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Experience of a Flux Probe User

Relu Ilie
The Israel Electric Corporation Ltd.,
Email reluilie@iec.co.il.

temperatures. Moreover, the flux probe indicates the slots

Abstract - The flux probe periodic on-line testing is a widely


recognized method for rotor shorted turns detection in turbo- containing inter-turn defects and allows an approximation of
generators and it is justified by field winding insulation failures,
the number of short-circuited turns.
mostly experienced in older peak regime machines.
The drawback of the flux probe test is that, for sensitivity
reasons, it should be performed at various unusual or
unpredictable loads that do not fit optimal unit loading. II. SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE BASICS
Consequently, this test is not easily accepted by load dispatcher or
At any steady-state load, the cylindrical-rotor synchronous
operation personnel.
generator is described by the phasors diagram from Fig. 1
The main goal of this paper is to propose a simple
computational method, based on minimum input data, intended (armature winding resistance neglected). Magnetic flux density
to determine in advance the generator loads suitable for flux rotating spatial phasors are shown beside voltage phasors and
probe readings. The paper originally explains the flux probe considered initially sinusoidal in time.
operation starting from synchronous machine principles and The terminal phase voltage V is assumed to be at zero angle
specifies the calculation mode. The accuracy of presented solution for reference. The rotating field flux BF induces in the stator
is then estimated versus field data for different generators.
winding an excitation voltage E proportional to –dBF/dt
The proposed method has been thoroughly verified and proves
promising results. It can be very easily implemented, leading to (phasor E lags BF by 90º). The armature reaction flux BI is in
better test preparation, faster flux probe readings and minimum phase with the load current I. The resultant air-gap flux density
impact on normal unit operating conditions. BR is the vectorial sum of BF and BI. BR induces the total air-
Additionally, the paper presents further useful aspects gap magnetizing voltage EM, proportional to –dBR/dt (phasor
concerning installing and using flux probe equipment. EM lags BR by 90º).
The synchronous reactance X is composed of the armature
T
All the described issues have been experienced and
successfully implemented at Israel Electric Corporation leakage reactance XL and the armature self reactance XS.
(IECo).
The power-factor angle was noted with φ, positive for over-
excited operation and negative in under-excited regime.
I. INTRODUCTION E leads V by the internal electrical load angle δ, intensively
used in stability studies. However, this paper deals meanly
HE shorted turns (turn-to-turn short-circuits) in turbo- with the angular displacement δ' by which E leads EM. By the
generator field windings are generally the result of rotor same spatial angle δ' the field pole longitudinal axis (BF
insulation failures due to various causes [1]. As units age, phasor) leads the resultant air-gap flux axis (BR). The technical
shorted turn problems become more probable. The stresses literature often neglects the difference between δ and δ', but
involved in each start / stop cycle contribute to shorted turns for the present paper purpose this distinction is important.
development, especially for machines activated daily in two- According to Fig. 1 and assuming that base quantities are
shift mode. generator rated phase voltage V and current I, the load angle δ
Shorted turns cause higher field currents and temperatures can be calculated from (1) using per-unit quantities:
than previously experienced. Common effects of field shorted
turns are excessive vibrations due to rotor thermal unbalance, tanδ = XIcosφ / (V + XIsinφ). (1)
which in severe conditions may impose generator reactive load
restrictions. The angular displacement δ' is smaller than δ by a
decrement (δ- δ') due to leakage reactance, resulting from:
Several shorted turn detection methods have been proposed
and tested over the years [2]. The flux probe method main tan(δ-δ') = XLIcosφ / (V + XLIsinφ). (2)
advantage is that it monitors the on-line generator, the rotor
components being stressed at speed and load by real forces and In actual quantities, (1) becomes:

tanδ = XP / (V2 + XQ), (3)


