed that the Vedas were the fountainhead of all
knowledge and truth.
4. Ramakrishna Paramahansa was a priest in the temple of Goddess Lakshmi at
Calcutta.
5. Swami Vivekananda believed that the regeneration of the society is the
responsibility of every Indian.
6. Jyotiba Phule was a social reformer in Maharastra.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two/sentences:
1. Mention any two evil social practices against which the Brahmo Samaj launched a
relentless struggle. [2]
2. What effect would social regeneration that took place in the 19th century have on
India’s future? [2]
3. Who established the Ramakrishna Mission and why? [2]
4. Mention any two social reforms advocated by Syed Ahmed Khan. [2]
5. Why was the Singh Sabha set up in Punjab? [2]
F. Answer the following questions briefly:
1. The central figure of the Indian Renaissance was Raja Ram Mohan Roy the
pioneer of the Modern Age in India. In this context answer the following questions:
a. Discuss briefly Raja Ram Mohan’s views and ideas on religious reform of Hindu
society. [4]
b. What was the programme of the Brahmo Samaj? [3]
c. Explain Raja Ram Mohan’s views on education. [3]
2. With reference to Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, an outstanding social and religious
reformer, discuss his contribution in the following fields:
a. Education in Sanskrit College [3]
b. Women’s education [3]
c. Widow remarriage [3]
3. Many great humanists and social reformers propagated their ideas in an effort to
arrest the stagnation of Indian society. In this context, discuss:
a. The Arya Samaj [3]
b. Vivekananda’s belief and achievements [4]
c. The Prarthana Samaj [3]
4. Write short notes on the following:
a. Ram Mohan Ray’s achievements in the field of education [3]
b. Jyotibha Phule [4]
c. Reform among Parsees [3]
5. With reference to the reform movements in various parts of India, discuss:
a. Reform Movement in South India
b. The Mligarh Movement
c. Reforms among the Sikha
G. Picture study:
This is the painting of the Indian social reformer considered to be the ‘Father of
Indian Renaissance’.
1. Name the person portrayed in the picture.
2. What were his views on religion?
3. Name the society established by him in 1828.
4. Mention the social practices against which this society lauched a relentless
struggle.
M5. ention two important social reforms supported by this society.
DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination:
Imagine you are a social activist working in an NGO supporting women’s rights in a
village. Prepare a project on the education of the girl child, justifying your request for
corporate sponsorship of your project.
Project work:
Cut and paste pictures of various social reformers in India in the 19 th century in your
project file and write about the reforms carried out by them.
Prepare a PowerPoint presentation on the importance of women’s educations in
India.
Websites:
For more information, go to:
http://www.culturalindia.net/reformers/raja-ram-mohan-roy.html (Accessed on 15
December 2016)
http://www.culturalindia.net/reformers/ (Accessed on 15 December 2016)
http://www.belurmath.og/swamivivekanandahtm (Accessed on 15 December 2016)

12 Rise of Indian Nationalism


Modern Indian nationalism arose to meet the challenge of foreign domination. It was
a reaction to the oppressive and exploitative nature of the British rule and the clash of
interests of the Indian people with those of the British. The British had conquered India
to promote their interests and they ruled it primarily to preserve and extend those
interests. This involved sacrificing Indian interests at the altar of British interests.

Exploitation before 1857 was direct and harsh. After 1857, it was subtle and
systematic. Before 1857, India was exploited by a company; after 1857 she was
exploited by a nation. The impact of this exploitation was felt by almost all sections of
Indian society, but it took several decades to comprehend the true nature of British
rule and establish the link between British policies and India’s growing poverty.

Several armed revolts took place before and after 1857. The Kuka Rebellion was one
such revolt. It was rebellion of the Sikhs under the leadership of Guru Ram Singh. It
was a protest against the deliberate policy of the British to create a rift between the
Hindus and the Muslims. The Kukas (followers of ram Singh) tried to overthrow British
rule in Punjab. The revolt was mercilessly crushed. More than 50 Kuka rebels were
tied to the mouth of cannons and blown up.

Similarly, the Santhal uprising in Bihar was also suppressed. In Bengal and Bihar, the
indigo revolts against the British were also crushed.

The numerous uprisings during this period were expressions of the widespread, deep-
rooted, discontent against British rule. These, however, did not pose any real threat to
British rule because they were regional and short-lived. What was needed was an
organized all-India movement, under the leadership of nationalist minded Indians who
could mobilized and unite the people.

DID YOU KNOW?

The Kukas believed that Ram Singh was the incarnation of the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru
Govind Singh. The Kukas had a special way of life. They rose before sunrise, put on
white clothes and white turbans and only after reading the holy scriptures did they
touch food. Liars, thieves and drunkards had no place in this sect. Sale of girls, child
marriage, killing of children and meaningless rituals were all strictly banned. Ram
Singh stressed on devotion to God, selfless service, a pure and simple life and
trusthfulness.

CAUSES OF THE RISE OF NATIONALISM

Nationalism is a patriotic feeling of love and loyalty for one’s country. It is a spirit born
out of a common history, culture, territory and economic and political goals. There
were several factors responsible for the birth of nationalism in India.

Impact of the Revolt of 1857

The Revolt of 1857 had failed to rid India of foreign rule. It had, however, succeeded
in shaking the very foundations of British rule. More importantly, it had become a
source of inspiration for thousands of people and would serve as an eye-opener for
the new generation of Indians. The heroes of the Revolt, in general, and Rani
Lakshmibai, in particular, became household names-legends that would spawn
thousands of heroes in the years to come.

Western Education and Modern Ideas

The British had introduced Western education in India to create a class of loyal clerks
and Anglicized buyers of British goods.

Western education did that and much more. It opened the floodgates of modern
knowledge and rational thinking. New ideas of humanism, nationalism and democracy
transformed the traditional outlook of the people. A new class arose-Indians education
in English-small in number, but who, in course of time, would produce leaders and
organizers of a national movement.

Western education freed their minds from the bondage of tradition. They learned about
the successful movements for freedom and unification of other countries. They now
saw with greater clarity the evil effects of British rule and dreamt of a modern, united,
prosperous and strong India.

THINK AND ANSWER


Do you agree that people in India changed and developed a modern outlook because
of western education? Do you think westernization is the same thing as
modernization? Give reasons for you answers.

The English Language

The English language acted as a link language between the educated Indians and
various parts of the country. Thus, it played a very significant role in fostering feelings
of unity among educated Indian from different provinces and linguistic regions of the
country. The barriers of language now broke down as the English language became
the common medium of communication. Educated middle-class Indians who spoke
different languages could now express their views and exchange ideas among
themselves in English. A common language fostered a sense of oneness and
understanding of their Indian identity.

Modern ideas and the spirits of nationalism, however, spread among the common
people in towns and villages through the regional languages.

Common Code of Law and Administrative Unity

British rule indirectly created conditions for the growth of nationalism in India. Prior to
the establishment of British rule, India was divided into numerous states-with different
rulers and different administrative systems. People were loyal to their respective rulers
and regions. They had little or nothing in common with the people from other regions
and lacked a national outlook and identity.

The British transformed a fragmented India into a united whole under their rule. They
introduced a uniform and modern system of government throughout the British
provinces. Uniform laws were applied to all British subjects. People from different
provinces and from different communities and castes now followed the same laws and
regulations. They gradually realized that they all belonged to the same country and
shared a common national identity as Indians.

Modern Transport and Communication System

This growing sense of unity and nationalism was further strengthened when the British
introduced a new network of roads, railways and the post and telegraph system. Social
mobility and interaction increased. Caste barriers broke down. People from different
parts of the country grew closer to each other. They realized that they shared common
problems, common aspirations and common goals. They belonged to one nation.

Rediscovery of India’s Glorious Past

Several British Governors General and other officials had propagated ideas of the
racial inferiority of the Indian and their inability to govern themselves. The self-esteem
and self-worth of the Indians had touched rock bottom.
Then came the rediscovery of a past that was great and glorious. It was a past that
could boast of the intellectual richness of Vedic philosophy, the political unity and
administrative wisdom of the Mauryas, the Golden Age of the Guptas and the cultural
brilliance of the Mughals. These discoveries were made by European scholars like
William Jones, Alexander Cunningham, James Prinsep and other Indologists, who
researched India’s historical past and revealed its rich heritage. These revelations
instilled in the Indians feelings of national pride and self-confidence and inspired them
to dream of anew resurgent India.

The interest and enthusiasm of foreign scholars stimulated the interest of the Indian in
their rich and varied history. The task of ‘rediscovery’ was carried on by Indian socio-
religious reformers throughout the 19th century. Reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy,
Swami Dayanand, Vivekananda and others rejuvenated Indian society, instilled in
people a pride in their Indian identity and prepared the ground for the growth of the
national spirit.

Vernacular Press and Literature

The vernacular press played a vital role in spreading modern ideas and creating
national awareness. Nationalist leaders, the best among the educated middle-class
intellectuals, used the press to criticize British policies and expose the evils of foreign
rule. The ideas of democracy and responsible government were popularized through
the press. Indians were asked to unite and work for the welfare of the nation. Thus,
the press became a powerful medium which was used to arouse the spirit of
nationalism among the people.

National literature also inspired the spirit of nationalism among the people. Novels,
essays and patriotic poems written by well-known authors and poets fired the
imagination of the common people and gave rise to powerful patriotic feelings. Banking
Chandra Chattopadhyaya’s ‘Vande Mataram’ continues to evoke strong patriotic
emotions among Indians even to this day.

Economic Exploitation

British economic policies in India had deliberately transformed India into an agricultural
colony. India had become a supplier of British raw materials and a market for British
manufactured products. The destruction of India’s traditional industries and the
exploitation of her abundant resources to serve the interests of the British empire
exposed the true nature of British rule.

The drain of India’s wealth to Britain, the impoverishment of the masses, industrial
decay, grinding poverty, frequent famines, and the indifference and apathy of the
British government produced a nationalistic reaction. The educated Indians realized
the gravity of the situation and the need to have some control over economic policies.

Racial Arrogance and Racial Discrimination of British Rulers


All Indians, irrespective of their social, economic and political status, were considered
to be an inferior and uncivilized race. They were looked down upon, treated with
contempt and humiliated.

Western ideas of equality and personal freedom were taught in English school and
colleges in India. The Queen’s Proclamation of 1858 promised Indian equal
opportunities. This was in sharp contrast to the actual situation.

The discriminatory policies adopted by the British at the social, political and
economic level were greatly resented by the Indian intellectuals.

 Indians were debarred from using parks, clubs, hospitals, libraries and railway
coaches reserved exclusively for the British.
 All important positions in the administration were also reserved for the British.
(Surendranath Banerjea was dismissed from the Indian Civil Service on Flimsy
grounds.) Nominated Indian members in the Legislative Councils were not given
any powers.

Repressive Policies of Lord Lytton

British economic policies sacrificed Indian interests to those of the British. Lord
Lytton’s discriminatory policies caused great resentment among the educated Indians.

The Vernacular Press Act

This Act curbed the liberty of the Indian press. It deprived the people of their basic
right to freedom of speech and expression.

The Arms Act

Under this Act, Indians could not own and carry weapons without a license from the
government. This Act did not apply to Europeans.

Reduction in Age for ICS Examination

The age limit for candidates, appearing for the Imperial Civil Services examination was
reduced from 21 to 19. The chance of Indian candidates joining the civil services was
greatly reduced with this law.

The IIbert Bill Controversy

Lord Ripon, who followed Lord Lytton, wanted to change some of the discriminatory
policies of the government. He approved of the Ilbert Bill which allowed Indian judges
to try Europeans (whites) accused of crimes. The violent reaction (known as the White
Mutiny) of the Europeans and Anglo-Indians to this proposal shocked the Indian
nationalists. The Bill had to be amended.
This incident blew the lid off the racial arrogance of the Europeans. It served as an
eye-opener and drove home the urgent need to form an organized national body to
protect the interest and dignity of the Indians.

In 1883 Surendranath Banerjea held the Indian National Conference, and within 2
years, the Indian National Congress was born.

THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS

The national aspirations of the Indian people found expression in the establishment of
the Indian National Congress in 1885.

The initiative to set up an all-India organization was taken by Allan Octavian Hume, a
retired British official of the Civil Service. He was supported by important nationalist
Indian leaders. A.O. Hume laid the foundation of the Indian National Congress in
December 1885.

The Indian National Congress formally established by A.O. Hume, would have,
according to an Indian historian, ‘emerged soon enough, Hume or no Hume.’ The
Indian National Congress was not a deliberate creation but the ‘natural and inevitable
product’ of forces already at work (mentioned in the earlier chapters).

The first session of the Congress was held in Bombay (now Mumbai) in December
1885. It was presided over by W.C. Bonnerjee and attended by 72 delegates. The
main aims of the Congress were:

 To promote friendly relations among nationalist workers in different parts of the


country.
 To develop nad strengthen feelings of national unity throughout the country.
 To formulate popular demands and to place them before the government.
 To train and organize public opinion in the country.

DISCUSS

Do you think that the nationalism which developed in the 19 th century was different
from the earlier periods? Give reasons for your answer.

The first session of the Congress ended with the delegates affirming their loyalty to
the British Crown and declaring that all they desired was greater involvement and
participation of the Indians in the government. This soft, conciliatory attitude of the
Congress would, in 44 years’ time, be transformed into a strident, emphatic demand
for ‘Poorna Swaraj’.

VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS

People should not be discriminated on the basis of race, colour, caste, or creed. We
should not look down upon people who belong to a different culture. Discriminatory
policies can cause great resentment among people and disrupt peace both at the
national and international Levels.

 Do you think the Ilbert Bill should have been amended after the White Mutiny?
Why?

List of Figures

12.1 A painting showing a group of Santhals, a tribal community from eastern India,
attacking a British infantry group

12.2 A postage stamp, showing Surendranath Banerjea-an early nationalist leader.

12.3 Time Line

1883: Surendarnath Banerji held the Indian National Conference in 1883.

1885: Indian National congress was formed in 1885

Important Words

Kukas were the followers of Guru Ram Singh who tried to overthrow British rule in
Punjab; but their revolt was mercilessly crushed.

Indologists were those people who researched India’s historical past and revealed
its rich heritage, such as William Jones and James Prinsep among others.

Discriminatory policies were adopted by the British in dealing with the Indians at the
social, political and economic level, wherein the Indians were considered an inferior
and uncivilized race, and were looked down upon and treated with contempt.

Ilbert Bill allowed Indian judges to try Europeans accused of crime. The Europeans
reacted violently to this and the Bill had to be amended.

Exercises

A. Fill in the blanks:


1. Modern Indian nationalism arose to meet the challenge of -.
2. Exploitation of India by the British was direct was direct and harsh before 1857,
after 1857 it became - and -.
3. The - rebellion was an armed rebellion of the Sikh against the British policy of divide
and rule.
4. The English language acted as a - language among the educated Indians.
5. A.O. Hume laid the foundation of the - - - in December 1885.
B. Match the following:
A B Answers
1. Kukas Rediscovered India’s glorious
past
2. Santhal uprising Followers of Guru Ram Singh
3. William Jones Ilbert Bill controversy
4. ‘Vande Mataram’ Bihar
5. Lord Ripan Evoked patriotic emotions
C. Choose the correct answer:
1. ‘Vande Mataram’ was written by Swami Vivekananda/ Raja Ram Mohan Roy/
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyaya.
2. Lord Ripon/Lord Lytton/Lord Dalhousie approved of the Iibert Bill.
3. The Indian National Congress was established in 1883/1885/1890.
4. The first session of the Indian National Congress was attended by
62/72/82/delegates.
5. The first session of the Indian National Congress was presided over by W.C.
Bonnerjee/ Surendranath Banerjea /A.O. Hume.
D. State whether the following are true or false:
1. The Revolt of 1857 had failed to rid India of foreign rule.
2. Western education and modern ideas could not bring the Indians together.
3. Racial arrogance and racial discrimination by the British caused great resentment
among Indian intellectuals.
4. The Ilbert Bill had to be amended as the Europeans reacted violently to it.
5. A.O. Hume was not supported by nationalist Indian leaders.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:
1. Define nationalism. [2]
2. Name any two Western scholars who researched the Indian past and rediscovered
its rich heritage. [2]
3. How did the British economic policies in India transform India into an agricultural
colony? [2]
4. Why was the Ilbert Bill introduced and by whom? [2]
5. When and where was the first session of the Indian National Congress held?

F. Answer the following questions briefly:


1. There were many factors that led to the rise of nationalism in India. In the light of
this statement answer the following questions:
(a) In what way did the Revolt of 1857 impact the rise of nationalism in India?
[3]
(b) What changes did Western education bring about in the traditional Indian outlook?
[4]
(c) The English language acted as a link language among the Indians. Explain.
[3]
2. In the context of the causes of the rise of Indian nationalism, answer the following
questions:
(a) How did the British administrative system indirectly create conditions favourable
for the growth of Indian nationalism? [3]
(b) Examine the role of modern transport and communication in fostering unity and
nationalism among the people. [3]
(c) How did the rediscovery of India’s glorious past prepare the ground for the growth
of the national spirit among the Indians? [3]
3. With reference to the rise of Indian nationalism, answer the following questions:
(a) What was the role of Vernacular press and literature in the rise of Indian
nationalism? [4]
(b) How did the British economic policies led to the growth of Indian nationalism?
[3]
(c) Mention the discriminatory policies that were greatly resented by the Indian
intellectuals. [3]
4. In the context of the Indian National Congress, answer the following questions:
(a) Briefly discuss the Ilbert Bill controversy and show how it hastened the
establishment of the Indian National Congress. [3]
(b) What role did A.O. Hume play in the establishment of the Indian National
Congress? [3]
(c) Mention the main aims of the Congress. [4]
G. Picture study:
This is the picture of a person who was dismissed from the Indian Civil Service by
the British on flimsy grounds.
1. Identify the person in the picture.
2. Name the conference that he held in 1883.
3. What was the outcome of the conference?
4. What were the main aims of the Indian National Congress?

DO AND LEARN

Use your imagination:

Imagine you lived during the British rule in India. The British government has
introduced the Imagine in India. You decide to go on an all India tour by train during
your school vacations. Write a letter to your friend describing your experiences and
explain how this journey has been a great learning experience.

Project work:

Find information and pictures of the following people and put them in your scrapbook.

(i) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyaya (ii) Surendranath Banerjea (iii) W.C.


Bonnerjee

Websites:

For more information, go to:

 http://www.historydiscussion.net/history-of-india/rise-of-nationalism-in-indian-
history/648 (Accessed on 15 December 2016)
13. The Indian National Movement (1885-1916)
The history of the Indian national movement led by the congress can be divided
broadly into three phases:

 Early Nationalist Phase: 1885-1905


 Assertive National Phase: 1905-18
 Gandhian Phase: 1918-47

THE EARLY NATIONALISTS (THE MODERATES) (1885-1905)

During its initial years, the Congress was led by nationalist leaders who were describe
by later historians as early nationalists. The members of the Congress during the
early nationalist phase belonged mainly to the educated middle-class intellectual
community (lawyers, teachers, journalists, officials, professionals, industrialists and
others). The important leaders during this period were Dadabhai Naoroji,
Surendranath Banerjea and Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

Beliefs

The early nationalists believed that British rule had conferred several benefits on India.
They felt that at the stage of history it was in their own interests to remain under the
British since they were not yet ready to govern themselves. The early nationalists were
convinced that the British could be persuaded to introduce necessary reforms and the
government could be transformed to suit the interests of the Indian subjects.

Objectives

The early nationalists wanted proper participation of the Indians in the government in
the near future and a gradual move towards self-government in the distant future.

Methods

The early nationalists s had great faith in the sense of justice and fair play of the British.
So they adopted peaceful and constitutional methods. They presented their
grievances to the government and waited patiently for the government to pass laws to
remove those grievances. They believed that the government would gradually give in
to their demands.

They promoted unity, spread political awareness among the people and built up a
strong public opinion through meetings, lectures and the press. They also sent
delegations to England to persuade the British government to introduce necessary
reforms.

Demands of the Early Nationalists

The early nationalists wanted the British to introduce certain reforms for the welfare of
all sections of Indian society. They believed that the British would grant them their
requests if they were convinced that the demands were reasonable and just.
Contribution of the Early Nationalists

According to some historians, the early nationalist leaders failed to achieve their
objectives. There is, no doubt, some element of truth in their criticism. However, if we
examine the early nationalist phase in the context of the entire movement, the
achievements of the Congress become obvious.

 The early nationalists established a solid foundation which served as a base for a
more radical approach in later years.
 They spread political awareness among the people and instilled in them a sense
of national unity. The people began to think of themselves as members of one
single nation-the Indian nation. The path for a united national struggle was laid.
 The Congress under the early nationalists trained the Indian in political affairs.
They educated them in political matters and familiarized them with ideas of
freedom, government, democracy, secularism, nationalism, etc. This knowledge of
and training in political affairs helped Indian nationalists to organize and raise the
national movement to the next stage of development.

The relevance of the beliefs of the early nationalists-peaceful, orderly change and a
secular approach to national problems-have acquired special relevance in today’s
world of violence and communal politics. A moderate approach to the complex
problems of today is perhaps the only most viable solution that can heal our world.

By the beginning of the 20th century, the character of the national movement began to
change. New trends appeared and the leadership of the Congress passed from the
hands of the early nationalists to those of the assertive nationalists.

DISCUSS

Do you think the British were genuinely concerned about the welfare of the Indians?
Give reasons for your answer.

THE ASSERTIVE NATIONALISTS (THE RADICALS) (1905-18)

The transition in the national movement marked the beginning of the second phase of
the national movement. It was known as the assertive nationalist phase and was led
by outstanding men like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lal Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal and
Aurobindo Ghosh. Their political beliefs, aims and methods were very different from
those of the early nationalists.

Beliefs

The assertive nationalists had no faith in the British sense of justice and fair play. They
believed that the British rule in India was not a blessing but a curse. They were
convinced that the British had no honest intentions of introducing reforms for the
welfare of the Indians. They realized that the British interests were different and
clashed with the Indian interests. India could never grow and progress under British
rule.

Objectives

The goal of the assertive nationalists was not self-government in ‘gradual’ stages but
immediate freedom (swaraj) from British rule.

Methods

The assertive nationalists had no faith in the constitutional methods followed by the
early nationalists. Twenty years of prayers, petitions, appeals, resolutions and
representations had failed to yield any concrete results.

Tilak knew that the British would never concede to the demand for searaj without a
struggle.

So, a radical method of active opposition to the government would have to be adopted.
Swaraj would have to be achieved through a political, anti-government agitation and
with the involvement and support of the masses. The Congress would have to be
transformed from a platform for debates among the westernized, Indian intelligentsia
into a regiment of freedom fighters-united, determined, confident and willing to make
sacrifices.

THINK AND ANSWER

Do you agree with the methods of the early nationalists or those of the assertive
nationalists? Give reasons for your answer.

THE PARTITION OF BENGAL

The British partitioned Bengal in 1905 in pursuance of their policy of divide and rule.
After the partition of Bengal in 1905 by the British, the assertive nationalists adopted
the methods of boycott, swadeshi and national education to achieve the goal of
Swaraj. The people were asked to boycott all British goods and use only Indian or
swadeshi goods.

The assertive nationalists also saw through the evil designs of the British in dividing
Bengal on communal lines. This was done to separate the Hindus from the Muslims
and destroy the unity between them. The British policy of divide and rule had created
a gap between the Hindu and Muslim communities.

The Surat Split

The partition of Bengal briefly brought the early nationalists and the assertive
nationalists and the assertive nationalists together. The early nationalists supported
the radical methods of political agitation – swadeshi and boycott- to protest against the
partition of Bengal. However, the unity between the two group was short-lived. Cracks
between the two wings of the Congress began to appear in the course of the
movement against partition. The early nationalists and their assertive counterparts
failed to agree on various aspects of the swadeshi and boycott movement, and in
1907, at the Surat session of the Congress, the early nationalist leaders expelled the
assertive nationalist leaders from the Congress. The latter continued to function as
separate group till 1916. In the meantime, the British crushed the swadeshi movement.
Tilak was sentenced to six years of imprisonment.

THE MUSLIM LEAGUE

The Muslim League was established in December 1906, under the leadership of
Nawab Salimullah Khan in Dacca (now known as Dhaka). Aga Khan and others also
joined the Muslim League.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah joined the Muslim League in 1913.

The main objective of the Muslim League were as follows:

 To promote among the Muslim a feeling of loyalty towards the British government.
 To protect and promote the political rights of the Muslims.
 To prevent feelings of hostility towards other communities.

The League served as a political platform for upper-class Muslims. It supported the
partition of Bengal. The League demanded special safeguards for Muslims in
government service. In 1906, it appealed to the Viceroy for separate electorates. This
meant that the Muslim voters would elect Muslim representatives. The introduction of
separate electorates sounded the death knell of national unity. It was the first definite
step on the road to the partition of India.

THE FIRST WORLD WAR AND INDIA

The outbreak of the first World war in 1914 had a significant effect on the national
movement. As a colony of the British empire, India was automatically drawn into the
war.

Initially, there was an outburst of loyalty and the Indian nationalist leaders supported
the British government with men and money. More than a million Indian soldiers were
sent overseas to join the British army and a hundred million pounds were given to the
British government.

The British and their allies declared that they were fighting the war to make the world
‘safe for democracy’ and to promote the right of all nations to form self-governments.
This led the Indian nationalists to believe that a grateful Britain would reward India’s
loyalty and fulfil its demands for self-government.

However, as the war dragged on, the hopes and expectations of the Indian leaders
began to wane. The British continued to ignore the Indian demands for reform. By
1915, Tilak (who was released in 1914 after six years of imprisonment) was convinced
that the British had no real intentions of granting any concessions to the Indians. The
Congress was passive and inactive at this time, dominated by the early nationalists
who had lost the support and respect of the people. Tilak realized the need to revive
the national spirit and enthuse and energize people.

THE HOME RULE LEAGUES

Two Home Rule Leagues were formed in 1916, one under the leadership of Tilak
and the other under the leadership of Annie Beasant. Together, they spread the home
Rule movement to different parts of the country. The main aim of the Leagues was to
achieve self-government within the British empire after the war. Tilak and Annie
Besant travelled all over India spreading the message of freedom and self-rule. The
movement became very popular.

THE LUCKNOW SESSION OF THE CONGRESS (1916)

Another important development during the war was the change in the attitude of the
Muslims towards the British government. The pro-British attitude of the Indian Muslims
became anti-British. Large sections of the educated Muslims began to support the
nationalist movement.

Nationalist Muslims like the Ali brothers-Maulana Mohammad Ali and Shankar Ali, and
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad spread nationalist ideas among the Muslims. According to
them, there among the Muslims. According to them, there was no conflict between
Islam and nationalism. Abul Kalam Azad criticized the British policy of divide and rule
and had urged the Muslims to join in the struggle against the real enemy-British
imperialism.

The changed attitude of the Indian Muslims brought the League and the Congress
close to one another. The growing unity between them led to the signing of the
Lucknow Pact in 1916. The Lucknow Pact was an agreement signed by the Muslim
League and the Congress to pave the way for a joint scheme of political reforms in
India.

Under the Lucknow Pact, the League jointly with the Congress put forward the demand
for a Dominion Status for India. This was an important step towards Hindu-Muslim
unity.

The Lucknow session of the Congress also reunited the Moderates and the Radicals.
The two wings of the congress held a joint meeting for the first time since the Surat
Split in 1907. The nationalists realized that it was necessary to put up a united front
against the government.

The unity between the Muslim League and the Congress, on the one hand and the
early nationalists and the assertive nationalists, on the other, aroused great political
enthusiasm and strengthened the national movement.
VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS

It is very important to understand that honesty builds trust. It is necessary to reinforce


that we should be honest in every sphere of life. Dishonesty hurts both ourselves and
others. Being honourable, fair-minded and dependable are important virtues and helps
to build mutual trust.

 What are the ways in which we can help to make our society an honest society?

13.1 Leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal led the
national movement in its assertive phase, from 1905 to 1918.

13.2 Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Important Words

Early nationalists were the nationalist leaders who led the Congress in its initial
years.

Assertive nationalists were those leaders of the Congress who believed in the
radical method of active opposition to the British government.

Swaraj means self-rule. It refers to the end of foreign rule.

Partition of Bengal was done in 1905 by Lord Curzon on communal lines, destroying
the unity between the Hindus and the Muslims.

Boycott of foreign goods refers to the refusal to use british goods.

Swadeshi means the use of indigenous goods, i.e. goods produced and made in
India.

Muslim League served as apolitical platform for upper-class Muslims. Its


establishment checked the growth of national unity and weakened the national
movement.

Separate electorates refer to the voting population of the country, divided into
different electorates based on factory like religion, caste, occupation, etc. for example,
it meant that Muslim voters could elect Muslim representatives.

Home rule League were formed under Tilak and Annie Besant with the aim to achieve
self-government within the British Empire.

The Lucknow Pact was signed between the Muslim league and the Congress in
1916, regarding a joint scheme of political reforms in India.

Exercise

A. Fill in the blanks:


1. The early nationalists spread - - among the people.
2. The assertive nationalists believed that British rule in India was not a - but a -.
3. After the partition of Bengal, the assertive nationalists adopted the methods of -, -
and - to achieve the goal of swaraj.
4. Separate electorates meant that the - voters could elect - representatives.
5. The early nationalist leaders expelled the assertive nationalists from the Congress
at the - session in 1907.

B. Match the following:


A B
Dadabhai Naoroji 1905
Assertive nationalists Separate electorates
Partition of Bengal Use of only Indian goods
Muslim League Immediate freedom from British rule
Swadeshi Early nationalists
C. Choose the correct answer:
1. The history of the Indian national movement is broadly categorized into
three/four/five phases.
2. Bal Gangadhar Tilak/Dadabhai Naoroji/Surendranath Banerjea was an important
assertive nationalist leader.
3. The British followed the policy of divide and rule by dividing Bengal.Punjab/Gujarat
on communal lines.
4. The Muslim League was established in 1905/1906/1913.
5. Two Home Rule Leagues were formed in 1916/1914/1918.
D. State whether the following are true or false:
1. The early nationlists believed in the justice and fair play of the British.
2. The early nationalists presented their grievances to he British
3. The political beliefs, aims and methods of the assertive nationalists were the same
as those of the early nationalists.
4. The assertive nationlists had no faith in the constitutional methods followed by the
early nationalists.
5. Tilak knew that the British would concede to the demands of swaraj easily without
any struggle.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:
1. Mention two leaders of the early nationalist phase. [2]
2. Mention two leaders of the assertive nationalist phase. [2]
3. Why were the assertive nationalists disillusioned with the leadership of the early
nationalists? [2]
4. When and why was Bengal partitioned? [2]
5. Where and under whose leadership was the Muslim league established?
[2]
6. Mention two objectives of the Muslim League. [2]
7. Why was the introduction of separate electorates a death blow to national unity?
[2]
8. Why did the Indian nationalists support the war effort of the British when the First
World War broke out? [2]
9. What was the main aim of the Home Rule Leagues? [2]
F. Answer the following questions briefly:
1. With reference to the early nationalists discuss the following:
(a) Beliefs of the early nationalists [3]
(b) Methods of the early nationalists [3]
(c) Important contributions made by the early nationalists to the national movement
[4]
2. With reference to the rise of the assertive nationalists within the Congress discuss:
(a) The beliefs of the assertive nationalists [4]
(b) The objectives of the assertive nationalists [2]
(c) How the methods of the Assertive nationalists different from those of the early
nationalists [4]
3. With reference to the Lucknow Session of the Congress of 1916, answer the
following questions:
(a) What was the Lucknow Pact? [3]
(b) What was the objective of the Lucknow Pact? [3]
(c) What were the results of Lucknow Pact? [4]
G. Picture study:

This is the picture of a nationalist leader.

1. Identify the person in the picture.


2. Which political organization did he join and when?
3. When and by whom was this organization founded?
4. What were the objectives of this organization?

DO AND LEARN

Use your imagination:

Imagine yourself to be a reporter of a nationalist newspaper in 1905. Write a report on


partition of Bengal that took place in1905.

Project work:

Find information and pictures of the following people and put them in your scrapbook.

(i) Dadabhai Naoroji (ii) Bal Gangadhar Tilak (iii) Lala Lajpat Rai (iv) Bipin
Chandra Pal (v) Aurobindo Ghosh

Websites:

For more information, go to:

 http://www.slideshare.net/girish.arabbi/national-movement-1 (Accessed on 15
December 2016)
14. The Indian National Movement (1917-1934)
Following the signing of the Lucknow Pact in 1916, the British government realized
that repressive measures alone could not check the rising tide of anti-British feeling.
They realized that some reforms would have to be granted to appease the nationalists
and bring the anti-British movement under control.

