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WORLD

STUDENT
ESSENTIAL REFERENCE FOR STUDENTS OF ALL AGES
STUDENT


ATLAS Previously published as Student Atlas

LONDON, NEW YORK, MELBOURNE, MUNICH AND DELHI


www.dk.com
LONDON, NEW YORK, MELBOURNE, MUNICH, AND DELHI
C ONTENTS
FOR THE SIXTH EDITION
Managing Cartographer David Roberts Senior Cartographic Editor Simon Mumford
Jacket Designer Mark Cavanagh Production Controller Rebecca Short Production Editor Joanna Byrne
LEARNING MAP SKILLS
Publisher Jonathan Metcalf Art Director Philip Ormerod Associate Publisher Liz Wheeler
AMAZING EARTH 4
DORLING KINDERSLEY CARTOGRAPHY MAPPING THE WORLD 6
MANAGING EDITOR MANAGING ART EDITOR
Lisa Thomas Philip Lord HOW MAPS ARE MADE 8
PROJECT EDITORS PROJECT DESIGNERS
Debra Clapson, Wim Jenkins, Jill Hamilton (US) Rhonda Fisher, Karen Gregory READING MAPS 10
EDITORIAL CONTRIBUTORS
Thomas Heath, Kevin McRae, Constance Novis,
DESIGNERS
Carol Ann Davis, David Douglas,
USING THE ATLAS 12
Iris Rossoff (US), Siobhan Ryan Nicola Liddiard

MANAGING CARTOGRAPHER
David Roberts
SENIOR CARTOGRAPHIC EDITOR
Roger Bullen THE WORLD ABOUT US
CARTOGRAPHERS
Pamela Alford, James Anderson, Chris Atkinson, Dale Buckton, Tony Chambers, Jan Clark,
THE PHYSICAL WORLD 14
Martin Darlison, Damien Demaj, Paul Eames, Sally Gable, Jeremy Hepworth, Michael Martin,
Ed Merritt, Simon Mumford, John Plumer, Gail Townsley, Julie Turner, THE EARTH’S STRUCTURE 16
Sarah Vaughan, Jane Voss, Peter Winfield Dynamic Earth, Plate Boundaries, Shaping the Landscape, The World’s Oceans
DATABASE MANAGER DIGITAL MAPS CREATED IN DK CARTOPIA BY
Simon Lewis Phil Rowles, Rob Stokes CLIMATE AND LIFE ZONES 18
PLACENAMES DATABASE TEAM EDITORIAL DIRECTION
Winds, Ocean Currents, Life Zones
Natalie Clarkson, Julia Lynch, Andrew Heritage
WORLD POPULATION 20
PICTURE RESEARCH Population Structures, Population Density, Urban Growth, Population Growth
Louise Thomas

EDUCATIONAL CONSULTANTS THE WORLD ECONOMY 22


Dr. David Lambert, Institute of Education, University of London, David R Wright, BA MA Measuring Wealth, Types of Industry, Patterns of Trade,
TEACHER REVIEWERS
Developing Economies, Tourism
US: Ramani DeAlwis; UK: Kevin Ball, Pat Barber, Stewart Marson
BORDERS AND BOUNDARIES 24
First American Edition, 1998.
Reprinted with Revisions, 1999.
Second Edition (revised) 2002, Reprinted 2003, Third Edition (revised) 2004,
Fourth Edition (revised) 2006, Fifth Edition (revised) 2008, Sixth Edition (revised) 2011 THE WORLD ATLAS
Published in the United States by DK Publising Inc.
375 Hudson Street, New York, New York, 10014
THE NATIONS OF THE WORLD 26
A Penguin Company

Copyright © 1998, 1999, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2011 Dorling Kindersley Limited, London. NORTH AMERICA
All rights reserved under the International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, CONTINENTAL NORTH AMERICA 28
recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright holder.
Student Atlas. NORTH AMERICAN GEOGRAPHY 30
p. cm.
Summary: Maps, illustrations and text describe various aspects of
countries of the world including physical features, population,
standards of living, natural resources, industries, environmental
WESTERN CANADA 32
issues and climate.
ISBN: 978-0-7566-6319-3
Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Northwest Territories, Nunavut,
1. Children’s atlases.
G1021 .S78 1998 <G&M>
[1. Atlases.] I. DK Publishing, Inc. Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory
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MAPS EASTERN CANADA 34
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Printed and bound by Star Standard, Singapore
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US: THE NORTHEASTERN STATES 36
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont
The publishers are grateful for permission to reproduce the following photographs:
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Corbis tr. Spine: Corbis: Robert Y. Ono
Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming,

2
US: THE PACIFIC STATES 48 ITALY 102
California, Oregon, Washington Italy, San Marino, Vatican City
ALASKA, HAWAII, US OVERSEAS TERRITORIES 50 CENTRAL EUROPE 104
Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia
MEXICO 52
SOUTHEAST EUROPE 106
CENTRAL AMERICA 54 Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo,
Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia
Nicaragua, Panama
EASTERN EUROPE 108
THE CARIBBEAN 56 Belarus, Moldova, Romania, Ukraine
EUROPEAN RUSSIA 110
SOUTH AMERICA
THE MEDITERRANEAN 112
CONTINENTAL SOUTH AMERICA 58
SOUTH AMERICAN GEOGRAPHY 60 ASIA
NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA 62 CONTINENTAL ASIA 114
Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela
ASIAN GEOGRAPHY 116
SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA 64
Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay RUSSIA AND KAZAKHSTAN 118
TURKEY AND THE CAUCASUS 120
AFRICA Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey

CONTINENTAL AFRICA 66 SOUTHWEST ASIA 122


Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,
AFRICAN GEOGRAPHY 68 Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen
NORTH AFRICA 70 CENTRAL ASIA 124
Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
WEST AFRICA 72 SOUTH ASIA 126
Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka
Côte D’Ivoire,Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome & Principe, Senegal, EAST ASIA 128
Sierra Leone, Togo China, Mongolia, Taiwan

EAST AFRICA 74 SOUTHEAST ASIA 130


Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Brunei, Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar,
Tanzania, Uganda Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam