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June 2007, San Antonio, TX
BI
Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 show also the total magnetizing voltage
EM, obtained by graphical derivation of resultant flux BR. This
data will be used in the context of flux probe explanations.
BF BR
E
δ' jX S I
III. FLUX PROBE PRINCIPLES
jX I
δ EM The flux probe is in fact a small search coil located in the
δ' jX L I generator air-gap. The voltage induced in this coil (flux probe
φ V data) depends by the rate-of-change of magnetic flux radial
I
components detailed below.
Primarily, the flux probe is sensitive to the rate-of-change
Fig. 1. Phasors diagram for 133.75MVA, 11.5kV, 2 poles, 50Hz generator,
loaded @ 70MW, 30MVAR. of main air-gap flux BR, similar to the armature winding as
explained before. The voltage induced in the flux probe
X being the synchronous reactance in Ω, P and Q the active (similar to EM induced in the stator winding) is proportional to
respectively reactive three-phase generator load in MW and –dBR/dt. Consequently, the integration of the flux probe data
MVAR, V the generator line voltage in kV. by suitable software permits to obtain the total flux BR curve
The cylindrical-rotor flux BF has actually a trapezoidal form and zero BR angle [3], [4].
due to its winding distribution in slots, the maximum being Secondarily, the flux probe is located close enough to rotor
located in the centerline of rotor pole and the zero value in the surface to be sensitive also to the rate-of-change of its teeth tip
quadrature axis (midline between the two largest coils). leakage flux. Fig. 4 shows two adjacent rotor slots, with
Obviously, this flux rotates with the rotating field. For a two- normal non-magnetic wedges, and their leakage flux paths.
pole 50Hz machine, one complete rotor rotation lasts 20ms The radial fundamental component of this leakage flux
and covers 360 electrical degrees. alternates around the rotor surface, and a voltage proportional
For the particular case of no-load and excitation applied, to its negative derivative is induced in the flux probe. Then,
Fig. 2 shows the BR curve, identical to BF because there is no the flux probe data exhibit voltage peaks in front of rotor slot
armature reaction. The zero BF value coincides with zero BR, centerlines and valleys corresponding to rotor teeth, as shown
i.e. the angular displacement δ' is null. At whatever load as in in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6. The midline between the two largest coils
Fig. 3, the armature reaction flux BI (assumed sinusoidal like peaks (coils #7 in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6) represents the location of
the current) is summed point-by-point to BF in order to obtain rotor quadrature axis, i.e. zero BF angle.
the resultant air-gap flux. BR zero value is now shifted behind Showing both angles were BF and BR are null, the flux probe
the rotor quadrature axis (BF zero value) by an angle equal to permits an estimation of their difference, i.e. the angular
the angular displacement δ'. displacement δ', although this is not its declared purpose.

2.45 2.45

2.1 2.1

1.75 1.75

1.4 1.4

1.05 1.05

0.7 0.7

0.35 0.35

pu 0 pu 0
40 85 130 175 220 265 310 355 400 445 490 40 85 130 175 220 265 310 355 400 445 490
-0.35 -0.35

-0.7 -0.7

-1.05 -1.05

-1.4 -1.4

-1.75
-1.75 Rotating field flux density Armature reaction flux density
Resultant air-gap flux density Total air-gap magnetizing voltage Resultant air-gap flux density Total air-gap magnetizing voltage
-2.1 -2.1

-2.45 -2.45

Degrees Degrees

Fig. 2. Calculated flux density and magnetizing voltage curves for Fig. 3. Calculated flux density and magnetizing voltage curves for
133.75MVA, 11.5kV, 2 poles, 50Hz generator, @ no-load. 133.75MVA, 11.5kV, 2 poles, 50Hz generator, loaded @ 70MW, 30MVAR.