The british government therefore passed the Government of India Act, 1919, or the
Montague-Chelmsford reforms. This Act provided for Dual government in the
provinces, severely restricted the right to vote, enlarged the Provincial Legislative
councils and the Governor-general remained responsible to the Secretary of the State.

The reforms failed to appease the people. Real authority continued to be in the hands
of the British. The Congress condemned the reforms as disappointing and
unsatisfactory. A new era of struggle began-the Gandhian era.

EMERGENCE OF MAHATMA GANDHI

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi, was born in


1869 at Porbandar, Gujarat.

Gandhi studied law in England and spent about 22 years in South Africa as a practising
lawyer.

The racial discrimination and the humiliating conditions under which Indians lived in
that country shocked and angered Gandhiji. He became the leader of a struggle
against racial injustice in South Africa. During the struggle, he evolved a technique
known as satyagraha which was later applied to the Indian national movement.

Gandhian Methods

Satyagraha is a combination of two Sanskrit words-satya (truth) and agraha


(eagerness). Satyagraha is based on the twin principles of truth and non-violence.

Truth and Non-Violence

A satyagrahi was one who firmly believed in truth and non-violence and who would
resist evil at all costs. A satyagrahi was peaceful, fearless and strong. He/she would
hate evil but not the ‘evil doer’. In the fight for justice and truth, the satyagrahi would
willingly accept suffering and be ready to make sacrifices.

The suffering and patience of the satyagrahi was expected to bring about a change of
heart in the enemy. The idea behind satyagraha was not to destroy the enemy but to
transform and enlighten him.

Gandhiji insisted on non-violent methods of struggle. He believed that non-violence


was the weapon of the strong and could be effectively used to resist armed attacks by
the enemy. A satyagrahi was excepted to follow peaceful methods even under
extreme provocation.
Non-violent methods of struggle in India consisted of non-cooperation with the British
government. This included: (i) peaceful demonstration (ii) defiance of unjust British
Laws (iii) boycott of British goods, institutions and services (iv) the use of the charkha
and khadi to promote self-reliance and the swadeshi spirit and (v) non-payment of the
oppressive taxes. The idea was to bring the government to a standstill. Gandhiji
promoted he use of charkha and khadi to promote self-reliance and the spirit of
swadeshi.

Hindu-Muslim Unity

Gandhiji was a devout Hindu and a passionate believer in the equality of all religious.
He wrote, ‘Indian culture is neither Hindu, Islamic nor any other, wholly. It is a fusion
of all.’

He was convinced that the path to India’s salvation lay in Hindu-Muslim unity. Gandhiji
lived and died for the cause of Hindu-Muslim unity.

Mass Movement

Gandhiji had immense faith in the capacity of the common people to struggle against
oppression. Under his leadership, the Indian national movement was transformed into
a mass movement.

Social Justice

Gandhiji was a great believer in social justice. He championed the cause of the poor
and the downtrodden, the emancipation of women and improvement of the conditions
of the lower caste ‘untouchable’ whom he called ‘Harijans’ , i.e. children of God. He
worked tirelessly to remove prejudices and change the mindset of the people. He
believed that political freedom was meaningless without social reforms. Laws would
be effective only if there was a change of heart.

Gandhiji’s Early Campaigns

Gandhiji returned to India in 1915 and began to take an interest in national politics. His
early campaigns at kheda, Champaran and Ahmadabad were also his first
experiments in satyagraha, in three local areas-each with a distinct problem.

Champaran

Gandhiji championed the cause of the tenant farmers of Champaran district against
the oppression of the British indigo planters. The movement was a success and the
peasants received compensation.

Ahmadabad Mill Strike

Gandhiji organized a workers strike against the exploitative Indian mill owners in
Ahmadabad. The mill owners finally agreed to increase the salary of the workers.
Kheda Satyagraha (Gujarat)

Gandhiji advised and convinced the cultivators of Kheda district to stop paying land
revenue to the government because the crops had failed. The peasants’ demand for
remission of land tax was accepted by the government.

The success of these three localized movements had proved the efficiency of the
Gandhian techniques of non-violence and satyagraha.

By 1919, Gandhiji had become the most important leader of the national movement.
He was convinced that the participation of the people in the movement was essential
for its success. He became very popular among the masses and led a number of mass
movements. He soon became the centrestage of national politics.

Discuss

Why do you think mass movements are popular? Why did Gandhiji take so much care
to get the support of the masses?

JALLIANWALA BAGH TRAGEDY

The British government adopted the policy of repression to crush the anti-British
movement against the repressive Rowlatt Act passed by the government in 1919. In
some places, particularly in Punjab, the nationalist leaders were arrested in Amritsar.

To protest against the arrest of their leaders, a public meeting was held on 13 April
1919 in an enclosed space known as Jallianwala Bagh. The people were unarmed
and peaceful. Unfortunately, they were not aware of the fact that the military
commander of Amritsar, General Dyer, had issued an order banning all public
meetings.

Genaral Dyer surrounded the Bagh with his troops, blocked the only exit and ordered
the troops to open fire on the peaceful gathering in the Bagh.

The shooting continued till there was no ammunition left. Nearly 400 people were killed
and over 1,000 were injured.

Martial law was proclaimed in Punjab. During this period, people were humiliated and
tortured. The brutality of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre and the humiliation and
inhuman treatment of the Indians that followed shocked the entire nation.

Gandhiji was horrifies. He lost all faith in the goodness of the British government and
declare that it would be a ‘sin’ to cooperate with the ‘satanic’ government.

KHILAFAT MOVEMENT

Turkey had been defeated in the First World War and the territories of the Turkish
empire were divided between Britian and France. Harsh treatment was given to the
Turkish sultan who was also the religious head of all Muslims. This caused great
resentment among Muslims all over the world, including India. As a result of this the
Khilafat Movement was launched by the Ali brothers-Maulana Muhammad Ali and
Maulana Shaukat Ali. Gandhiji and the Congress supported this movement. The main
aim of the movement was to uphold the power and prestige of the Caliph and
preservation of the territorial integrity of Turkey.

On 24 November 1919, the all India Khilafat Conference was held and on 31 August
1920, under Gandhi’s leadership, the Non- Cooperation Movement was launched. The
two movements took place at the same time. People resigned from government
services, schools and colleges were boycotted, shops selling foreign goods were
picketed and strikes and demonstration were held. By the end of 1920, the Khilafat
Movement merged with the Non-Cooperation Movement.

NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENT (1920)

The ultimate goal of the Non-Cooperation Movement launched by Gandhiji in 1920.


The attainment of swaraj by peaceful and legitimate means. The programme of non-
cooperation and the methods of resistance were as follows:

 Boycott of foreign goods


 Boycott of government schools, colleges, law courts, legislatures and all British
institutions
 Boycott of elections and government functions
 Renunciation of titles and honours awarded by the brotish

Constructive programmes like swadeshi and Hindu-Muslim unity also became a part
of the movement. Gandhiji stressed the importance of self-reliance and self-
sufficiency. He popularized khadi (handspun and hand-woven cloth) among the people
including the upper classes. The charkha became the symbol of swadeshi. National
education was promoted.

The atmosphere was charged with enthusiasm, determination and confidence. An


unfortunate incident changed all that. Early in 1922, a procession of peasant were fired
upon by the police at Chauri Chaura, a village in UP. The people reacted violently
and burnt down the Chauri Chaura police station. Twenty-two policemen were killed.
Gandhiji Immediately called off the movement.

THINK AND ANSWER

Do you think Gandhiji was justified in calling off the Non-Coperation Movement? Give
reasons for your answer.

The Non-Cooperation Movement had ended in failure but the national spirit had been
strengthened. Gandhiji withdrew from active politics and devoted himself to the task
of social reform.

LAHORE SESSION OF THE CONGRESS (1929)


In December 1929, the Indian National Congress met in Lahore under the youthful
and dynamic leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru.

The Congress passed a resolution declaring ‘Poorna Swaraj’ or ‘Complete


Independence’ as its goal. 26 January 1930 was fixed as ‘Independence Day’.

The Congress also resolved to launch a Civil Disobedience Movement under the
leadership of Gandhiji.

On 26 January 1930, Independence Day was celebrated all over the country. The
newly adopted Indian tricolour was unfurled and people solemnly took the pledge of
freedom. 26 January was celebrated as Independence Day every year, till India finally
became free in 1947. From 1950 onwards, 26 January has been celebrated as
Republic Day.

CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT (1930-34)

The Civil Disobedience Movement was a form of non-cooperation, involving the


breaking of government laws. Its objective was to defy the British government and
pressurize it to give in to the demands of the nationalists.

The Civil Disobedience Movement was launched by Gandhiji in March 1930, with the
Salt Satyagraha. Gandhiji decided to start with the breaking of the unjust salt law
because it affected everybody in the country. Every Indian had to pay the salt tax.
Indians could not manufacture salt because it was a government monopoly.

The Salt Satyagraha began with the historic Dandi March. Gandhiji set out from
Sabarmati Ashram with 78 followers, on a 385-km journey to the coastal village of
Dandi. Thousands of people joined him on the way.

On his arrival in Dandi, he picked up a handful of salt from the beach. This act
symbolized defiance of the salt law. It was a signal for every Indian to violate the salt
law. Throughout India, people began to manufacture salt and sell it openly.

The movement spread rapidly. Civil Disobedience extended to violation of other laws
and refusal to pay taxes. It included boycott of foreign goods, hartals, demonstration
and picketing of shops selling foreign goods.

DID YOU KNOW?

In the North-West Frontier Province, the Civil Disobedience Movement was led by
Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, popularly known as ‘Frontier Gandhi”. He established an
organization called Khudai Khidmatgars, popularly known as the ‘Red Shirts’.

An important feature of this movement was the active participation of a large number
of women. Sarojini Naidu was one of the leaders of this movement.
The government suppressed the movement with force and brutality. Gandhiji, Nehru
and all other important leaders were arrested. Hundreds of people where injured or
killed in lathi charges and police firing. Over 90,000 people were imprisoned.

The political activity in India became very intense after 1937. Leaders of the national
movement had made it clear to the British that their days in India were numbered. The
British passed a number of Acts and sent missions to appease the Indians but in vain.

VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS

In today’s world of violence and conflict non-violence is more relevant than ever
before. We should have self-control to manage our anger, stay calm and keep the
peace. We should not retaliate in an angry or violent way when we are hurt. We should
resort to peaceful but firm ways of solving problems and conflicts.

 What are the ways in which you can deal with anger or hurt without hurting
someone else?

14.1 Gandhi as a young lawyer in South Africa

14.2 Gandhiji Spining Charka

14.3 General Dyer, the British commander who ordered the infamous firing on
unarmed civilians at the Jallianwala Bagh.

14.5 Under Gandhiji’s Leadership, the Indian national movement was transformed into
a mass movement for freedom.

14.6 A people’s procession durning the Non-Cooperation Movement

14.7 A people’s procession durning the Non-Cooperation Movement

Important Words

Satyagraha was the principle followed by Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian national
movement, based on the twin principles of truth and non-violence.

Harijan It means children of God. It was the name given by Gandhiji to the
‘untouchables’.

Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 and empowered the government to arrest and
imprison people without any warrant or trial for any length of time.

Hartal means to go on strike in protest of something.

Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place on 13 April 1919 when General Dyer opened
fire on the peaceful gathering in the Bagh Killing thousands of people.

Non-Cooperation Movement was launched by Gandhiji in 1920. The ultimate goal


was the attainment of swaraj by peaceful and legitimate means.
Chauri Chaura is a village in UP where a procession of peasants were fired upon by
the police in 1922. In reaction to this, the masses burnt down the police station. As a
result, Gandhiji immediately called off the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Civil Disobedience Movement was a form of non-cooperation involving the breaking


of government laws.

Dandi March was a historical march of Gandhiji from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi and
symbolized defiance of the salt law.

Exercises

A. Fill in the blanks:


1. Gandhi spent about 22 years in - - as a practicing lawyer.
2. Under - leadership, the Indian national movement was transformed into a mass -
movement.
3. To protest against the arrest of their leaders, a public meeting was held at - in
Amritsar in the year-
4. After the British brutalities in Amritsar, Gandhiji declared that it would be a - to -
with the - government.
5. At the - session of the Congress in 1929, - was declared as its goal.
B. Match the following:
A B Answers
Gandhiji Symbol of swadeshi
Charkha Boycott of British goods
Jallianwala Bagh Salt Satyagraha
Dandi March 13 April 1919
Non-cooperation Truth and non-violence
Movement
Choose the correct answer:
1. Gandhiji studied law in England/South Africa/France.
2. Gandhiji organized a workers strike against the exploitative Indian mill owners in
Ahmadabad/Kheda/Champaran.
3. The Non-Coopration Movement was launched by Gandhiji in 1920/1930/1940.
4. A resolution declaring ‘Poorns Swaraj was declared as its goal at the
Lahore/Surat/Bombay session of the Congress.
5. The Non-Cooperation Movement/Civil Disobedience Movement/Q Movement was
started with the Salt Satyagraha in 1930.
C. State whether the following are true or false:
1. Gandhiji did not have faith in the capacity of the common masses.
2. In 1919, General Dyer had issued an order banning all public meetings.
3. The Non-Coperation Movement had ended in failure after the Chauri Chaura
incident.
4. Independence Day was celebrated on 26 January in 1930.
5. Sarojini Naidu was one of the leaders of the Civil disobedience Movement.
D. Answer the following question in one or two words/sentences:
1. What technique of resistance did Gandhiji evolve in South Africa? What was its
basic principle? [2]
2. Why did Gandhiji lead campaign in (a) Champaran (b) Kheda? [2]
3. Which incident marked the end of the Non-Cooperation Movement and when?
[2]
4. Under whose leadership was the Lahore session of the Congress held in 1929
What resolution was passed in this session? [2]
5. What do you understand by the Civil Disobedience Movement? 2]
E. Answer the following questions briefly:
1. With reference to Gandhiji, discuss his views on the following issues:
(a) Truth and non-violence [4]
(b) Hindu-Muslim unity [3]
(c) Social justice [3]
2. In the context of the Jallianwala Bagh tradedy, answer the following:
(a) Why was a public meeting held in Jallianwala Bagh on 13 April 1919? [4]
(b) Why did the troop open fire on the gathering? What happened as a result of the
shooting? [4]
(c) How did the entire nation and Gandhiji react to the events in Amritsar?
[3]

3. In the context of the Non-Cooperation Movement, answer the following


questions:

(a) Discuss the programme of the Non-Cooperation Movement. [4]

(b) Why did Gandhiji abruptly suspend the Non-Cooperation Movement? [3]

(c) State the significance of the Non-Cooperation Movement. [3]

4. In the context of the Civil Disobedience Movement, answer the following:

(a) Give an account of the Salt Satyagraha. [4]

(b) How did the government react to the movement? [3]

(b) What impact did the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34) have on the nation?

G. Picture study:

This is the picture of an Indian leader who was known as the ‘Father of the nation’.

1. Identify the person.


2. What method did he use in the Indian struggle for freedom?
3. What are the principles on which his method is based?
4. Why is the called the leader of the masses?
5. Mention the features of his non-violent struggle against the British.
DO AND LEARN

Use your imagination

1. Imagine you are a survivor of the Jallianwala bagh incident. Write an article for a
nationalist newspaper recounting your experiences.
2. Imagine you are a newspaper reporter covering the progress of the Dandi March
from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandhi (1930). Write a report on the events as they
unfolded.

Project work:

Write and illustrate an essay on ‘Gandhian Principles’.

Websites:

For more information, go to:

 http://www.history.co.uk/biographies/mahatma-gandhi (Accessed on 15
December 2016)
 http://www.archive,india,gov.in/knowindia/culture_heritage.php?id=4 (Accessed
on 15 December 2016)

15. The Indian National Movement (1935-47)


The Second World war started in 1939 and ended in 1945. Britain was a part of the
Allied Powers-Germany, Italy and Japan.

Japan joined the Second World War against Britain in 1942. The British desperately
needed the active cooperation of the Indians to check the Japanese advatnce against
the British empire in India. So it sent the Cripps Mission to India to resolve the political
deadlock. The Missionfailed because the British were not prepared to transfer any
effective power to the Indians during the war.
QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT (1942)

The menacing presence of the Japanese army on the eastern borders of India posed
a serious threat to India’s security. The presence of the British in India a target for the
Japanese attack. The danger could have been averted if the British left the country.

Addressing the Congress delegates on the night of 8 August 1942, Gandhiji declared,
‘I, therefore want freedom immediately, this very night, before dawn if it can be had.’
He gave to his country people a mantra, ‘Do or Die’. ‘We shall either free India or die
in the arrempt.’

The Congress passed the Quit India Resolution. On 9 August, before dawn, Gandhiji
and all other important nationalist leaders were arrested. The Congress was banned.

The news of these arrests, even before the movement began, shocked the nation. A
spontaneous, nationwide movement of protests arose; there were demonstrations,
hartals and processions. Leaderless and without any guidelines, the Quit India
movement took different shapes in different parts of the country.

The government came down heavily on the people. They were lathi-charged and fired
upon.

The brutality of the police enraged the people. They reacted violently. Police stations,
post offices, and other government buildings were destroyed. Railway, telegraph and
telephone lines were disconnected.

The army was called in to crush the revolt. Over 10,000 people were killed in police
and military firing. The movement was savagely crushed within a very short period of
time.

The upsurge of 1942 was the last great mass challenge to British authority. It had
shaken the very foundations of the British rule in India.

The impact of this brief, spontaneous and powerful outburst of national sentiment was
tremendous. It sounded the death knell of British rule in India. The British realized their
days were numbered. Independence was now a matter of time. It demonstrated the
great capacity of the masses to suffer and die for the cause of freedom.

DISCUSS

Do you agree with gandhiji’s non-violent methods of protest? Give reasons. Do you
think it is relevant in today’s world? Why?

The Indian National Army

The government had ruthlessly crushed the 1942 movement. After that there was
hardly any political activity till the World War ended in 1945.
Nationalist activity, however, surfaced outside India’s borders under the leadership of
Subhash Chandra Bose. He believed that the only way India could get her freedom
was to drive the British out India by the use of armed force.

Subhash Chandra Bose had resigned from the Congress in 1939 and formed a new
party called the Forward Bloc. He decided to go abroad to join hands with the enemies
of the British and drive the British out of India.

Objectives of the Forward Bloc

 To win freedom from the British without any further delay


 To rebuild India, after Independence, on the principles of socialism i.e economic
equality, freedom and justice, equitable distribution of wealth etc.
 To promote world peace

Subhash Chandra Bose was put under house arrest in Calcutta, but he managed to
escape in 1941. He first went to Russia and then to Germany and finally to Japan.

In Tokyo, he took over the leadership of the Indian Independence Movement in Esat
Asia from rash Behari Bose.

Indian national Army

Captain Mohan Singh (a former captain in the British Indian army) had organized the
Azad hind Fauj or the Indian National Army (INA). Subhash Chandra Bose became
the supreme commander of the INA.

In 1944, at a meeting in Singapore, Subhash Chandra Bose, known as Netaji, took an


oath to liberate India, ‘Give me blood and I will give you freedom,’ he declared. The
primary objective of the INA was to liberate India through armed struggle.

Netaji infused a new life and spirit into the INA. He fired the imagination of his soldiers
with passionate, inspiring speeches. They were ready to lay down their lives for the
liberation of their motherland. With the battle of ‘Dilli Chalo’, the INA advanced into
India along with the Japanese army.

In mid-1944, the INA crossed the Indo-Burma (now Myanmar) border and liberated
Imphal and Kohima to the deafening and jubilant criesof ‘ Jai Hind’ and ‘Netaji
Zindabad’.

Victory, however, was short-lived. Japan was defeated by Allied Powers. Britain re-
established control over Burma. The INA was defeated. A large number of soldier and
officers of the INA were taken prisoners.

Japan surrendered after the atom bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It is
believed that Subhash Chandra Bose was killed in a plane crash on his way to Tokyo.
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose lives on in the memories of successive of successive
generations of Indians. He was a true patriot who dedicated his life to the cause he
paasionately believed in – India’s freedom. He fired the imagination of a nation with
his intense patriotism, person courage, unwavering conviction and bold leadership.

He restored to India her pride and is greatly admired and revered throughout the
country even to this day.

INDIAN INDEPENDENCE AND PARTITION OF INDIA (1947)

Events moved swiftly. In February 1947, the British government declared that power
would be transferred to the Indians by June 1948.

Lord Mountbatten, the new Viceroy, arrived in Indian to prepare a plan for the transfer
of power. He held discussions with the leaders of different parties and communities.
Communal riots took a serious turn in many parts of Punjab. The partition of India and
the creation of Pakistan became inevitable.

Mountbatten announced his plan for the division of British India into India and Pakistan
and the transfer of power to the two dominions. The North-West frontier Province,
Sind, Baluchistan, West Punjab and East Bengal separated from the rest of India to
form a new country called Pakistan.

On the basis of the Mountbatten Plan, the British Parliament passed the Indian
Independence Act in July 1947. British rule in India finally came to an end on 15
August 1947.

With the unfurling of the Indian tricolour on the historic red Fort, a new phase began
in the history of India-the birth of a new dawn.

Addressing the Constituent Assembly just before the stroke of midnight of 14 August
1947, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, said:

Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny and now the time comes when we shall
redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke
of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom.

The hour struck. India became free. The sacrifices and dedication of generations of
patriots and the blood of countless, unknown martyrs had borne fruit. Their dream had
become a reality.

Despite the sorrow of partition, the Indians celebrate their independence. But the
jubilation was marred by the great tragedy of communal riots-the senseless killings
and mindless violence.

THINK AND ANSWER

What do you think India would have been like without partition?
On 30 January 1948, Mahatma Gandhi, the apostle of peace and non-violence, was
assassinated. Gandhiji died a martyr to the cause of the Hindu-Muslim amity he had
held so dear.

The Constitution of India was enacted and adopted by the Constituent Assembly on
26 November 1949. It was introduced on 26 January 1950-another important landmark
in the history of India. On that day, the Indian dominion was transformed into a
sovereign, democratic republic. With confidence in their capacity and a determination
to succeed, the people of India set out to build the country of their dreams-a country
based on liberty, equality, justice and fraternity.

VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS

India is a secular country and a land of diversity. People of different cultures should
live together in peace and harmony with each other. We should respect people of
different states and religion. We should create an environment of justice and equality
where every individual is respected and given a chance to flourish.

 What can you do to preserve the peace and harmony in a country?

List of figures

15.1 A people’s procession during the Quit India Movement

15.2 Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, the creator of the forward Bloc Party

15.3 The Constituent Assembly of independent India in August 1947

15.4 A photograph showing the thousands of refugees scrambling onto trains during
the partition of India

Important Words

Cripps Mission was sent in 1942 when the British faced the threat of Japanese attack
and the Indian had refused to help the British in their war efforts.

Quit India Resolution was passed by the Congress in 1942, emphasizing its demand
for the end of British rule in India. Gandhiji gave the slogan, ‘Do or Die’, in an attempt
to end British rule.

Indian National Army under the supreme commandership of Subhash Chandra Bose
was ready to lay down its life for the liberation of its motherland.

Indian Independence Act was passed by the British Parliament in July 1947, bringing
to an end the British rule in India.

Exercises

A. Fill in the blanks:


1. The menacing presence of the Japanese army on the eastern borders of India
posed a serious threat to - security.
2. When the Quit India Resolution was passed in the year -, Gandhiji gave the Indians
the mantra ‘- ’.
3. The Quit India Movement shaken the very foundations of the - in India.
4. In Tokyo, - took over the leadership of the Independence Movement in East Asia
from Rash Behari Bose.
5. In February 1947, the British government declared that power would be transferred
to the Indians by -.
B. Match the following:

A B Answers
Quit India Movement Subhash Chandra Bose
Forward Bloc Suppressed by the British
World War ended Division of British India into
India and Pakkistan
Mountbatten Plan 30 January 1948
Assassination of Gandhi 1945
C. Choose the correct answer:
1. The Cripps Mission was sent to India in 1942, when the British empire was under
the threat of a Japanese/German/Russian attack.
2. The Quit India Resolution was passed by the Congress in 1929/1930/1942.
3. Subhash Chandra Bose/Mahatma Gandhi/Rash Behari Bose was the supreme
commander of the Indian National Army.
4. Mahatma Gandhi/Subhash Chandra Bose/ Jawahar Lal Nehru gave the slogan,
‘You give me blood, I will give you freedom.’
5. The Constitution of india was introduced on 26 January 1950/26 January 1949.
D. State whether the following are true or false:
1. The Quit India Resolution was passed by the Muslim League.
2. The upsurge of 1942 was the last great mass challenge to British authority.
3. Subhash Chandra Bose formed a new party called the Forward Bloc.
4. The INA, with the help of the Japanese, liberated Imphal and Kohima in 1944.
5. Indian independence from British rule was finally attained on 15 August 1950.
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:
1. Why was the Cripps Mission sent to India? [2]
2. Why did the Cripps Mission fail? [2]
3. What did the British realized after the Quit India Movement? [2]
4. What was the main objective of the Indian National Army? [2]
5. When did India become (i) an independent dominion? (ii) a sovereign, democratic,
republic? [2]
F. Answer the following questions briefly:
1. With reference to the Quit India Movement answer the following:
(a) Why did the Congress pass the Quit India Resolution? How did the government
react to it? [4]
(b) Briefly discuss the events of the Quit India Movement. [3]
(c) What was the impact of the Quit India Movement on the national movement?
[3]
2. With reference to Indian National Movement, answer the following:
(a) What were the objectives of the Forward Bloc? [3]
(b) Examine the role of Subhash Chandra Bose in the Indian freedom struggle.
[4]
(c) Why do Indians still respect and revere Netaji? [3]
3. With reference to Indian independence, answer the following questions:
(a) What was the importance of the Mountbatten Plan [4]
(b) What was the significance of the Indian Independence Act, 1947 [3]
(c) What is the significance of 26 January 1950? [3]
G. Picture study:

This is the picture of a leader who formed a new party called the forward Bloc in 1939.

SuD: Provide a pic of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.

1. Indentify the leader in the picture.


2. What was the name of the army of which he was the supreme commander?
3. What was his slogan for the liberation of India?
4. Write a few lines on the leadership qualities of this person.

DO AND LEARN

Use your imagination:

1. If Gandhiji visited India today, would the transformation of Indian society make him
happy or unhappy? Give reasons for your answer.

Project work:

1. Prepare a script on the Quit India Movement.


2. Prepare and enact a script on Netaji and the INA either in class or on the school
stage. National songs can be used as background music.

Website:

For more information, go to:

 http://www.gandhiji-manibhavan.org/activities/quit_india.htm (Accessed on 15
December 2016)
16 The Union Legislature.
India has a parliamentary form of government, both at the centre as well as in the
states. The President of India, who is the Head of State or Chief Executive, is only a
nominal (in name only) head. He/she carries out the functions of a President on the
advice of the Prime Minister and his/her Council of Ministers. Under normal
circumstances, the President does not have the power to act independently.

The power to govern the country is actually in the hands of the Prime Minister. He/she
is the most important and powerful political leader in India. The prime Minister is the
head of the government in India or the real chief executive.

PARLIAMENTARY FORM OF GOVERNMENT.

According to the Constitution, the powers and functions of the government are divided
into three branches-the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.

The powers and functions are distributed among these branches in a manner that
makes them equally balanced.

India is a parliamentary democracy. The Parliament, which is composed of the elected


representatives of the Indian people, is vested with supreme power. The Parliament
is the highest law-making body and it makes laws for the entire country. Thus the
Indian people enjoy supreme power through their representatives in the Parliament.

In a parliamentary form of government, there is a very close relationship between the


legislature (Parliament) and the executive (Council of Ministers).

After the general elections, the elected representatives of the people form the Lok
Sabha. The President appoints the leader of the majority party or the single largest
party or group of parties within the Lok Sabha as the Prime Minister. Generally, the
Prime Minister chooses his/her Council of Ministers from among the elected members
of the Lok Sabha. He/she may also choose a Rajya Sabha member as a minister.
The Lok Sabha (legislature) exercises control over the Council of Ministers (executive)
which is responsible and answerable to the Lok Sabha for all its policies, decisions
and actions. This makes the Parliament the supreme authority in the government
because it has the final authority to accept or reject the decisions of the executive.

As India is a vast country, it is not possible for one central government to take care of
the specific needs of people living in different parts of the country. Therefore, the
country has been divided into different units, which are called states. Each state has
a state government and the processes of the government are shared by the central
government and the state governments.

Distribution of power Between Union and State Legislatures.

The Constitution provides for three lists—the Union list, the State list and Concurrent
list, which divide the subjects for legislation between the central and the state
governments.

The Parliament house in Delhi is the building from where the legislative branch of the
Government of India works.

THE UNION PARLIAMENT.

The law-making body of the central government is the Parliament. The Parliament has
two Houses-the lok Sabha or the House of the People and the Rajya Sabha or the
Council of States. Thus, it is a bicameral legislature. The president is an intergral part
of the Parliament.

The Lok Sabha (Lower House)

Composition.

 The maximum strength of the Lok Sabha can be 552 members.


 A maximum of 530 members can be elected directly by the people of India from
different territorial constituencies.
 A maximum of 20 members can be elected from the union territories.
 The president can nominate two members from the Anglo-Indian community.

At present, the Lok Sabha consists of 545 menbers.

Basic Qualifications of the Members of the Lok Sabha.

A member of the Lok Sabha:

 Should be a citizen of India


 Should be at least 25 years of age
 Should be a registered voter

Voting by Secret Ballot.


The Indian Constitution provides for election by secret ballot. For the purpose of
elections, the country is divided into a number of electoral constituencies. The
people in each constituency elect one candidate of their choice through the system of
secret ballot, i.e. the voter’s choice is not revealed publicly.

Universal Adult Franchise

All Indian citizens, 18 years of age or above, have the right to vote.

??

Indeliable ink being put on a voter’s finger to ensure that the voter cannot vote twice
in the same election

Term of the Lok Sabha

The Lok Sabha is elected for a 5-year term. However, the President may dissolve it
before the expiry of its term if the party in power loses the support of the majority. Its
life can be extended for 1 year at a time in case of a national emergency.

DID YOU KNOW?

Members of the Lok Sabha are elected during the general elections, which take place
every 5 years. The entire country is divided into constituencies and one members is
elected from each constituency. People cast their votes through secret ballot. In most
places, people cast their votes on Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs). Each EVM has
a list of the names of the candidates contesting the election from that particular
constituency. Next to each candidate’s name is the symbol of the political party to
which he/she belongs. Voters cast their vote by pressing the button next to the name
of their chosen candidate.

The Speaker

The Speaker is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha. He/she conducts the meetings
of the Lok Sabha, maintains discipline and supervises the Work of the House.

??

Sumitra Mahajan, the speaker of the 16th Lok Sabha

The Rajya Sabha (Upper House)

Composition

 The maximum strength of the Rajya Sabha can be 250 members.


 238 members represent the states and the union territories. Seats are allotted
to each state according to its population. These mumbers are elected indirectly
by the elected members of the State Legislative Assemblies.
 Twelve members are nominated by the President from among persons who
have distinguished themselves in the fields of art, literature, science or social
service.

THINK AND ANSWER

Why do you think it is necessary to keep a voter’s choice of candidate a secret?

Chairman

 The Vice-President is the presiding officer of the Rajya Sabha.

Basic Qualifications of the Members of the Rajya Sabha

Members of the Rajya Sabha:

 Should be citizens of India


 Should be at least 30 years of age
 Should be registered voters

Term of the Rajya Sabha

The Rajya Sabha is a permanent House. It cannot be dissolved by the President. Each
member is elected for a period of 6 years. One third of its members retire every 2
years. Members can be re-elected.

Functions of the Parliament

Law-making Functions

 The Parliament can frame new laws or modify existing ones on any subject in
the Union or Concurrent lists.
 No money can be raised or spent by the government without the approval of
the Lok Sabha. A money bill (such as the annual budget ) can only be
introduced in the Lok Sabha.
 In some cases, the Parliament can also pass laws on subjects under the State
List.
 Only the Parliament can introduce a bill to amend the Constitution.

The Budget

The budget is an estimate of the annual income and expenditure of the government of
India.

The government presents the budget to the Lok Sabha every year. The budget has to
be passed by the Parliament. The Lok Sabha has the power to suggest a cut to the
budget or even reject it altogether.

Control Over the Executive


 The Parliament keeps a watch over the government. The Council of Ministers
is directly responsible and answerable to the Lok Sabha for its policies and
actions.
 The Council of Ministers has to resign immediately if a vote of no-confidence is
passed against it by the Lok Sabha.
 The Members of Parliament can discuss government policies and question the
ministers. Hence, they can exercise a check on the working of the government.
 The Parliament can move n adjournment motion to discuss and focus on any
matter of public importance which requires immediate and urgent attention from
the government, for instance, natural disasters such as earthquakes and
unforeseen situations such as police firing or terrorists attacks, etc.