SOUTHERN AFRICA 76 JAPAN AND KOREA 132


Angola, Botswana, Comoros, Congo, Dem. Rep. Congo, Gabon, Japan, North Korea, South Korea
Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa,
Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe AUSTRALASIA & OCEANIA
AUSTRALASIA & OCEANIA 134
EUROPE
AUSTRALIA 136
CONTINENTAL EUROPE 78
NEW ZEALAND 138
EUROPEAN GEOGRAPHY 80
SOUTHWEST PACIFIC 140
NORTHERN EUROPE 82
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Sweden
POLAR REGIONS
THE LOW COUNTRIES 84
Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands ANTARCTICA, THE ARCTIC 142
THE BRITISH ISLES 86
Ireland, United Kingdom
TIMEZONES 144
IRELAND 88
GEOGRAPHICAL COMPARISIONS 145
SCOTLAND 90
WORLD FACTFILE 146
NORTHERN ENGLAND & WALES 92
GLOSSARY AND INDEX 154
SOUTHERN ENGLAND 94
FRANCE 96
France, Monaco
KEY TO MAP SYMBOLS ON FRONT ENDPAPER

SPAIN AND PORTUGAL 98 FLAGS ON BACK ENDPAPER


Andorra, Portugal, Spain
GERMANY AND THE ALPINE STATES 100
Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein, Slovenia, Switzerland

3
LEARNING MAP SKILLS

WATERY WORLD

AMAZING EARTH The Earth’s oceans and seas


cover more than 142 million
sq miles – that is twice the
surface of Mars and nine times
the surface of the moon.
Earth is unique among the nine planets that circle the
Sun. It is the only one that can support life, because it
has enough oxygen in its atmosphere and plentiful water.
In fact, seen from space, the Earth looks almost entirely
blue. This is because about 70% of its surface is under water,
Beneath the ocean waves lies
submerged beneath four huge oceans: the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian the biggest and most unexplored
and Arctic oceans. Land makes up about 30% of the Earth’s surface. landscape on Earth. Here are coral
reefs, enormous, open plains,
It is divided into seven landmasses of varying shapes and sizes deep canyons, and the longest
mountain range on Earth –
called continents. These are, from largest to smallest: Asia, Africa, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge – which
North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia. stretches almost from pole to pole.

HEIGHTS AND DEPTHS


THE SHAPE OF THE EARTH The Pacific Ocean contains the deepest places on the Earth’s
surface – the ocean trenches. The very deepest is
Photographs taken from space by astronauts Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench which plunges
in the 1960s, and more recently from 36,201 ft into the Earth’s crust. If Mount Everest,
orbiting satellites, have proven the highest point on land at 29,035 ft, was
beyond doubt what humans had dropped into the trench, its peak wouldn’t
even reach the surface of the Pacific.
worked out long ago – that the
Earth is shaped like a ball.
WATER
But it is not perfectly round.
Over 97% of the Earth’s
The force of the Earth’s water is salt water. The
rotation makes the world total amount of salt in
bulge very slightly at the the world’s oceans and
Equator and go a little flat seas would cover all of
Europe to a depth of
at the North and South three miles. Less
Poles. So the Earth is than 3% of the Earth’s
actually a flattened water is fresh.
Of this, 2.24% is
sphere, or a “geoid.” frozen in ice sheets
and about 0.6% is
stored underground
as groundwater.
WET EARTH The remainder is
in lakes and rivers.

COASTS
The total length of the
Earth’s coastlines is more
than 300,000 miles – that
is the equivalent of 12
times around the globe. A
high percentage of the world’s
people live in coastal zones: of
the ten most populated cities
on Earth, seven are situated on
estuaries or the coast.

BIODIVERSITY

DRY EARTH Today, almost 6,800,000,000 humans,


Tropical rain forests grow in
approximately 1.2 million animal species and
areas close to the Equator,
300,000 known plant species depend on the
where it is wet and warm all air, water and land of planet Earth.
year round. Although they
cover just 7% of the Earth’s Deserts are among the most inhospitable places
land, these thick, damp on the planet. Some deserts are scorching hot, VANISHING FORESTS
forests form the richest others are freezing cold, but they have one thing 10,000 years ago, thick forests covered about half of
ecosystems on the planet. in common – they are all dry. Very few plant the Earth’s land surface. Today, 33% of those forests no
More plant and animal and animal species can survive in these harsh longer exist, and more than half of what remains has
species are found here than conditions. The world’s coldest and driest been dramatically altered. During the 20th century, more
anywhere else on Earth. continent, Antarctica (left), is a cold desert. than 50% of the Earth’s rainforests were felled.

4
AMAZING EARTH

DIFFERENT WORLD VIEWS PLANET WATER, PLANET LAND


Because the Earth is round, we can only see half of it at any The Earth can also be divided into land and water
one time. This half is called a hemisphere, which means “half a hemispheres. The land hemisphere shows most of the
sphere.” There are always two hemispheres – the half that you land on the Earth’s surface. The water hemisphere is
see and the other half that you don’t see. Two hemispheres dominated by the vast Pacific Ocean – from this view, the
placed together will always make a complete sphere. Earth appears to be almost entirely covered by water.

Equator 0° .ORTH0OLE LAND HEMISPHERE


NORTH AND SOUTH
! Although this view of the globe is
)# The Equator is an imaginary line drawn
%2 dominated by the continents of Asia,
-

around the middle of the Earth, where its


!

0% %5 Africa and Europe, a large area


(

%52/ circumference is greatest. If we cut along 2/0


24

%
!3)! is taken up by the waters of the
./

the Equator, the Earth separates into two


Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
hemispheres: the Northern and Southern
Hemispheres. Most of the Earth’s land !&
!
!&2)# is the Northern Hemisphere. Europe 2)#
and North America are the only
!
continents that lie entirely in the
northern hemisphere. Australia and
3/5
Antarctica are the only continents that lie ).$)!. ./
!- 4( entirely in the southern hemisphere. /#%!. !
24
(
3)
%2)# !
! -
! %

2
)#
!
Prime Meridian (0°)
North Pole
The Southern Hemisphere 0!#)&)#
contains three of the WATER HEMISPHERE /#%!.
Earth’s four great oceans:
The Pacific Ocean is so enormous it

!5
the Pacific, Indian, and )#
!
stretches across a whole hemisphere,

34
Atlantic Oceans. %2

2!
-

reaching halfway around the globe at


!

/0%

,)
%52
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its widest point. It is bigger than all the

!
24

land put together and contains almost half


./

of all the water on the planet. ! . 4!