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Radial component of tooth tip leakage flux

Flux probe data induced by leakage flux One solution to this drawback is obvious but difficult to
implement: performing the shorted turn test when the
generator is short-circuited and the field fundamental flux is
essentially cancelled by the armature reaction [5].
A more practical solution results from the above explanation
of generator basics: monitoring of each field winding coil by
slot alignment with zero flux means shifting BF angle
relatively to BR, i.e. changing the angular displacement δ'.
According to (3), this can be performed easily by choosing
different MW and MVAR loads during generator operation.
Larger angles can be obtained increasing the generator active
load or decreasing its reactive load. Highest angle values can
be usually achieved at full MW and under-excited (negative)
reactive loads.
Ignoring slot leakage flux harmonics, Fig. 2 vs. Fig. 5 and
Fig. 4. Rotor tooth tip leakage flux and flux probe data component.
Fig. 3 vs. Fig. 6 show good EM and BR waveform correlation
between calculated curves and actual measured flux probe
The main goal of the flux probe is achieved by the fact that
data. This is a promising conclusion that will be quantitatively
the voltage induced in front of each slot by the rotor leakage
verified below.
flux is proportional to the ampere-turns of the embedded coil.
Consequently, a reduced voltage is observed when shorts
occur in that coil. This principle permits comparing adjacent
slots of the same pole and diametrically opposite slots of IV. FLUX PROBE PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
different poles, leading to shorted turn detection. In order to shift the zero flux line, the manufacturers
The generator air-gap main flux is in fact an undesired noise recommend performing 5 to 12 incremental tests from zero to
for flux probe readings that alters the useful slot leakage flux full MW load, mostly at unity power-factor [6], [7], [8].
data (mainly by teeth saturation) [3]. The shorted turns For peak machines like two-shift operated gas turbines, the
detection sensitivity is highest when the background main flux flux probe data can be easily accumulated during the daily
is negligible, i.e. when the slot centerline of any particular normal starting and loading. Testing large base load generators
tested coil is located at zero BR angle. Fig. 7 shows zooms of is more difficult: some low load data can be obtained at
flux probe data exemplifying this fact: the shorted turns in synchronization, but generally the testing sequence is likely
slots #2, #4 of one pole and #3 of opposite pole are very contradictious to optimized generation and requires lengthy
prominent in the upper reading for zero BR line close to slot coordination between the test performer and the load
#3, but almost invisible when zero BR is aligned with slot #6 dispatcher. In addition, the recommended equal load
(bottom curves). (Fig.7 shows flux probe data conveniently increments do not exactly meet the zero flux requirements and
inverted and aligned to facilitate peak magnitude comparison extreme minimum / maximum loads may be unavailable due to
between poles.) operational reasons.

Fig. 5. Actual measured flux probe data (GeneratorTech, Inc. software) for Fig. 6. Actual measured flux probe data (GeneratorTech, Inc. software) for
133.75MVA, 11.5kV, 2 poles, 50Hz generator, @ no-load. 133.75MVA, 11.5kV, 2 poles, 50Hz generator, @ 70MW, 30MVAR.

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input to the calculation routine. The calculated angular
displacement δ' was thus compared with the measured one in
order to verify the correctness of the used algorithm.
The calculation of the internal angle can be a laborious
process, some aspects of which being described below.
In addition to generator loads dependence as stated above,
(3) shows that angle δ also changes with the generator terminal
voltage. The author preferred to use the actual voltage on main
transformer high voltage side, because the system voltage
profile is easier to predict for the testing schedule. According
to [11], the generator voltage results solving (4) in actual
complex quantities (transformer resistance neglected):

VS = V / kT – jkTXT (P – jQ) / V, (4)

