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NEUMATIC AND AIR BRAKE SYSTEM

AIR BRAKE SYSTEM AIR BRAKE(FIG 9) An air brake is a conveyance braking system
actuated by compressed air. Modern trains rely upon a fail preventive air brake system that is
based upon a design patented by George Westinghouse on March 5,1872. In the air brake's
simplest form, called the straight air system, compressed air pushes on a piston in a cylinder. The
piston is connected through mechanical linkage to brake shoes that can rub on the train wheels,
using the resulting friction to slow the train. (a)AIR BRAKE SYSTEM OPERATION The
compressor in the locomotive produces the air supplied to the system. It is stored in the main
reservoir. Regulated pressure of 6 kg/cm2 flows to the feed pipe through feed valve and 5-
kg/cm2 pressure by driver’s brake valve to the brake pipe. The feed pipe through check valve
charges air reservoir via isolating cock and also by brake pipe through distributor valve. The
brake pipe pressure controls the distributor valves of all the coaches/wagons which in turn
control the flow of compressed air from Air reservoir to break cylinder in application and from
brake cylinder to atmosphere in release. 24

1. POWER PACK AND POWER ASSEMBLY


2.
3. 25. TRACTION MOTER TRACTION MOTER(FIG 10) Since the diesel-electric
locomotive uses electric transmission, traction motors are provided on the axles to give the
final drive. These motors where the traditionally DC but the development of modern power
and control electronics has led to the introduction of 3-phase AC motors. There are between
four & six motors on most diesel electric locomotives. A modern AC motors with air
blowing can provide up to 1000hp 25
4. 26. GENERATOR This giant engine is hooked up to an equally impressive generator. It
is about 6 feet (1.8m) in diameter and weights about 17,700 pounds (8029kg). at peak
power this generator makes enough electricity to power a neighborhood of about 1,000
houses. So, where does all the power go? It goes into six, massive electric motors located
in the bogies.The engine rotates the crank shaft at up to 1000rpm and this drivesthe
various items need to power the locomotive. As the transmission is electric the engine is
used as the power source for the electricity generator or alternator. 26 (a)MAIN
ALTERNATOR The diesel engine drives the main alternator which provides the power
to move the train. The alternator generator AC electricity which is used to provide for
traction motors mounts of the axles of the bogies. In older locomotives, the alternator was
a DC machine, called a generator. It produce direct current which was used to provide
power for DC traction motor. Many of these machines are still in regular use. the next
development was the replacement of the generator by the alternator but still using DC
traction motor. The AC output is rectified to give the DC required for the motors.
(b)AUXILIARY ALTERNATORS Locomotives used are equipped with an auxiliary
alternators. This provide AC power for lighting, air conditioning, etc. on the train. The
output is transmitted on the train through an auxiliary power line. The output from the
main alternator is AC but it can be used in locomotive with either DC or AC traction
motors. DC motors where the traditional type use for many years but, AC motors have
become standard new locomotives. They are cheaper to build and cost less to maintain
and to convert the AC output from the main alternator to DC, rectifiers are required. If
the motors are DC, the output from the rectifiers is used directly.