DISCUSS

What is the purpose of asking the questions to the ministers in Parliament?

Judicial Functions

The Parliament can impeach or remove the President, the Vice-President and judges
of the Supreme Court and High Courts if any of them violate the Constitution or misuse
their authority.

Elective Functions

The Parliament plays an important role in the election of the President and the Vice-
President.

Sessions of the Parliament

 The Parliament meets at least twice a year.


 For a session to take place, at least 10 per cent of the total membership has
to be present. This is called the quorum.

VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS

We must understand the great power and responsiblility vested in us by the


Constitution to actively participate in the formation and functioning of our government.
We must vote judiciously and in an honest manner. We should make informed choices
about our leaders and not be influenced by anyone.

 If you were given the right to vote, what qualities would you look for in your
leader?

Important Words

Parliamentary form of government is a system where the executive is a part of the


legislature and is answerable to the legislature.
Legislature makes the laws of the country.

Executive enforces the laws made by the legislature.

Judiciary defines and interprets the laws of the land and tries to prevent any person
from violating the laws of the Constitution.

Lok Sabha is the Lower House of the Parliament and is also known as the House of
the People because the people elect its members directly.

Rajya Sabha is the Upper House of the Parliament and is also known as the Council
of States.

Bicameral means legislative body having two chambers.

An Electoral constituency is an area whose voters elect one member to a legislative


body.

Secret ballot is the system of voting where the voter’s choice is not revealed.

A money bill is a bill that is solely about monetary matters.

A bill is a written suggestion for a new law that is presented to the legislature so that
its members can discuss it.

Budget is the financial statement stating the estimate income and expenditure of the
country in the ensuing year.

Vote of no-confidence is a move in the Lok Sabha to express a lack of confidence in


the Council of Ministers. If such a motion is passed, then the Council of Ministers has
to resign.

Quorum refers to the minimum number of members required to be present to conduct


a meeting.

Exercise

A. Fill in the blanks:


1. The functions of the government are divided into three branches, namely,
the _____________, the ______________ and the ____________.
2. Subject for legislation are divided into three lists-the______________ List,
the_______________ List and the _____________List.
3. The Union Parliament has two House-the________________ and the
__________.
4. The ____________is a permanent House. It cannot be dissolved.
5. The Parliament is _____________ legislature.
B. Match the following:
A B
1. The President (a) Is the Chairman of the Rajya
Sabha.
2. The Vice-President (b) is a permanent House.
3. The Speaker (c) Nominates 12 members to the
Rajya Sabha.
4. Parliament (d) Is the presiding officer of the
Lok Sabha.
5. The Rajya Sabha (e) Can introduce a bill to amend
the Constitution.

C. Choose the correct answer:


1. The President carries out his/her functions on the advice of the Prime
Minister and the Lok Sabha/the Council of Ministers/ the Rajya Sabha.
2. Both the central and the state governments can make laws on the subjects
in the Union List/ State List/ Concurrent List.
3. The Lok Sabha/Rajya Sabha/ Vidhan Sabha is also known as the Council
of States.
4. The President can nominate 2/10/12 members from the Anglo-Indian
community to the Lok Sabha.
5. At present the Lok Sabha consists of 545/645/525 members.

D. State whether the following are true or false:


1. The State List includes subjects of national importance.
2. A member of the Lok Sabha should be at least 30 years of age.
3. The Rajya Sabha is a permanent House and cannot be dissolved by the
President.
4. A money bill has to be introduced in the Rajya Sabha.
5. The Vice-President is the presiding officer of the Rajya Sabha.

E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:


1. Who is the nominal executive head of the government of India? [1]
2. How do we know that the Parliament has supreme authority in the
government? [1]
3. Which branch of government interprets and defines laws? [1]
4. What is the minimum age qualification of an Indian voter? [1]
5. Who conducts the meetings of the Lok Sabha? [1]
6. How are the members of the Rajya Sabha elected? [1]
7. What is meant by the term ‘budget’? [1]
8. What happens when a vote of no-confidence is passed against the Council
of Ministers? [1]
9. Explain the meaning of the term ‘quorum’. [1]

F. Answer the following questions briefly:


1. In the context of the Parliamentary form of government, answer the following
questions:
(a) What are the main features of a parliamentary form of government? [4]
(b) Name the three branches of government and state their respective
functions. [3]
(c) Why are powers distributed between the central and the state
governments? [3]
2. Give an account of the Lok Sabha with reference to:
(a) Its composition [4]
(b) Basic qualifications of its members [3]
(c) Its term [3]
3. Give an account of the Rajya Sabha with reference to:
(a) Its composition [4]
(b) Basic qualifications of its members [3]
(c) Its term [3]
4. With reference to the functions of the Parliament, explain the following:
(a) Law-making function [4]
(b) Control over the executive [3]
(c) Judicial functions [3]

G. Picture study:
This is the picture of an important government building in India.
1. Identify the building.
2. Which branch of the government functions in this building?
3. Who are the members of this branch of the government?
4. What are the basic qualifications of the members?
5. What is their primary function? Mention any two other important functions.
??

DO AND LEARN

Use your imagination:

With the help of your teacher, organize a mock Parliament in your class or school
auditorium. Discuss and debate (on the model of Parliamentary procedures) a bill
dealing with a current topic of national concern /interest. Put the bill to vote and record
the result.
Project work:

Make a list of the people who have been elected from your state or union territory to
the Parliament in the election. Find out what steps he/she has taken for the welfare of
his/her constituency. Make a report and share it in class.

Websites:

For more information, go to:

 http://legislativebodiesinindia.nic.in/parliament%200f%20india.htm (Accessed
on 16 December 2016)
17 The Union Executive

The legislative branch of the government makes the laws of the country. The executive
branch of the government performs the task of enforcing these laws.

The union executive consists of the President, the Vice-President, the Prime Minister
and the Council of Ministers. The executive is helped by a large workforce that includes
civil servants who implement government policies and the police force which ensures
that citizens follow the law.

THE PRESIDENT

The President is the constitutional head of the Government of India. But in a


parliamentary form of government, The President is a nominal or symbolic head. The
administration of the country is carried out in his name. The actual power is vested in
the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers who advise the President in the
exercise of his/her functions. He/she is bound to follow this advice.

The basic qualifications for a candidate to be the President are:

 He/she must be a citizen of India.


 He/she must be at least 35 years of age.
 He/she must have all the qualifications necessary to be a member of the Lok
Sabha.

??

THE PM AND THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS

The union executive comprises the President, the Vice-President and the Prime
Minister with his council of ministers:

Election and Termination

The President is elected indirectly. An electoral college elects the President. The
electoral collage consists of the following members:

??

Pranab Mukherjee, the 13th President of India


 The elected members of both Houses of Parliament
 The elected members of the State Legislative Assemblies
 The Preident is elected for a period of 5 years.
 The President can be impeached by the Parliament. Impeachment is a
procedure by which the Parliament can remove the President if he/she is found
guilty of violating the Constitution, of treason or of corruption.

Powers

Executive Powers

 The President appoints the Prime Minister who is the leader of the majority
party or coalition parties or the single largest party in the Lok Sabha.
 The President appoints the Union Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister.

DID YOU KNOW?

The official residence of the President of India is Rashtrapati Bhavan. In has a large
and beautiful garden called the Mughal Garden, with many exotic plants and flowers.
Visitors are allowed inside to see the garden every February.

??

The Rashtrapati Bhavan-the official residence of the President of India

 The President appoints the state governors and other high officials such as the
Comptroller and Auditor General and the Attorney Genaral.
 The President appoints the judges of the Supreme Court and the High Court
and the ambassadors to other countries.

Military Powers

 The President is the Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces. He/she can
declare war or conclude peace.
 All important treaties and contracts are made in the President’s name.

Legislative Powers

 The President can Summon or prorogue the Parliament. He/she addresses


the opening session of the Parliament every year. The President’s address is a
statement of the government’s policy.
 The President can also dissolve the Lok Sabha and order fresh elections.
 He/she can call a joint session of both Houses of Parliament if there is a
deadlock regarding a bill.
 Each bill passed by the Parliament has to receive the President’s assent in
order to become a law. The President may send the bill back to the Parliament
if he/she does not approve, but if it is passed a second time, he/she is obliged
to sign it and give his/her assent.
 The President nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha and two Anglo-
Indian members to the Lok Sabha.
 When the Parliament is not in session, the President can issue ordinances
(executive orders). Ordinances are like laws and are valid for only 6 weeks after
the Parliament meets again.

Financial Powers

 The budget is presented to the Parliament in the name of the President.


 All money bills are introduced in the Parliament with the President’s permission.
 The President can grant an advance from the Contingency Fund in case of an
unforeseen expenditure.

Judicial Powers

 The President has the power to grant pardon and reduce or suspend the
sentence of a person who has been found guilty. He/she can also pardon a
death sentence.
 He/she is not answerable to any court of law for his/her actions, except if he/she
is impeached by the Parliament.

Emergency Powers

The President can declare an emergency in the country under the following conditions:

 If the security of the country is threatened by external aggression or armed


rebellion, National Emergency in declared.
 If the government of a state caanot function according to the laws in the
Constitution, Presidential Rule is imposed in that state.
 If the financial stability of the country is threatened, a Financial Emergency
can be declared.

However, the President cannot declare an emergency without the approval of the
Parliament. Hence, we see that thought the President has a wide range of powers,
they are all limited and exercised strictly according to the advice given by the prime
Minister and the Council of Ministers.

Discretionary Powers

When no political party wins a clear majority in the Lok Sabha, and a coalition cannot
be formed, the President can select a member of his/her choice as the Prime Minister.
However, the selected candidate has to prove his/her majority in the Lok Sabha.

THE VICE-PRESIDENT
The qualifications of the Vice-President are the same as those of the President, except
that a Vice-President should be eligible for membership to the Rajya Sabha. The
termof the Vice-President is 5 years.

Function of the Vice-President

 The Vice-President is the Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha.


 He/she takes over the function of the President in his/her ansence. In case of
a vacancy in the office of the President, the Vice-President discharges his/her
functions till a new President in elected.

THE PRIME MINISTER

The Prime Minister is the head of the Council of Ministers, which is the, most powerful
political institution in India. The President of India is bound to act in accordance with
the advice of the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers.

Position and Functions of the Prime Minister

The parliamentary system of government makes the Prime Minister the real head of
the Indian government. It is the Prime Minister who actually exercises all the power
vested in the President (except for discretionary powers). This is because of the
following reasons:

 The Prime Minister is the elected head of the country.


 The Prime Minister is the leader of the majority party or the largest coalition in
the Parliament.
 The Prime Minister is the link between the President, the people and the
Parliament.
 The Prime Minister advises the President in the discharge of his/her functions
and informs him/her about the decisions taken by the Cabinet. The advice of
the Prime Minister is binding on the President.
 The Prime Minister selects the members of the Council of Ministers.
 He/she distributes portfolios among the ministers and presides over Cabinet
meetings.
 He/she coordinates the working of the different departments and is the vital link
between the President and the Cabinet.
 He/she can expand the Cabinet and also demand the resignation of any
minister.

Thus, we see that the Prime Minister is the real head of the nation. He/she has to
answer for the success or failure of the government.

The Prime Minister is regarded as the leader of the nation. On Independence Day, the
Prime Minister addresses the nation from the Red Fort in Delhi.
DISCUSS

Since India is a parliamentary democracy, the real executive is the Prime Minister.
What do you think can happen if the President does not follow the advice of the Prime
Minister and decides to act independently? Should the office of the President be
abolished? Why

??

The Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, with his cabinet of ministers and the President

Council of Ministers

The general elections to the Lok Sabha take place once every 5 years. After the
elections, the President appoints the Prime Minister, who is generally the leader of the
majority party in the Lok Sabha. If there is no single party holding a majority in the
Parliament, then two or more parties usually agree to work together and formthe
government. This is known as a coalition government.

The Prime Minister then selects a number of ministers according to his/her preference
and submits a list to the President. When the President approves and appoints the
ministers on the list, the Council of Ministers is formed.

The Council of Minister has three ranks within it-(i) Cabinet Ministers, (ii) Ministers of
State and (iii) Deputy Ministers.

All ministers of the Council have to be members of either House of Parliament. In case
a non-member is selected, he/she has to be elected to either House within 6 months
from the date of appointment.

The Prime Minister allots each minister in the Council a separate department or
portfolio to handle. This is called allotment of portfolios. Hence, we have a Minister
of Communication, Agriculture, Foreign Affairs, etc.

The Cabinet

The Cabinet is the inner core of the Council of Ministers. The Cabinet Ministers hold
the most important portfolios and make the most important decision and policies. The
Cabinet Ministers hold the highest ranks and have the greater responsibility. The
Cabinet holds the real executive power of the Indian government and it collectively
responsible to the Lok Sabha.

The Cabinet can remain in office in office as long as it enjoys the confidence of a
majority in the Lok Sabha. If a vote of no-confidence is passed against any one Cabinet
Minister, the whole Council of Ministers has to resign immediately. The entire Council
has to answer for the shortcomings or failure on the part of any one minister.

THINK AND ANSWER


Why is it important for the Council of Minsiters to be responsible to the legislature?

CIVIL SERVANTS

Civil servants are government employment employees who do not belong to any
political party. They can be appointed in the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), the
Indian Foreign Service (IFS), the Indian Police Service (IPS), etc. Civil servants are
selected on the basis of the Union Public Service Commisiion (UPSC) examination
and interviews. Sucessful candidates are trained and can work at both central and
state levels.

VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS

As citizens of India we have some fundamental duties towards our country. We must
abide by the law and cooperate with the government to achieve its goals in the interest
of the nation. We must encourage the government to work smoothly and should not
hinder its policy-making decision through unnecessary protests and agitations.

 If you were made the Prime Minister of your country for a day what is the most
important step that you will take in the interest of the nation?

Important Words

Impeachment is a procedure defined by the Constitution through which the


Parliament can remove the President, if found guilty of violating the Constitution, of
treason or of corruption.

Summon means to arrange an official meeting.

Prorogue means to discontinue a session of the Parliament without dissolving it.

Ordinances are executive order which are issued when the Parliament is not in
session.

Contigency Fund is a fund maintained by the government so that the President can
grant funds from it to be used in unforeseen circumstances.

Pardon means an official decision not to punish somebody for a crime, or to say that
somebody is not guilty of a crime.

Coalition government means that two or more parties agree to work together and
form the government. This happens when there is no single party holding a majority in
the Parliament.

Portfolio means the particular area of responsibility of a government minister, e.g.


defence, transport, etc.
Allotment of portfolios is when the Prime Minister allots each minister in the Council
a separate department or portfolio to handle.

Exercises

A. Fill in the blanks:


1. The President can be removed from office by a procedure known
as______________.
2. The President appoints the judges of the ___________ Court and the
____________ courts.
3. The President can call a ____________session of the Parliament if there is
a deadlock regarding a bill.
4. The Cabinet is the ___________of the Council of Ministers. The Cabinet
Ministers hold important_____________
5. The Prime Minister is the link between the __________, the people and the
____________

B. Name the following:


1. The current Prime Minister of India
2. The current Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha
3. The current Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces
4. The current ministers in charge of (a) Defence (b) External Affairs (c)
Finance (d) Health

C. Choose the correct answer:


1. The President/Prime Minister/Vice-President is the nominal head of the
government of India.
2. The president is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Administrative
Service/Defence Forces/ Indian Foreign Service.
3. The Vice-President is the Chairperson of the Lok Sbha/Rajya Sabha/Vidhan
Sabha.
4. After the elections, the President appoints the leader of the majority party
as the Vice-President/Speaker/ Prime Minister.
5. The Council of Ministers is the real executive but the administration is
carried on in the name of the Prime Minister/President/Vice-President.

D. State whether the following are true or false:


1. The President is elected for a team of 4 years.
2. The President can pardon a death sentence.
3. The President can declare war or conclude peace.
4. The Prime Minister choose the Cabinet Ministers.
5. Civil servants belong to the majority party in the Parliament.

E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:


1. Who is the real executive head in a parliamentary form of government? [1]
2. Name the body that elects the President of India. [1]
3. Name any two officials appointed by the President. [1]
4. What is an ordinance? [1]
5. What can the President do when the security of the country is threatened by
external aggression or armed rebellion? [1]
6. Whose advice is the President bound to follow in carrying out his/her
functions? [1]
7. Who is the head of the Council of Ministers? [1]
8. When two or more political parties form the government, what is it called?
[1]
9. What is meant by allotment of portfolios? [1]
10. What happens when a vote of no-confidence is passed against any one
Cabinet Minister? [1]

F. Answer the following questions briefly:


1. In the context of the President of India, answer the following questions:
(a) Mention the qualifications required for the post of the President. [4]
(b) How is the President elected? [3]
(c) How can the services of the President be terminated? [3]
2. With reference to the powers of the President, discuss:
(a) Any four executive powers [4]
(b) Military Powers [2]
(c) Any four legislative powers [4]
3. The President is an intergral part of the Parliament. In this context explain
the following:
(a) The financial powers of the President [4]
(b) The judicial powers of the President [3]
(c) The emergency powers of the President [3]
4. With reference to the functions of the Parliament, explain the following:
(a) Law-making functions [4]
(b) Control over the executive [3]
(c) Judicial functions [3]
5. Discuss the powers and position of the prime Minister with reference to his
relationship with the following:
(a) Parliament [3]
(b) The President [3]
(c) The Council of Ministers [4]
6. In the context of the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers, explain the
following:
(a) Appointment of the Prime Minister [3]
(b) Formation of the council of Ministers [3]
(c) The Cabinet [4]
Picture study:

Until 1950, the building in the picture was known as ‘Viceroy’s House’, and served as
the residence of the Governor General of India.

1. Identify the building. Whose official residence is it now?


2. How is he/she elected?
3. What is his/her term of office?
4. Mention two powers each held by this person with reference to the following:
(a) Financial powers (b) Judicial powers

DO AND LEARN

Use your imagination:

If you are appointed the Prime Minister, which former Prime Minister would you
consider your role model? Why? Mention any two progressive/radical policies that you
would implement during your tenure and explain how they would transform India into
a global superpower.

Project work:

1. Select any five Presidents of India. Collect their pictures and find out their
important achievements. Compile your findings in the form of a PowerPoint
presentation.
2. Collect pictures and information from newspapers and magazines showing the
current Prime Minister performing his/her functions in Indiaand abroad. Present
your material in the form of scrapbook, chart or class presentation. You may
include his/her personal interests, talents and achievements in areas of music,
sports, literature, if any.

Websites:

For more information, go to:

 http://www.elections.in/government/president-of-india.html (Accessed on 16
december 2016)
 http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/constitution/prime-minister-of-india-posituon-
and-powers-of-the-prime-minister-of-india/32173/ (Accessed on 16 December
2016)
18 The Judiciary

India has a federal system, with two levels of government-one at the centre and the
other in the states. However, there is a single unified system of courts for the Indian
Union and the states. This system forms the third branch of the government, i.e. the
judiciary. It is independent of the legislative and the executive wings of the
government.

The function of the judiciary is to administer justice, define and interpret laws and
protect the rights of Indian citizens. It is the guardian of the Constitution and penalized
those who violate the Constitution or break the law. The law courts are presided over
by judges. They deal with cases against individuals, organizations and governments.

At the apex of the judicial system is the Supreme Court of India, located in New Delhi.
Below the Supreme Court are the High Courts in each state. The High Court have a
number of subordinate courts below them.

THE SUPREME COURT

The Supreme Court is located in New Delhi and is the highest judicial authority in the
country. It is the guardian of the Constitution. It is headed by the Chief Justice of India
and has a number of other judges. The judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by
the President in consultation with the Council of Ministers.

Supreme Court judges must have the following qualifications:

 They must be citizens of India.


 They must either be advocates of a High Court or of two or more such court in
succession for at least 10 years.
Or
 They must be judges of High Courts of 5 year’s standing.

??

The Supreme Court, located in New Delhi, is the apex court of the country.

The judges of the Supreme Court hold office until they are 65 years of age. The
president cannot dismiss Supreme Court Judges before the end of their term.
Supreme Court judges can only be removed on grounds of proven misbehaviour or
incapacity, through impeachment.

DID YOU KNOW?


The Chief Justice draws a monthly salary. The other judges too, get a monthly salary.
Apart from the salary, the judges are entitled to free accommodation, transport and
other allowances.

Powers of the Supreme Court

The Supreme Court has three kinds of powers to pass judgements in civil and criminal
cases-Original Jurisdiction, Appellate Jurisdiction and Advisory Jurisdiction.
Apart from this, it also acts as the guardian of the Constitution and is a court of record.

Original Jurisdiction

Certain cases are brought before the Supreme Court directly, for the first time. This
happens in cases involving:

 Disputes between the union government and one or more state governments
 Disputes between two or more state governments
 Violation of the Constitution by the government or an individual
 Violation of the Fundamental Rights of an individual

Appellate Jurisdiction

The Supreme Court hears appeals against judgements of High Courts. The Supreme
Court is the final court of appeal and has the power to review and change decisions of
the High Courts.

Advisory Jurisdiction

The Supreme Court can advise the President, on request, on legal and constitutional
issues. The President may or may not accept the advice.

Revisory Jurisdiction

The Supreme Court has the power to review any judgement or order, Which it has
passed earlier, in order to rectify any error or mistake it may have made.

Guardian of the Constitution

The Supreme Court is the guardian of the Constitution. It safeguards the Constitution
in two ways:

 It can cancel a law or an executive order if it is found to violate the Constitution.


 It can issue writs (orders or directions) for the enforcement of the Fundamental
Rights.

The Scope of Judicial Review


The Supremem Court can review any law or executive order of the central government
as well as of the state governments and cancel them if they are found to have violated
the laws of the Indian Constitution.

Court of Record

The Supreme Court records and prints out all the cases it handles and all the
judgements which are passed. These records serve as references in future cases.
Thus, the Supreme Court functions as a court of record.

DISCUSS

Should the death penalty be abolished? Why?

THE HIGH COURT

According to the Constitution, each state in the country can have a High Court, which
is the highest judicial authority in that state. Some High Courts have two or more states
and union territories under their jurisdiction.

Composition

 At the highest level is the Chief Justice.


 There are a number of other judges. This number is decided by the President,
according to the size of that state.
 The President appoints the Chief Justice of the High Court and the other judges
in consultation with the Governor of the state and the Chief Justice of India.

??

The Kolkata High Court, built in 1862 by the British, it is the oldest high court

The qualifications of judges of a High Court are:

 They must be citizen of India.


 They must have held a judicial office in India for at least 10 years.
 They must have been, for at least 10 years, advocates of a High Court, or of
two or more such courts in succession.

Judges of the High Court serve until they are 62 years old. They can resign earlier or
can be removed from office by the President if they are impeached by the same
process that applies to the judges of the Supreme Court.

Powers of the High Court

The High Court is the highest court of Justice in a state.


 A High Court has original Jurisdiction, i.e. it can hear original cases (Cases
brought to it for the first time). These cases can involve disputes concerning
Fundamental Rights, election petitions and related disputes.
 A High Court has Appellate Jurisdiction where it can hear appeals against
judgements passed in subordinate courts such as the District Courts.
 The High Court can review and change decisions taken in the subordinate
courts. It can also transfer a case from one court to another.
 A High Court also controls and supervises the functioning of subordinate courts.

THINK AND ANSWER

Justice delayed is justice denied. Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer.

 It has revisory jurisdiction in cases where it feels that the lower courts have
gone beyond their jurisdiction.
 It maintains records of the proceedings and decisions. These records serve
as references for lower courts in future cases.

Both the Supreme Court and the High Courts are empowered by the Constitution of
India to issue writs. A writ is a form of written command, or legal document giving order
or direction to a person to act or not to act in a particular way. Some of the writs are
the writs of Habeus Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Certiorari, Quo Warranto, etc.

SUBORDINATE COURTS

Below each High Court there are several lower courts, known as subordinate courts.
These courts are under the control of the High Courts. There are three types of
subordinate courts-civil courts, criminal courts and revenue courts.

Panchayat Courts

In the Panchayati system at the village level, there are small law courts called Nyaya
Panchayats. Often, there is one Panchayat Court for a number of villages. Nyaya
Panchayats try petty civil and criminal cases, such as trespassing, personal disputes,
minor thefts, etc. They can impose fines up to ‘100 only. Appeals can be made to
higher courts against decisions taken in the Nyaya Panchayats.

Lok Adalats

The process of obtaining justice through law courts is a long-drawn-out and expensive
procedure in our country. In order to provide quicker and cheaper judicial services,
Lok Adalats have been set up. The first Lok Adalat was held at Delhi in 1985. It settled
almost 150 cases in one day.

Lok Adalats are usually presided over by retired judges. The disputing parties can
argue their cases directly without advocates. Discussions, persuasion and
compromises are encouraged to settle disputes. Lok Adalats are becoming popular
becoming popular because they provide affordable and speedy justice.

LEGAL AID

According to the Indian Constitution, all citizens are equal before the law, irrespective
of caste, creed, social status, gender or religion. Under the Legal Aid Scheme, free
legal aid and legal services are made available to the poorer and weaker sections of
the society. Some of the categories for which free legal services are provided by the
government are:

 People belonging to the Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe and backward


classes
 People with special needs.
 Women and children
 Victims of human trafficking or beggars
 People whose incomes are lower than a certain amount decided by the
government

The Indian judiciary has been designed to impact justice to all citizens. It functions
independently of the executive and the legislature, so that it can work impartially and
free from the influence of the other organs of the government.

VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS

We must understand that the judicial in our country should be strong and independent.
It should protect the rights of every citizens. We should ensure that we do not influence
the judges in any inappropriate manner. The judiciary should be encouraged to give
impartial justice without any biases.

 If you feel that there is some injustice done to someone in your neighbourhood
what would you do?

Important Words

Original Jurisdiction refers to those cases which are brought directly to the court for
the first time.

Appellate Jurisdiction means that the court can hear appeals against judgements
passed in sunordinate courts.

Advisory Jurisdiction refers to the power of a court to give a legal opinion or advice
on certain cases.
Court of record is one which keeps written records of its proceedings, which may
then be used as references in future cases. Thus the Supreme Court and the High
Courts are courts of record.

Nyaya Panchayats are small law courts at the village level which try petty civil and
criminal cases.

Lok Adalat are courts set up to provide speedy and cheaper judicial services. They
are usually presided over by retired judges.

Exercises

A. Fill in the blanks:


1. In India there is a ______________ unified system of courts for the Indian
Union and the states.
2. The Supreme Court of India is located in ___________.
3. To qualify for the post of a judge in the Supreme Court, a person must either
be an advocate of a High Court for at least_____________ years or a judge
of a High Court for_____________
4. The High Court ______________ and ______________ the functioning of
subordinate courts.
5. The records of the High Court serve as ____________ for _____________
courts in future cases.

B. Match the following:


A B
1. Supreme Court (a) Can have two or more states
under its jurisdiction.
2. High Court (b) Village level courts
3. Nyaya Panchayats (c) Affordable and speedy service
4. Lok Adalats (d) Free legal aid and service
5. Legal Aid Scheme (e) The apex court of India

C. Choose the correct answer:


1. Disputes between the union government and the state governments fall
under the Original/ Adisory/ Appellate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
2. The District Court/Nyaya Panchayat/Supreme Court has the power of
Judicial review.
3. The High Court is the highest court of Justice in avillage/district/state.
4. Judges of the High Court can serve till they are 60/62/65 years old.
5. The Nyaya Panchayats/Lok Adalats/District Courts were set up to provide
quicker and cheaper judicial services.

D. State whether the following are true or false:


1. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the Prime Minister
of India.
2. No cases can be brought directly to the Supreme Court for the first time.
3. A High Court is not a court of record.
4. A Nyaya Panchayat can impose a fine of up to ‘10,000.
5. The process of obtaining justice through law courts is a long-drawn-out and
expensive process in our country.

E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:


1. On what grounds can Supreme Court judges be removed from office? [1]
2. Mention any two kinds of disputes that can be brought directly before the
Supreme Court. [1]
3. What is the Advisory Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court? [1]
4. Why are the records of the cases and judgments of the Supreme court
important? [1]
5. Who appoints the chief Justice of the High Court? [1]
6. What are writs? [1]
7. What is a Nyaya Panchayat? [1]
8. Why have Lok Adalats been set up? [1]
9. Why are Lok Adalats becoming popular? [1]
10. What is the objective of the Legal Aid Scheme? [1]

F. Answer the following question briefly:


1. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body in the country. In this context
explain:
(a) Its original Jurisdiction [4]
(b) Its Appellate Jurisdiction [3]
(c) Why it is called the guardian of the Constitution [3]
2. With reference to the powers of the High Court, discuss its:
(a) Original Jurisdiction [3]
(b) Appellate Jurisdiction [3]
(c) Review and revisory Jurisdiction [4]
3. In the context of the judicial system in India, answer the following questions:
(a) What are the main features of a Nyaya Panchayat? [3]
(b) Why are Lok Adalats becoming popular in India? [3]
(c) Mention the sections of society which received free legal services under
the Legal Aid Scheme. [4]
G. Picture study:
This is a picture of the apex Indian court.
1. Identify it.
2. What is the composition of this court?
3. Who appoints the judges?
4. Explain its role as the guardian of the Constitution.

DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination:

Organize a mock Lok Adalat in class. Write a report on the proceesings. Comment on
the atmosphere in the room where the cases are being heard. How many cases could
be settled during a 40-minute period? Give reasons for your answer.

Project work:

Interview a member of a Legal Aid Cell. Prepare a questionnaire to find out the nature
of the job, experiences of the member and the benefits of this organization. Prepare a
report and present your views.

Websites:

For more information, go to:

 http://indiancourts.nic.in/courts/indian_jud.html (Accessed on 16 December


2016)
 http://www.silf.org.in/16/indian-judicial-system.htm (Accessed on 16 December
2016)
19 The United Nations

The 20th century witnessed two world wars that convulsed humanity in agory
bloodbath. They killed millions of people, left millions maimed and crippled and brought
in its wake devastation, destruction, desolatuion and despair on a scale beyond
imagination.

The horror and tragedy of the First World War led to a passionate and universal desire
for peace. Out of this desire was bornan international organization called the League
of Nations, in 1920.

The League of Nations failed to maintain peace and the Second World War broke out
in 1939. The magnitude and scale of destruction in the war created a revulsion for war
in the minds of people. Once again, people yearned for peace, and even as the bombs
rained down from the skies, the idea of the United Nations Organization took shape.

THE ATLANTIC CHARTER

Winston Churchill, the former Prime Minister of Great Britain and Franklin D.
Roosevelt, the former President of the United States of America, met aboard a
battleship, off Newfoundland, in the Atlantic Ocean. They signed a document called
the Atlantic Charter on 14 August 1941.

??

The Atlantic Charter meeting

It was agreed that when the war ended, humans must be guaranteed the basic rights
or the four freedoms.

The basic rights included:

 freedom from want


 freedom of speech
 freedom of religious belief
 freedom from fear

THE SAN FRANCISCO CONFERENCE


In June 1945, 50 nations met in San Francisco to sign the Atlantic Charter of the UN.
Poland which was not represented at the Conference signed it later and became one
of the original 51 member states. On 24 October 1945, the United Nations was
established to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war and to reaffirm
faith in fundamental human rights. 24 October is celebrated as United National Day.

The original signatories included Britain, France, USA, former USSR and China.
Today, there are 193 members. The headquarters are located in New York City.

The six official languages of the UN are English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese
and Arabic. The UN flag depicts two bent olive branches which are open at the top
with a world map between them. The white olive branches and the world map are on
a light blue background. The branches of the wreath symbolize peace.

The UN is financed by the contributions made by its member states. The wealthier
nations pay more than the poorer ones. The General Assembly determines the
contribution to be made by the member nations.

??

The UN headquarters in New York

THE OBJECTIVES OF THE UN

The objectives of the UN have been outlined in the Preamble of the UN charter. They
are:

 To maintain international peace and security


 To develop friendly relations among nations on the basis of equality
 To achieve international cooperation in solving economic, social, cultural and
humanitarian problems
 To promote human rights and fundamental freedom for the people of the world
 To act as a common platform for harmonizing the activities of various nations
for the attainment of the objectives of the UN
 To save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which has twince
brought suffering to humans

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The UN logo

This implies that:

 All nations big or small are equal.


 They must all obey the Charter.
 All disputes must be settled peacefully.
 No force should be used.
THE ORGANS OF THE UN

The UN has six main organs:

 The General Assembly


 The Security Council
 The Economic and Social Council
 The Trusteeship Council
 The International Court of Justice
 The Secretariat

DID YOU KNOW?