2#4)#!
EAST AND WEST
#!
!&2)
The Earth can also be divided along
two other imaginary lines – the 3/5
THE SEASONS
Prime Meridian (0°) and 180° – which !- 4(
%2)#
run opposite each other between the
! As the Earth orbits the Sun, it is also spinning around an imaginary
North and South Poles. This creates line called its axis, which joins the North and South Poles. The
eastern and western hemispheres. The Earth’s axis is not quite at right angles to the Sun, but tilts over at
continents in the eastern hemisphere an angle of 23.5°. As a result, each place gradually moves closer
are traditionally called the Old World, to the Sun and then farther away from it again. Summer in the
while those in the western hemisphere – the
Americas – were named the New World by the
Northern Hemisphere is when the north is closest to the Sun. In
Europeans who explored them in the 15th century. 180° winter, the Northern Hemisphere tilts away from the Sun, receiving
far less heat and light. In the Southern Hemisphere the seasons
are reversed, with summer in December and winter in June.

SUN
JUNE 21st (not to scale) DECEMBER 21st
The Earth’s axis
is tilted at 23.5° !RCTIC#IRCLE—.
—. .ORTH0OLE—. HOURSDAYLIGHT .ORTH0OLE—.
MONTHSDAYLIGHT MONTHSNIGHT
4ROPICOF#ANCER—.
—. !RCTIC#IRCLE—. HOURSDAYLIGHT
HOURSDAYLIGHT —.
%QUATOR—

HOURSDAYLIGHT

4ROPICOF#ANCER—. 4ROPICOF#APRICORN
—3 HOURSDAYLIGHT —3 —.
HOURSDAYLIGHT

%QUATOR— —.
HOURSDAYLIGHT
—3 !NTARCTIC#IRCLE—3
4ROPICOF#APRICORN—3 HOURSDAYLIGHT —3
HOURSDAYLIGHT
3OUTH0OLE—3 3OUTH0OLE—3
!NTARCTIC#IRCLE—3 —3
MONTHSNIGHT MONTHSDAYLIGHT
HOURSDAYLIGHT

Places near the poles have the


Places between the Tropics are hot all On June 21, the strongest and most direct light On December 21, the direct light and heat from coldest climates because the Sun’s
year round. This is because the Sun’s from the Sun is in the Northern Hemisphere. The the Sun strike south of the Equator. This is the rays hit them at an angle. The Sun’s
rays strike the Equator almost vertically, Arctic Circle has 24 hours of daylight, and the longest day in the Southern Hemisphere. The Northern warmth is therefore spread out
heating the land more intensely. Hemisphere has its shortest day and longest night. over a much wider area.
Northern Hemisphere has its longest day.

5
LEARNING MAP SKILLS

MODELS OF THE WORLD

MAPPING THE WORLD Satellite images can show the


whole world as it appears from
space. However, this image
shows only one half of the
The main purpose of a map is to show, or locate, world, and is distorted at
where things are. The only truly accurate map the edges.

of the whole world is a globe – a round model


of the Earth. But a globe is impractical to carry
around, so mapmakers (cartographers) produce flat paper maps
instead. Changing the globe into a flat map is not simple. Imagine
A globe (right) is the only way
cutting a globe in half and trying to flatten the two hemispheres. to illustrate the shape of the Earth
They would be stretched in some places, and squashed in others. In accurately. A globe also shows the
correct positions of the continents
fact, it is impossible to make a map of the round Earth on flat paper and oceans and how large they
without some distortion of area, distance, or direction. are in relation to one another.

LATITUDE LONGITUDE WHERE ON EARTH?


We can find out exactly how far north or The vertical lines on the globe below When lines of latitude and longitude
south, east or west any place is on Earth by run from north to south between the are combined on a globe, or as here,
drawing two sets of imaginary lines around poles. They are called lines of longitude. on a flat map, they form a grid. Using
the world to make a grid. The horizontal The most important passes through this grid, we can locate any place
lines on the globe below are called lines of Greenwich, England, and is numbered 0°. on land, or at sea, by referring to
latitude. They run from east to west. The It is called the Prime Meridian. All other the point where its line of latitude
most important is the Equator, which is given lines of longitude are numbered in intersects with its line of longitude.
the value 0°. All other lines of latitude run degrees either east or west of the Prime Even when a place is not located
parallel to the Equator. and are numbered in Meridian. The line directly opposite the exactly where the lines cross, you
degrees either north or south of the Equator. Prime Meridian is numbered 180°. can still find its approximate position.
.
North Pole – 90°N The value of each line of 180°
latitude increases from
ª
0° to 90° as you move
ª towards the North or
ª
South Poles.
ª
ª %QUATOR
7 %

0RIME-ERIDIAN
ª

ª

ª

ª

ª Equator 0° ª
ª
ª ª
ª ª ª ª
ª ª ª 3
—7 —7 —7 —7
"OSTON
.EW9ORK
South Pole – 90°S Prime Meridian – 0° —. —.
0HILADELPHIA
Lines of latitude are
measured from the Lines of longitude are also 7!3().'4/.$#
center of the Earth. measured from the center of the
An angle is then Earth. This time, the angle is taken —. —.
measured from here in in relation to the Prime Meridian.
relation to the Equator.
!4 , ! . 4 ) #
—. —.
/#%!.

-IAMI
One degree of latitude is —. —.
approximately 70 miles.

—7 —7 —7 —7

The map above is of the eastern US. It is


Lines of longitude
too small to show all the lines of latitude and
divide the world
Lines of latitude divide into segments, like
longitude, so they are given at intervals of 5°.
the world into “slices” of those of an orange – Miami is located at about 26° north of the
equal thickness on either wide near the Equator, Equator and 80° west of the Prime Meridian.
side of the Equator. but narrow at the poles. We write its location 26°N 80°W.

6
MAPPING THE WORLD

1 CYLINDRICAL PROJECTIONS
MAKING A FLAT MAP FROM A GLOBE These projections are “cylindrical”
Cartographers use a technique called projection to show because the surface of the globe
is transferred onto a surrounding
the Earth’s curved surface on a flat map. Many different map cylinder. This cylinder is then
projections have been designed. The distortion of one feature cut from top to bottom and
– either area, distance, or direction – can be minimized, while “rolled out” to give a flat map.
other features become more distorted. Cartographers must These maps are very useful for
choose which of these things it is most important to show correctly showing the whole world.

for each map that they make. Three major families


of projections can be used to solve these questions.

The cylinder touches the globe Scale accurate Greatest distortion


at the Equator. Here, the scale at Equator
on the map will be exactly the
same as it is on the globe.
At the northern and southern
edges of the cylinder, which
are farthest away from the
surface of the globe, the
map is most distorted. The
Mercator projection (above),
created in the 16th century,
To make a globe, the Earth is divided into is a good example of a
segments or ‘gores’ along lines of longitude. cylindrical projection.