5. Power Pack Section FIG OF POWER PACK(FIG 11) The work of the power pack is to do
the fitting work of the head on the loco. They take out head from the engine and assembled
it again on the loco. In the power pack section the assembly of piston and connecting rod is
done. The thorough checking of piston is done in this section. The piston is send for zyglo
test then it is checked for all the clearances. It is checked whether the piston is seizing or
not. There are two types of piston used modified and unmodified. In modified piston and
piston head is made up of steel, the piston skirt is made up of aluminium. Unmodified piston
is totally made up of steel only. The weight of the assembly is of 90kg. There are generally
5 rings used in the cylinder, first 3 are compression ring next 2 are oil rings. The first one is
made up of steel and has square face. The second one is also of steel and has tapered face.
The third one is of C.I. and is fuel efficient taper face. The fourth and fifth are also of C.I.
and are called oil scrapper rings. 27
6. 28. (a) PARTS OF THE POWER PACK EXHAUST MANIFOLD WATER CHANNEL
PGEV GOVERNOR CRANK CASE MOTER CYLINDER (MAX. 16 CYLINDER)
PISTON FUEL OIL INJECTOR ROCKER ARM YOKE LUBE OIL HEADER
PIPE L PIPE F PIPE S PIPE CAM SHAFT CRANK SHAFT CROSS HEAD
FUEL INJECTION PUMP CROSS PIPE FIP COVER FUEL OIL BENZO LUBE
OIL SUMP GEAR CASE 28
7. 29. 29 CYLINDER HEAD INLET & EXHAUST VAULVE TURBO SUPER
CHARGER AFTER COOLING CORE OVER SPEED TRIP HOUSING OIL
SLEEVE RING WATER PUMP LUBE OIL PUMP OIL SLEEVE DRAINE PIPE
FUEL CONTROOLING SHAFT CROSS HEAD
8. 30. 30 FIG OF CROSS HEAD(FIG 12) The cylinder head is held on to the cylinder liner by
seven hold down studs or bolts provided on the cylinder block. It is subjected to high shock
stress and combustion temperature at the lower face, which forms a part of combustion
chamber. It is a complicated casting where cooling passages are cored for holding water for
cooling the cylinder head. In addition to this provision is made for providing passage of inlet
air and exhaust gas. Further, space has been provided for holding fuel injection nozzles,
valve guides and valve seat inserts also. (a)COMPONENTS OF CYLINDER HEAD In
cylinder heads valve seat inserts with lock rings are used as replaceable wearing part. The
inserts are made of stellite or weltite. To provide interference fit, inserts are frozen in ice
and cylinder head is heated to bring about F and the insert is pushed into recess in cylindera
temperature differential of 250 whereas the valve ishead. The valve seat inserts are ground
to an angle of 44.5 to ensure line contact. (In the latest engines the inlet valves areground
to 45 ground at 30° and seats are ground at 29.5°). Each cylinder has 2 exhaust and 2 inlet
valves of 2.85" in dia. The valves have stem of alloy steel and valve head of austenitic
stainless steel, butt-welded together into a composite unit. The valve head material being
austenitic steel has high level of stretch resistance and is capable of hardening above
Rockwell- 34 to resist deformation due to continuous pounding action. The valve guides are
interference fit to the cylinder head with an interference of 0.0008" to 0.0018". After
attention to the cylinder heads the same is hydraulically F. The fitment of cylinder heads is
done in ALCO enginestested at 70 psi and 190 with a torque value of 550 Ft.lbs. The
cylinder head is a metal-to-metal joint on to cylinder. ALCO 251+ cylinder heads are the
latest generation cylinder heads, used in updated engines, with the following feature: Fire
deck thickness reduced for better heat transmission. Middle deck modified by increasing
number of ribs (supports) to increase its mechanical strength. The flying buttress fashion
of middle deck improves the
9. 31. flow pattern of water eliminating water stagnation at the corners inside cylinder head.
Water holding capacity increased by increasing number of cores (14 instead of 31 11) Use
of frost core plugs instead of threaded plugs, arrest tendency of leakage. Made lighter by
8 kgs (Al spacer is used to make good the gap between rubber grommet and cylinder
head.) Retaining rings of valve seat inserts eliminated. BENEFITS Better heat
dissipation Failure reduced by reducing crack and eliminating sagging effect of fire
deck area.

10. 24. AIR BRAKE SYSTEM AIR BRAKE(FIG 9) An air brake is a conveyance braking
system actuated by compressed air. Modern trains rely upon a fail preventive air brake
system that is based upon a design patented by George Westinghouse on March 5,1872. In
the air brake's simplest form, called the straight air system, compressed air pushes on a
piston in a cylinder. The piston is connected through mechanical linkage to brake shoes that
can rub on the train wheels, using the resulting friction to slow the train. (a)AIR BRAKE
SYSTEM OPERATION The compressor in the locomotive produces the air supplied to the
system. It is stored in the main reservoir. Regulated pressure of 6 kg/cm2 flows to the feed
pipe through feed valve and 5-kg/cm2 pressure by driver’s brake valve to the brake pipe.
The feed pipe through check valve charges air reservoir via isolating cock and also by brake
pipe through distributor valve. The brake pipe pressure controls the distributor valves of all
the coaches/wagons which in turn control the flow of compressed air from Air reservoir to
break cylinder in application and from brake cylinder to atmosphere in release. 24
11. 25. TRACTION MOTER TRACTION MOTER(FIG 10) Since the diesel-electric
locomotive uses electric transmission, traction motors are provided on the axles to give the
final drive. These motors where the traditionally DC but the development of modern power
and control electronics has led to the introduction of 3-phase AC motors. There are between
four & six motors on most diesel electric locomotives. A modern AC motors with air
blowing can provide up to 1000hp 25
12. 26. GENERATOR This giant engine is hooked up to an equally impressive generator. It is
about 6 feet (1.8m) in diameter and weights about 17,700 pounds (8029kg). at peak power
this generator makes enough electricity to power a neighborhood of about 1,000 houses. So,
where does all the power go? It goes into six, massive electric motors located in the
bogies.The engine rotates the crank shaft at up to 1000rpm and this drivesthe various items
need to power the locomotive. As the transmission is electric the engine is used as the power
source for the electricity generator or alternator. 26 (a)MAIN ALTERNATOR The diesel
engine drives the main alternator which provides the power to move the train. The alternator
generator AC electricity which is used to provide for traction motors mounts of the axles of
the bogies. In older locomotives, the alternator was a DC machine, called a generator. It
produce direct current which was used to provide power for DC traction motor. Many of
these machines are still in regular use. the next development was the replacement of the
generator by the alternator but still using DC traction motor. The AC output is rectified to
give the DC required for the motors. (b)AUXILIARY ALTERNATORS Locomotives used
are equipped with an auxiliary alternators. This provide AC power for lighting, air
conditioning, etc. on the train. The output is transmitted on the train through an auxiliary
power line. The output from the main alternator is AC but it can be used in locomotive with
either DC or AC traction motors. DC motors where the traditional type use for many years
but, AC motors have become standard new locomotives. They are cheaper to build and cost
less to maintain and to convert the AC output from the main alternator to DC, rectifiers are
required. If the motors are DC, the output from the rectifiers is used directly.