The UN headquarter consists of several buildings along the East river in New York
City. On the grounds of the UN headquarters stands the sculpture, ‘Let us beat swords
into ploughshares’, sculpted by the Russian sculptor, Yevgeny Vuchetich and it
expresses the main goal of the UN.

The General Assembly

All the members of the UN are members of the General Assembly. Each member
nation can send up to five representatives, but they are entitled to one vote per nation.
The General Assembly meets once a year but special sessions can be held during
times of crisis. Some of the important functions of the General Assembly are:

 To discuss international problems and make recommendations for their solution


 To make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of disputes
 To consider and approve the UN budget
 To elect non-permamnent members of the Security Council, members of the
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and the Trusteeship Council
 To supervise the work of the other organs of the UN
 To make recommendations for ‘collective measures, including the use of armed
forces’ during a crisis (Uniting for Peace Resolution)

All decisions are generally taken by a simple majority vote and in some important
cases by a two-third majority vote.

The Security Council

The Security Council, the most important organ of the UN, is often referred to as
the enforcement wing of the UN. It consists of 15 members. Five of them are
permanent members. They are (i) USA (ii) UK (iii) France (iv) People’s Republic of
China and (v) the Russian Federation. The ten non-permanent members are
elected by the General Assembly for a term of 2 years.

The Security Council has the basic responsibility for maintaining peace and
security in the world. It meets as and when the need arises. Decisions are taken
by a majority vote of at least nine members, including all the five permanent
members. A negative vote by any one of the permanent members would lead to a
cancellation of the resolution. This right to prevent action being taken is known as
the right to veto. This means that any resolution becomes ineffective even if one of
the permanent members votes against it. This means that all decisions have to be
taken with the consent of all the permanent members.

When no action can be taken by the Security Council because of the veto, the
General Assembly can deal with the crisis. It can take whatever action may seem
appropriate to restore and maintain world peace. The important functions of the
Security Council are:

 To investigate international disputes and recommend ways of setting such


disputes peacefully
 To call on member states to apply economic sanctions against the
aggressor
 To take military action against the aggressor, if necessary

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The chamber of the UN Security Council in New York

The Economic and Social Council

The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) consists of 54 members elected by the
General Assembly for a 3-year term. The main objective of the ECOSOC is to free the
world from ‘want’. Its main functions are:

 To promote economic growth and social progress


 To create a spirit of respect for human Rights
 To solve problems related to health, illiteracy, drugs, employment, status of
women, etc.
 To supervise the work of various specialized agencies such as World Health
Organization (WHO), United Nations Educational Scientific and Culture
Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF),
International Labour Organization (ILO), Food and Agricultural Oraganization
(FAO), etc.

Trusteeship Council

When the UN was first formed, a large number of countries were not free. Many were
affected by the war. The Trusteeship Council was established to look after the
territories that were under foreign rule and to help them attain self-government. All
Trust Territories have achieved their independence. The Trusteeship Council
suspended operations in 1994.
The International Court of Justice

The International Court of Justice (ICJ) consistsof 15 judges from different countries,

elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council. Each judge has a 9 year
term. No two judges can be from the same country.

The main functions of this court are:

 To settle disputes brought to it by member nations


 To give legal advice to the other organs of the UN, on request

All matters are decided in accordance with international law. The international Court
of Justice is located at The Hague, Netherlands (Holland).

??

The International Court of Justice at Hague, Switzerland

The Secretariat

The Secretariat is the chief administrative organ of the UN. It has a large staff of
workers from over different countries. These also include interpreters, security guards
and photographers.

This staff carrier out the day-to-day activities of the organization. It is headed by the
Secretary General, elected by the General Assembly for a five-year term.

The Secretary General holds a key position in the administration of the affairs of the
UN. He/She organizes conferences, drafts reports, makes correspondences, registers
treaties and prepares budget estimates. The staff of the United Nationals Secretariat
is also appointed by the Secretary General.

INDIA AND THE UN*

India was one of the countries to sign the UN Charter in 1945. It is therefore, one of
founder members of the UN. India has accepted the ideals of the UN and has also
played a significant role in promoting peace and unity in the world.

 India has supported the freedom movements of other nations and has helped
the underprivileged countries. India supported freedom movements in countries
like Indonesia, Angola, Bangladesh, Libya, Malaysia, Tunisia, Ghana, Morocco
and Algeria.
 India has helped to expand the membership of the Security Council and admit
new members to the UN. India supported the entry of the People’s Republic of
China into the UN in 1971.
 India has opposed racial discrimination or apartheid in South Africa.
 India has been part of the UN peacekeeping operations in Palestine, Cyprus,
Congo, Cambodia, Somalia and Bosnia.
 India believes in disarmament or the reduction of arms and control of atomic
energy. India has, therefore, played an important role in conferences on
disarmament.
 India was appointed as the Chairman of the Commission for the supervision of
Truce in Indo-China in 1954.
 During the Cold War, India took a neutral stand or followed a policy of non-
alignment and, thus, helped in the reduction of tension between the two
superpowers.
 India played an important role in the repatriation of prisoners of war, when the
hostilities in Korea came to an end in 1953.
 India has sent her medical missions as part of UN aid missions whenever
needed, e.g. during the Korean War (1950) and the Gulf War (1991).
 India has played an active role in the development activities of the UN agencies
like UNICEF, UNESCO and United Nations development Program (UNDP).
Many African and Asian students are getting higher education in Indian
universities through UNESCO scholarships.
 Many Indians have served in the UN at important posts. Shashi Tharoor was
the former Undersecretary General for Public Information at the UN. He was
the official candidate of India for the post of Secretary General. When Kofi
Annan’s term came to an end in 2006. He came a close second out of seven
contenders in the race. Indian jurists like Nagendra Singh, B.N. Rau and Justice
Pathak have been judges of the Court of Justice.

UN HELP TO INDIA*

The UN has helped India in the social, economic, scientific and culture development,
through its agencies:

 The WHO has helped in the improvement of public health. It has helped in
fighting several diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, and has helped in
eradicating smallpox. It has helped to set up childcare centres and also trained
a large number of medical personnel. It also help students to go for higher
education in medicine by providing scholarships.
 The FAO has helped in the development of the once unfit Terai region in
Uttarakhand and made it fit for cultivation and habitation. It has also helped to
turn the desert region in Rajasthan into a fertile land by checking soil erosion.
It has helped in setting up the Sheep and Wool Research Institute in Rajasthan,
the Central Institute of Fisheries Education in Mumbai and the Institute of
Catering technology and Nutrition in several Indiancities. In 1960, the FAO
launched its ‘Freedom from Hunger’ campaign in India.
 The UNESCO has organized several exchange programmes for teachers,
students and scholars. Under the Teachers’ Exchange Programme, cultural
contact with other countries are promoted.

??
Indian peacekeeping troops

 The UNICEF has started a programme called ‘Education for All’ and the ILO
has introduced a programme to eliminate child labour.
 The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have given financial
aid for the Five-Year Plans and for the establishment of projects such as the
Sardar Sarovar Project.

India cooperates with the UN in maintaining world peace and security through its
specialized agencies. Both have common objective and agencies. Both have common
objectives and by mutual cooperation the common goal of a peaceful and prosperous
world can be achieved.

ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE UN

The UN has many achievements to its credit.

 Although it has not been able to prevent war, in many cases, it has taken
effective action to restore peace, e.g., the Korean War, the Suez Canal crisis,
the Gulf War, etc.
 Many countries, e.g., Indonesia, Algeria, Morocco, have achieved their
independence with support from the UN.
 By imposing economic sanctions against the South African government, it
played a significant role in challenging the apartheid policy and liberating the
South African people from apartheid rule.
 It has worked consistently for the protection and preservation of human rights
around the world.
 It has worked actively to end the nuclear arms race and encouraged the use of
nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.
 It has achieved great success in the fields of labour, health, welfare of children
and education by fighting poverty, ignorance, malnutrition, hunger and disease
through its specialized agencies.

THINK AND ANSWER

Do you agree that the Third World War has been averted only due to the efforts of the
United Nations Organization?

Many people thought that with the end of the Cold War most of the world’s problems
would disappear. This, however, did not happen.
There have been more problems than ever before. Hatred and intolerance threaten to
shatter the peace of the world. Today, terrorism stalks the world like a hydra, a many-
headed demon that threatens to destroy human civilization.

The need of the hour is to reform and strengthen the UN and to make it strong and
effective, capable of healing the wounds of our times and restoring sanity, balance
and harmony to our strife-torn world.

DISCUSS

If you were asked to select any four UN objectives that you consider most important
which would you choose and why?

VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS

We must understand the need to establish peace and security in the world. We must
also encourage international cooperation through talks and debates so that the
outbreak of another world war id prevented. It is important to know that world peace
depends on economic, social and cultural progress.

 If you were given the opportunity of representing your country in any of the
major organs of the United Nations, which would it be? Why?

Important Words

Resolution is a formal statement of opinion agreed on by the members of a group or


council.

Veto is the negative vote by any one of the permanent members of the UN Security
Council when leads to the cancellation of the resolution.

Apartheid refers to a system of racial discrimination practised formerly in South


Africa in which only white people enjoyed all political rights and the black people
were forced to live away from the white people.

Truce is an agreement between enemies or opponents to stop fighting for an agreed


period of time.

Non-alignment is a policy wherein a country maintains a neutral stand and neither


supports nor receives support by any of the powerful countries in the world.

Exercises

A. Fill in the blanks:


1. The _____________was formed in 1920 after the end of the first World
War.
2. Each member state of the UN can send up to _______________
representatives to the General Assembly.
3. The ___________is often referred to as the ‘enforcement wing’ of the UN.
4. The five permanent members of the Security Council are
_____________,____________,_____________, __________ and
_________.
5. The objective of the ECOSOC is to free the world from_____________.
6. The WHO is a ___________agency of the UN.

B. Match the following:


A B
1. San Francisco Conference (a) Organ of the UN
2. UN headquarters (b) 15
3. Security Council (c) Five
4. Permanent members of the (d) New York City
Security Council
5. Number of judges at the (e) 1945
International Court of Justice

C. Choose the correct answer:


1. 24 October/ 22 March/ 21 June is celebrate as United Nations Day.
2. The olive branches on the UN flag symbolize peace / wealth / truth.
3. The Economic and Social consists of 54 members elected by the General
Assembly for a 3/4/5-year term.
4. The International Court of justice is located in New York City in USA/The
Hanue in Netherlands/ Paris in France.
5. The Secretariat/ General Assembly/ International Court of Justice is the
chief administrative organ of the UN.

D. State whether the following are true or false:


1. All the members of the UN are members of the General Assembly.
2. French is one of the official languages of the UN.
3. The Trusteeship Council is the most important organ of the UN.
4. UNESCO and UNICEF are specialized agencies of the UN.
5. Most of the world’s problem have disappeared with the end of the Cold
War.

E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:


1. Mention one important organ of the UN. (1)
2. Who are the members of the General Assembly? (1)
3. What is a negative vote by one of the permanent members of the Security
Council known as? (1)
4. Why was the Trusteeship Council established? (1)
5. Why did the UN impose economic sanctions against the South African
government? (1)
6. What is the relevance of the UN in todays’s world? (1)

F. Answer the following questions briefly:


1. The magnitude and scale of destruction during the Second World War
created a great revulsion for war and a passionate yearning for peace. In
this context
(a) The Signing of the Atlantic Charter (3)
(b) The basic rights or the four freedoms guaranteed by the charter (4)
(c) The San Francisco Conference and establishment of the United Nations
(3)
2. With reference to the United Nations discuss:
(a) The UN flag (3)
(b) Any four objectives of the UN outlined in the Preamble of the UN Charter
(4)
(c) The obligations of all nations that follow from these objectives 930
3. With reference to the General Assembly and Security Council of the UN,
answer the following questions:
(a) Mention any fours of the General Assembly. (4)
(b) Explain the veto power of the permanent members of the Security
Council. What happens when the Security Council cannot take any
action because of the veto? (3)
(c) State three important functions of the Security Council. (3)
4. With reference to the organs of the UN discuss:
(a) Any three functions of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (3)
(b) The composition and functions of the International Court of Justice (3)
(c) Any four significant achievements of the UN (4)

G. Picture study:
This building is the headquarters of an international organization which was
established in October 1945 to maintain international peace and security.
1. Name the organization.
2. Where are the headquarters of this organization located?
3. Mention four important objectives of this organization.
4. Name three major organs of this organization.

DO AND LEARN

Use your imagination:

Imagine you are representing your school at a seminar at a seminar organized by the
Economic and Social Council of the UN. Prepare a project report on child labour in
your city/ town/village and the urgent need to ban it. Suggest some effective and
practical measures that ECOSOC can implement with the active cooperation of the (i)
government and (ii) individuals
Project work:

Iwith the help of your teacher arrange a mock session of the General Assembly.
Debate global issues like environmental degradation, poverty and hunger in
developing countries, terrorism, etc.

Websites

For more information, go to:

 http://www.un.org/en/ (Accessed on 14 December 2016)


 http://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/ Accessed on 14 December 2016)
20 Specialized Agencies of the UN

One of the principal objective of the UN is to solve economic, social, cultural and
humanitarian problems through international cooperation. A number of specialized
agencies have been established to achieve these goals. They work under the
supervision of the UN Economic and Social Council in the interest of human welfare.

THE UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL


ORGANIZATION (UNESCO)

The UNESCO was set up in 1945 with the headquartes in Paris. Its functions are
based on the belief that the best way of preventing war is to educate people’s minds
in the pursuit of peace.

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The UNESCO logo

 It encourage the spread of universal educational. It emphasized that education


is a human right.
 It also encourage international cooperation between artists, scientists and
scholars in all fields.

THINK AND ANSWER

The best way of preventing war is to education people’s minds in the pursuit of peace.
Do you agree with this statement? Give reasons for your answer.

THE UNITED NATION CHILDERN’S FUND (UNICEF)

UNICEF was known as United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund when
it was established in 1946 originally to provide emergency aid to children and their
mothers in countries devastated by the Second World War. In 1953, the words’
international’ and ‘emergency,’ were dropped from its name and it became United
National Children’s Fund. Its headquarters are in New York.

DID YOU KNOW?


A large proportion of the funds for UNICEF to carry out its activities comes from the
public through the sale of greeting cards, proceeds from benefits events like concerts
and football matches, grants from organizations and institutions, and collections by
schoolchildren. The UNICEF was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965.

The long-term goals of UNICEF are:

 To focus on improving the quality of life of children by creating awareness


about children’s health and education
 To focus on the realization for every child, of the opportunity to enjoy the basic
rights and privileges

The activities of UNICEF are as follows:

 It tries to solve the problem of exploitation of children and child labour.


 UNICEF provides assistance to nations for running childcare centres.
 UNICEF continues to work for the welfare of children (in developing countries)
in the fields of education, health and sanitation, nutrition, water, environment,
women’s welfare, social justice, etc.
 It provides assistance to young mothers and also provided medicines to
newborn babies and mothers.

??

A UNICEF makeshift school for children from war-torn regions of Iraq

DISCUSS

Why does the UNICEF continue to work for the welfare of women in general and young
mothers in particular?

THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (ILO)

The ILO was set up in 1919 at the end of the First World War, with its headquarters at
Geneva, Switzerland. Later, when the UN was formed, it became its first specialized
agency.

The ILO seeks to promote peace and prosperity in the world by ensuring social and
economic justice to workers all over the world. A country can progress and prosper if
the workers are content and happy. It sets guidelines for improving the living and
working conditions of workers everywhere.

The ILO is unique organization where private groups such as organized unions and
employer groups as well as governments are represented.

FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATION (FAO)


The FAO was founded in 1945 with its headquarters in Rome. The member nations
meet every alternate year to work out the policy and approve the budget and work
schedule.

The aims of the FAO are as follows:

 To raise the standard of living of the people.


 To raise the levels of nutrition
 To eliminate hunger through its most important programme called ‘Food for All’
 To increase agriculture production and distribution of food and promote rural
development

The activities of FAO are as follows:

 It carries out worldwide campaigns to combat diseases like AIDS, cholera,


malaria, plaque, polio, etc.
 It encourage medical research, provides information on diseases, organized
health services and spreads health awareness.

The WHO has succeeded in eradicating smallpox from the world.

The WHO supports projects related to:

 Education concerning health problems


 Proper food supply and nutrition
 Safe water and sanitation
 Maternal and child health, including family planning
 Immunization against major infectious diseases
 Prevention and control of local diseases
 Proper treatment of common diseases and injuries
 Provision of essential drugs

VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS

As responsible citizens we must inculcate in us a sense of social responsibility and


awareness of the manifold problem that need to be addressed in today’s world. We
must in our own way help the government and related agencies to improve the lives
of poor people and to eradicate hunger, disease and illiteracy.

 If you were given the opportunity of working with any of the specialized
agencies of the United Nations, which would it be? Why?

Important Words

Universal education means the spread of education everywhere.


Children centres provide medical assistance to mothers and the their children,
including newborn babies, and also create awareness about children’s health.

Member nations are those nations who are members of a particular agency.

World Health Day is observed on 7 April to create awareness about good health and
improve the standard of health all over the world.

Exercises

A. Fill in the blanks:


1. The UNESCO was established in ____________ with headquarters at
____________.
2. UNICEF provides assistance for running_ centres.
3. When the UN was formed the_____________ became its first specialized
agency.
4. The _______________of FAO are in Rome.
5. The WHO believes that ___________ is one of the fundamental rights of
every human being.

B. Match the following:


A B
1. UNESCO (a) Rome
2. UNICEF (b) Geneva
3. ILO (c) Paris
4. FAO (d) Geneva
5. WHO (e) New York

C. Choose the correct answer:


1. The functions of UNESCO/UNICEF/ILO are based on the belief that the best
way to prevent war is to educate people’s mind in the pursuit of peace.
2. The FAO/WHO/ILO was founded in 1945 and helps countries to raise their
levels of nutrition.
3. The ILO/WHO/UNESCO was set up at the end of the First World War.
4. The objectives of WHO/ ILO/ FAO is to improve the standard of standard of
health all over the world.
5. The WHO has succeeded in eradicating smallpox/measles/typhoid from the
world.

D. State whether the following are true or false:


1. UNESCO encourages the spread of universal education.
2. UNICEF helps in solving financial crises and provides loans to nations.
3. The ILO sets guidelines for improving the living and working conditions of
workers everywhere.
4. The Headquarters of ILO are in Rome.
5. The largest specialized agency of the UN is WHO
E. Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:
1. Why were the specialized agencies of the UN established? [1]
2. Name one specialized agency of the UN. [1]
3. What does the acronym UNESCO stand for? [1]
4. Why does the acronym UNICEF stand for at present? [1]
5. Why is it necessary to ensure that workers are content and happy? [1]
6. What important programme did the FAO launch to eliminate hunger? [1]
7. What does the FAO do in the event of an emergency food situation in any
country? [1]
th
8. Why is World Health Day observed on 7 April every year? [1]

F. Answer the following questions briefly:


1. A number of specialized agencies of the UN have been set up in the
interest of human affairs. In this context answer the following questions:
(a) Mention the functions and activities of the UNESCO. [3]
(b) Why was UNICEF originally established? What are its long-term goals
at present? [3]
(c) Mention any four endeavours of UNICEF to achieve its goals. [4]
2. With reference to the ILO and the FAO discuss:
(a) The aims and activities of the ILO [2]
(b) The aims of the FAO [4]
(c) The activities of the FAO [3]
3. With reference to the WHO discuss the following:
(a) The establishment of the WHO [3]
(b) The activities of the WHO [3]
(c) The projects supported by the WHO [4]

G. Picture study:
This is the logo of the headquarters of a specialized agency of the UN which
was established in 1948.
1. Name the agency.
2. What is the main purpose of this agency?
3. What does it do to achieve its objectives?
4. Mention one important achievement of this agency.
5. Mention any two other specialized agencies of the UN. State one important
objective of each agency.

DO AND LEARN

Use your imagination:

Imagine that the UN has decided to change the existing logos of the specialized
agencies and has organized a competition open to all school or college students of all
member nations to select the new logos from among the prize winning entries. Create
new logos for the following agencies:

(a) UNESCO (b) UNICEF (c) WHO (d)ILO (e)FAO

Prepare an objective-based campaign with a catchy slogan for each agency with the
purpose of spreading awareness among students and instilling in them a sense of
social responsibility.

Project work:

1. The UNESCO has declared over 1000 cultural and natural heritage sites as
‘World Heritage Sites’. Some of these sites are in India. Make a list of these
sites in India.
2. On an outline map of the world, mark the headquarters of all the specialized
agencies of the UN. Mention any two programmes or projects of each of these
agencies. Find out to what extent these campaigns have succeeded in fulfilling
their main objectives.

Websites

For more information, go to:

 http://en.unesco.org/ (Accessed on 14 December 2016)


 http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/lang--en/index.htm (Accessed on 14
December 2016)
 http://www.unicef.org/india/ (Accessed on 14 December 2016)
 http://www.who.int/en/ (Accessed on 14 December 2016)
First term Paper

Part 1 : History

1. Fill in the blanks: 5


(a) The two kinds of source material for the Modern period are ____________
sources and _____________ sources.
(b) The Mughal rulers who ruled India after Aurangzeb’s death are known as
the ______________ Mughals.
(c) The _____________were decisively defeated by Ahmad Shah Abdali in the
Third Battle of Panipat.
(d) The English East India Company was established in the
year____________.
(e) The fortification of Calcutta by the English East India Company mounted to
an attack on the Nawab’s_______________.

2. Choose the correct answer: 5


(a) The military campaign in the Deccan led by Shah Jahan/ Aurangzed/ Akbar
ruined the Mughal empire financially.
(b) Shuja-ud-Daulah was the Nawab of Hyderabad/ Avadh/ Bengal.
(c) The invention of the printing press/ telegraph/telephone helped to spread
the ideas of the Renaissance thinkers far and wide.
(d) The Dual Government in Bengal was introduced by Robert Clive/ Warren
Hastings/ Lord Cornwallis.
(e) After the Third Anglo-Maratha War the British placed a descendant of Shivaji
on the throne of Nagpur/ Satara/ Jhansi.

3. State whether the following are true or false: 5


(a) The French East India Company established its headquarters at
Pondicherry.
(b) The Queen of England, Elizabeth I granted the English East India Company
the exclusive right to trade with the East.
(c) The Battle of Plassey was fought in the year 1765.
(d) One of the regional centres of Maratha power was the Sindhias of Gwalior.
(e) Cornwallis annexed Jhansi on the grounds of Doctrine of Lapse.

4. Answer the following questions in one or two words/ sentences: 10


(a) Name the first and the last emperors in the line of the Later Mughals. [2]
(b) What is the significance of the Third Battle of Panipat? [2]
(c) Name the British trading settlements in (i) Madras (ii) Calcutta. [2]
(d) Why were European traders attracted to the Bengal province in the 18 th
century? [2]
(e) What was the main objective of the Subsidiary Alliance System? [2]
5. Answer any two of the following questions briefly: 20
(a) In the context of the Industrial Revolution answer the following questions:
(i) Mention the three important features of the Industrial Revolution. [3]
(ii) Give any four important reasons to explain why the Industrial Revolution
started in England. [4]
(iii) Briefly discuss the spread of the Industrial revolution. [3]
(b) Several factors were responsible for the decline of the Mughal empire. In
this context answer the following questions:
(i) How did party politics undermine the authority and prestige of the
Mughal empire? [4]
(ii) To what extent was the Jagirdari crisis responsible for a futher
decline of the power of the emperor? [3]
(iii) How did the wars of succession destabilized the Mughal empire?[3]

(c) The French Revolution of 1789 was a milestone and a major turning point
in Human history. In this context discuss the following causes:
(i) An unjust, unequal social order of the ancient regime [4]
(ii) The growing power of the Middle Class [3]
(iii) An inefficient, corrupt administration [3]

(d) The Battle of Plassey was a major turning point in the history of India. In this
context answer the following questions:
(i) Give an account of the events leading from the conspiracy to replace
Siraj-ud-Daulah to his eventual defeat in the Battle of Plassey.
[4]
(ii) State the results of the Battle pf Plassey. [3]
(iii) Why is this battle considered a major turning point in the history of
India? [3]

(e) Dalhousie was a great expansionist and adopted a number of methods to


build an all-India empire. In this context, answer the following questions:
(i) Give an account of the events leading from the conspiracy to replace
Siraj-ud-Daulah to his eventual defeat in the Battle of Plassey.
[4]
(ii) State the results of the Battle of Plassey. [3]
(iii) Why is this battle considered a major turning point in the history of
India? [3]

6. Picture study: 5
The picture portrays a momentous event in 1765, involving a british Governor
and a Mughal Emperor wherein the Mughal Emperor is conveying the grant of
the diwani to the Governor.
??
(a) Identify the Mughal Emperor and the british Governor.
(b) What is the significance of this grant of the diwani?
(c) Name the battle that preceded this event.

Part 2: Civics
1. Choose the correct answer:
(a) The President carries out the functions on the advice of the Prime Minister
and the Lok Sabha/ the Counil of Ministers/ the Rajya Sabha.
(b) The Lok Sabha/ Rajya Sabha/ Vidhan Sabha is also known as the Council
of States.
(c) The Vice-President is the Chairperson of the lok Sabha/ Rajya Sabha/
Vidhan Sabha.
(d) After the elections, the President appoints the leader of the majority aprty
as the Vice-President/ Speaker/ Prime Minister.
(e) Disputes between the union government and the state governments fall
under the Original/ Advisory/ Appellate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

2. Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences: 5


(a) How do we know that the Parliament has supreme authority in the
government? [1]
(b) Which branch of government interprets and defines laws? [1]
(c) What can the President do when the security of the country is threatened by
external aggression or armed rebellion? [1]
(d) On what grounds can Supreme Court judges be removed from office? [1]
(e) What is the Advisory Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court? [1]

3. Answer any two of the following questions briefly: 20


(a) In the context of the Parliamentary form of government, answer the following
questions:
(i) What are the main features of a parliamentary form of government
[4]

(ii) Name the three branches of government and state their respective
functions. [3]
(ii) Why are powers distributed between the central and the state
government? [3]
(b) The President is an integral part of the Parliament. In this context explain
the following:
(i) The financial powers of the President [4]
(ii) The judicial powers of the President [3]
(iii) The emergency powers of the President [3]
(c) The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body in the country. In this context
explain:
(i) Its Original Jurisdiction [4]
(ii)
(iii) Its Appellate Jurisdiction [3]
(iv) Why it is called the guardian of the Constitution [3]

Project Work 20
Second Term Paper
Part 1: History Marks: 80

1. Fill in the blanks:


(a) To eliminate competition from India’s traditional industries, the British
transformed India into a _____________and a ____________
(b) The immediate cause of the Revolt was the issue of the _______________
______________.
(c) ______________established the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College at
Aligarh.
(d) A.O. Hume laid the foundation of the __________ ___________
_____________ in December 1885.
(e) When the Quit India Resolution was passed in the year_____________,
Gandhiji gave the Indians the Mantra ‘____________’.

2. Match the following:


A B
(a) Wood’s Despatch (i) Sikh reformers
(b) Dayanand Saraswati (ii) IIbert Bill controversy
(c) Akali Movement (iii) Educational policy
(d) Lord Ripon (iv) Salt Satyagraha
(e) Dandi March (v) Arya Samaj

3. Choose the correct answer: 5


(a) The Ryotwari system of revenue collection was introduced in
Madras/Calcutta/Bombay presidency.
(b) The Charter Act of 1813 directed the Company to spend 1/10/15 lakh rupees
on the education of Indians.
(c) The first Indian school for girls was set up by Bethune at
Bombay/Calcutta/Bombay/ Madras.
(d) The first session of the Indian national Congress was presided over by W.C.
Banerjee/Surendranath Banerjee/A.O. Hume.
(e) Subhash Chandra Bose/Mahatma Gandhi/ rash Behari Bose was the
supreme commander of the Indian National Army

4. Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences: 10


(a) Why did the Indian peasants begin to grow cash crops? [2]
(b) Mention any two positive effects of the introduction of English in the Indian
education system. [2]
(c) Mention any two evil social practices against which the Brahmo Samaj
launched a relentless struggle. [2]
(d) Name any two Western scholar who researched the Indian past and
rediscovered its rich heritage. [2]
(e) Under whose leadership was the Lahore session of the Congress held in
1929? What resolution was passed in this session? [2]

5. Answer any two of the following questions briefly: 20


(a) The Charter Act of 1813 passed by the British Parliament was the first major
step to introduce changes in the Indian system of education. In this context
discuss:
(i) The general directives issued to the Company in the Charter Act of
1813 and its inherent weakness. [3]
(ii) The Great Debate over the content and medium of education. [4]
(iii) The introduction and spread of Western education. [3]
(b) The central figure of the Indian Renaissance was Raja Ram Mohan Roy-the
pioneer of the Modern Age in India. In this context answer the following
questions:
(i) Discuss briefly Raja Ram Mohan’s views and ideas on religious
reform of Hindu society. [4]
(ii) What was the programme of the Brahmo Samai? [3]
(iii) Explain Raja Ram Mohan’s views on education. [3]
(c) In the context of the Revolt of 1857, answer the following questions:
(i) Mention any three political causes of the Revolt. [3]
(ii) Mention any three economic factors that led to the outbreak of the
great Revolt. [3]
(iii) Explain briefly any four social and religious causes that led to the
Revolt of 1857. [4]
(d) There were many factors that led to the rise of nationalism in India. In the
light of this statement answer the following questions:
(i) In what way did the Revolt of 1857 impact the rise of nationalism in
India? [3]
(ii) What changes did Western education bring about in the traditional
Indian outlook? [4]
(iii) The English language acted as a link language among the Indians.
Explain. [3]
(e) With reference to Indian National Movement, answer the following:
(i) Examine the role of Subhash Chandra Bose in the Indian freedom
struggle. [3]
(ii) Why do Indians still respect and revert Netaji? [3]
(iii) What was the significance of (i) Mountbatten Plan and (ii) Indian
Independence Act, 1947 [4]

6. Picturestudy:
??
This is the picture of a leader who formed a new party called the forward Bloc
in 1939.
(a) Identify the leader in the picture.
(b) What was the name of the army of which he was the supreme commander?
(c) What was his slogan for the liberation of India?
(d) Write a few lines on the leadership qualities of India?

Part 2: Civics

1. Choose the correct answer: 5


(a) 24 October/22 March/ 21 Hune is celebrated as United Nations Day.
(b) The olive branches on the UN flag symbolize peace/ wealth/ trusth.
(c) The International Court of Justice is located in Chennai in India/ The
Hague in Netherlands/Paris in France.
(d) The functions of UNESCO/UNICEF/ILO are based on the belief that
the best way to prevent war is to educate people’s mind in the pursuit
of peace.
(e) The WHO has succeeded in eradicating smallpox/measles/typhoid
from the world.
2. Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences: 5
(a) Which incident in 1945 established the fact that nuclear warfare had
become a terrifying reality? [1]
(b) Mention one important organ of the UN. [1]
(c) What is a negative vote by one of the permanent members of the
Security Council known as? [1]
(d) Why does the acronym UNICEF stand for at present? [1]
(e) Why were specialized agencies of the UN established? [1]
3. Answer any two of the following questions: 20
(a) With reference to the United Nations discuss:
(i) The UN flag [3]
(ii) Any four objectives of the UN outlines in the Preamble of the
UN Charter. [4]
(iii) The obligations of all nations that follows from these
objectives.
(b) With reference to the General Assembly and Security Council of the
UN, answer the following questions:
(i) Mention any four functions of the General Assembly. [3]
(ii) Explain the veto power of the permanent members of the
Security Council. What happens when the Security council
cannot take any action because of the veto? [4]
(iii) State three important functions of the Security Council. [3]
(c) A number of specialized agencies of the UN have been set up in the
interest of human affairs. In this context answer the following
questions:
(i) Mention the functions and activities of the UNESCO. [3]
(ii) Why was UNICEF originally established? What are its long-
term goals at present? [3]
(iii) Mention any four endeavours of UNICEF to achieve its goals.
[4]

Project Work 20
GUIBELINES FOR PROJECT WORK

Project work constitutes an important and integral and integral part of the ICSE history
and civics syllabus. Project assignments complement and supplement classroom
teaching and make learning more meaning and effective. They help to integrate (i)
teaching (ii) learning (iii) testing.

Project work involves self-learning. It breaks the monotony of traditional classroom


teaching, motivates children to think for themselves, research facts, analyze, interpret
and evaluate historical data and form intelligent, independent and responsible
opinions and impressions. From being passive receptacles of information they become
proactive reservoirs of knowledge. Self-learning, with a certain degree of guidance,
enthuses children and makes the study of history interactive and interesting. This is
especially true in situations where teachers do not have access to modern facilities
and new age teaching tools and opportunities.