Greatest distortion

2 AZIMUTHAL PROJECTIONS 3 CONIC PROJECTIONS


Conic projections are best used for smaller
areas of the world, such as country maps.
The surface of the globe is projected
onto a cone which rests on top of
it. After cutting from the point
to the bottom of the cone, a
.ORTH0OLE flat map in the shape of a
fan is left behind.

Accurate scale at
Azimuthal projections put the central point Greatest
surface of the globe onto a distortion
flat circle. “Azimuthal” means
that the direction or “azimuth”
of any line coming from the
center point of that circle is
correct. Azimuthal maps The conic projection touches the
globe’s surface at one latitude.
are useful for viewing
The circle only touches the globe’s surface at This is where the scale of the
hemispheres, continents, and one central point. The scale is only accurate at map will be most accurate.
the polar regions. Mapping any Greatest
this point and becomes less and less accurate The parts of the cone farthest distortion
area larger than a hemisphere the farther away the circle is from the globe. This from the globe will be the
gives great distortion at the kind of projection is good for maps centering on most distorted and are usually
outer edges of the map. a major city or on one of the poles. omitted from the map itself. Most accurate scale

PROJECTIONS USED IN THIS ATLAS


The projections that 1 World Maps 2 Continents 3 Countries
are appropriate for
showing maps at a
world, continental,
or country scale are
quite different. The
projections for this
atlas have been
carefully chosen.
They are ones that
show areas as familiar
The Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area is used The Lambert Conformal Conic shows countries
shapes that are The Wagner VII projection is used for our for continental maps. The shape distortion with as little distortion as possible. The angles
distorted as little world maps as it shows all the countries at is relatively small and countries retain their from any point on the map are the same as
as possible. their correct sizes relative to one another. correct sizes relative to one another. they would be on the surface of the globe.

7
LEARNING MAP SKILLS

THE MAPPA MUNDI

HOW MAPS ARE MADE Maps have been


made for thousands
of years. The 13th-
century Mappa
New technologies have revolutionized mapmaking. Mundi, meaning
Computers and information from satellites have “known world” shows
the Mediterranean
replaced drawing boards and drafting pens, and Sea and the Don and
the process of creating new maps is now far Nile rivers. Asia is at
the top, with Europe
easier. But mapmaking is still a skilled and often on the left, and Africa
to the right. The
time-consuming process. Information about the oceans are shown as
world must be gathered, sorted, and checked. The cartographer a ring surrounding
the land. The map
must make decisions about the function of the map and what reflects a number of
information to select in order to make it as clear as possible. biblical stories.

HISTORICAL MAP MAKING NEW TECHNIQUES


For centuries, maps were EN Today, cartographers have
- O R-ONTORO
"AIL£N ,INARES
drawn by hand. Very early A #˜RDOBA 5BEDA
#AZORLA access to far more data
maps were no more than IR "UJALANCE
QUIV 0ALMADEL2¤O -ARTOS
*A£N I about the Earth than in the
UADAL
" £T
a pictorial representation RMONA !NDALUSIA past. Satellites collect and
%CIJA !NDALUC¤A
AS "A
of what the surface of the ,UCENA EM T 'UADIX process information about
OS(ERMANAS 3IS 'RANADA
ground looked like. Where /SUNA
!NTEQUERA -ULHAC£N its surface. Further elements
there were hills, pictures !RCHIDONA  FT DA
/LVERA ¸LORA 3 I E R R A . E V A"ERJA may then be added in the
RIQUE
were drawn to represent 2ONDA
#O¤N
-ÕLAGA -OTRIL
!DRA traditional way. Computers
them. Later maps were drawn &UENGIROLA
EL3OL
are now widely used to
-ARBELLA D
using information gathered %STEPONA TA combine these different sorts
OS
#
by survey teams. They would AS ')"2!,4!2 of map information. More
carefully mark out and ALTAR 5+DEPENDENTTERRITORY
#EUTAPARTOF3PAIN recently, the use of Global
calculate the height of the /2/##/ Positioning Systems (GPS)
land, the positions of towns, linked to satellites, and the
This detailed hand-drawn map of the Computers make it easier to change map
southern coast of Spain was made in
and other geographical increased availability of
information and styles quickly. This map of
about 1750. The mountains are illustrated features. As knowledge and the southern coast of Spain, made in 1997 Internet based mapping, has
as small hills and the labels have been techniques improved, maps has been made using digital terrain modeling revolutionised the way that
hand lettered. became more accurate. (see below) and traditional cartography. maps are created and used.

MODERN MAP MAKING


1 The surface of the Earth is divided up into 3 The height of the land can be shown
Measuring the Earth’s surface Adding detail to the land surface using bands of color, or by contour lines,
squares. Satellites take measurements of the
height of the land in each square. The data which are applied to the digitally created
collected can then be manipulated on a surface of the Earth. Color can also
computer to produce a digital terrain be used to show different kinds
model (DTM). of vegetation, such as deserts,
forests, and grasslands.

2 Making a terrain model Using the grid produced from the height data, 4 Adding map detail Features such as roads, rivers, towns, and cities
a detailed 3-D model of the Earth can be can now be added to the map. They are selected,
built in the memory of a powerful computer. and compiled and scanned digitally into the
Software can then recreate the effects of computer. The information can then be
the sun shining onto mountains and into “draped” on top of the terrain model
valleys so that they can be seen to create a map.
much more clearly.

8
HOW MAPS ARE MADE

$515%
SHOWING INFORMATION ON A MAP - ! * ² -AJÏ
$%#!8)!3
A map is a selective diagram of a place. It is the cartographer’s job . / 6! #AMPOS
'UIADE )4!"/2«
to decide what kind of information to show on a map. They can choose %LISIOS
0ACOBAÓBA
)'5!±5
to highlight certain kinds of features – such as roads, rivers, and land "ELFORD2OXO "AIÈDE'UANABARA
height. They can also show #OELHODA2OCHA
other features such as $UQUEDE#AXIAS
3°/*/°/ )LHADO 3°/
$%-%2)4)
sea depth, place names, 3ÍO*OÍODE-ERITI 'OVERNADOR
and borders that would 3ÍO-ATEUS '/.±!,/
be impossible to see
)LHADO&UNDÍO 3ÍO'ONÎALO
either on the ground or .EVES
from a photograph. The
information that can 2 ) / $ % .ITERØI
be shown on a map is 2IODE*ANEIRO
.)4%2»)
,AGOA
influenced by a number * ! . % ) 2 / 0IRATININGA
of factors, most notably ,AGOADE ,AGOA
by its scale. -ARAPENDI ,AGOA )TAIPU DE)TAIPU
DA4IJUCA
!4,!.4)#/#%!.
This is a satellite photograph of
the harbor area of Rio de Janeiro This is a map of the same area as you can
in Brazil. Although you can see the see in the photograph. Much of the detail
bay and where most of the housing has been greatly simplified. Towns are
is, it is impossible to see roads or get named and marked; contours indicate the
any sense of the position of places height of the land; and roads, railways and
relative to one another. borders between districts have been added.