VS being the system line voltage in kV, kT the main


transformer ratio at the actual tap and XT the transformer
reactance in Ω calculated at high voltage side. (The accurate
power values in (4) should be P and Q diminished by unit
auxiliaries loads, but this precision is not considered.)
According to (3), δ also depends on generator synchronous
reactance. The main difficulty of the model is the
representation of steady-state saturation, which decreases the
reactance depending on the generator magnetization curve and
leads to lower internal angle value. An additional complication
is that references usually deal with load angle δ calculation,
whereas the flux probe indicates the angular displacement δ'
(which differs from δ by the amount done by (2)).
Fig. 7. Actual measured flux probe data zoom (GeneratorTech, Inc. software) Various saturation representation methods have been
for 647MVA, 22kV, 2 poles, 50Hz generator, @ two different loads. proposed by numerous papers, the more accurate ones
unfortunately needing extensive computations and not
Solutions to these disadvantages appear in literature in the commonly available generator information. The simplest
form of sophisticated flux measurements systems performing "standard" method described in [12] considers that XS value is
some degree of automated testing and continuous collection of affected by machine saturation while XL remains roughly
data [9], including even an algorithm to detect changes in zero constant, uses one (direct axis) saturation factor and requires
flux points [10]. There are still problems that these systems do the knowledge of the generator magnetization curve and
not solve, like testing at unusual loads e.g. negative MVAR; in leakage reactance. A more accurate method from [12] requires
fact, readings in under-excited regimes are especially to know also the quadrature axis unsaturated reactance and its
important allowing accurate testing of the smallest coils (that own magnetization curve (normally different than d-axis one).
have maximum impact to thermal sensitivity). Further, other methods take into consideration the cross-
This paper goal is to establish a synchronous machine model coupling reactance between d and q axes. The required input
able to anticipate with sufficient accuracy the MW/MVAR data for these calculations are not usually available from
loads required for a given angular displacement (i.e. for test manufacturers and can be determined only by special tests.
sensitivity in a given slot). If feasible, the solution will permit The author intensively tried to use different calculation
selecting for tests those specific loads that are enough close to methods looking for accuracy, computation simplicity and
the optimal regime and easily accepted by operation personnel. input data availability. The various methods described in
literature led to large internal angle discrepancies against
measured values. Moreover, the error values and their sign
V. ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT CALCULATION differ from one machine to the other. The calculation methods
As a first step, the author looked for a model to calculate the applied to certain large generators (especially under leading
angular displacement δ'. An imposed requirement was to use a power-factors) overestimate the angular displacement by as
simple model based only on a few easy to obtain machine much as 10º. In other cases of unsaturated machines, the
rated data (like MVA, terminal voltage, synchronous calculated angle resulted smaller than the measured one.
reactance). The operational values read during flux probe For these reasons, this paper proposes an extremely simple
measurements (active and reactive loads, actual voltage) were but relative accurate model, corrected according to a

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June 2007, San Antonio, TX
preliminary flux probe test. The model is still based on [12] In comparison with conventional generator models, the
but assumes initially that the generator has no leakage proposed solution attains good internal angle errors. For
reactance (XL = 0) and that it is not saturated at all. The angular instance [13] mentions internal angle errors as high as 10º
displacement δ' is firstly calculated according to (1) and (2) using "standard" saturation representation.
based on unsaturated synchronous reactance. Then, δ' is
linearly adjusted by one unique saturation-correction factor k
to match the actual measured angle. k is a number greater than VI. ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT PREDICTION
unity, higher for machines that work more saturated (for As a second step, the author used the above mentioned
analyzed generators k resulted in the range of 1.0 to 1.3). The verified method to anticipate the required MW and MVAR
angular displacement corrected value δ'C will be: values towards future flux probe detection in any rotor slot.
Table I shows cases when the loads have been predicted before
δ'C = δ' / k . (5) the tests and their results.
The angular displacement prediction stages are as following:
The unique generator saturation-correction factor k can be
easily determined by a normal load preliminary flux probe test, A. One Preliminary Flux Probe Test (at any normal high
once per generator type life. load, once per each generator type life; coordination with
Undoubtedly, a further advantage of this method is that the operation or dispatcher personnel is not needed for this
leakage reactance value and magnetization curve / air-gap line preliminary test).
are no longer required for the computation. Test Input: Generator actual MW, MVAR; System actual kV.
The results from Table I indicate that in the majority of Test Output: Saturation-correction factor k, rotor slots
cases this calculation gives acceptable angular displacement centerline angles.
absolute errors versus measured data, inside 4º range. Fig. 8 - Calculate the angular displacement δ' according to (2) and
displays the uncorrected and corrected errors using the factor (3). For this purpose we use a simple spreadsheet (Table I).
k, for different generators. - Establish the saturation-correction factor k according to (5)
The proposed method may have significant intrinsic errors, looking for minimum absolute error between δ'C and measured
a part of them mentioned already due to the simple used model angle. We determine k in the same spreadsheet using the Excel
"Goal Seek" function.
and other due to data and calculus uncertainties (like power
- Read on flux probe data the rotor slots centerline angle
and voltage measurements). Considering these limitations, the
values. In many generators the slots are equally distributed
total angular errors obtained in Table I seem reasonable. In between poles. In other cases, the angle step differs around the
addition, for most generators the error margin of 4º does not rotor. For the analyzed generators having 7 or 8 coils per pole,
exceed half of adjacent rotor slot centerlines distance, i.e. it is the measured angle step is 8º to 10º.
completely adequate for test sensitivity.
B. Computation before Flux Probe Periodical Tests (based
on load dispatcher forecast regarding unit loads and system
WITHOUT CORRECTION
voltage profile; any predicted P and Q shall meet the unit
20 limits: generator capability curve, maximum and minimum
Calculated δ' absolute error