Basic Objective

 To develop the ability to select reference material that is relevant to the topic.
 To develop skills to understand, analyse reference material, substantiate and
support ideas, analyse events and issues and their impact.
 To correlate historical developments with present-day situations in the world, in
India and in the lives of the students.
 To development the ability to empathize with the people in the past and
understand/appreciate/accept different points of view.

Methodology

Teachers are the ‘facilitators’ in the learning process. The constraints of time and the
pressures of a weighty syllabus notwithstanding, it is the teacher who can play a vital
role in making project work a joyful experience for their students.

 The topic/topics must be explained and discussed with the students.


 tudents must be given proper guidance regarding sources of reference material
(libraries, books, newspapers, magazines, websites, etc.)
 Day trips to museums, monuments, historical sites, etc., could be arranged.
 The progress of the assignment could be monitored and discussed from time.
Students should be encouraged to clarify their doubts.
 Guidelines for research and presentations should be clearly laid down.
 Teachers may provide and assist students with reference material and
guidance. Thereafter, it is the students’ responsibility to select relevant and
appropriate material and present it in accordance with the guidelines. Students
must not confuse assistance with dependence; the project is their ‘individual
effort’ and not a ‘community’ project.
 The evaluation of the project assignment could also include a viva to assess
the student’s effort and his/her understanding of the subject.

Options

 Debates can be conducted in class to discuss certain aspects or issues related


to the topic. The class can be divided into two groups with each group speaking
for or against the motion.
 The class may also be divided into a number of groups. Each group can be
assigned a specific aspect of the project topic to work on. Every student must
contribute to the group effort. When the assignments are completed, the topic
can be discussed in class with the teacher as the moderator.
 Students may also be given the option of making a presentation of their
research project to the class with the help of charts, diagrams, maps, models,
etc.

Students must follow the guidelines given by the teacher and work within the
prescribed parameters.

 First of all, the topic must be clearly understood.


 The subject matter must be properly researched to select relevant reference
material.
 The sources of reference material should be listed in the bibliography.
 The reference material must be used to explain, support and analysed
ideas, events and issues.
 Relevant maps, tables, pictures, diagrams, drawings, paintings, timelines,
newspaper cuttings, etc., must be used to illustrate the reference material
and content. These visual aids must be neatly cut out and pasted on the
left-hand page corresponding with information given on the opposite page.
 Illustrations must be neatly labelled. Important, interesting and relevant
facts, figures and quotations should be added to make the illustrations more
meaningful.
 Headings and sub-headings should be highlighted. Key words must also be
highlighted. The presentation must include (i) list of contents (ii) a brief
introduction (iii) body contents (iv) conclusion and (v) bibliography.
 Matter must be arranged, organized and presented in a logical sequence.
 Matter must be accurate and the overall presentation must be very neat and
tidy.
 No marks will be awarded for unnecessary ‘cosmetic’ embellishments;
mutilation of expensive and valuable books and journals will be penalized.
 Innovative ideas and methods of presentation will add to the overall merit of
the project.
 The focus must be on the contents. Time, money and energy must not be
wasted on decorating the cover. The file should be neatly covered in brown
paper.
 Reference material can be collected over a period of time and kept in a
folder. The presentation should be completed in 2-3 days.
 The world limit can be decided by the teacher. It could be 500 (Class 6),
1,000 (Class 7) and 1,500 (Class 8).

Evaluation

Marks will be awarded for –process (3 marks) and product (7 marks).

The PROCESS involves the research methods (library, museum, historical sites,
newspaper, journals, books, websites, etc.) and use of reference materials
(bibliography). The PRODUCT includes contents, organization and presentation of
relevant information.

Note

The basic guidelines are based on the guidelines prescribed by the Council.

12 Rise of Indian Nationalism

Modern Indian nationalism arose to meet the challenge of foreign domination. It was
a reaction to the oppressive and exploitative nature of the British rule and the clash
of interests of the Indian people with those of the British. The British had conquered
India to promote their interests and they ruled it primarily to preserve and extend
those interests. This involved sacrificing Indian interests at the altar of British
interests.
Exploitation before 1857 was direct and harsh. After 1857, it was subtle and
systematic. Before 1857, India was exploited by a company; after 1857 she was
exploited by a nation. The impact of this exploitation was felt by almost all sections of
Indian society, but it took several decades to comprehend the true nature of British
rule and establish the link between British policies and India’s growing poverty.
Several armed revolts took place before and after 1857. The Kuka Rebellion was
one such revolt. It was rebellion of the Sikhs under the leadership of Guru Ram
Singh. It was a protest against the deliberate policy of the British to create a rift
between the Hindus and the Muslims. The Kukas (followers of ram Singh) tried to
overthrow British rule in Punjab. The revolt was mercilessly crushed. More than 50
Kuka rebels were tied to the mouth of cannons and blown up.
Similarly, the Santhal uprising in Bihar was also suppressed. In Bengal and Bihar,
the indigo revolts against the British were also crushed.
The numerous uprisings during this period were expressions of the widespread,
deep-rooted, discontent against British rule. These, however, did not pose any real
threat to British rule because they were regional and short-lived. What was needed
was an organized all-India movement, under the leadership of nationalist minded
Indians who could mobilized and unite the people.
DID YOU KNOW?
The Kukas believed that Ram Singh was the incarnation of the tenth Sikh Guru,
Guru Govind Singh. The Kukas had a special way of life. They rose before sunrise,
put on white clothes and white turbans and only after reading the holy scriptures did
they touch food. Liars, thieves and drunkards had no place in this sect. Sale of girls,
child marriage, killing of children and meaningless rituals were all strictly banned.
Ram Singh stressed on devotion to God, selfless service, a pure and simple life and
trusthfulness.
??
A painting showing a group of Santhals, a tribal community from eastern India,
attacking a British infantry group
CAUSES OF THE RISE OF NATIONALISM
Nationalism is a patriotic feeling of love and loyalty for one’s country. It is a spirit
born out of a common history, culture, territory and economic and political goals.
There were several factors responsible for the birth of nationalism in India.
Impact of the Revolt of 1857
The Revolt of 1857 had failed to rid India of foreign rule. It had, however, succeeded
in shaking the very foundations of British rule. More importantly, it had become a
source of inspiration for thousands of people and would serve as an eye-opener for
the new generation of Indians. The heroes of the Revolt, in general, and Rani
Lakshmibai, in particular, became household names-legends that would spawn
thousands of heroes in the years to come.
Western Education and Modern Ideas
The British had introduced Western education in India to create a class of loyal
clerks and Anglicized buyers of British goods.
Western education did that and much more. It opened the floodgates of modern
knowledge and rational thinking. New ideas of humanism, nationalism and
democracy transformed the traditional outlook of the people. A new class arose-
Indians education in English-small in number, but who, in course of time, would
produce leaders and organizers of a national movement.
Western education freed their minds from the bondage of tradition. They learned
about the successful movements for freedom and unification of other countries. They
now saw with greater clarity the evil effects of British rule and dreamt of a modern,
united, prosperous and strong India.
THINK AND ANSWER
Do you agree that people in India changed and developed a modern outlook
because of western education? Do you think westernization is the same thing as
modernization? Give reasons for you answers.
The English Language
The English language acted as a link language between the educated Indians and
various parts of the country. Thus, it played a very significant role in fostering
feelings of unity among educated Indian from different provinces and linguistic
regions of the country. The barriers of language now broke down as the English
language became the common medium of communication. Educated middle-class
Indians who spoke different languages could now express their views and exchange
ideas among themselves in English. A common language fostered a sense of
oneness and understanding of their Indian identity.
Modern ideas and the spirits of nationalism, however, spread among the common
people in towns and villages through the regional languages.
Common Code of Law and Administrative Unity
British rule indirectly created conditions for the growth of nationalism in India. Prior to
the establishment of British rule, India was divided into numerous states-with
different rulers and different administrative systems. People were loyal to their
respective rulers and regions. They had little or nothing in common with the people
from other regions and lacked a national outlook and identity.
The British transformed a fragmented India into a united whole under their rule. They
introduced a uniform and modern system of government throughout the British
provinces. Uniform laws were applied to all British subjects. People from different
provinces and from different communities and castes now followed the same laws
and regulations. They gradually realized that they all belonged to the same country
and shared a common national identity as Indians.
Modern Transport and Communication System
This growing sense of unity and nationalism was further strengthened when the
British introduced a new network of roads, railways and the post and telegraph
system. Social mobility and interaction increased. Caste barriers broke down. People
from different parts of the country grew closer to each other. They realized that they
shared common problems, common aspirations and common goals. They belonged
to one nation.
Rediscovery of India’s Glorious Past
Several British Governors General and other officials had propagated ideas of the
racial inferiority of the Indian and their inability to govern themselves. The self-
esteem and self-worth of the Indians had touched rock bottom.
Then came the rediscovery of a past that was great and glorious. It was a past that
could boast of the intellectual richness of Vedic philosophy, the political unity and
administrative wisdom of the Mauryas, the Golden Age of the Guptas and the
cultural brilliance of the Mughals. These discoveries were made by European
scholars like William Jones, Alexander Cunningham, James Prinsep and other
Indologists, who researched India’s historical past and revealed its rich heritage.
These revelations instilled in the Indians feelings of national pride and self-
confidence and inspired them to dream of anew resurgent India.
The interest and enthusiasm of foreign scholars stimulated the interest of the Indian
in their rich and varied history. The task of ‘rediscovery’ was carried on by Indian
socio-religious reformers throughout the 19th century. Reformers like Raja Ram
Mohan Roy, Swami Dayanand, Vivekananda and others rejuvenated Indian society,
instilled in people a pride in their Indian identity and prepared the ground for the
growth of the national spirit.
Vernacular Press and Literature
The vernacular press played a vital role in spreading modern ideas and creating
national awareness. Nationalist leaders, the best among the educated middle-class
intellectuals, used the press to criticize British policies and expose the evils of foreign
rule. The ideas of democracy and responsible government were popularized through
the press. Indians were asked to unite and work for the welfare of the nation. Thus,
the press became a powerful medium which was used to arouse the spirit of
nationalism among the people.
National literature also inspired the spirit of nationalism among the people. Novels,
essays and patriotic poems written by well-known authors and poets fired the
imagination of the common people and gave rise to powerful patriotic feelings.
Banking Chandra Chattopadhyaya’s ‘Vande Mataram’ continues to evoke strong
patriotic emotions among Indians even to this day.
Economic Exploitation
British economic policies in India had deliberately transformed India into an
agricultural colony. India had become a supplier of British raw materials and a
market for British manufactured products. The destruction of India’s traditional
industries and the exploitation of her abundant resources to serve the interests of the
British empire exposed the true nature of British rule.
The drain of India’s wealth to Britain, the impoverishment of the masses, industrial
decay, grinding poverty, frequent famines, and the indifference and apathy of the
British government produced a nationalistic reaction. The educated Indians realized
the gravity of the situation and the need to have some control over economic
policies.
Racial Arrogance and Racial Discrimination of British Rulers
All Indians, irrespective of their social, economic and political status, were
considered to be an inferior and uncivilized race. They were looked down upon,
treated with contempt and humiliated.
Western ideas of equality and personal freedom were taught in English school and
colleges in India. The Queen’s Proclamation of 1858 promised Indian equal
opportunities. This was in sharp contrast to the actual situation.
The discriminatory policies adopted by the British at the social, political and
economic level were greatly resented by the Indian intellectuals.
Indians were debarred from using parks, clubs, hospitals, libraries and railway
coaches reserved exclusively for the British.
All important positions in the administration were also reserved for the British.
(Surendranath Banerjea was dismissed from the Indian Civil Service on Flimsy
grounds.) Nominated Indian members in the Legislative Councils were not given any
powers.
Repressive Policies of Lord Lytton
British economic policies sacrificed Indian interests to those of the British. Lord
Lytton’s discriminatory policies caused great resentment among the educated
Indians.
The Vernacular Press Act
This Act curbed the liberty of the Indian press. It deprived the people of their basic
right to freedom of speech and expression.
The Arms Act
Under this Act, Indians could not own and carry weapons without a license from the
government. This Act did not apply to Europeans.
Reduction in Age for ICS Examination
The age limit for candidates, appearing for the Imperial Civil Services examination
was reduced from 21 to 19. The chance of Indian candidates joining the civil services
was greatly reduced with this law.
The IIbert Bill Controversy
Lord Ripon, who followed Lord Lytton, wanted to change some of the discriminatory
policies of the government. He approved of the Ilbert Bill which allowed Indian judges
to try Europeans (whites) accused of crimes. The violent reaction (known as the
White Mutiny) of the Europeans and Anglo-Indians to this proposal shocked the
Indian nationalists. The Bill had to be amended.
This incident blew the lid off the racial arrogance of the Europeans. It served as an
eye-opener and drove home the urgent need to form an organized national body to
protect the interest and dignity of the Indians.
In 1883 Surendranath Banerjea held the Indian National Conference, and within 2
years, the Indian National Congress was born.
??
A postage stamp, showing Surendranath Banerjea-an early nationalist leader.
THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS
The national aspirations of the Indian people found expression in the establishment
of the Indian National Congress in 1885.
The initiative to set up an all-India organization was taken by Allan Octavian Hume, a
retired British official of the Civil Service. He was supported by important nationalist
Indian leaders. A.O. Hume laid the foundation of the Indian National Congress in
December 1885.
The Indian National Congress formally established by A.O. Hume, would have,
according to an Indian historian, ‘emerged soon enough, Hume or no Hume.’ The
Indian National Congress was not a deliberate creation but the ‘natural and
inevitable product’ of forces already at work (mentioned in the earlier chapters).
The first session of the Congress was held in Bombay (now Mumbai) in December
1885. It was presided over by W.C. Bonnerjee and attended by 72 delegates. The
main aims of the Congress were:
To promote friendly relations among nationalist workers in different parts of the
country.
To develop nad strengthen feelings of national unity throughout the country.
To formulate popular demands and to place them before the government.
To train and organize public opinion in the country.
DISCUSS
Do you think that the nationalism which developed in the 19th century was different
from the earlier periods? Give reasons for your answer.
The first session of the Congress ended with the delegates affirming their loyalty to
the British Crown and declaring that all they desired was greater involvement and
participation of the Indians in the government. This soft, conciliatory attitude of the
Congress would, in 44 years’ time, be transformed into a strident, emphatic demand
for ‘Poorna Swaraj’.
VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS
People should not be discriminated on the basis of race, colour, caste, or creed. We
should not look down upon people who belong to a different culture. Discriminatory
policies can cause great resentment among people and disrupt peace both at the
national and international Levels.
Do you think the Ilbert Bill should have been amended after the White Mutiny?Why?

Important Words
Kukas were the followers of Guru Ram Singh who tried to overthrow British rule in
Punjab; but their revolt was mercilessly crushed.
Indologists were those people who researched India’s historical past and revealed
its rich heritage, such as William Jones and James Prinsep among others.
Discriminatory policies were adopted by the British in dealing with the Indians at
the social, political and economic level, wherein the Indians were considered an
inferior and uncivilized race, and were looked down upon and treated with contempt.
Ilbert Bill allowed Indian judges to try Europeans accused of crime. The Europeans
reacted violently to this and the Bill had to be amended.
Exercises
Fill in the blanks:
Modern Indian nationalism arose to meet the challenge of ______________.
Exploitation of India by the British was direct was direct and harsh before 1857, after
1857 it became___________ and ____________.
The ________________ rebellion was an armed rebellion of the Sikh against the
British policy of divide and rule.
The English language acted as a__________ language among the educated
Indians.
A.O. Hume laid the foundation of the __________ ___________ __________ in
December 1885.

Match the following:


A B
Kukas Rediscovered India’s glorious past
Santhal uprising Followers of Guru Ram Singh
William Jones Ilbert Bill controversy
‘Vande Mataram’ Bihar
Lord Ripan Evoked patriotic emotions

Choose the correct answer:


‘Vande Mataram’ was written by Swami Vivekananda/ Raja Ram Mohan Roy/
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyaya.
Lord Ripon/Lord Lytton/Lord Dalhousie approved of the Iibert Bill.
The Indian National Congress was established in 1883/1885/1890.
The first session of the Indian National Congress was attended by
62/72/82/delegates.
The first session of the Indian National Congress was presided over by W.C.
Bonnerjee/ Surendranath Banerjea /A.O. Hume.
State whether the following are true or false:
The Revolt of 1857 had failed to rid India of foreign rule.
Western education and modern ideas could not bring the Indians together.
Racial arrogance and racial discrimination by the British caused great resentment
among Indian intellectuals.
The Ilbert Bill had to be amended as the Europeans reacted violently to it.
A.O. Hume was not supported by nationalist Indian leaders.

Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:


Define nationalism. [2]
Name any two Western scholars who researched the Indian past and rediscovered
its rich heritage. [2]
How did the British economic policies in India transform India into an agricultural
colony? [2]
Why was the Ilbert Bill introduced and by whom? [2]
When and where was the first session of the Indian National Congress held?

Answer the following questions briefly:


There were many factors that led to the rise of nationalism in India. In the light of this
statement answer the following questions:
In what way did the Revolt of 1857 impact the rise of nationalism in India?
[3]
What changes did Western education bring about in the traditional Indian outlook?
[4]
The English language acted as a link language among the Indians. Explain.
[3]
In the context of the causes of the rise of Indian nationalism, answer the following
questions:
How did the British administrative system indirectly create conditions favourable for
the growth of Indian nationalism? [3]
Examine the role of modern transport and communication in fostering unity and
nationalism among the people. [3]
How did the rediscovery of India’s glorious past prepare the ground for the growth of
the national spirit among the Indians? [3]
With reference to the rise of Indian nationalism, answer the following questions:
What was the role of Vernacular press and literature in the rise of Indian
nationalism? [4]
How did the British economic policies led to the growth of Indian nationalism?
[3]
Mention the discriminatory policies that were greatly resented by the Indian
intellectuals. [3]
In the context of the Indian National Congress, answer the following questions:
Briefly discuss the Ilbert Bill controversy and show how it hastened the establishment
of the Indian National Congress. [3]
What role did A.O. Hume play in the establishment of the Indian National Congress?
[3]
Mention the main aims of the Congress. [4]

Picture study:
This is the picture of a person who was dismissed from the Indian Civil Service by
the British on flimsy grounds.
Identify the person in the picture.
Name the conference that he held in 1883.
What was the outcome of the conference?
What were the main aims of the Indian National Congress?

??
DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination:
Imagine you lived during the British rule in India. The British government has
introduced the Imagine in India. You decide to go on an all India tour by train during
your school vacations. Write a letter to your friend describing your experiences and
explain how this journey has been a great learning experience.
Project work:
Find information and pictures of the following people and put them in your
scrapbook.
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyaya (ii) Surendranath Banerjea (iii) W.C. Bonnerjee
Websites:
For more information, go to:
http://www.historydiscussion.net/history-of-india/rise-of-nationalism-in-indian-
history/648 (Accessed on 15 December 2016)

13 The Indian National Movement (1885-1916)

The history of the Indian national movement led by the congress can be divided
broadly into three phases:
Early Nationalist Phase: 1885-1905
Assertive National Phase: 1905-18
Gandhian Phase: 1918-47
THE EARLY NATIONALISTS (THE MODERATES) (1885-1905)
During its initial years, the Congress was led by nationalist leaders who were
describe by later historians as early nationalists. The members of the Congress
during the early nationalist phase belonged mainly to the educated middle-class
intellectual community (lawyers, teachers, journalists, officials, professionals,
industrialists and others). The important leaders during this period were Dadabhai
Naoroji, Surendranath Banerjea and Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
Beliefs
The early nationalists believed that British rule had conferred several benefits on
India. They felt that at the stage of history it was in their own interests to remain
under the British since they were not yet ready to govern themselves. The early
nationalists were convinced that the British could be persuaded to introduce
necessary reforms and the government could be transformed to suit the interests of
the Indian subjects.
Objectives
The early nationalists wanted proper participation of the Indians in the government in
the near future and a gradual move towards self-government in the distant future.
Methods
The early nationalists s had great faith in the sense of justice and fair play of the
British. So they adopted peaceful and constitutional methods. They presented their
grievances to the government and waited patiently for the government to pass laws
to remove those grievances. They believed that the government would gradually give
in to their demands.
They promoted unity, spread political awareness among the people and built up a
strong public opinion through meetings, lectures and the press. They also sent
delegations to England to persuade the British government to introduce necessary
reforms.

Demands of the Early Nationalists


The early nationalists wanted the British to introduce certain reforms for the welfare
of all sections of Indian society. They believed that the British would grant them their
requests if they were convinced that the demands were reasonable and just.
Contribution of the Early Nationalists
According to some historians, the early nationalist leaders failed to achieve their
objectives. There is, no doubt, some element of truth in their criticism. However, if we
examine the early nationalist phase in the context of the entire movement, the
achievements of the Congress become obvious.
The early nationalists established a solid foundation which served as a base for a
more radical approach in later years.
They spread political awareness among the people and instilled in them a sense of
national unity. The people began to think of themselves as members of one single
nation-the Indian nation. The path for a united national struggle was laid.
The Congress under the early nationalists trained the Indian in political affairs. They
educated them in political matters and familiarized them with ideas of freedom,
government, democracy, secularism, nationalism, etc. This knowledge of and
training in political affairs helped Indian nationalists to organize and raise the national
movement to the next stage of development.
The relevance of the beliefs of the early nationalists-peaceful, orderly change and a
secular approach to national problems-have acquired special relevance in today’s
world of violence and communal politics. A moderate approach to the complex
problems of today is perhaps the only most viable solution that can heal our world.
By the beginning of the 20th century, the character of the national movement began
to change. New trends appeared and the leadership of the Congress passed from
the hands of the early nationalists to those of the assertive nationalists.
DISCUSS
Do you think the British were genuinely concerned about the welfare of the Indians?
Give reasons for your answer.
THE ASSERTIVE NATIONALISTS (THE RADICALS) (1905-18)
The transition in the national movement marked the beginning of the second phase
of the national movement. It was known as the assertive nationalist phase and was
led by outstanding men like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lal Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal
and Aurobindo Ghosh. Their political beliefs, aims and methods were very different
from those of the early nationalists.
Beliefs
The assertive nationalists had no faith in the British sense of justice and fair play.
They believed that the British rule in India was not a blessing but a curse. They were
convinced that the British had no honest intentions of introducing reforms for the
welfare of the Indians. They realized that the British interests were different and
clashed with the Indian interests. India could never grow and progress under British
rule.
??
Leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal led the
national movement in its assertive phase, from 1905 to 1918.
Objectives
The goal of the assertive nationalists was not self-government in ‘gradual’ stages but
immediate freedom (swaraj) from British rule.
Methods
The assertive nationalists had no faith in the constitutional methods followed by the
early nationalists. Twenty years of prayers, petitions, appeals, resolutions and
representations had failed to yield any concrete results.
Tilak knew that the British would never concede to the demand for searaj without a
struggle.
So, a radical method of active opposition to the government would have to be
adopted. Swaraj would have to be achieved through a political, anti-government
agitation and with the involvement and support of the masses. The Congress would
have to be transformed from a platform for debates among the westernized, Indian
intelligentsia into a regiment of freedom fighters-united, determined, confident and
willing to make sacrifices.
THINK AND ANSWER
Do you agree with the methods of the early nationalists or those of the assertive
nationalists? Give reasons for your answer.
THE PARTITION OF BENGAL
The British partitioned Bengal in 1905 in pursuance of their policy of divide and rule.
After the partition of Bengal in 1905 by the British, the assertive nationalists adopted
the methods of boycott, swadeshi and national education to achieve the goal of
Swaraj. The people were asked to boycott all British goods and use only Indian or
swadeshi goods.
The assertive nationalists also saw through the evil designs of the British in dividing
Bengal on communal lines. This was done to separate the Hindus from the Muslims
and destroy the unity between them. The British policy of divide and rule had created
a gap between the Hindu and Muslim communities.
The Surat Split
The partition of Bengal briefly brought the early nationalists and the assertive
nationalists and the assertive nationalists together. The early nationalists supported
the radical methods of political agitation – swadeshi and boycott- to protest against
the partition of Bengal. However, the unity between the two group was short-lived.
Cracks between the two wings of the Congress began to appear in the course of the
movement against partition. The early nationalists and their assertive counterparts
failed to agree on various aspects of the swadeshi and boycott movement, and in
1907, at the Surat session of the Congress, the early nationalist leaders expelled the
assertive nationalist leaders from the Congress. The latter continued to function as
separate group till 1916. In the meantime, the British crushed the swadeshi
movement. Tilak was sentenced to six years of imprisonment.
THE MUSLIM LEAGUE
The Muslim League was established in December 1906, under the leadership of
Nawab Salimullah Khan in Dacca (now known as Dhaka). Aga Khan and others also
joined the Muslim League.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah joined the Muslim League in 1913.
The main objective of the Muslim League were as follows:
?? Muhammad Ali Jinnah
To promote among the Muslim a feeling of loyalty towards the British government.
To protect and promote the political rights of the Muslims.
To prevent feelings of hostility towards other communities.
The League served as a political platform for upper-class Muslims. It supported the
partition of Bengal. The League demanded special safeguards for Muslims in
government service. In 1906, it appealed to the Viceroy for separate electorates.
This meant that the Muslim voters would elect Muslim representatives. The
introduction of separate electorates sounded the death knell of national unity. It was
the first definite step on the road to the partition of India.
THE FIRST WORLD WAR AND INDIA
The outbreak of the first World war in 1914 had a significant effect on the national
movement. As a colony of the British empire, India was automatically drawn into the
war.
Initially, there was an outburst of loyalty and the Indian nationalist leaders supported
the British government with men and money. More than a million Indian soldiers
were sent overseas to join the British army and a hundred million pounds were given
to the British government.
The British and their allies declared that they were fighting the war to make the world
‘safe for democracy’ and to promote the right of all nations to form self-governments.
This led the Indian nationalists to believe that a grateful Britain would reward India’s
loyalty and fulfil its demands for self-government.
However, as the war dragged on, the hopes and expectations of the Indian leaders
began to wane. The British continued to ignore the Indian demands for reform. By
1915, Tilak (who was released in 1914 after six years of imprisonment) was
convinced that the British had no real intentions of granting any concessions to the
Indians. The Congress was passive and inactive at this time, dominated by the early
nationalists who had lost the support and respect of the people. Tilak realized the
need to revive the national spirit and enthuse and energize people.
THE HOME RULE LEAGUES
Two Home Rule Leagues were formed in 1916, one under the leadership of Tilak
and the other under the leadership of Annie Beasant. Together, they spread the
home Rule movement to different parts of the country. The main aim of the Leagues
was to achieve self-government within the British empire after the war. Tilak and
Annie Besant travelled all over India spreading the message of freedom and self-
rule. The movement became very popular.
THE LUCKNOW SESSION OF THE CONGRESS (1916)
Another important development during the war was the change in the attitude of the
Muslims towards the British government. The pro-British attitude of the Indian
Muslims became anti-British. Large sections of the educated Muslims began to
support the nationalist movement.
Nationalist Muslims like the Ali brothers-Maulana Mohammad Ali and Shankar Ali,
and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad spread nationalist ideas among the Muslims.
According to them, there among the Muslims. According to them, there was no
conflict between Islam and nationalism. Abul Kalam Azad criticized the British policy
of divide and rule and the had urged the Muslims to join in the struggle against the
real enemy-British imperialism.
The changed attitude of the Indian Muslims brought the League and the Congress
close to one another. The growing unity between them led to the signing of the
Lucknow Pact in 1916. The Lucknow Pact was an agreement signed by the Muslim
League and the Congress to pave the way for a joint scheme of political reforms in
India.
Under the Lucknow Pact, the League jointly with the Congress put forward the
demand for a Dominion Status for India. This was an important step towards Hindu-
Muslim unity.
The Lucknow session of the Congress also reunited the Moderates and the
Radicals. The two wings of the congress held a joint meeting for the first time since
the Surat Split in 1907. The nationalists realized that it was necessary to put up a
united front against the government.
The unity between the Muslim League and the Congress, on the one hand and the
early nationalists and the assertive nationalists, on the other, aroused great political
enthusiasm and strengthened the national movement.
VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS
It is very important to understand that honesty builds trust. It is necessary to
reinforce that we should be honest in every sphere of life. Dishonesty hurts both
ourselves and others. Being honourable, fair-minded and dependable are important
virtues and helps to build mutual trust.
What are the ways in which we can help to make our society an honest society?

Important Words
Early nationalists were the nationalist leaders who led the Congress in its initial
years.
Assertive nationalists were those leaders of the Congress who believed in the
radical method of active opposition to the British government.
Swaraj means self-rule. It refers to the end of foreign rule.
Partition of Bengal was done in 1905 by Lord Curzon on communal lines,
destroying the unity between the Hindus and the Muslims.
Boycott of foreign goods refers to the refusal to use british goods.
Swadeshi means the use of indigenous goods, i.e. goods produced and made in
India.
Muslim League served as apolitical platform for upper-class Muslims. Its
establishment checked the growth of national unity and weakened the national
movement.
Separate electorates refer to the voting population of the country, divided into
different electorates based on factory like religion, caste, occupation, etc. for
example, it meant that Muslim voters could elect Muslim representatives.
Home rule League were formed under Tilak and Annie Besant with the aim to
achieve self-government within the British Empire.
The Lucknow Pact was signed between the Muslim league and the Congress in
1916, regarding a joint scheme of political reforms in India.
Exercise
Fill in the blanks:
The early nationalists spread______________ _________________ among the
people.
The assertive nationalists believed that British rule in India was not a
_____________ but a ______________.
After the partition of Bengal, the assertive nationalists adopted the methods
of___________,___________ and __________ to achieve the goal of swaraj.
Separate electorates meant that the __________ voters could elect_____________
representatives.
The early nationalist leaders expelled the assertive nationalists from the Congress at
the ______________ session in 1907.

Match the following:


A B
Dadabhai Naoroji 1905
Assertive nationalists Separate electorates
Partition of Bengal Use of only Indian goods
Muslim League Immediate freedom from British rule
Swadeshi Early nationalists

Choose the correct answer:


The history of the Indian national movement is broadly categorized into
three/four/five phases.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak/Dadabhai Naoroji/Surendranath Banerjea was an important
assertive nationalist leader.
The British followed the policy of divide and rule by dividing Bengal.Punjab/Gujarat
on communal lines.
The Muslim League was established in 1905/1906/1913.
Two Home Rule Leagues were formed in 1916/1914/1918.

State whether the following are true or false:


The early nationlists believed in the justice and fair play of the British.
The early nationalists presented their grievances to he British
The political beliefs, aims and methods of the assertive nationalists were the same
as those of the early nationalists.
The assertive nationlists had no faith in the constitutional methods followed by the
early nationalists.
Tilak knew that the British would concede to the demands of swaraj easily without
any struggle.

Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:


Mention two leaders of the early nationalist phase. [2]
Mention two leaders of the assertive nationalist phase. [2]
Why were the assertive nationalists disillusioned with the leadership of the early
nationalists? [2]
When and why was Bengal partitioned? [2]
Where and under whose leadership was the Muslim league established?
[2]
Mention two objectives of the Muslim League. [2]
Why was the introduction of separate electorates a death blow to national unity?
[2]
Why did the Indian nationalists support the war effort of the British when the First
World War broke out? [2]
What was the main aim of the Home Rule Leagues? [2]

Answer the following questions briefly:


With reference to the early nationalists discuss the following:
Beliefs of the early nationalists [3]
Methods of the early nationalists [3]
Important contributions made by the early nationalists to the national movement
[4]
With reference to the rise of the assertive nationalists within the Congress discuss:
The beliefs of the assertive nationalists [4]
The objectives of the assertive nationalists [2]
How the methods of the Assertive nationalists different from those of the early
nationalists [4]
With reference to the Lucknow Session of the Congress of 1916, answer the
following questions:
What was the Lucknow Pact? [3]
What was the objective of the Lucknow Pact? [3]
What were the results of Lucknow Pact? [4]

Picture study:
This is the picture of a nationalist leader.
Identify the person in the picture.
Which political organization did he join and when?
When and by whom was this organization founded?
What were the objectives of this organization?
??
DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination:
Imagine yourself to be a reporter of a nationalist newspaper in 1905. Write a report
on partition of Bengal that took place in1905.
Project work:
Find information and pictures of the following people and put them in your
scrapbook.
Dadabhai Naoroji (ii) Bal Gangadhar Tilak (iii) Lala Lajpat Rai (iv) Bipin Chandra Pal
(v) Aurobindo Ghosh
Websites:
For more information, go to:
http://www.slideshare.net/girish.arabbi/national-movement-1 (Accessed on 15
December 2016)

14 The Indian National Movement (1917-1934)


Following the signing of the Lucknow Pact in 1916, the British government realized
that repressive measures alone could not check the rising tide of anti-British feeling.
They realized that some reforms would have to be granted to appease the
nationalists and bring the anti-British movement under control.
The british government therefore passed the Government of India Act, 1919, or the
Montague-Chelmsford reforms. This Act provided for Dual government in the
provinces, severely restricted the right to vote, enlarged the Provincial Legislative
councils and the Governor-general remained responsible to the Secretary of the
State.
The reforms failed to appease the people. Real authority continued to be in the
hands of the British. The Congress condemned the reforms as disappointing and
unsatisfactory. A new era of struggle began-the Gandhian era.
EMERGENCE OF MAHATMA GANDHI
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi, was born in
1869 at Porbandar, Gujarat.
Gandhi studied law in England and spent about 22 years in South Africa as a
practising lawyer.
??
Gandhi as a young lawyer in South Africa
The racial discrimination and the humiliating conditions under which Indians lived in
that country shocked and angered Gandhiji. He became the leader of a struggle
against racial injustice in South Africa. During the struggle, he evolved a technique
known as satyagraha which was later applied to the Indian national movement.
Gandhian Methods
Satyagraha is a combination of two Sanskrit words-satya (truth) and agraha
(eagerness). Satyagraha is based on the twin principles of truth and non-violence.
Truth and Non-Violence
A satyagrahi was one who firmly believed in truth and non-violence and who would
resist evil at all costs. A satyagrahi was peaceful, fearless and strong. He/she would
hate evil but not the ‘evil doer’. In the fight for justice and truth, the satyagrahi would
willingly accept suffering and be ready to make sacrifices.
The suffering and patience of the satyagrahi was expected to bring about a change
of heart in the enemy. The idea behind satyagraha was not to destroy the enemy but
to transform and enlighten him.
Gandhiji insisted on non-violent methods of struggle. He believed that non-violence
was the weapon of the strong and could be effectively used to resist armed attacks
by the enemy. A satyagrahi was excepted to follow peaceful methods even under
extreme provocation.
Non-violent methods of struggle in India consisted of non-cooperation with the British
government. This included: (i) peaceful demonstration (ii) defiance of unjust British
Laws (iii) boycott of British goods, institutions and services (iv) the use of the
charkha and khadi to promote self-reliance and the swadeshi spirit and (v) non-
payment of the oppressive taxes. The idea was to bring the government to a
standstill. Gandhiji promoted he use of charkha and khadi to promote self-reliance
and the spirit of swadeshi.
Hindu-Muslim Unity
Gandhiji was a devout Hindu and a passionate believer in the equality of all religious.
He wrote, ‘Indian culture is neither Hindu, Islamic nor any other, wholly. It is a fusion
of all.’
He was convinced that the path to India’s salvation lay in Hindu-Muslim unity.
Gandhiji lived and died for the cause of Hindu-Muslim unity.
Mass Movement
Gandhiji had immense faith in the capacity of the common people to struggle against
oppression. Under his leadership, the Indian national movement was transformed
into a mass movement.
Social Justice
Gandhiji was a great believer in social justice. He championed the cause of the poor
and the downtrodden, the emancipation of women and improvement of the
conditions of the lower caste ‘untouchable’ whom he called ‘Harijans’ , i.e. children
of God. He worked tirelessly to remove prejudices and change the mindset of the
people. He believed that political freedom was meaningless without social reforms.
Laws would be effective only if there was a change of heart.
Gandhiji’s Early Campaigns
Gandhiji returned to India in 1915 and began to take an interest in national politics.
His early campaigns at kheda, Champaran and Ahmadabad were also his first
experiments in satyagraha, in three local areas-each with a distinct problem.

??
Under Gandhiji’s Leadership, the Indian national movement was transformed into a
mass movement for freedom.
Champaran
Gandhiji championed the cause of the tenant farmers of Champaran district against
the oppression of the British indigo planters. The movement was a success and the
peasants received compensation.
Ahmadabad Mill Strike
Gandhiji organized a workers strike against the exploitative Indian mill owners in
Ahmadabad. The mill owners finally agreed to increase the salary of the workers.
Kheda Satyagraha (Gujarat)
Gandhiji advised and convinced the cultivators of Kheda district to stop paying land
revenue to the government because the crops had failed. The peasants’ demand for
remission of land tax was accepted by the government.
The success of these three localized movements had proved the efficiency of the
Gandhian techniques of non-violence and satyagraha.
By 1919, Gandhiji had become the most important leader of the national movement.
He was convinced that the participation of the people in the movement was essential
for its success. He became very popular among the masses and led a number of
mass movements. He soon became the centrestage of national politics.
Discuss
Why do you think mass movements are popular? Why did Gandhiji take so much
care to get the support of the masses?
JALLIANWALA BAGH TRAGEDY
The British government adopted the policy of repression to crush the anti-British
movement against the repressive Rowlatt Act passed by the government in 1919. In
some places, particularly in Punjab, the nationalist leaders were arrested in Amritsar.
To protest against the arrest of their leaders, a public meeting was held on 13 April
1919 in an enclosed space known as Jallianwala Bagh. The people were unarmed
and peaceful. Unfortunately, they were not aware of the fact that the military
commander of Amritsar, General Dyer, had issued an order banning all public
meetings.
Genaral Dyer surrounded the Bagh with his troops, blocked the only exit and ordered
the troops to open fire on the peaceful gathering in the Bagh.
The shooting continued till there was no ammunition left. Nearly 400 people were
killed and over 1,000 were injured.
??
General Dyer, the British commander who ordered the infamous firing on unarmed
civilians at the Jallianwala Bagh.
Martial law was proclaimed in Punjab. During this period, people were humiliated
and tortured. The brutality of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre and the humiliation
and inhuman treatment of the Indians that followed shocked the entire nation.
Gandhiji was horrifies. He lost all faith in the goodness of the British government and
declare that it would be a ‘sin’ to cooperate with the ‘satanic’ government.
KHILAFAT MOVEMENT
Turkey had been defeated in the First World War and the territories of the Turkish
empire were divided between Britian and France. Harsh treatment was given to the
Turkish sultan who was also the religious head of all Muslims. This caused great
resentment among Muslims all over the world, including India. As a result of this the
Khilafat Movement was launched by the Ali brothers-Maulana Muhammad Ali and
Maulana Shaukat Ali. Gandhiji and the Congress supported this movement. The
main aim of the movement was to uphold the power and prestige of the Caliph and
preservation of the territorial integrity of Turkey.
On 24 November 1919, the all India Khilafat Conference was held and on 31 August
1920, under Gandhi’s leadership, the Non- Cooperation Movement was launched.
The two movements took place at the same time. People resigned from government
services, schools and colleges were boycotted, shops selling foreign goods were
picketed and strikes and demonstration were held. By the end of 1920, the Khilafat
Movement merged with the Non-Cooperation Movement.
NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENT (1920)
The ultimate goal of the Non-Cooperation Movement launched by Gandhiji in 1920.
The attainment of swaraj by peaceful and legitimate means. The programme of non-
cooperation and the methods of resistance were as follows:
Boycott of foreign goods
Boycott of government schools, colleges, law courts, legislatures and all British
institutions
Boycott of elections and government functions
Renunciation of titles and honours awarded by the brotish
Constructive programmes like swadeshi and Hindu-Muslim unity also became a part
of the movement. Gandhiji stressed the importance of self-reliance and self-
sufficiency. He popularized khadi (handspun and hand-woven cloth) among the
people including the upper classes. The charkha became the symbol of swadeshi.
National education was promoted.
The atmosphere was charged with enthusiasm, determination and confidence. An
unfortunate incident changed all that. Early in 1922, a procession of peasant were
fired upon by the police at Chauri Chaura, a village in UP. The people reacted
violently and burnt down the Chauri Chaura police station. Twenty-two policemen
were killed. Gandhiji Immediately called off the movement.
THINK AND ANSWER
Do you think Gandhiji was justified in calling off the Non-Coperation Movement?
Give reasons for your answer.
??
A people’s procession durning the Non-Cooperation Movement
The Non-Cooperation Movement had ended in failure but the national spirit had been
strengthened. Gandhiji withdrew from active politics and devoted himself to the task
of social reform.
LAHORE SESSION OF THE CONGRESS (1929)
In December 1929, the Indian National Congress met in Lahore under the youthful
and dynamic leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru.
The Congress passed a resolution declaring ‘Poorna Swaraj’ or ‘Complete
Independence’ as its goal. 26 January 1930 was fixed as ‘Independence Day’.
The Congress also resolved to launch a Civil Disobedience Movement under the
leadership of Gandhiji.
On 26 January 1930, Independence Day was celebrated all over the country. The
newly adopted Indian tricolour was unfurled and people solemnly took the pledge of
freedom. 26 January was celebrated as Independence Day every year, till India
finally became free in 1947. From 1950 onwards, 26 January has been celebrated as
Republic Day.
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT (1930-34)
The Civil Disobedience Movement was a form of non-cooperation, involving the
breaking of government laws. Its objective was to defy the British government and
pressurize it to give in to the demands of the nationalists.
The Civil Disobedience Movement was launched by Gandhiji in March 1930, with the
Salt Satyagraha. Gandhiji decided to start with the breaking of the unjust salt law
because it affected everybody in the country. Every Indian had to pay the salt tax.
Indians could not manufacture salt because it was a government monopoly.
The Salt Satyagraha began with the historic Dandi March. Gandhiji set out from
Sabarmati Ashram with 78 followers, on a 385-km journey to the coastal village of
Dandi. Thousands of people joined him on the way.
On his arrival in Dandi, he picked up a handful of salt from the beach. This act
symbolized defiance of the salt law. It was a signal for every Indian to violate the salt
law. Throughout India, people began to manufacture salt and sell it openly.
The movement spread rapidly. Civil Disobedience extended to violation of other laws
and refusal to pay taxes. It included boycott of foreign goods, hartals, demonstration
and picketing of shops selling foreign goods.
DID YOU KNOW?
In the North-West Frontier Province, the Civil Disobedience Movement was led by
Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, popularly known as ‘Frontier Gandhi”. He established an
organization called Khudai Khidmatgars, popularly known as the ‘Red Shirts’.
??
Gandhiji and his followers during the Dandi March in 1930. The march was in protest
against the unfair salt tax imposed by the British on Indians.
An important feature of this movement was the active participation of a large number
of women. Sarojini Naidu was one of the leaders of this movement.
The government suppressed the movement with force and brutality. Gandhiji, Nehru
and all other important leaders were arrested. Hundreds of people where injured or
killed in lathi charges and police firing. Over 90,000 people were imprisoned.
The political activity in India became very intense after 1937. Leaders of the national
movement had made it clear to the British that their days in India were numbered.
The British passed a number of Acts and sent missions to appease the Indians but in
vain.
VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS
In today’s world of violence and conflict non-violence is more relevant than ever
before. We should have self-control to manage our anger, stay calm and keep the
peace. We should not retaliate in an angry or violent way when we are hurt. We
should resort to peaceful but firm ways of solving problems and conflicts.
What are the ways in which you can deal with anger or hurt without hurting someone
else?

Important Words
Satyagraha was the principle followed by Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian national
movement, based on the twin principles of truth and non-violence.
Harijan It means children of God. It was the name given by Gandhiji to the
‘untouchables’.
Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 and empowered the government to arrest and
imprison people without any warrant or trial for any length of time.
Hartal means to go on strike in protest of something.
Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place on 13 April 1919 when General Dyer
opened fire on the peaceful gathering in the Bagh Killing thousands of people.
Non-Cooperation Movement was launched by Gandhiji in 1920. The ultimate goal
was the attainment of swaraj by peaceful and legitimate means.
Chauri Chaura is a village in UP where a procession of peasants were fired upon by
the police in 1922. In reaction to this, the masses burnt down the police station. As a
result, Gandhiji immediately called off the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Civil Disobedience Movement was a form of non-cooperation involving the
breaking of government laws.
Dandi March was a historical march of Gandhiji from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi
and symbolized defiance of the salt law.
Exercises
Fill in the blanks:
Gandhi spent about 22 years in ____________ ______________ as a practicing
lawyer.
Under ____________ leadership, the Indian national movement was transformed
into a mass _____________ movement.
To protest against the arrest of their leaders, a public meeting was held at
______________ in Amritsar in the year__________.
After the British brutalities in Amritsar, Gandhiji declared that it would be a
__________to ________with the ____________government.
At the __________session of the Congress in 1929, ___________ was declared as
its goal.

Match the following:


A B
Gandhiji Symbol of swadeshi
Charkha Boycott of British goods
Jallianwala Bagh Salt Satyagraha
Dandi March 13 April 1919
Non-cooperation Movement Truth and non-violence

Choose the correct answer:


Gandhiji studied law in England/South Africa/France.
Gandhiji organized a workers strike against the exploitative Indian mill owners in
Ahmadabad/Kheda/Champaran.
The Non-Coopration Movement was launched by Gandhiji in 1920/1930/1940.
A resolution declaring ‘Poorns Swaraj was declared as its goal at the
Lahore/Surat/Bombay session of the Congress.
The Non-Cooperation Movement/Civil Disobedience Movement/Q Movement was
started with the Salt Satyagraha in 1930.

State whether the following are true or false:


Gandhiji did not have faith in the capacity of the common masses.
In 1919, General Dyer had issued an order banning all public meetings.
The Non-Coperation Movement had ended in failure after the Chauri Chaura
incident.
Independence Day was celebrated on 26 January in 1930.
Sarojini Naidu was one of the leaders of the Civil disobedience Movement.

Answer the following question in one or two words/sentences:


What technique of resistance did Gandhiji evolve in South Africa? What was its basic
principle? [2]
Why did Gandhiji lead campaign in (a) Champaran (b) Kheda? [2]
Which incident marked the end of the Non-Cooperation Movement and when?
[2]
Under whose leadership was the Lahore session of the Congress held in 1929 What
resolution was passed in this session? [2]
What do you understand by the Civil Disobedience Movement? [2]

Answer the following questions briefly:


With reference to Gandhiji, discuss his views on the following issues:
Truth and non-violence [4]
Hindu-Muslim unity [3]
Social justice [3]

In the context of the Jallianwala Bagh tradedy, answer the following:


Why was a public meeting held in Jallianwala Bagh on 13 April 1919? [4]
Why did the troop open fire on the gathering? What happened as a result of the
shooting? [4]
How did the entire nation and Gandhiji react to the events in Amritsar?
[3]
3. In the context of the Non-Cooperation Movement, answer the following
questions:
(a) Discuss the programme of the Non-Cooperation Movement. [4]
(b) Why did Gandhiji abruptly suspend the Non-Cooperation Movement? [3]
(c) State the significance of the Non-Cooperation Movement. [3]
4. In the context of the Civil Disobedience Movement, answer the following:
(a) Give an account of the Salt Satyagraha. [4]
(b) How did the government react to the movement? [3]
(b) What impact did the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34) have on the nation?
[3]
G. Picture study:
This is the picture of an Indian leader who was known as the ‘Father of the nation’.
??
Identify the person.
What method did he use in the Indian struggle for freedom?
What are the principles on which his method is based?
Why is the called the leader of the masses?
Mention the features of his non-violent struggle against the British.
DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination
Imagine you are a survivor of the Jallianwala bagh incident. Write an article for a
nationalist newspaper recounting your experiences.
Imagine you are a newspaper reporter covering the progress of the Dandi March
from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandhi (1930). Write a report on the events as they
unfolded.

Project work:
Write and illustrate an essay on ‘Gandhian Principles’.
Websites:
For more information, go to:
http://www.history.co.uk/biographies/mahatma-gandhi (Accessed on 15 December
2016)
http://www.archive,india,gov.in/knowindia/culture_heritage.php?id=4 (Accessed on
15 December 2016)
15 The Indian National Movement (1935-47)

The Second World war started in 1939 and ended in 1945. Britain was a part of the
Allied Powers-Germany, Italy and Japan.
Japan joined the Second World War against Britain in 1942. The British desperately
needed the active cooperation of the Indians to check the Japanese advatnce
against the British empire in India. So it sent the Cripps Mission to India to resolve
the political deadlock. The Missionfailed because the British were not prepared to
transfer any effective power to the Indians during the war.
QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT (1942)
The menacing presence of the Japanese army on the eastern borders of India posed
a serious threat to India’s security. The presence of the British in India a target for
the Japanese attack. The danger could have been averted if the British left the
country.
Addressing the Congress delegates on the night of 8 August 1942, Gandhiji
declared, ‘I, therefore want freedom immediately, this very night, before dawn if it
can be had.’ He gave to his country people a mantra, ‘Do or Die’. ‘We shall either
free India or die in the arrempt.’
The Congress passed the Quit India Resolution. On 9 August, before dawn,
Gandhiji and all other important nationalist leaders were arrested. The Congress was
banned.
The news of these arrests, even before the movement began, shocked the nation. A
spontaneous, nationwide movement of protests arose; there were demonstrations,
hartals and processions. Leaderless and without any guidelines, the Quit India
movement took different shapes in different parts of the country.
The government came down heavily on the people. They were lathi-charged and
fired upon.
??
A people’s procession during the Quit India Movement
The brutality of the police enraged the people. They reacted violently. Police
stations, post offices, and other government buildings were destroyed. Railway,
telegraph and telephone lines were disconnected.
The army was called in to crush the revolt. Over 10,000 people were killed in police
and military firing. The movement was savagely crushed within a very short period of
time.
The upsurge of 1942 was the last great mass challenge to British authority. It had
shaken the very foundations of the British rule in India.
The impact of this brief, spontaneous and powerful outburst of national sentiment
was tremendous. It sounded the death knell of British rule in India. The British
realized their days were numbered. Independence was now a matter of time. It
demonstrated the great capacity of the masses to suffer and die for the cause of
freedom.
DISCUSS
Do you agree with gandhiji’s non-violent methods of protest? Give reasons. Do you
think it is relevant in today’s world? Why?
The Indian National Army
The government had ruthlessly crushed the 1942 movement. After that there was
hardly any political activity till the World War ended in 1945.
Nationalist activity, however, surfaced outside India’s borders under the leadership of
Subhash Chandra Bose. He believed that the only way India could get her freedom
was to drive the British out India by the use of armed force.
Subhash Chandra Bose had resigned from the Congress in 1939 and formed a new
party called the Forward Bloc. He decided to go abroad to join hands with the
enemies of the British and drive the British out of India.
??
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, the creator of the forward Bloc Party
Objectives of the Forward Bloc
To win freedom from the British without any further delay
To rebuild India, after Independence, on the principles of socialism i.e economic
equality, freedom and justice, equitable distribution of wealth etc.
To promote world peace
Subhash Chandra Bose was put under house arrest in Calcutta, but he managed to
escape in 1941. He first went to Russia and then to Germany and finally to Japan.
In Tokyo, he took over the leadership of the Indian Independence Movement in Esat
Asia from rash Behari Bose.
Indian national Army
Captain Mohan Singh (a former captain in the British Indian army) had organized the
Azad hind Fauj or the Indian National Army (INA). Subhash Chandra Bose became
the supreme commander of the INA.
In 1944, at a meeting in Singapore, Subhash Chandra Bose, known as Netaji, took
an oath to liberate India, ‘Give me blood and I will give you freedom,’ he declared.
The primary objective of the INA was to liberate India through armed struggle.
Netaji infused a new life and spirit into the INA. He fired the imagination of his
soldiers with passionate, inspiring speeches. They were ready to lay down their lives
for the liberation of their motherland. With the battle of ‘Dilli Chalo’, the INA advanced
into India along with the Japanese army.
In mid-1944, the INA crossed the Indo-Burma (now Myanmar) border and liberated
Imphal and Kohima to the deafening and jubilant criesof ‘ Jai Hind’ and ‘Netaji
Zindabad’.
Victory, however, was short-lived. Japan was defeated by Allied Powers. Britain re-
established control over Burma. The INA was defeated. A large number of soldier
and officers of the INA were taken prisoners.
Japan surrendered after the atom bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It is
believed that Subhash Chandra Bose was killed in a plane crash on his way to
Tokyo.
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose lives on in the memories of successive of successive
generations of Indians. He was a true patriot who dedicated his life to the cause he
paasionately believed in – India’s freedom. He fired the imagination of a nation with
his intense patriotism, person courage, unwavering conviction and bold leadership.
He restored to India her pride and is greatly admired and revered throughout the
country even to this day.
INDIAN INDEPENDENCE AND PARTITION OF INDIA (1947)
Events moved swiftly. In February 1947, the British government declared that power
would be transferred to the Indians by June 1948.
Lord Mountbatten, the new Viceroy, arrived in Indian to prepare a plan for the
transfer of power. He held discussions with the leaders of different parties and
communities. Communal riots took a serious turn in many parts of Punjab. The
partition of India and the creation of Pakistan became inevitable.
Mountbatten announced his plan for the division of British India into India and
Pakistan and the transfer of power to the two dominions. The North-West frontier
Province, Sind, Baluchistan, West Punjab and East Bengal separated from the rest
of India to form a new country called Pakistan.
On the basis of the Mountbatten Plan, the British Parliament passed the Indian
Independence Act in July 1947. British rule in India finally came to an end on 15
August 1947.
??
Lord Mountbatten, the British Viceroy, discussing the transfer of power and partition
with Indian leaders
With the unfurling of the Indian tricolour on the historic red Fort, a new phase began
in the history of India-the birth of a new dawn.
Addressing the Constituent Assembly just before the stroke of midnight of 14 August
1947, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, said:
Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny and now the time comes when we shall
redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke
of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom.
??
The Constituent Assembly of independent India in August 1947
The hour struck. India became free. The sacrifices and dedication of generations of
patriots and the blood of countless, unknown martyrs had borne fruit. Their dream
had become a reality.
Despite the sorrow of partition, the Indians celebrate their independence. But the
jubilation was marred by the great tragedy of communal riots-the senseless killings
and mindless violence.
THINK AND ANSWER
What do you think India would have been like without partition?
On 30 January 1948, Mahatma Gandhi, the apostle of peace and non-violence, was
assassinated. Gandhiji died a martyr to the cause of the Hindu-Muslim amity he had
held so dear.
The Constitution of India was enacted and adopted by the Constituent Assembly on
26 November 1949. It was introduced on 26 January 1950-another important
landmark in the history of India. On that day, the Indian dominion was transformed
into a sovereign, democratic republic. With confidence in their capacity and a
determination to succeed, the people of India set out to build the country of their
dreams-a country based on liberty, equality, justice and fraternity.
??
A photograph showing the thousands of refugees scrambling onto trains during the
partition of India
VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS
India is a secular country and a land of diversity. People of different cultures should
live together in peace and harmony with each other. We should respect people of
different states and religion. We should create an environment of justice and equality
where every individual is respected and given a chance to flourish.
What can you do to preserve the peace and harmony in a country?

Important Words
Cripps Mission was sent in 1942 when the British faced the threat of Japanese
attack and the Indian had refused to help the British in their war efforts.
Quit India Resolution was passed by the Congress in 1942, emphasizing its
demand for the end of British rule in India. Gandhiji gave the slogan, ‘Do or Die’, in
an attempt to end British rule.
Indian National Army under the supreme commandership of Subhash Chandra
Bose was ready to lay down its life for the liberation of its motherland.
Indian Independence Act was passed by the British Parliament in July 1947,
bringing to an end the British rule in India.
Exercises
Fill in the blanks:
The menacing presence of the Japanese army on the eastern borders of India posed
a serious threat to __________ security.
When the Quit India Resolution was passed in the year___________, Gandhiji gave
the Indians the mantra ‘_______________’.
The Quit India Movement shaken the very foundations of the _____________ in
India.
In Tokyo, ________________ took over the leadership of the Independence
Movement in East Asia from Rash Behari Bose.
In February 1947, the British government declared that power would be transferred
to the Indians by ______________.

Match the following:

A B
Quit India Movement Subhash Chandra Bose
Forward Bloc Suppressed by the British
World War ended Division of British India into India and
Pakkistan
Mountbatten Plan 30 January 1948
Assassination of Gandhi 1945

Choose the correct answer:


The Cripps Mission was sent to India in 1942, when the British empire was under the
threat of a Japanese/German/Russian attack.
The Quit India Resolution was passed by the Congress in 1929/1930/1942.
Subhash Chandra Bose/Mahatma Gandhi/Rash Behari Bose was the supreme
commander of the Indian National Army.
Mahatma Gandhi/Subhash Chandra Bose/ Jawahar Lal Nehru gave the slogan, ‘You
give me blood, I will give you freedom.’
The Constitution of india was introduced on 26 January 1950/26 January 1949.
State whether the following are true or false:
The Quit India Resolution was passed by the Muslim League.
The upsurge of 1942 was the last great mass challenge to British authority.
Subhash Chandra Bose formed a new party called the Forward Bloc.
The INA, with the help of the Japanese, liberated Imphal and Kohima in 1944.
Indian independence from British rule was finally attained on 15 August 1950.
Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:
Why was the Cripps Mission sent to India? [2]
Why did the Cripps Mission fail? [2]
What did the British realized after the Quit India Movement? [2]
What was the main objective of the Indian National Army? [2]
When did India become (i) an independent dominion? (ii) a sovereign, democratic,
republic? [2]

Answer the following questions briefly:


With reference to the Quit India Movement answer the following:
Why did the Congress pass the Quit India Resolution? How did the government
react to it? [4]
Briefly discuss the events of the Quit India Movement. [3]
What was the impact of the Quit India Movement on the national movement?
[3]
With reference to Indian National Movement, answer the following:
What were the objectives of the Forward Bloc? [3]
Examine the role of Subhash Chandra Bose in the Indian freedom struggle.
[4]
Why do Indians still respect and revere Netaji? [3]
With reference to Indian independence, answer the following questions:
What was the importance of the Mountbatten Plan [4]
What was the significance of the Indian Independence Act, 1947 [3]
What is the significance of 26 January 1950? [3]
Picture study:
This is the picture of a leader who formed a new party called the forward Bloc in
1939.
SuD: Provide a pic of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.
Indentify the leader in the picture.
What was the name of the army of which he was the supreme commander?
What was his slogan for the liberation of India?
Write a few lines on the leadership qualities of this person.
DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination:
If Gandhiji visited India today, would the transformation of Indian society make him
happy or unhappy? Give reasons for your answer.
Project work:
Prepare a script on the Quit India Movement.
Prepare and enact a script on Netaji and the INA either in class or on the school
stage. National songs can be used as background music.
Website:
For more information, go to:
http://www.gandhiji-manibhavan.org/activities/quit_india.htm (Accessed on 15
December 2016)
16 The Union Legislature

India has a parliamentary form of government, both at the centre as well as in the
states. The President of India, who is the Head of State or Chief Executive, is only a
nominal (in name only) head. He/she carries out the functions of a President on the
advice of the Prime Minister and his/her Council of Ministers. Under normal
circumstances, the President does not have the power to act independently.
The power to govern the country is actually in the hands of the Prime Minister.
He/she is the most important and powerful political leader in India. The prime
Minister is the head of the government in India or the real chief executive.
PARLIAMENTARY FORM OF GOVERNMENT
According to the Constitution, the powers and functions of the government are
divided into three branches-the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.
The powers and functions are distributed among these branches in a manner that
makes them equally balanced.
India is a parliamentary democracy. The Parliament, which is composed of the
elected representatives of the Indian people, is vested with supreme power. The
Parliament is the highest law-making body and it makes laws for the entire country.
Thus the Indian people enjoy supreme power through their representatives in the
Parliament.
In a parliamentary form of government, there is a very close relationship between the
legislature (Parliament) and the executive (Council of Ministers).
After the general elections, the elected representatives of the people form the Lok
Sabha. The President appoints the leader of the majority party or the single largest
party or group of parties within the Lok Sabha as the Prime Minister. Generally, the
Prime Minister choose his/her Council of Ministers from among the elected members
of the Lok Sabha. He/she may also choose a Rajya Sabha member as a minister.
The Lok Sabha (legislature) exercise control over the Council of Ministers
(executive) which is responsible and answerable to the Lok Sabha for all its policies,
decisions and actions. This makes the Parliament the supreme authority in the
government because it has the final authority to accept or reject the decisions of the
executive.
As India is a vast country, it is not possible for one central government to take care
of the specific needs of people living in different parts of the country. Therefore, the
country has been divided into different units, which are called states. Each state has
a state government and the processes of the government are shared by the central
government and the state governments.
Distribution of power Between Union and State Legislatures
The Constitution provides for three lists—the Union list, the State list and Concurrent
list, which divide the subjects for legislation between the central and the state
governments.
??
The Parliament house in New Delhi is the building from where the legislative branch
of the Government of India works.
THE UNION PARLIAMENT
The law-making body of the central government is the Parliament. The Parliament
has two Houses-the lok Sabha or the House of the People and the Rajya Sabha or
the Council of States. Thus, it is bicameral legislature. The president is an intergral
part of the Parliament.
The Lok Sabha (Lower House)
Composition
The maximum strength of the Lok Sabha can be 552 members.
A maximum of 530 members can be elected directly by the people of India from
different territorial constituencies.
A maximum of 20 members can be elected from the union territories.
The president can nominate two members from the Anglo-India community.
At present, the Lok Sabha consists of 545 menbers.
Basic Qualifications of the Members of the Lok Sabha
A member of the Lok Sabha:
Should be a citizen of India
Should be at least 25 years of age
Should be a registered voter
Voting by Secret Ballot
The Indian Constitution provides for election by secret ballot. For the purpose of
elections, the country is divided into a number of electoral constituencies. The
people in each constituency elect one candidate of their choice through the system
of secret ballot, i.e. the voter’s choice is not revealed publicly.
Universal Adult Franchise
All Indian citizens, 18 years of age or above, have the right to vote.
??
Indeliable ink being put on a voter’s finger to ensure that the voter cannot vote twice
in the same election
Term of the Lok Sabha
The Lok Sabha is elected for a 5-year term. However, the President may dissolve it
before the expiry of its term if the party in power loses the support of the majority. Its
life can be extended for 1 year at a time in case of a national emergency.
DID YOU KNOW?
Members of the Lok Sabha are elected during the general elections, which take
place every 5 years. The entire country is divided into constituencies and one
members is elected from each constituency. People cast their votes through secret
ballot. In most places, people cast their votes on Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs).
Each EVM has a list of the names of the candidates contesting the election from that
particular constituency. Next to each candidate’s name is the symbol of the political
party to which he/she belongs. Voters cast their vote by pressing the button next to
the name of their chosen candidate.
The Speaker
The Speaker is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha. He/she conducts the meetings
of the Lok Sabha, maintains discipline and supervises the Work of the House.
??
Sumitra Mahajan, the speaker of the 16th Lok Sabha
The Rajya Sabha (Upper House)
Composition
The maximum strength of the Rajya Sabha can be 250 members.
238 members represent the states and the union territories. Seats are allotted to
each state according to its population. These mumbers are elected indirectly by the
elected members of the State Legislative Assemblies.
Twelve members are nominated by the President from among persons who have
distinguished themselves in the fields of art, literature, science or social service.
THINK AND ANSWER
Why do you think it is necessary to keep a voter’s choice of candidate a secret?
Chairman
The Vice-President is the presiding officer of the Rajya Sabha.
Basic Qualifications of the Members of the Rajya Sabha
Members of the Rajya Sabha:
Should be citizens of India
Should be at least 30 years of age
Should be registered voters
Term of the Rajya Sabha
The Rajya Sabha is a permanent House. It cannot be dissolved by the President.
Each member is elected for a period of 6 years. One third of its members retire every
2 years. Members can be re-elected.
Functions of the Parliament
Law-making Functions
The Parliament can frame new laws or modify existing ones on any subject in the
Union or Concurrent lists.
No money can be raised or spent by the government without the approval of the Lok
Sabha. A money bill (such as the annual budget ) can only be introduced in the Lok
Sabha.
In some cases, the Parliament can also pass laws on subjects under the State List.
Only the Parliament can introduce a bill to amend the Constitution.
The Budget
The budget is an estimate of the annual income and expenditure of the government
of India.
The government presents the budget to the Lok Sabha every year. The budget has
to be passed by the Parliament. The Lok Sabha has the power to suggest a cut to
the budget or even reject it altogether.
Control Over the Executive
The Parliament keeps a watch over the government. The Council of Ministers is
directly responsible and answerable to the Lok Sabha for its policies and actions.
The Council of Ministers has to resign immediately if a vote of no-confidence is
passed against it by the Lok Sabha.
The Members of Parliament can discuss government policies and question the
ministers. Hence, they can exercise a check on the working of the government.
The Parliament can move n adjournment motion to discuss and focus on any matter
of public importance which requires immediate and urgent attention from the
government, for instance, natural disasters such as earthquakes and unforeseen
situations such as police firing or terrorists attacks, etc.
DISCUSS
What is the purpose of asking the questions to the ministers in Parliament?
Judicial Functions
The Parliament can impeach or remove the President, the Vice-President and judges
of the Supreme Court and High Courts if any of them violate the Constitution or
misuse their authority.
Elective Functions
The Parliament plays an important role in the election of the President and the Vice-
President.
Sessions of the Parliament
The Parliament meets at least twice a year.
For a session to take place, at least 10 per cent of the total membership has to be
present. This is called the quorum.
VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS
We must understand the great power and responsiblility vested in us by the
Constitution to actively participate in the formation and functioning of our
government. We must vote judiciously and in an honest manner. We should make
informed choices about our leaders and not be influenced by anyone.
If you were given the right to vote, what qualities would you look for in your leader?