WAYS TO SHOW SCALE


SCALE
When using a map to work out 1
To make a map of an area it needs to be Representative fraction
what areas or distances are in reality,
greatly reduced in size. This is known as we need to refer to the scale of One unit on the map would be equal 1:1,000,000
to 1,000,000 units on the ground.
drawing to scale. The scale of the map that particular map. Map scales can
shows us by how much the area has been be shown in several ways.
reduced. The smaller the scale, the greater 3 Statement of scale
the area of land that can be shown on the 2 Linear scale 3#!,%"!2 It means that 1inch on the map
map. There will be far less detail and the The line is marked off in units which KM  represents 1mile on the ground.

map will not be as accurate. The maps below represent the real distances of the map,
show the different kinds of information that given in both miles and kilometers. MILES   1 inch represents 1 mile
can be shown on maps of varying scales.

LONDON 1:21,000,000 LONDON 1:5,500,000 LONDON 1:900,000 LONDON 1:12,500


'RIMSBY KM  . 4 M 

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This small-scale map shows the position of At a scale of 1 to 5,500,000 you can see This map is at a much larger scale. You This is a street map of central London. The
London in relation to Europe. Very little the major road network in the southeast can see the major roads that lead out streets are named, as are places of interest,
detail can be seen at this scale – only the of the UK. Many towns are named and you from London and the names of many train and subway stations. The scale is
names of countries and the largest towns. can see the difference in size and status. suburbs, places of interest, and airports. large enough to show plenty of detail.

9
LEARNING MAP SKILLS

READING MAPS
HUMAN FEATURES
Maps also reveal a great deal
about the human geography of
an area. In addition to showing
(ANOI
.AY0YI4AW Maps use a unique visual
-ANILA
the location of towns and roads,
! "
"ANGKOK
language to convey a great
(O#HI-INH
different symbols can tell you
+UALA
more about the size of towns and
,UMPUR
deal of detailed information
3INGAPORE
the importance of a road. Borders
*AKARTA
in a relatively simple form. 

between countries or regions can

( 3H
Different features are marked out using only be seen on a map.

EN AN
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special symbols and styles of print. These

UA
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its key or legend. This page explains how "ANMAUK
to look for different features on the map  AW
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information that you can find on it.

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! " # $

10
READING MAPS

3 BORDERS
.GUM
! Borders on the map are marked by a thick
4 SETTLEMENTS

4ONGKING
purple line. The boundary between Laos
)%.4)!.% 6INH
IT / and Vietnam is in sparsely populated
mountainous terrain, with the border (AT9AI
VOIR 3 generally running along a mountain range. +OTA
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+AEN "AN.ADOU 4AIPING
3AWAN 2OI%T $ KEY TO MAP SYMBOLS
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0ENINSULA The symbol for a settlement
# HUORA NGREK 0AKXE Full international border
+UANTAN can tell you its position,
N $ Disputed border population, and political

COMMUNICATION FEATURES
NG +5!,!,5-052 status. Most towns are
% & ' shown by a circle or a
Major road !9! -UAR square. These represent
Minor road -ELAKA +ELUANG the size of their population.
Railway "ATU0AHAT *OHOR"AHRU Where the dot for a town is
International airport colored red, this shows that
3).'!0/2% it is a capital city such as
2YUKYU)SLANDS
. 
DRAINAGE FEATURES 0EKANBARU Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia.
H I N A 3 E A

PARTOF*APAN Major river


Minor river
4!)7!.
7 %
Lake
NAMES FINDING PLACES
Wetland -9!.-!2 Country

3 0!2!#%,
Alphanumeric grid references
,UZON3TRAIT
LANDSCAPE FEATURES )3,!.$3 Dependent
DISPUTEDBY#HINA
territory All the maps in this book are indexed using
Mountain 4AIWAN6IETNAM
0HIL

"A
BUY "ABUYAN)SLAND *!+!24! Capital city
their alphanumeric grid reference – for
AN#HANNEL 
POPULATED PLACES example, G4. To find a place you must first
0! #

3ARAWAK Cultural region


#ORDILLERA

Capital city look up its page number and then its grid
#ENTRAL
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4UGUEGARAO #HIN(ILLS Landscape feature


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IPP

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"AGUIO 100,000–500,000
off the bottom and side of the grid. Using

,UZON 50,000–100,000 2ED2IVER River/lake


U T

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) &

Less than 50,000 *AVA3EA Sea feature


IN

!NGELES  you will find the point where the lines meet.
-!.),!
3 O

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" A L A B )LIGAN #AGAYANDE/RO
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'UNUNG+INABALU ULF 5 ROADS AND RAILROADS

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4ANIMBAR
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ER3UND +
.EW'UINEA Bangkok to the south by railroad
,OMBOK 7ETAR , E S S &LORES EPULAUAN!LO
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4(!),!.
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I and road. At Chiang Mai, the


-ATARAM $),) +EPULAUAN,ET
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11
LEARNING MAP SKILLS

USING THE ATLAS


This Atlas has been designed to develop map- LEARNING MAP SKILLS
reading skills and to introduce readers to a
Maps show the Earth – which is three-dimensional
wide range of different maps. It also provides – in just two dimensions. This section shows how
a wealth of detailed geographic information maps are made; how different kinds of information
about the world today. The Atlas is divided into are shown on maps; how to choose what to
put on a map and the best way to show it. It also
four sections: Learning Map Skills; The World About Us, explains how to read the maps in this Atlas.
covering global geographic patterns; the World Atlas,
dealing with the world’s regions and an Index. Introduction to projections: Choosing the best
different projections and projections: the
how they work. map projections
THE WORLD ABOUT US used in this book.

