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Core Thinking Skills in Sample Prompt Frames Sample Response Frames

Science

What did you observe? I notice that...


What do we see happening? I observed that…
What does that mean? Why did that happen? We have all seen…
What can we learn from this phenomenon? Look at the way that the...
Why is this important?

What questions do we have about what we I wonder why...


observed? Where does the … come from?
What do you wonder? How does it…?
What don’t we know about this? What kind of reaction could cause that?
What caused … to happen?

From Zwiers & Crawford: Academic Conversations: Classroom Talk that Fosters Critical Think ing and Content Understandings (2011)
Core Thinking Skills in Sample Prompt Frames Sample Response Frames
Science

How can we investigate the possible reasons for …? If we add...then maybe...


What do you think will happen? I hypothesize that … because...
Why do you think that happened? I think that it will … because ...
What if we …? Based on … I think that ...
What do we hypothesize? Most likely, it will...
Which principles apply here?

What if we changed the variables? If we isolate the variable … then we can see …
How can we isolate this variable? Several variables come into play…
What do you think will happen? Why? We also need a control group
What will not happen? We need a microscope to see how…
How could we prove this? We need to change the … to see how … reacts
What might be other interpretations? We need to consider the effects of...
How can we design an experiment to measure our
hypothesis?
How can we prove that …?
But what about the effects of …?
Which variables do we isolate?
Is there a control group?

From Zwiers & Crawford: Academic Conversations: Classroom Talk that Fosters Critical Think ing and Content Understandings (2011)
Core Thinking Skills in Sample Prompt Frames Sample Response Frames
Science

How can we quantify our observations? The control group doesn’t get treatment.
What data do we have? The data should go into a table because…
What does this data mean? We need to measure the…
How do we organize the data? As the … increases, the …. Decreases.
There is a correlation between … and ….

What are the data telling us? The data show that…
What evidence supports our conclusions? We discovered that…
What does that mean? Our data were not valid or reliable enough to make
How can we extrapolate from the data? solid conclusions about…
Is this set of data valid? We found a negative correlation between…
What might critics argue about this data? Based on these numbers, it is likely that…
Our research has demonstrated that…
The results seem to indicate that...

From Zwiers & Crawford: Academic Conversations: Classroom Talk that Fosters Critical Think ing and Content Understandings (2011)