Important Words
Parliamentary form of government is a system where the executive is a part of the
legislature and is answerable to the legislature.
Legislature makes the laws of the country.
Executive enforces the laws made by the legislature.
Judiciary defines and interprets the laws of the land and tries to prevent any person
from violating the laws of the Constitution.
Lok Sabha is the Lower House of the Parliament and is also known as the House of
the People because the people elect its members directly.
Rajya Sabha is the Upper House of the Parliament and is also known as the Council
of States.
Bicameral means legislative body having two chambers.
An Electoral constituency is an area whose voters elect one member to a
legislative body.
Secret ballot is the system of voting where the voter’s choice is not revealed.
A money bill is a bill that is solely about monetary matters.
A bill is a written suggestion for a new law that is presented to the legislature so that
its members can discuss it.
Budget is the financial statement stating the estimate income and expenditure of the
country in the ensuing year.
Vote of no-confidence is a move in the Lok Sabha to express a lack of confidence
in the Council of Ministers. If such a motion is passed, then the Council of Ministers
has to resign.
Quorum refers to the minimum number of members required to be present to
conduct a meeting.
Exercise
Fill in the blanks:
The functions of the government are divided into three branches, namely, the
_____________, the ______________ and the ____________.
Subject for legislation are divided into three lists-the______________ List,
the_______________ List and the _____________List.
The Union Parliament has two House-the________________ and the __________.
The ____________is a permanent House. It cannot be dissolved.
The Parliament is _____________ legislature.

Match the following:


A B
The President Is the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
The Vice-President is a permanent House.
The Speaker Nominates 12 members to the Rajya
Sabha.
Parliament Is the presiding officer of the Lok
Sabha.
The Rajya Sabha Can introduce a bill to amend the
Constitution.

Choose the correct answer:


The President carries out his/her functions on the advice of the Prime Minister and
the Lok Sabha/the Council of Ministers/ the Rajya Sabha.
Both the central and the state governments can make laws on the subjects in the
Union List/ State List/ Concurrent List.
The Lok Sabha/Rajya Sabha/ Vidhan Sabha is also known as the Council of States.
The President can nominate 2/10/12 members from the Anglo-Indian community to
the Lok Sabha.
At present the Lok Sabha consists of 545/645/525 members.

State whether the following are true or false:


The State List includes subjects of national importance.
A member of the Lok Sabha should be at least 30 years of age.
The Rajya Sabha is a permanent House and cannot be dissolved by the President.
A money bill has to be introduced in the Rajya Sabha.
The Vice-President is the presiding officer of the Rajya Sabha.

Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:


Who is the nominal executive head of the government of India? [1]
How do we know that the Parliament has supreme authority in the government?
[1]
Which branch of government interprets and defines laws? [1]
What is the minimum age qualification of an Indian voter? [1]
Who conducts the meetings of the Lok Sabha? [1]
How are the members of the Rajya Sabha elected? [1]
What is meant by the term ‘budget’? [1]
What happens when a vote of no-confidence is passed against the Council of
Ministers? [1]
Explain the meaning of the term ‘quorum’. [1]

Answer the following questions briefly:


In the context of the Parliamentary form of government, answer the following
questions:
What are the main features of a parliamentary form of government? [4]
Name the three branches of government and state their respective functions.
[3]
Why are powers distributed between the central and the state governments?
[3]
Give an account of the Lok Sabha with reference to:
Its composition [4]
Basic qualifications of its members [3]
Its term [3]
Give an account of the Rajya Sabha with reference to:
Its composition [4]
Basic qualifications of its members [3]
Its term [3]
With reference to the functions of the Parliament, explain the following:
Law-making function [4]
Control over the executive [3]
Judicial functions [3]

Picture study:
This is the picture of an important government building in India.
Identify the building.
Which branch of the government functions in this building?
Who are the members of this branch of the government?
What are the basic qualifications of the members?
What is their primary function? Mention any two other important functions.
??
DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination:
With the help of your teacher, organize a mock Parliament in your class or school
auditorium. Discuss and debate (on the model of Parliamentary procedures) a bill
dealing with a current topic of national concern /interest. Put the bill to vote and
record the result.
Project work:
Make a list of the people who have been elected from your state or union territory to
the Parliament in the election. Find out what steps he/she has taken for the welfare
of his/her constituency. Make a report and share it in class.

Websites:
For more information, go to:
http://legislativebodiesinindia.nic.in/parliament%200f%20india.htm (Accessed on 16
December 2016)

17 The Union Executive

The legislative branch of the government makes the laws of the country. The
executive branch of the government performs the task of enforcing these laws.
The union executive consists of the President, the Vice-President, the Prime Minister
and the Council of Ministers. The executive is helped by a large workforce that
includes civil servants who implement government policies and the police force
which ensures that citizens follow the law.
THE PRESIDENT
The President is the constitutional head of the Government of India. But in a
parliamentary form of government, The President is a nominal or symbolic head. The
administration of the country is carried out in his name. The actual power is vested in
the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers who advise the President in the
exercise of his/her functions. He/she is bound to follow this advice.
The basic qualifications for a candidate to be the President are:
He/she must be a citizen of India.
He/she must be at least 35 years of age.
He/she must have all the qualifications necessary to be a member of the Lok Sabha.
??
THE PM AND THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
The union executive comprises the President, the Vice-President and the Prime
Minister with his council of ministers:
Election and Termination
The President is elected indirectly. An electoral college elects the President. The
electoral collage consists of the following members:
??
Pranab Mukherjee, the 13th President of India
The elected members of both Houses of Parliament
The elected members of the State Legislative Assemblies
The Preident is elected for a period of 5 years.
The President can be impeached by the Parliament. Impeachment is a procedure by
which the Parliament can remove the President if he/she is found guilty of violating
the Constitution, of treason or of corruption.
Powers
Executive Powers
The President appoints the Prime Minister who is the leader of the majority party or
coalition parties or the single largest party in the Lok Sabha.
The President appoints the Union Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister.
DID YOU KNOW?
The official residence of the President of India is Rashtrapati Bhavan. In has a large
and beautiful garden called the Mughal Garden, with many exotic plants and flowers.
Visitors are allowed inside to see the garden every February.
??
The Rashtrapati Bhavan-the official residence of the President of India
The President appoints the state governors and other high officials such as the
Comptroller and Auditor General and the Attorney Genaral.
The President appoints the judges of the Supreme Court and the High Court and the
ambassadors to other countries.
Military Powers
The President is the Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces. He/she can
declare war or conclude peace.
All important treaties and contracts are made in the President’s name.
Legislative Powers
The President can Summon or prorogue the Parliament. He/she addresses the
opening session of the Parliament every year. The President’s address is a
statement of the government’s policy.
The President can also dissolve the Lok Sabha and order fresh elections.
He/she can call a joint session of both Houses of Parliament if there is a deadlock
regarding a bill.
Each bill passed by the Parliament has to receive the President’s assent in order to
become a law. The President may send the bill back to the Parliament if he/she does
not approve, but if it is passed a second time, he/she is obliged to sign it and give
his/her assent.
The President nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha and two Anglo-Indian
members to the Lok Sabha.
When the Parliament is not in session, the President can issue ordinances
(executive orders). Ordinances are like laws and are valid for only 6 weeks after the
Parliament meets again.
Financial Powers
The budget is presented to the Parliament in the name of the President.
All money bills are introduced in the Parliament with the President’s permission.
The President can grant an advance from the Contingency Fund in case of an
unforeseen expenditure.
Judicial Powers
The President has the power to grant pardon and reduce or suspend the sentence
of a person who has been found guilty. He/she can also pardon a death sentence.
He/she is not answerable to any court of law for his/her actions, except if he/she is
impeached by the Parliament.
Emergency Powers
The President can declare an emergency in the country under the following
conditions:
If the security of the country is threatened by external aggression or armed rebellion,
National Emergency in declared.
If the government of a state caanot function according to the laws in the Constitution,
Presidential Rule is imposed in that state.
If the financial stability of the country is threatened, a Financial Emergency can be
declared.
However, the President cannot declare an emergency without the approval of the
Parliament. Hence, we see that thought the President has a wide range of powers,
they are all limited and exercised strictly according to the advice given by the prime
Minister and the Council of Ministers.
Discretionary Powers
When no political party wins a clear majority in the Lok Sabha, and a coalition cannot
be formed, the President can select a member of his/her choice as the Prime
Minister. However, the selected candidate has to prove his/her majority in the Lok
Sabha.
THE VICE-PRESIDENT
The qualifications of the Vice-President are the same as those of the President,
except that a Vice-President should be eligible for membership to the Rajya Sabha.
The termof the Vice-President is 5 years.

Function of the Vice-President


The Vice-President is the Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha.
He/she takes over the function of the President in his/her ansence. In case of a
vacancy in the office of the President, the Vice-President discharges his/her
functions till a new President in elected.
THE PRIME MINISTER
The Prime Minister is the head of the Council of Ministers, which is the, most
powerful political institution in India. The President of India is bound to act in
accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers.
Position and Functions of the Prime Minister
The parliamentary system of government makes the Prime Minister the real head of
the Indian government. It is the Prime Minister who actually exercises all the power
vested in the President (except for discretionary powers). This is because of the
following reasons:
The Prime Minister is the elected head of the country.
The Prime Minister is the leader of the majority party or the largest coalition in the
Parliament.
The Prime Minister is the link between the President, the people and the Parliament.
The Prime Minister advises the President in the discharge of his/her functions and
informs him/her about the decisions taken by the Cabinet. The advice of the Prime
Minister is binding on the President.
The Prime Minister selects the members of the Council of Ministers.
He/she distributes portfolios among the ministers and presides over Cabinet
meetings.
He/she coordinates the working of the different departments and is the vital link
between the President and the Cabinet.
He/she can expand the Cabinet and also demand the resignation of any minister.
Thus, we see that the Prime Minister is the real head of the nation. He/she has to
answer for the success or failure of the government.
The Prime Minister is regarded as the leader of the nation. On Independence Day,
the Prime Minister addresses the nation from the Red Fort in Delhi.
DISCUSS
Since India is a parliamentary democracy, the real executive is the Prime Minister.
What do you think can happen if the President does not follow the advice of the
Prime Minister and decides to act independently? Should the office of the President
be abolished? Why
??
The Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, with his cabinet of ministers and the President
Council of Ministers
The general elections to the Lok Sabha take place once every 5 years. After the
elections, the President appoints the Prime Minister, who is generally the leader of
the majority party in the Lok Sabha. If there is no single party holding a majority in
the Parliament, then two or more parties usually agree to work together and formthe
government. This is known as a coalition government.
The Prime Minister then selects a number of ministers according to his/her
preference and submits a list to the President. When the President approves and
appoints the ministers on the list, the Council of Ministers is formed.
The Council of Minister has three ranks within it-(i) Cabinet Ministers, (ii) Ministers of
State and (iii) Deputy Ministers.
All ministers of the Council have to be members of either House of Parliament. In
case a non-member is selected, he/she has to be elected to either House within 6
months from the date of appointment.
The Prime Minister allots each minister in the Council a separate department or
portfolio to handle. This is called allotment of portfolios. Hence, we have a
Minister of Communication, Agriculture, Foreign Affairs, etc.
The Cabinet
The Cabinet is the inner core of the Council of Ministers. The Cabinet Ministers hold
the most important portfolios and make the most important decision and policies.
The Cabinet Ministers hold the highest ranks and have the greater responsibility.
The Cabinet holds the real executive power of the Indian government and it
collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha.
The Cabinet can remain in office in office as long as it enjoys the confidence of a
majority in the Lok Sabha. If a vote of no-confidence is passed against any one
Cabinet Minister, the whole Council of Ministers has to resign immediately. The
entire Council has to answer for the shortcomings or failure on the part of any one
minister.
THINK AND ANSWER
Why is it important for the Council of Minsiters to be responsible to the legislature?

CIVIL SERVANTS
Civil servants are government employment employees who do not belong to any
political party. They can be appointed in the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), the
Indian Foreign Service (IFS), the Indian Police Service (IPS), etc. Civil servants are
selected on the basis of the Union Public Service Commisiion (UPSC) examination
and interviews. Sucessful candidates are trained and can work at both central and
state levels.
VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS
As citizens of India we have some fundamental duties towards our country. We must
abide by the law and cooperate with the government to achieve its goals in the
interest of the nation. We must encourage the government to work smoothly and
should not hinder its policy-making decision through unnecessary protests and
agitations.
If you were made the Prime Minister of your country for a day what is the most
important step that you will take in the interest of the nation?

Important Words
Impeachment is a procedure defined by the Constitution through which the
Parliament can remove the President, if found guilty of violating the Constitution, of
treason or of corruption.
Summon means to arrange an official meeting.
Prorogue means to discontinue a session of the Parliament without dissolving it.
Ordinances are executive order which are issued when the Parliament is not in
session.
Contigency Fund is a fund maintained by the government so that the President can
grant funds from it to be used in unforeseen circumstances.
Pardon means an official decision not to punish somebody for a crime, or to say that
somebody is not guilty of a crime.
Coalition government means that two or more parties agree to work together and
form the government. This happens when there is no single party holding a majority
in the Parliament.
Portfolio means the particular area of responsibility of a government minister, e.g.
defence, transport, etc.
Allotment of portfolios is when the Prime Minister allots each minister in the
Council a separate department or portfolio to handle.
Exercises
Fill in the blanks:
The President can be removed from office by a procedure known
as______________.
The President appoints the judges of the ___________ Court and the
____________ courts.
The President can call a ____________session of the Parliament if there is a
deadlock regarding a bill.
The Cabinet is the ___________of the Council of Ministers. The Cabinet Ministers
hold important_____________
The Prime Minister is the link between the __________, the people and the
____________

Name the following:


The current Prime Minister of India
The current Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha
The current Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces
The current ministers in charge of (a) Defence (b) External Affairs (c) Finance (d)
Health

Choose the correct answer:


The President/Prime Minister/Vice-President is the nominal head of the government
of India.
The president is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Administrative
Service/Defence Forces/ Indian Foreign Service.
The Vice-President is the Chairperson of the Lok Sbha/Rajya Sabha/Vidhan Sabha.
After the elections, the President appoints the leader of the majority party as the
Vice-President/Speaker/ Prime Minister.
The Council of Ministers is the real executive but the administration is carried on in
the name of the Prime Minister/President/Vice-President.

State whether the following are true or false:


The President is elected for a team of 4 years.
The President can pardon a death sentence.
The President can declare war or conclude peace.
The Prime Minister choose the Cabinet Ministers.
Civil servants belong to the majority party in the Parliament.

Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:


Who is the real executive head in a parliamentary form of government? [1]
Name the body that elects the President of India. [1]
Name any two officials appointed by the President. [1]
What is an ordinance? [1]
What can the President do when the security of the country is threatened by external
aggression or armed rebellion? [1]
Whose advice is the President bound to follow in carrying out his/her functions?
[1]
Who is the head of the Council of Ministers? [1]
When two or more political parties form the government, what is it called? [1]
What is meant by allotment of portfolios? [1]
What happens when a vote of no-confidence is passed against any one Cabinet
Minister? [1]

Answer the following questions briefly:


In the context of the President of India, answer the following questions:
Mention the qualifications required for the post of the President. [4]
How is the President elected? [3]
How can the services of the President be terminated? [3]
With reference to the powers of the President, discuss:
Any four executive powers [4]
Military Powers [2]
Any four legislative powers [4]
The President is an intergral part of the Parliament. In this context explain the
following:
The financial powers of the President [4]
The judicial powers of the President [3]
The emergency powers of the President [3]
With reference to the functions of the Parliament, explain the following:
Law-making functions [4]
Control over the executive [3]
Judicial functions [3]
Discuss the powers and position of the prime Minister with reference to his
relationship with the following:
Parliament [3]
The President [3]
The Council of Ministers [4]
In the context of the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers, explain the
following:
Appointment of the Prime Minister [3]
Formation of the council of Ministers [3]
The Cabinet [4]
Picture study:
Until 1950, the building in the picture was known as ‘Viceroy’s House’, and served as
the residence of the Governor General of India.
Identify the building. Whose official residence is it now?
How is he/she elected?
What is his/her term of office?
Mention two powers each held by this person with reference to the following:
Financial powers (b) Judicial powers
DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination:
If you are appointed the Prime Minister, which former Prime Minister would you
consider your role model? Why? Mention any two progressive/radical policies that
you would implement during your tenure and explain how they would transform India
into a global superpower.
Project work:
Select any five Presidents of India. Collect their pictures and find out their important
achievements. Compile your findings in the form of a PowerPoint presentation.
Collect pictures and information from newspapers and magazines showing the
current Prime Minister performing his/her functions in Indiaand abroad. Present your
material in the form of scrapbook, chart or class presentation. You may include
his/her personal interests, talents and achievements in areas of music, sports,
literature, if any.
Websites:
For more information, go to:
http://www.elections.in/government/president-of-india.html (Accessed on 16
december 2016)
http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/constitution/prime-minister-of-india-posituon-and-
powers-of-the-prime-minister-of-india/32173/ (Accessed on 16 December 2016)
18 The Judiciary

India has a federal system, with two levels of government-one at the centre and the
other in the states. However, there is a single unified system of courts for the Indian
Union and the states. This system forms the third branch of the government, i.e. the
judiciary. It is independent of the legislative and the executive wings of the
government.
The function of the judiciary is to administer justice, define and interpret laws and
protect the rights of Indian citizens. It is the guardian of the Constitution and
penalized those who violate the Constitution or break the law. The law courts are
presided over by judges. They deal with cases against individuals, organizations and
governments.
At the apex of the judicial system is the Supreme Court of India, located in New
Delhi. Below the Supreme Court are the High Courts in each state. The High Court
have a number of subordinate courts below them.
THE SUPREME COURT
The Supreme Court is located in New Delhi and is the highest judicial authority in the
country. It is the guardian of the Constitution. It is headed by the Chief Justice of
India and has a number of other judges. The judges of the Supreme Court are
appointed by the President in consultation with the Council of Ministers.
Supreme Court judges must have the following qualifications:
They must be citizens of India.
They must either be advocates of a High Court or of two or more such court in
succession for at least 10 years.
Or
They must be judges of High Courts of 5 year’s standing.
??
The Supreme Court, located in New Delhi, is the apex court of the country.
The judges of the Supreme Court hold office until they are 65 years of age. The
president cannot dismiss Supreme Court Judges before the end of their term.
Supreme Court judges can only be removed on grounds of proven misbehaviour or
incapacity, through impeachment.
DID YOU KNOW?
The Chief Justice draws a monthly salary. The other judges too, get a monthly
salary. Apart from the salary, the judges are entitled to free accommodation,
transport and other allowances.
Powers of the Supreme Court
The Supreme Court has three kinds of powers to pass judgements in civil and
criminal cases-Original Jurisdiction, Appellate Jurisdiction and Advisory
Jurisdiction. Apart from this, it also acts as the guardian of the Constitution and is a
court of record.
Original Jurisdiction
Certain cases are brought before the Supreme Court directly, for the first time. This
happens in cases involving:
Disputes between the union government and one or more state governments
Disputes between two or more state governments
Violation of the Constitution by the government or an individual
Violation of the Fundamental Rights of an individual
Appellate Jurisdiction
The Supreme Court hears appeals against judgements of High Courts. The Supreme
Court is the final court of appeal and has the power to review and change decisions
of the High Courts.
Advisory Jurisdiction
The Supreme Court can advise the President, on request, on legal and constitutional
issues. The President may or may not accept the advice.
Revisory Jurisdiction
The Supreme Court has the power to review any judgement or order, Which it has
passed earlier, in order to rectify any error or mistake it may have made.
Guardian of the Constitution
The Supreme Court is the guardian of the Constitution. It safeguards the Constitution
in two ways:
It can cancel a law or an executive order if it is found to violate the Constitution.
It can issue writs (orders or directions) for the enforcement of the Fundamental
Rights.
The Scope of Judicial Review
The Supremem Court can review any law or executive order of the central
government as well as of the state governments and cancel them if they are found to
have violated the laws of the Indian Constitution.
Court of Record
The Supreme Court records and prints out all the cases it handles and all the
judgements which are passed. These records serve as references in future cases.
Thus, the Supreme Court functions as a court of record.
DISCUSS
Should the death penalty be abolished? Why?
THE HIGH COURT
According to the Constitution, each state in the country can have a High Court, which
is the highest judicial authority in that state. Some High Courts have two or more
states and union territories under their jurisdiction.
Composition
At the highest level is the Chief Justice.
There are a number of other judges. This number is decided by the President,
according to the size of that state.
The President appoints the Chief Justice of the High Court and the other judges in
consultation with the Governor of the state and the Chief Justice of India.
??
The Kolkata High Court, built in 1862 by the British, it is the oldest high court
The qualifications of judges of a High Court are:
They must be citizen of India.
They must have held a judicial office in India for at least 10 years.
They must have been, for at least 10 years, advocates of a High Court, or of two or
more such courts in succession.
Judges of the High Court serve until they are 62 years old. They can resign earlier or
can be removed from office by the President if they are impeached by the same
process that applies to the judges of the Supreme Court.
Powers of the High Court
The High Court is the highest court of Justice in a state.
A High Court has original Jurisdiction, i.e. it can hear original cases (Cases brought
to it for the first time). These cases can involve disputes concerning Fundamental
Rights, election petitions and related disputes.
A High Court has Appellate Jurisdiction where it can hear appeals against
judgements passed in subordinate courts such as the District Courts.
The High Court can review and change decisions taken in the subordinate courts. It
can also transfer a case from one court to another.
A High Court also controls and supervises the functioning of subordinate courts.
THINK AND ANSWER
Justice delayed is justice denied. Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer.
It has revisory jurisdiction in cases where it feels that the lower courts have gone
beyond their jurisdiction.
It maintains records of the proceedings and decisions. These records serve as
references for lower courts in future cases.
Both the Supreme Court and the High Courts are empowered by the Constitution of
India to issue writs. A writ is a form of written command, or legal document giving
order or direction to a person to act or not to act in a particular way. Some of the
writs are the writs of Habeus Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Certiorari, Quo
Warranto, etc.
SUBORDINATE COURTS
Below each High Court there are several lower courts, known as subordinate courts.
These courts are under the control of the High Courts. There are three types of
subordinate courts-civil courts, criminal courts and revenue courts.
Panchayat Courts
In the Panchayati system at the village level, there are small law courts called Nyaya
Panchayats. Often, there is one Panchayat Court for a number of villages. Nyaya
Panchayats try petty civil and criminal cases, such as trespassing, personal
disputes, minor thefts, etc. They can impose fines up to ‘100 only. Appeals can be
made to higher courts against decisions taken in the Nyaya Panchayats.
Lok Adalats
The process of obtaining justice through law courts is a long-drawn-out and
expensive procedure in our country. In order to provide quicker and cheaper judicial
services, Lok Adalats have been set up. The first Lok Adalat was held at Delhi in
1985. It settled almost 150 cases in one day.
Lok Adalats are usually presided over by retired judges. The disputing parties can
argue their cases directly without advocates. Discussions, persuasion and
compromises are encouraged to settle disputes. Lok Adalats are becoming popular
becoming popular because they provide affordable and speedy justice.

LEGAL AID
According to the Indian Constitution, all citizens are equal before the law,
irrespective of caste, creed, social status, gender or religion. Under the Legal Aid
Scheme, free legal aid and legal services are made available to the poorer and
weaker sections of the society. Some of the categories for which free legal services
are provided by the government are:
People belonging to the Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe and backward classes
People with special needs.
Women and children
Victims of human trafficking or beggars
People whose incomes are lower than a certain amount decided by the government
The Indian judiciary has been designed to impact justice to all citizens. It functions
independently of the executive and the legislature, so that it can work impartially and
free from the influence of the other organs of the government.
VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS
We must understand that the judicial in our country should be strong and
independent. It should protect the rights of every citizens. We should ensure that we
do not influence the judges in any inappropriate manner. The judiciary should be
encouraged to give impartial justice without any biases.
If you feel that there is some injustice done to someone in your neighbourhood what
would you do?

Important Words
Original Jurisdiction refers to those cases which are brought directly to the court
for the first time.
Appellate Jurisdiction means that the court can hear appeals against judgements
passed in sunordinate courts.
Advisory Jurisdiction refers to the power of a court to give a legal opinion or advice
on certain cases.
Court of record is one which keeps written records of its proceedings, which may
then be used as references in future cases. Thus the Supreme Court and the High
Courts are courts of record.
Nyaya Panchayats are small law courts at the village level which try petty civil and
criminal cases.
Lok Adalat are courts set up to provide speedy and cheaper judicial services. They
are usually presided over by retired judges.
Exercises
Fill in the blanks:
In India there is a ______________ unified system of courts for the Indian Union and
the states.
The Supreme Court of India is located in ___________.
To qualify for the post of a judge in the Supreme Court, a person must either be an
advocate of a High Court for at least_____________ years or a judge of a High
Court for_____________
The High Court ______________ and ______________ the functioning of
subordinate courts.
The records of the High Court serve as ____________ for _____________ courts in
future cases.

Match the following:


A B
Supreme Court Can have two or more states under
its jurisdiction.
High Court Village level courts
Nyaya Panchayats Affordable and speedy service
Lok Adalats Free legal aid and service
Legal Aid Scheme The apex court of India

Choose the correct answer:


Disputes between the union government and the state governments fall under the
Original/ Adisory/ Appellate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
The District Court/Nyaya Panchayat/Supreme Court has the power of Judicial
review.
The High Court is the highest court of Justice in avillage/district/state.
Judges of the High Court can serve till they are 60/62/65 years old.
The Nyaya Panchayats/Lok Adalats/District Courts were set up to provide quicker
and cheaper judicial services.

State whether the following are true or false:


The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the Prime Minister of India.
No cases can be brought directly to the Supreme Court for the first time.
A High Court is not a court of record.
A Nyaya Panchayat can impose a fine of up to ‘10,000.
The process of obtaining justice through law courts is a long-drawn-out and
expensive process in our country.

Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:


On what grounds can Supreme Court judges be removed from office? [1]
Mention any two kinds of disputes that can be brought directly before the Supreme
Court. [1]
What is the Advisory Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court? [1]
Why are the records of the cases and judgments of the Supreme court important?
[1]
Who appoints the chief Justice of the High Court? [1]
What are writs? [1]
What is a Nyaya Panchayat? [1]
Why have Lok Adalats been set up? [1]
Why are Lok Adalats becoming popular? [1]
What is the objective of the Legal Aid Scheme? [1]

Answer the following question briefly:


The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body in the country. In this context explain:
Its original Jurisdiction [4]
Its Appellate Jurisdiction [3]
Why it is called the guardian of the Constitution [3]
With reference to the powers of the High Court, discuss its:
Original Jurisdiction [3]
Appellate Jurisdiction [3]
Review and revisory Jurisdiction [4]
In the context of the judicial system in India, answer the following questions:
What are the main features of a Nyaya Panchayat? [3]
Why are Lok Adalats becoming popular in India? [3]
Mention the sections of society which received free legal services under the Legal
Aid Scheme. [4]
Picture study:
This is a picture of the apex Indian court.
Identify it.
What is the composition of this court?
Who appoints the judges?
Explain its role as the guardian of the Constitution.
DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination:
Organize a mock Lok Adalat in class. Write a report on the proceesings. Comment
on the atmosphere in the room where the cases are being heard. How many cases
could be settled during a 40-minute period? Give reasons for your answer.
Project work:
Interview a member of a Legal Aid Cell. Prepare a questionnaire to find out the
nature of the job, experiences of the member and the benefits of this organization.
Prepare a report and present your views.
Websites:
For more information, go to:
http://indiancourts.nic.in/courts/indian_jud.html (Accessed on 16 December 2016)
http://www.silf.org.in/16/indian-judicial-system.htm (Accessed on 16 December 2016)

19 The United Nations

The 20th century witnessed two world wars that convulsed humanity in agory
bloodbath. They killed millions of people, left millions maimed and crippled and
brought in its wake devastation, destruction, desolatuion and despair on a scale
beyond imagination.
The horror and tragedy of the First World War led to a passionate and universal
desire for peace. Out of this desire was bornan international organization called the
League of Nations, in 1920.
The League of Nations failed to maintain peace and the Second World War broke
out in 1939. The magnitude and scale of destruction in the war created a revulsion
for war in the minds of people. Once again, people yearned for peace, and even as
the bombs rained down from the skies, the idea of the United Nations Organization
took shape.
THE ATLANTIC CHARTER
Winston Churchill, the former Prime Minister of Great Britain and Franklin D.
Roosevelt, the former President of the United States of America, met aboard a
battleship, off Newfoundland, in the Atlantic Ocean. They signed a document called
the Atlantic Charter on 14 August 1941.
??
The Atlantic Charter meeting
It was agreed that when the war ended, humans must be guaranteed the basic rights
or the four freedoms.
The basic rights included:
freedom from want
freedom of speech
freedom of religious belief
freedom from fear
THE SAN FRANCISCO CONFERENCE
In June 1945, 50 nations met in San Francisco to sign the Atlantic Charter of the UN.
Poland which was not represented at the Conference signed it later and became one
of the original 51 member states. On 24 October 1945, the United Nations was
established to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war and to reaffirm
faith in fundamental human rights. 24 October is celebrated as United National Day.
The original signatories included Britain, France, USA, former USSR and China.
Today, there are 193 members. The headquarters are located in New York City.
The six official languages of the UN are English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese
and Arabic. The UN flag depicts two bent olive branches which are open at the top
with a world map between them. The white olive branches and the world map are on
a light blue background. The branches of the wreath symbolize peace.
The UN is financed by the contributions made by its member states. The wealthier
nations pay more than the poorer ones. The General Assembly determines the
contribution to be made by the member nations.
??
The UN headquarters in New York
THE OBJECTIVES OF THE UN
The objectives of the UN have been outlined in the Preamble of the UN charter.
They are:
To maintain international peace and security
To develop friendly relations among nations on the basis of equality
To achieve international cooperation in solving economic, social, cultural and
humanitarian problems
To promote human rights and fundamental freedom for the people of the world
To act as a common platform for harmonizing the activities of various nations for the
attainment of the objectives of the UN
To save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which has twince brought
suffering to humans
??
The UN logo
This implies that:
All nations big or small are equal.
They must all obey the Charter.
All disputes must be settled peacefully.
No force should be used.
THE ORGANS OF THE UN
The UN has six main organs:
The General Assembly
The Security Council
The Economic and Social Council
The Trusteeship Council
The International Court of Justice
The Secretariat
DID YOU KNOW?
The UN headquarter consists of several buildings along the East river in New York
City. On the grounds of the UN headquarters stands the sculpture, ‘Let us beat
swords into ploughshares’, sculpted by the Russian sculptor, Yevgeny Vuchetich and
it expresses the main goal of the UN.
The General Assembly
All the members of the UN are members of the General Assembly. Each member
nation can send up to five representatives, but they are entitled to one vote per
nation. The General Assembly meets once a year but special sessions can be held
during times of crisis. Some of the important functions of the General Assembly are:
To discuss international problems and make recommendations for their solution
To make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of disputes
To consider and approve the UN budget
To elect non-permamnent members of the Security Council, members of the
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and the Trusteeship Council
To supervise the work of the other organs of the UN
To make recommendations for ‘collective measures, including the use of armed
forces’ during a crisis (Uniting for Peace Resolution)
All decisions are generally taken by a simple majority vote and in some important
cases by a two-third majority vote.
The Security Council
The Security Council, the most important organ of the UN, is often referred to as the
enforcement wing of the UN. It consists of 15 members. Five of them are permanent
members. They are (i) USA (ii) UK (iii) France (iv) People’s Republic of China and (v)
the Russian Federation. The ten non-permanent members are elected by the
General Assembly for a term of 2 years.
The Security Council has the basic responsibility for maintaining peace and security
in the world. It meets as and when the need arises. Decisions are taken by a majority
vote of at least nine members, including all the five permanent members. A negative
vote by any one of the permanent members would lead to a cancellation of the
resolution. This right to prevent action being taken is known as the right to veto. This
means that any resolution becomes ineffective even if one of the permanent
members votes against it. This means that all decisions have to be taken with the
consent of all the permanent members.
When no action can be taken by the Security Council because of the veto, the
General Assembly can deal with the crisis. It can take whatever action may seem
appropriate to restore and maintain world peace. The important functions of the
Security Council are:
To investigate international disputes and recommend ways of setting such disputes
peacefully
To call on member states to apply economic sanctions against the aggressor
To take military action against the aggressor, if necessary