These pages contain a series of world maps that show important themes, LEARNING MAP SKILLS MAPPING THE WORLD

such as physical features, climate, life zones, population, and the world MAPPING THE WORLD
MODELS OF THE WORLD

Satellite images can show the


whole world as it appears from
MAKING A FLAT MAP FROM A GLOBE
Cartographers use a technique called projection to show
the Earth’s curved surface on a flat map. Many different map
1 CYLINDRICAL PROJECTIONS
These projections are ‘cylindrical’
because the surface of the globe
is transferred onto a surrounding

economy, on a global scale. They give a worldwide picture of concepts


space. However, this image cylinder. This cylinder is then
shows only one half of the projections have been designed. The distortion of one feature cut from top to bottom and
The main purpose of a map is to show, or locate, world, and is distorted at – either area, distance, or direction – can be minimized, while ’rolled out’ to give a flat map.
where things are. The only truly accurate map the edges. other features become more distorted. Cartographers must These maps are very useful for
showing the whole world.
of the whole world is a globe – a round model choose which of these things it is most important to show
correctly for each map that they make. Three major families
of the Earth. But a globe is impractical to carry of projections can be used to solve these questions.

that are explored in more detail later in the book.


around, so map-makers (cartographers) produce flat paper maps
instead. Changing the globe into a flat map is not simple. Imagine The cylinder touches the globe Scale accurate Greatest distortion
A globe (right) is the only way
cutting a globe in half and trying to flatten the two hemispheres. to illustrate the shape of the Earth
at the Equator. Here, the scale
on the map will be exactly the
at Equator

They would be stretched in some places, and squashed in others. In accurately. A globe also shows the same as it is on the globe.
correct positions of the continents At the northern and southern
fact, it is impossible to make a map of the round Earth on flat paper and oceans and how large they edges of the cylinder, which
are furthest away from the
without some distortion of area, distance or direction. are in relation to one another.
surface of the globe, the
map is most distorted. The
Mercator projection (above),
LATITUDE LONGITUDE WHERE ON EARTH? To make a globe, the Earth is divided into
created in the 16th century,
is a good example of a

Text introduces themes and concepts in each spread.


segments or ‘gores’ along lines of longitude. cylindrical projection.
We can find out exactly how far north or The vertical lines on the globe below When lines of latitude and longitude
south, east or west any place is on Earth by run from north to south between the are combined on a globe, or as here, Greatest distortion
drawing two sets of imaginary lines around poles. They are called lines of longitude. on a flat map, they form a grid. Using 2 AZIMUTHAL PROJECTIONS 3 CONIC PROJECTIONS
the world to make a grid. The horizontal The most important passes through this grid, we can locate any place Conic projections are best used for smaller
lines on the globe below are called lines of Greenwich, London and is numbered 0°. on land, or at sea, by referring to areas of the world, such as country maps.
latitude. They run from east to west. The It is called the Prime Meridian. All other the point where its line of latitude The surface of the globe is projected
onto a cone which rests on top of
most important is the Equator, which is given lines of longitude are numbered in intersects with its line of longitude. it. After cutting from the point

THE WORLD ABOUT US THE WORLD ECONOMY Photographs illustrate the value 0°. All other lines of latitude run
parallel to the Equator. and are numbered in
degrees either north or south of the Equator.
degrees either east or west of the Prime
Meridian. The line directly opposite the
Prime Meridian is numbered 180°.
Even when a place is not located
exactly where the lines cross, you
can still find its approximate position.
.
.ORTH0OLE
to the bottom of the cone, a
flat map in the shape of a
fan is left behind.

examples of places or
North Pole – 90°N The value of each line of 180°

THE WORLD ECONOMY MEASURING WEALTH


The wealth of a country can be
measured in several ways: for example,
PATTERNS OF TRADE
Almost all countries trade goods
with one another in order to
obtain products they cannot
CONTAINER SHIPS
ª

ª
ª
ª
ª
latitude increases from
0° to 90° as you move
towards the North or
South poles.
%QUATOR
Azimuthal projections put the
surface of the globe onto a
Accurate scale at
central point Greatest
distortion
7 % flat circle. ‘Azimuthal’ means

topics shown on the

0RIME-ERIDIAN
by the average annual income per produce themselves, and to make
ª

ª that the direction or ‘azimuth’


Throughout the world, the way in which people make a living varies person; by the volume of its trade; and money from goods they have ª of any line coming from the
by the total value of the goods and produced. Some countries – for
greatly. The countries of Western Europe and North America, along example those in the Caribbean
ª centre point of that circle
is correct. Azimuthal maps The conic projection touches the
services that the country produces ª Equator 0° ª

with Japan and Australia, are the most economically developed in the annually – its Gross Domestic Product
– rely mainly on a single export,
ª
ª
ª ª ª ª
ª
3 are useful for viewing globe’s surface at one latitude.

main map.
ª ª
ª
The circle only touches the globe’s surface at This is where the scale of the
usually a foodstuff or mineral, hemispheres, continents and
world, with a long- established and very diverse range of industries. or GDP. The map below shows the and can suffer a loss of income the polar regions. Mapping any
one central point. The scale is only accurate at map will be most accurate.
Greatest
this point and becomes less and less accurate The parts of the cone furthest
They sell their products and services internationally. Less economically average GDP per person for each of when world prices drop. Other "OSTON area larger than a hemisphere the further away the circle is from the globe. from the globe will be the
distortion

developed countries in Central Asia and much of Africa, have a much the world’s countries, expressed in countries, such as Germany and .EW9ORK gives great distortion at the This kind of projection is good for maps most distorted and are usually
Japan, export a vast range of both South Pole – 90°S outer edges of the map. centering on a major city or on one of the poles. omitted from the map itself.
US$. Most of the highest levels of GDP Prime Meridian – 0°
0HILADELPHIA
Most accurate scale
smaller number of industries – some may rely on a single product – and are in Europe and the US; most of the raw materials and manufactured Lines of latitude are
Lines of longitude are also 7!3().'4/.$#
goods throughout the world. measured from the
many goods are produced only for the local market. lowest are in Africa. A number of huge companies,
Many products are transported centre of the Earth. measured from the centre of the
PROJECTIONS USED IN THIS ATLAS
around the world on container An angle is then Earth. This time, the angle is taken
7/2,$%#/./-)%3 known as multinational ships. Containers are of a standard measured from here in in relation to the Prime Meridian.
corporations or MNCs, are size so that they can be efficiently relation to the Equator. The projections which 1 World Maps 2 Continents 3 Countries
!VERAGE'.0PERCAPITAIN53 !RCTIC#IR CLE
CLE !RCTIC#IR responsible for more than 70% transported to their destinations. !4 , ! . 4 ) #
are appropriate for
!BOVE  "!,!.#%/&42!$%-),,)/.353
 n  of world trade, with divisions all Some ships are specially designed showing maps at a
3URPLUS $EFICIT /#%!.
 n  over the world. They include firms to carry perishable goods such as /VER   n  n  n  $ATAUNAVAILABLE world, continental
"ELOW 
$ATAUNAVAILABLE like BP, Coca Cola and Microsoft. fruit and vegetables.  n  n  n  /VER 
-IAMI or country scale are
One degree of latitude is
approximately 113 km.
quite different. The
ASIAN ‘TIGER’ ECONOMIES projections for this
DEVELOPING ECONOMIES
atlas have been
4ROPICOF#ANCER
Although world trade is still dominated carefully chosen. They
4ROPICOF#ANCER
by the more economically developed The map above is of the eastern USA. It is are ones that show
Lines of longitude
IRELAND countries, since the 1970s, less economically too small to show all the lines of latitude and
developed countries have increased their
divide the world
longitude, so they are given at intervals of 5°.
areas as familiar shapes
LUXEMBOURG Lines of latitude divide into segments, like The Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area is used The Lambert Conformal Conic shows countries
SOUTH KOREA share of world trade from less than 10% the world into ‘slices’ of Miami is located at about 26° north of the and ensure that they The Wagner VII projection is used for our for continental maps. The shape distortion with as little distortion as possible. The angles
CYPRUS CHINA those of an orange –
to nearly 30%. Countries such as China, equal thickness on either wide near the Equator, Equator and 80° west of the Prime Meridian. are distorted as little world maps as it shows all the countries at is relatively small and countries retain their from any point on the map are the same as
TAIWAN
%QUATOR %QUATOR INDIA India, Malaysia and South Korea, aided by side of the Equator. but narrow at the poles. We write its location like this: 26°N 80°W. as possible. their correct sizes relative to one another. correct sizes relative to one another. they would be on the surface of the globe.
THAILAND
MALAYSIA
investment from their governments or from
SINGAPORE wealthier countries, have become able to
manufacture and export a wide variety of
BOTSWANA goods. Products include cars, electronic 6 7
MAURITIUS goods, clothing and footwear. Multinational
4ROPICOF#APRICORN 4ROPICOF#APRICORN companies can take advantage of cheaper The economies of Malaysia,
labour costs to manufacture goods in these Taiwan and South Korea, boomed
countries. Moves are being made to limit in the late 1980s, attracting 006 M i th W ld UK i dd 6 7 10/12/07 10 47 27
the exploitation of workers who are paid low investment for buildings such
wages for producing luxury goods. as the Petronas Towers.

TOURISM
!NTARCT
IC #IRCLE !NTARCTI
C# IRCLE Tourism is now the world’s largest industry. More than 700
million people travel both abroad and in their own countries
TERTIARY INDUSTRY as tourists each year. People in more developed countries
have more money and leisure time to travel. Tourism can
bring large amounts of cash into the local economy, but local
SECONDARY INDUSTRY
people do not always benefit. They may have to take low-paid
TYPES OF INDUSTRY jobs and experience great intrusions into their lives. Tourist

Introduction to latitude
development and pollution may damage the environment

World maps show


Industries are usually defined in one of PRIMARY INDUSTRY
three ways. Primary industries such as – sometimes destroying the very attractions that led to the
farming or mining involve the production development of tourism in the first place.
of raw materials such as food or minerals. ECOTOURISM
Secondary industries make or manufacture

and longitude, showing


These tourists are being

geographic patterns
finished products out of raw materials:
introduced to a giant tortoise,
clothing and car manufacture are examples
one of the many unique animals
of secondary industries. People who work
found in the Galapagos Islands.
in tertiary industries provide different kinds
This skilled Thai weaver is producing A number of places with special
of services. Banking, insurance and tourism an intricately patterned silk fabric on a The City of London is one of the animals and ecosystems have

how imaginary lines are Finding places


are all examples of tertiary industries.

on a global scale.
hand loom. Fabric manufacture is an world’s great finance centres. introduced schemes to teach
Some economically advanced nations such Tobacco leaves are picked and laid out for important industry throughout South Branches of many banks and visitors about them. This not
as Germany or USA now have quaternary drying in Cuba, one of the world’s great and Southeast Asia. In India and insurance companies, including only educates more people
industries such as biotechnology which are producers of cigars. Many countries rely Pakistan, vast quantities of cotton are the world famous Lloyds of about the need to safeguard 4/52)34!22)6!,3
knowledge-creation industries, devoted to the on one or two high-value ‘cash crops’ like produced in highly mechanized factories, London, are clustered into the these environments, but brings /VERMILLION nMILLION nMILLION 5NDER 

drawn around the globe to on a map – how


research and development of new products. tobacco to earn foreign currency. but many fabrics are still hand woven. City’s ‘square mile’. in money to help protect them. nMILLION nMILLION  nMILLION $ATAUNAVAILABLE

22 23

create a reference grid. to locate a place.

CONTINENTAL MAPS
A cross section through The industry map
the continent shows
!3)! #/.4).%.4!, !3)!

shows the main


CONTINENTAL GEOGRAPHY PAGES
the relative height #/.4).%.4!, !3)! #2/33 3%#4)/.
4HE'ULF
!RABIAN
0ENINSULA
)RANIAN
0LATEAU
4(2/5'( !3)!
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9ELLOW2IVER

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!SIAISACONTINENTOFMANYCONTRASTSINITSLANDS ITSPEOPLES
ANDITSTRADITIONS4HEBREAKUPOFTHE3OVIET5NION WHICH industrial towns and Humans have colonized and changed all the continents
ONCESTRETCHEDSOUTHFROM2USSIATO)RAN PRODUCEDTHE

except Antarctica. These pages show the factors which


!SIAISTHEWORLDSLARGESTCONTINENT ANDHASTHE
of certain features. GREATESTRANGEOFPHYSICALEXTREMES3OMEOFTHE
NEWCENTRAL!SIANREPUBLICSOF+AZAKHSTAN
+YRGYZSTAN 4AJIKISTAN 4URKMENISTANAND
cities and the main
  KM

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THE$EAD3EAINTHEWESTISTHELOWEST ANDTHEFROZEN
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THEMOUNTAINSSPREADINGNORTHTOTHE0LATEAUOF4IBET
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REPUBLICSANDTHEOCRACIES)NDIAISTHE
WORLDSLARGESTDEMOCRACY WHILE#HINA
ISACOMMUNISTPOWERREGAININGITS
industries in each have affected this process: climate, the availability of
-OREPEOPLELIVEIN!SIATHANONANYOTHER ECONOMICINFLUENCEINTHEWORLD

continent. It also
THE(IMALAYASAREDRAINEDBYTHE)NDUSAND'ANGES
CONTINENTnBILLIONOFTHEMIN#HINA ANDBILLIONIN)NDIA ANDTOTHEEASTOFTHE0LATEAUOF4IBETBYTHE9ELLOW2IVER