??
The chamber of the UN Security Council in New York
The Economic and Social Council
The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) consists of 54 members elected by the
General Assembly for a 3-year term. The main objective of the ECOSOC is to free
the world from ‘want’. Its main functions are:
To promote economic growth and social progress
To create a spirit of respect for human Rights
To solve problems related to health, illiteracy, drugs, employment, status of women,
etc.
To supervise the work of various specialized agencies such as World Health
Organization (WHO), United Nations Educational Scientific and Culture Organization
(UNESCO), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), International Labour
Organization (ILO), Food and Agricultural Oraganization (FAO), etc.
Trusteeship Council
When the UN was first formed, a large number of countries were not free. Many
were affected by the war. The Trusteeship Council was established to look after the
territories that were under foreign rule and to help them attain self-government. All
Trust Territories have achieved their independence. The Trusteeship Council
suspended operations in 1994.
The International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice (ICJ) consistsof 15 judges from different countries,
elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council. Each judge has a 9 year
term. No two judges can be from the same country.
The main functions of this court are:
To settle disputes brought to it by member nations
To give legal advice to the other organs of the UN, on request
All matters are decided in accordance with international law. The international Court
of Justice is located at The Hague, Netherlands (Holland).
??
The International Court of Justice at Hague, Switzerland
The Secretariat
The Secretariat is the chief administrative organ of the UN. It has a large staff of
workers from over different countries. These also include interpreters, security
guards and photographers.
This staff carrier out the day-to-day activities of the organization. It is headed by the
Secretary General, elected by the General Assembly for a five-year term.
The Secretary General holds a key position in the administration of the affairs of the
UN. He/She organizes conferences, drafts reports, makes correspondences,
registers treaties and prepares budget estimates. The staff of the United Nationals
Secretariat is also appointed by the Secretary General.
INDIA AND THE UN*
India was one of the countries to sign the UN Charter in 1945. It is therefore, one of
founder members of the UN. India has accepted the ideals of the UN and has also
played a significant role in promoting peace and unity in the world.
India has supported the freedom movements of other nations and has helped the
underprivileged countries. India supported freedom movements in countries like
Indonesia, Angola, Bangladesh, Libya, Malaysia, Tunisia, Ghana, Morocco and
Algeria.
India has helped to expand the membership of the Security Council and admit new
members to the UN. India supported the entry of the People’s Republic of China into
the UN in 1971.
India has opposed racial discrimination or apartheid in South Africa.
India has been part of the UN peacekeeping operations in Palestine, Cyprus, Congo,
Cambodia, Somalia and Bosnia.
India believes in disarmament or the reduction of arms and control of atomic energy.
India has, therefore, played an important role in conferences on disarmament.
India was appointed as the Chairman of the Commission for the supervision of Truce
in Indo-China in 1954.
During the Cold War, India took a neutral stand or followed a policy of non-
alignment and, thus, helped in the reduction of tension between the two
superpowers.
India played an important role in the repatriation of prisoners of war, when the
hostilities in Korea came to an end in 1953.
India has sent her medical missions as part of UN aid missions whenever needed,
e.g. during the Korean War (1950) and the Gulf War (1991).
India has played an active role in the development activities of the UN agencies like
UNICEF, UNESCO and United Nations development Program (UNDP). Many
African and Asian students are getting higher education in Indian universities through
UNESCO scholarships.
Many Indians have served in the UN at important posts. Shashi Tharoor was the
former Undersecretary General for Public Information at the UN. He was the official
candidate of India for the post of Secretary General. When Kofi Annan’s term came
to an end in 2006. He came a close second out of seven contenders in the race.
Indian jurists like Nagendra Singh, B.N. Rau and Justice Pathak have been judges of
the Court of Justice.
UN HELP TO INDIA*
The UN has helped India in the social, economic, scientific and culture development,
through its agencies:
The WHO has helped in the improvement of public health. It has helped in fighting
several diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, and has helped in eradicating smallpox.
It has helped to set up childcare centres and also trained a large number of medical
personnel. It also help students to go for higher education in medicine by providing
scholarships.
The FAO has helped in the development of the once unfit Terai region in
Uttarakhand and made it fit for cultivation and habitation. It has also helped to turn
the desert region in Rajasthan into a fertile land by checking soil erosion. It has
helped in setting up the Sheep and Wool Research Institute in Rajasthan, the
Central Institute of Fisheries Education in Mumbai and the Institute of Catering
technology and Nutrition in several Indiancities. In 1960, the FAO launched its
‘Freedom from Hunger’ campaign in India.
The UNESCO has organized several exchange programmes for teachers, students
and scholars. Under the Teachers’ Exchange Programme, cultural contact with other
countries are promoted.

??
Indian peacekeeping troops

The UNICEF has started a programme called ‘Education for All’ and the ILO has
introduced a programme to eliminate child labour.
The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have given financial aid
for the Five-Year Plans and for the establishment of projects such as the Sardar
Sarovar Project.
India cooperates with the UN in maintaining world peace and security through its
specialized agencies. Both have common objective and agencies. Both have
common objectives and by mutual cooperation the common goal of a peaceful and
prosperous world can be achieved.
ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE UN
The UN has many achievements to its credit.
Although it has not been able to prevent war, in many cases, it has taken effective
action to restore peace, e.g., the Korean War, the Suez Canal crisis, the Gulf War,
etc.
Many countries, e.g., Indonesia, Algeria, Morocco, have achieved their
independence with support from the UN.
By imposing economic sanctions against the South African government, it played a
significant role in challenging the apartheid policy and liberating the South African
people from apartheid rule.
It has worked consistently for the protection and preservation of human rights around
the world.
It has worked actively to end the nuclear arms race and encouraged the use of
nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.
It has achieved great success in the fields of labour, health, welfare of children and
education by fighting poverty, ignorance, malnutrition, hunger and disease through
its specialized agencies.
THINK AND ANSWER
Do you agree that the Third World War has been averted only due to the efforts of
the United Nations Organization?
Many people thought that with the end of the Cold War most of the world’s problems
would disappear. This, however, did not happen.
There have been more problems than ever before. Hatred and intolerance threaten
to shatter the peace of the world. Today, terrorism stalks the world like a hydra, a
many-headed demon that threatens to destroy human civilization.
The need of the hour is to reform and strengthen the UN and to make it strong and
effective, capable of healing the wounds of our times and restoring sanity, balance
and harmony to our strife-torn world.
DISCUSS
If you were asked to select any four UN objectives that you consider most important
which would you choose and why?
VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS
We must understand the need to establish peace and security in the world. We must
also encourage international cooperation through talks and debates so that the
outbreak of another world war id prevented. It is important to know that world peace
depends on economic, social and cultural progress.
If you were given the opportunity of representing your country in any of the major
organs of the United Nations, which would it be? Why?

Important Words
Resolution is a formal statement of opinion agreed on by the members of a group or
council.
Veto is the negative vote by any one of the permanent members of the UN Security
Council when leads to the cancellation of the resolution.
Apartheid refers to a system of racial discrimination practised formerly in South
Africa in which only white people enjoyed all political rights and the black people
were forced to live away from the white people.
Truce is an agreement between enemies or opponents to stop fighting for an agreed
period of time.
Non-alignment is a policy wherein a country maintains a neutral stand and neither
supports nor receives support by any of the powerful countries in the world.
Exercises
Fill in the blanks:
The _____________was formed in 1920 after the end of the first World War.
Each member state of the UN can send up to _______________ representatives to
the General Assembly.
The ___________is often referred to as the ‘enforcement wing’ of the UN.
The five permanent members of the Security Council are
_____________,____________,_____________, __________ and _________.
The objective of the ECOSOC is to free the world from_____________.
The WHO is a ___________agency of the UN.

Match the following:


A B
San Francisco Conference Organ of the UN
UN headquarters 15
Security Council Five
Permanent members of the Security New York City
Council
Number of judges at the International 1945
Court of Justice

Choose the correct answer:


24 October/ 22 March/ 21 June is celebrate as United Nations Day.
The olive branches on the UN flag symbolize peace / wealth / truth.
The Economic and Social consists of 54 members elected by the General Assembly
for a 3/4/5-year term.
The International Court of justice is located in New York City in USA/The Hanue in
Netherlands/ Paris in France.
The Secretariat/ General Assembly/ International Court of Justice is the chief
administrative organ of the UN.
State whether the following are true or false:
All the members of the UN are members of the General Assembly.
French is one of the official languages of the UN.
The Trusteeship Council is the most important organ of the UN.
UNESCO and UNICEF are specialized agencies of the UN.
Most of the world’s problem have disappeared with the end of the Cold War.

Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:


Mention one important organ of the UN. (1)
Who are the members of the General Assembly? (1)
What is a negative vote by one of the permanent members of the Security Council
known as? (1)
Why was the Trusteeship Council established? (1)
Why did the UN impose economic sanctions against the South African government?
(1)
What is the relevance of the UN in todays’s world? (1)

Answer the following questions briefly:


The magnitude and scale of destruction during the Second World War created a
great revulsion for war and a passionate yearning for peace. In this context
The Signing of the Atlantic Charter (3)
The basic rights or the four freedoms guaranteed by the charter (4)
The San Francisco Conference and establishment of the United Nations
(3)
With reference to the United Nations discuss:
The UN flag (3)
Any four objectives of the UN outlined in the Preamble of the UN Charter
(4)
The obligations of all nations that follow from these objectives 930
With reference to the General Assembly and Security Council of the UN, answer the
following questions:
Mention any fours of the General Assembly. (4)
Explain the veto power of the permanent members of the Security Council. What
happens when the Security Council cannot take any action because of the veto?
(3)
State three important functions of the Security Council. (3)
With reference to the organs of the UN discuss:
Any three functions of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (3)
The composition and functions of the International Court of Justice (3)
Any four significant achievements of the UN (4)

Picture study:
This building is the headquarters of an international organization which was
established in October 1945 to maintain international peace and security.
Name the organization.
Where are the headquarters of this organization located?
Mention four important objectives of this organization.
Name three major organs of this organization.
DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination:
Imagine you are representing your school at a seminar at a seminar organized by
the Economic and Social Council of the UN. Prepare a project report on child labour
in your city/ town/village and the urgent need to ban it. Suggest some effective and
practical measures that ECOSOC can implement with the active cooperation of the
(i) government and (ii) individuals
Project work:
Iwith the help of your teacher arrange a mock session of the General Assembly.
Debate global issues like environmental degradation, poverty and hunger in
developing countries, terrorism, etc.

Websites
For more information, go to:
http://www.un.org/en/ (Accessed on 14 December 2016)
http://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/ Accessed on 14 December 2016)
20 Specialized Agencies of the UN

One of the principal objective of the UN is to solve economic, social, cultural and
humanitarian problems through international cooperation. A number of specialized
agencies have been established to achieve these goals. They work under the
supervision of the UN Economic and Social Council in the interest of human welfare.
THE UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL
ORGANIZATION (UNESCO)
The UNESCO was set up in 1945 with the headquartes in Paris. Its functions are
based on the belief that the best way of preventing war is to educate people’s minds
in the pursuit of peace.
??
The UNESCO logo
It encourage the spread of universal educational. It emphasized that education is a
human right.
It also encourage international cooperation between artists, scientists and scholars in
all fields.
THINK AND ANSWER
The best way of preventing war is to education people’s minds in the pursuit of
peace. Do you agree with this statement? Give reasons for your answer.
THE UNITED NATION CHILDERN’S FUND (UNICEF)
UNICEF was known as United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund
when it was established in 1946 originally to provide emergency aid to children and
their mothers in countries devastated by the Second World War. In 1953, the words’
international’ and ‘emergency,’ were dropped from its name and it became United
National Children’s Fund. Its headquarters are in New York.
DID YOU KNOW?
A large proportion of the funds for UNICEF to carry out its activities comes from the
public through the sale of greeting cards, proceeds from benefits events like concerts
and football matches, grants from organizations and institutions, and collections by
schoolchildren. The UNICEF was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965.
The long-term goals of UNICEF are:
To focus on improving the quality of life of children by creating awareness about
children’s health and education
To focus on the realization for every child, of the opportunity to enjoy the basic rights
and privileges
The activities of UNICEF are as follows:
It tries to solve the problem of exploitation of children and child labour.
UNICEF provides assistance to nations for running childcare centres.
UNICEF continues to work for the welfare of children (in developing countries) in the
fields of education, health and sanitation, nutrition, water, environment, women’s
welfare, social justice, etc.
It provides assistance to young mothers and also provided medicines to newborn
babies and mothers.
??
A UNICEF makeshift school for children from war-torn regions of Iraq
DISCUSS
Why does the UNICEF continue to work for the welfare of women in general and
young mothers in particular?
THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (ILO)
The ILO was set up in 1919 at the end of the First World War, with its headquarters
at Geneva, Switzerland. Later, when the UN was formed, it became its first
specialized agency.
The ILO seeks to promote peace and prosperity in the world by ensuring social and
economic justice to workers all over the world. A country can progress and prosper if
the workers are content and happy. It sets guidelines for improving the living and
working conditions of workers everywhere.
The ILO is unique organization where private groups such as organized unions and
employer groups as well as governments are represented.
FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATION (FAO)
The FAO was founded in 1945 with its headquarters in Rome. The member nations
meet every alternate year to work out the policy and approve the budget and work
schedule.
The aims of the FAO are as follows:
To raise the standard of living of the people.
To raise the levels of nutrition
To eliminate hunger through its most important programme called ‘Food for All’
To increase agriculture production and distribution of food and promote rural
development
The activities of FAO are as follows:
It carries out worldwide campaigns to combat diseases like AIDS, cholera, malaria,
plaque, polio, etc.
It encourage medical research, provides information on diseases, organized health
services and spreads health awareness.
The WHO has succeeded in eradicating smallpox from the world.
The WHO supports projects related to:
Education concerning health problems
Proper food supply and nutrition
Safe water and sanitation
Maternal and child health, including family planning
Immunization against major infectious diseases
Prevention and control of local diseases
Proper treatment of common diseases and injuries
Provision of essential drugs
VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS
As responsible citizens we must inculcate in us a sense of social responsibility and
awareness of the manifold problem that need to be addressed in today’s world. We
must in our own way help the government and related agencies to improve the lives
of poor people and to eradicate hunger, disease and illiteracy.
If you were given the opportunity of working with any of the specialized agencies of
the United Nations, which would it be? Why?

Important Words
Universal education means the spread of education everywhere.
Children centres provide medical assistance to mothers and the their children,
including newborn babies, and also create awareness about children’s health.
Member nations are those nations who are members of a particular agency.
World Health Day is observed on 7 April to create awareness about good health
and improve the standard of health all over the world.
Exercises
Fill in the blanks:
The UNESCO was established in ____________ with headquarters at
____________.
UNICEF provides assistance for running_ centres.
When the UN was formed the_____________ became its first specialized agency.
The _______________of FAO are in Rome.
The WHO believes that ___________ is one of the fundamental rights of every
human being.

Match the following:


A B
UNESCO Rome
UNICEF Geneva
ILO Paris
FAO Geneva
WHO New York

Choose the correct answer:


The functions of UNESCO/UNICEF/ILO are based on the belief that the best way to
prevent war is to educate people’s mind in the pursuit of peace.
The FAO/WHO/ILO was founded in 1945 and helps countries to raise their levels of
nutrition.
The ILO/WHO/UNESCO was set up at the end of the First World War.
The objectives of WHO/ ILO/ FAO is to improve the standard of standard of health all
over the world.
The WHO has succeeded in eradicating smallpox/measles/typhoid from the world.

State whether the following are true or false:


UNESCO encourages the spread of universal education.
UNICEF helps in solving financial crises and provides loans to nations.
The ILO sets guidelines for improving the living and working conditions of workers
everywhere.
The Headquarters of ILO are in Rome.
The largest specialized agency of the UN is WHO

Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences:


Why were the specialized agencies of the UN established? [1]
Name one specialized agency of the UN. [1]
What does the acronym UNESCO stand for? [1]
Why does the acronym UNICEF stand for at present? [1]
Why is it necessary to ensure that workers are content and happy? [1]
What important programme did the FAO launch to eliminate hunger? [1]
What does the FAO do in the event of an emergency food situation in any country?
[1]
Why is World Health Day observed on 7th April every year? [1]

Answer the following questions briefly:


A number of specialized agencies of the UN have been set up in the interest of
human affairs. In this context answer the following questions:
Mention the functions and activities of the UNESCO. [3]
Why was UNICEF originally established? What are its long-term goals at present?
[3]
Mention any four endeavours of UNICEF to achieve its goals. [4]
With reference to the ILO and the FAO discuss:
The aims and activities of the ILO [2]
The aims of the FAO [4]
The activities of the FAO [3]
With reference to the WHO discuss the following:
The establishment of the WHO [3]
The activities of the WHO [3]
The projects supported by the WHO [4]

Picture study:
This is the logo of the headquarters of a specialized agency of the UN which was
established in 1948.
Name the agency.
What is the main purpose of this agency?
What does it do to achieve its objectives?
Mention one important achievement of this agency.
Mention any two other specialized agencies of the UN. State one important objective
of each agency.
DO AND LEARN
Use your imagination:
Imagine that the UN has decided to change the existing logos of the specialized
agencies and has organized a competition open to all school or college students of
all member nations to select the new logos from among the prize winning entries.
Create new logos for the following agencies:
UNESCO (b) UNICEF (c) WHO (d)ILO (e)FAO
Prepare an objective-based campaign with a catchy slogan for each agency with the
purpose of spreading awareness among students and instilling in them a sense of
social responsibility.
Project work:
The UNESCO has declared over 1000 cultural and natural heritage sites as ‘World
Heritage Sites’. Some of these sites are in India. Make a list of these sites in India.
On an outline map of the world, mark the headquarters of all the specialized
agencies of the UN. Mention any two programmes or projects of each of these
agencies. Find out to what extent these campaigns have succeeded in fulfilling their
main objectives.
Websites
For more information, go to:
http://en.unesco.org/ (Accessed on 14 December 2016)
http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/lang--en/index.htm (Accessed on 14
December 2016)
http://www.unicef.org/india/ (Accessed on 14 December 2016)
http://www.who.int/en/ (Accessed on 14 December 2016)
First term Paper

Part 1 : History
Fill in the blanks: 5
The two kinds of source material for the Modern period are ____________ sources
and _____________ sources.
The Mughal rulers who ruled India after Aurangzeb’s death are known as the
______________ Mughals.
The _____________were decisively defeated by Ahmad Shah Abdali in the Third
Battle of Panipat.
The English East India Company was established in the year____________.
The fortification of Calcutta by the English East India Company mounted to an attack
on the Nawab’s_______________.

Choose the correct answer: 5


The military campaign in the Deccan led by Shah Jahan/ Aurangzed/ Akbar ruined
the Mughal empire financially.
Shuja-ud-Daulah was the Nawab of Hyderabad/ Avadh/ Bengal.
The invention of the printing press/ telegraph/telephone helped to spread the ideas
of the Renaissance thinkers far and wide.
The Dual Government in Bengal was introduced by Robert Clive/ Warren Hastings/
Lord Cornwallis.
After the Third Anglo-Maratha War the British placed a descendant of Shivaji on the
throne of Nagpur/ Satara/ Jhansi.

State whether the following are true or false: 5


The French East India Company established its headquarters at Pondicherry.
The Queen of England, Elizabeth I granted the English East India Company the
exclusive right to trade with the East.
The Battle of Plassey was fought in the year 1765.
One of the regional centres of Maratha power was the Sindhias of Gwalior.
Cornwallis annexed Jhansi on the grounds of Doctrine of Lapse.

Answer the following questions in one or two words/ sentences: 10


Name the first and the last emperors in the line of the Later Mughals. [2]
What is the significance of the Third Battle of Panipat? [2]
Name the British trading settlements in (i) Madras (ii) Calcutta. [2]
Why were European traders attracted to the Bengal province in the 18th century?
[2]
What was the main objective of the Subsidiary Alliance System? [2]
Answer any two of the following questions briefly: 20
In the context of the Industrial Revolution answer the following questions:
Mention the three important features of the Industrial Revolution. [3]
Give any four important reasons to explain why the Industrial Revolution started in
England. [4]
Briefly discuss the spread of the Industrial revolution. [3]
Several factors were responsible for the decline of the Mughal empire. In this context
answer the following questions:
How did party politics undermine the authority and prestige of the Mughal empire?
[4]
To what extent was the Jagirdari crisis responsible for a futher decline of the power
of the emperor? [3]
How did the wars of succession destabilized the Mughal empire?[3]

The French Revolution of 1789 was a milestone and a major turning point in Human
history. In this context discuss the following causes:
An unjust, unequal social order of the ancient regime [4]
The growing power of the Middle Class [3]
An inefficient, corrupt administration [3]

The Battle of Plassey was a major turning point in the history of India. In this context
answer the following questions:
Give an account of the events leading from the conspiracy to replace Siraj-ud-
Daulah to his eventual defeat in the Battle of Plassey.
[4]
State the results of the Battle pf Plassey. [3]
Why is this battle considered a major turning point in the history of India?
[3]

Dalhousie was a great expansionist and adopted a number of methods to build an


all-India empire. In this context, answer the following questions:
Give an account of the events leading from the conspiracy to replace Siraj-ud-
Daulah to his eventual defeat in the Battle of Plassey.
[4]
State the results of the Battle of Plassey. [3]
Why is this battle considered a major turning point in the history of India?
[3]

Picture study: 5
The picture portrays a momentous event in 1765, involving a british Governor and a
Mughal Emperor wherein the Mughal Emperor is conveying the grant of the diwani to
the Governor.
??
Identify the Mughal Emperor and the british Governor.
What is the significance of this grant of the diwani?
Name the battle that preceded this event.

Part 2: Civics
Choose the correct answer:
The President carries out the functions on the advice of the Prime Minister and the
Lok Sabha/ the Counil of Ministers/ the Rajya Sabha.
The Lok Sabha/ Rajya Sabha/ Vidhan Sabha is also known as the Council of States.
The Vice-President is the Chairperson of the lok Sabha/ Rajya Sabha/ Vidhan
Sabha.
After the elections, the President appoints the leader of the majority aprty as the
Vice-President/ Speaker/ Prime Minister.
Disputes between the union government and the state governments fall under the
Original/ Advisory/ Appellate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences: 5


How do we know that the Parliament has supreme authority in the government?
[1]
Which branch of government interprets and defines laws? [1]
What can the President do when the security of the country is threatened by external
aggression or armed rebellion? [1]
On what grounds can Supreme Court judges be removed from office? [1]
What is the Advisory Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court? [1]

Answer any two of the following questions briefly: 20


In the context of the Parliamentary form of government, answer the following
questions:
What are the main features of a parliamentary form of government
[4]
(ii) Name the three branches of government and state their respective
functions. [3]
Why are powers distributed between the central and the state government?
[3]
The President is an integral part of the Parliament. In this context explain the
following:
The financial powers of the President [4]
The judicial powers of the President [3]
The emergency powers of the President [3]
The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body in the country. In this context explain:
Its Original Jurisdiction [4]
Its Appellate Jurisdiction [3]
Why it is called the guardian of the Constitution [3]

Project Work 20

Second Term Paper


Part 1: History Marks: 80

Fill in the blanks:


To eliminate competition from India’s traditional industries, the British transformed
India into a _____________and a ____________
The immediate cause of the Revolt was the issue of the _______________
______________.
______________established the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh.
A.O. Hume laid the foundation of the __________ ___________ _____________ in
December 1885.
When the Quit India Resolution was passed in the year_____________, Gandhiji
gave the Indians the Mantra ‘____________’.

Match the following:


A B
Wood’s Despatch Sikh reformers
Dayanand Saraswati IIbert Bill controversy
Akali Movement Educational policy
Lord Ripon Salt Satyagraha
Dandi March Arya Samaj
Choose the correct answer: 5
The Ryotwari system of revenue collection was introduced in
Madras/Calcutta/Bombay presidency.
The Charter Act of 1813 directed the Company to spend 1/10/15 lakh rupees on the
education of Indians.
The first Indian school for girls was set up by Bethune at Bombay/Calcutta/Bombay/
Madras.
The first session of the Indian national Congress was presided over by W.C.
Banerjee/Surendranath Banerjee/A.O. Hume.
Subhash Chandra Bose/Mahatma Gandhi/ rash Behari Bose was the supreme
commander of the Indian National Army

Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences: 10


Why did the Indian peasants begin to grow cash crops? [2]
Mention any two positive effects of the introduction of English in the Indian education
system. [2]
Mention any two evil social practices against which the Brahmo Samaj launched a
relentless struggle. [2]
Name any two Western scholar who researched the Indian past and rediscovered its
rich heritage. [2]
Under whose leadership was the Lahore session of the Congress held in 1929?
What resolution was passed in this session? [2]

Answer any two of the following questions briefly: 20


The Charter Act of 1813 passed by the British Parliament was the first major step to
introduce changes in the Indian system of education. In this context discuss:
The general directives issued to the Company in the Charter Act of 1813 and its
inherent weakness. [3]
The Great Debate over the content and medium of education. [4]
The introduction and spread of Western education. [3]
The central figure of the Indian Renaissance was Raja Ram Mohan Roy-the pioneer
of the Modern Age in India. In this context answer the following questions:
Discuss briefly Raja Ram Mohan’s views and ideas on religious reform of Hindu
society. [4]
What was the programme of the Brahmo Samai? [3]
Explain Raja Ram Mohan’s views on education. [3]
In the context of the Revolt of 1857, answer the following questions:
Mention any three political causes of the Revolt. [3]
Mention any three economic factors that led to the outbreak of the great Revolt.
[3]
Explain briefly any four social and religious causes that led to the Revolt of 1857.
[4]
There were many factors that led to the rise of nationalism in India. In the light of this
statement answer the following questions:
In what way did the Revolt of 1857 impact the rise of nationalism in India?
[3]
What changes did Western education bring about in the traditional Indian outlook?
[4]
The English language acted as a link language among the Indians. Explain.
[3]
With reference to Indian National Movement, answer the following:
Examine the role of Subhash Chandra Bose in the Indian freedom struggle.
[3]
Why do Indians still respect and revert Netaji? [3]
What was the significance of (i) Mountbatten Plan and (ii) Indian Independence Act,
1947 [4]

Picturestudy:
??
This is the picture of a leader who formed a new party called the forward Bloc in
1939.
Identify the leader in the picture.
What was the name of the army of which he was the supreme commander?
What was his slogan for the liberation of India?
Write a few lines on the leadership qualities of India?

Part 2: Civics

Choose the correct answer: 5


24 October/22 March/ 21 Hune is celebrated as United Nations Day.
The olive branches on the UN flag symbolize peace/ wealth/ trusth.
The International Court of Justice is located in Chennai in India/ The Hague in
Netherlands/Paris in France.
The functions of UNESCO/UNICEF/ILO are based on the belief that the best way to
prevent war is to educate people’s mind in the pursuit of peace.
The WHO has succeeded in eradicating smallpox/measles/typhoid from the world.
Answer the following questions in one or two words/sentences: 5
Which incident in 1945 established the fact that nuclear warfare had become a
terrifying reality? [1]
Mention one important organ of the UN. [1]
What is a negative vote by one of the permanent members of the Security Council
known as? [1]
Why does the acronym UNICEF stand for at present? [1]
Why were specialized agencies of the UN established? [1]
Answer any two of the following questions: 20
With reference to the United Nations discuss:
The UN flag [3]
Any four objectives of the UN outlines in the Preamble of the UN Charter.
[4]
The obligations of all nations that follows from these objectives.
With reference to the General Assembly and Security Council of the UN, answer the
following questions:
Mention any four functions of the General Assembly. [3]
Explain the veto power of the permanent members of the Security Council. What
happens when the Security council cannot take any action because of the veto?
[4]
State three important functions of the Security Council. [3]
A number of specialized agencies of the UN have been set up in the interest of
human affairs. In this context answer the following questions:
Mention the functions and activities of the UNESCO. [3]
Why was UNICEF originally established? What are its long-term goals at present?
[3]
Mention any four endeavours of UNICEF to achieve its goals.
[4]
Project Work 20

GUIBELINES FOR PROJECT WORK

Project work constitutes an important and integral and integral part of the ICSE
history and civics syllabus. Project assignments complement and supplement
classroom teaching and make learning more meaning and effective. They help to
integrate (i) teaching (ii) learning (iii) testing.
Project work involves self-learning. It breaks the monotony of traditional classroom
teaching, motivates children to think for themselves, research facts, analyze,
interpret and evaluate historical data and form intelligent, independent and
responsible opinions and impressions. From being passive receptacles of
information they become proactive reservoirs of knowledge. Self-learning, with a
certain degree of guidance, enthuses children and makes the study of history
interactive and interesting. This is especially true in situations where teachers do not
have access to modern facilities and new age teaching tools and opportunities.
Basic Objective
To develop the ability to select reference material that is relevant to the topic.
To develop skills to understand, analyse reference material, substantiate and
support ideas, analyse events and issues and their impact.
To correlate historical developments with present-day situations in the world, in India
and in the lives of the students.
To development the ability to empathize with the people in the past and
understand/appreciate/accept different points of view.
Methodology
Teachers are the ‘facilitators’ in the learning process. The constraints of time and the
pressures of a weighty syllabus notwithstanding, it is the teacher who can play a vital
role in making project work a joyful experience for their students.
The topic/topics must be explained and discussed with the students.
tudents must be given proper guidance regarding sources of reference material
(libraries, books, newspapers, magazines, websites, etc.)
Day trips to museums, monuments, historical sites, etc., could be arranged.
The progress of the assignment could be monitored and discussed from time.
Students should be encouraged to clarify their doubts.
Guidelines for research and presentations should be clearly laid down.
Teachers may provide and assist students with reference material and guidance.
Thereafter, it is the students’ responsibility to select relevant and appropriate
material and present it in accordance with the guidelines. Students must not confuse
assistance with dependence; the project is their ‘individual effort’ and not a
‘community’ project.
The evaluation of the project assignment could also include a viva to assess the
student’s effort and his/her understanding of the subject.
Options
Debates can be conducted in class to discuss certain aspects or issues related to
the topic. The class can be divided into two groups with each group speaking for or
against the motion.
The class may also be divided into a number of groups. Each group can be assigned
a specific aspect of the project topic to work on. Every student must contribute to the
group effort. When the assignments are completed, the topic can be discussed in
class with the teacher as the moderator.
Students may also be given the option of making a presentation of their research
project to the class with the help of charts, diagrams, maps, models, etc.
Students must follow the guidelines given by the teacher and work within the
prescribed parameters.
First of all, the topic must be clearly understood.
The subject matter must be properly researched to select relevant reference
material.
The sources of reference material should be listed in the bibliography.
The reference material must be used to explain, support and analysed ideas, events
and issues.
Relevant maps, tables, pictures, diagrams, drawings, paintings, timelines,
newspaper cuttings, etc., must be used to illustrate the reference material and
content. These visual aids must be neatly cut out and pasted on the left-hand page
corresponding with information given on the opposite page.
Illustrations must be neatly labelled. Important, interesting and relevant facts, figures
and quotations should be added to make the illustrations more meaningful.
Headings and sub-headings should be highlighted. Key words must also be
highlighted. The presentation must include (i) list of contents (ii) a brief introduction
(iii) body contents (iv) conclusion and (v) bibliography.
Matter must be arranged, organized and presented in a logical sequence.
Matter must be accurate and the overall presentation must be very neat and tidy.
No marks will be awarded for unnecessary ‘cosmetic’ embellishments; mutilation of
expensive and valuable books and journals will be penalized.
Innovative ideas and methods of presentation will add to the overall merit of the
project.
The focus must be on the contents. Time, money and energy must not be wasted on
decorating the cover. The file should be neatly covered in brown paper.
Reference material can be collected over a period of time and kept in a folder. The
presentation should be completed in 2-3 days.
The world limit can be decided by the teacher. It could be 500 (Class 6), 1,000
(Class 7) and 1,500 (Class 8).
Evaluation
Marks will be awarded for –process (3 marks) and product (7 marks).
The PROCESS involves the research methods (library, museum, historical sites,
newspaper, journals, books, websites, etc.) and use of reference materials
(bibliography). The PRODUCT includes contents, organization and presentation of
relevant information.
Note
The basic guidelines are based on the guidelines prescribed by the Council.