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#HINAAND.ORTH+OREAHAVEBEEN
GOVERNEDBYSTRICTCOMMUNIST
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A detailed physical .ORTHERN!SIAISMADEUPOFOLDMOUNTAINS NORTHOF!SIA
ELECTEDTHEFIRSTNON COMMUNIST

patterns of land use. Mineral resources are directly


THELANDIS
ANDANCIENT STABLEPLATEAUS4HE GOVERNMENTFORALMOSTYEARS

of each country
PERMANENTLY
JAGGED(IMALAYANMOUNTAINS FROZEN
DOMINATETHECENTRALPARTOFTHE nTHISIS

map of the continent CONTINENT ALONGWITHTHE0LATEAU


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relative to the rest linked to many industries, and most agriculture is
shows major natural 6OLCANOESANDEARTHQUAKES
ARECOMMON ANDSOME  '2%!4 2)6%23

OFTHEISLANDSARE !SIAISWATERED
of the world.
governed both by the quality of the land and the climate.
BYMANYGREAT
VOLCANICALLY FORMED

geographic features, RIVERS


)NDIAS
'ANGES
HASITSSOURCE
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lakes and rivers.


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NORTH AMERICA NORTH AMERICAN GEOGRAPHY
 ()-!,!9!3
4HEDESERTSANDHIGHMOUNTAINSOF!SIA
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NORTH AMERICAN GEOGRAPHY
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permanently covered by ice or the !5342!,!3)!
MOUNTAIN ISONEOFSEVERAL DENSITIES/VEROFTHE FLOODINGANDASCARCITY 7ARMTEMPERATE AND/#%!.)!
MINERAL RESOURCES sparse vegetation known as tundra.

maps illustrate the main Canada and the US are among the world’s wealthiest countries.
WORLDSPEOPLELIVEIN#HINA OFSUITABLEFARMLANDKEEP -EDITERRANEAN

hottest and coldest, wettest


RANGE AND DESERTSIN Southern Canada and much of central !.4!2#4)#!
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ARESTILLBEING CENTRAL!SIA North America still has large amounts of mineral
UPLIFTED4HEY -OISTAIRIS
They have rich natural resources, good farmland, and thriving, varied resources. Canada has important nickel reserves,
US have a continental climate, with hot !RID
summers and cold winters. The southern 7ETTESTPLACE (UMIDEQUATORIAL
BEGANTOFORMWHEN)NDIA PREVENTEDFROM industries. The range of different industries in Mexico is growing, but Mexico is renowned for its silver, and bauxite parts of the US, Central America, and the (%.$%23/.,!+%"# #ANADA
!NNUALRAINFALLIN
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COLLIDEDWITH!SIA CRUMPLINGTHE REACHINGTHEMBYTHE – used to make aluminum – is found in Jamaica. (OTHUMID

geographic regions and LANDANDFORCINGITUPINTOHIGHPEAKS MOUNTAINCHAINSTOTHESOUTH


other Central American countries and the Caribbean islands rely on
one or two important cash crops and tourism for most of their incomes.
They have a lower standard of living than the US and Canada.
Oil and gas are plentiful, particularly in the Arctic
northwest by the Beaufort Sea, and farther south
by the Gulf of Mexico.
Caribbean have a hot, humid tropical
climate. The Caribbean and the eastern
and central states of the US often
experience hurricane-force
(OTTESTPLACE
$%!4(6!,,%9#! 53!
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Death Valley in
NORTH AMERICA’S HOTTEST PLACE

and driest places are.


winds, waterspouts, "!4!15%3-EXICO California is the hottest

show you where they are.   !NNUALRAINFALLIN


and tornadoes. ER and driest place in
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and the processing of farm produce, to heavy and light manufacturing and cover its floor.
"AUXITE
service industries like banking. A variety of goods are produced, including #OPPER
airplanes, cars, and computers. Oil exports and machine )RON
assembly are Mexico’s main industries. In Central .ICKEL

America and the Caribbean nations, most industry


0HOSPHATES
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of the continent
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found toward the north

important reserves of minerals,


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of the continent; nearly &RUIT

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,ABRADOR 30% of Canada is covered these regions and on the ,ABRADOR 0EANUTS
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foothills of the Rocky Mountains.

shows country
!EROSPACE !LASKA !LASKA 3HELLFISH
processed to make
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including coal and precious


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continent and the impact that humans have made


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consumption and for
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export to the US and AD


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eastern coast of Canada
'UADALAJARA M[hni
were once home to almost

mountain ranges and rivers have created physical The land use map shows
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limitless fish stocks.
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Mexico has many car 3E A Jamaica has been famous Overfishing has reduced the
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part assembly plants. 'UATEMALA#ITY !
for its rum since the number of fish to very low 3EA
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boundaries, and where humans have created 0!.!-! 3/


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30 31
the main kinds of farming
their own political boundaries between states. that take place in each area.

12
USING THE ATLAS

CLIMATE MAPS JULY The hottest


REGIONAL MAPS These maps show the temperature and rainfall areas are
colored
patterns in January and July. Colored bands indicate
The main part of the Atlas contains detailed maps of countries temperatures: blue for low temperatures, orange for high
, orange.
and regions. Each of these is accompanied by a series of small ones. Rainfall is represented by black lines with
thematic maps, models, and charts, which give information about a number giving the average amount of rain. These
the climate, where people live, how they use the land, the are called isohyets.
different kinds of industry, and important environmental issues. .
Isohyets show the rainfall patterns in inches per
year. The areas between the lines are either over .
or under the figures shown on
TERRAIN MODEL the isohyets.
,
A computer-generated landscape model JANUARY
shows what the land really looks like.
There are no roads or towns to .
mask the physical geography of ,
the country or region. Mountain
ranges, plains, and river basins F_mm Here the rainfall is between
can be easily seen. , nb[h,
2 and 4 inches per year.
,

F_mm LOCATOR GLOBE


COLORED THUMB TAGS nb[h
, This shows the location of the
Each section has its own , country or region both within
color code. , , its continent and in relation to
, the rest of the world.
Learning Map Skills EUROPE EASTERN EUROPE
%52/0%
%52/0%

%ASTERN

EASTERN EUROPE POPULATION