MD1
15
excitation limits settings, ±5% generator terminal voltage
AT2
HG6
limits, etc.)
10
RH2 Test Input: Rotor slots centerline angles, saturation-correction
5
ZA3
factor k; System expected kV at plant location.
RT1 0
RT2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Test Output: Generator predicted MW, MVAR.
-5
- Predict MVAR for small coils (e.g. slots #1 to #4), testing as
Actual measured angular displacement δ'
long as possible at optimized or full MW required by
dispatcher. Normally, it is much faster and cheaper for plant
WITH CORRECTION
and tester to play with reactive than active loads.
20
- Predict MVAR for larger coils (e.g. slots #5 to #7), testing at
Calculated δ' absolute error

MD1 minimum operational MW. Normally these tests should be


AT2 15
performed at a different time than the previous, like during the
HG6
RH2
10
night (low system loads).
ZA3 5 - Predict MW and MVAR for largest coil (e.g. slot #8).
RT1 0 Usually this test can be done only at very low MW
RT2
-5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 (immediately after unit synchronization).
Actual measured angular displacement δ' The above mentioned spreadsheet permits also goal seeking
Q (or P) for any given δ' and P (or Q).
Fig. 8. Uncorrected and corrected errors using the saturation-correction factor Fig. 9 shows another way to present the suitable loads:
k, for different generators. constant δ' lines on generator capability curve.

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June 2007, San Antonio, TX
4.8º (slot 7)
1.0
14.5º (slot 6)
0.9
24.1º (slot 5)
0.8 33.8º (slot 4)
43.4º (slot 3)
0.7
53.0º (slot 2)
0.6
62.7º (slot 1)
0.5

0.4

0.3
Q (pu)

0.2

0.1

0.0 Fig. 10. Block mount type flux probe (GeneratorTech, Inc. hardware) installed
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2
-0.1 in a 133.75MVA, 11.5kV, 2 poles, 50Hz generator.
-0.2

-0.3

-0.4

-0.5

-0.6
P (pu)

Fig.9. Example of constant angular displacement curves per each rotor slot.

To make the flux probe more practical for angular


displacement prediction, it is desirable to improve its
monitoring software in order to display the time axis (ms)
ruled also in electrical degrees (º). Fig.11. Passing flux probe wires through existing RTD / thermo-couplers
penetration gland (Doosan) in a 464.4MVA, 18kV, 2 poles, 50Hz generator

VII. OTHER ASPECTS REFERENCES


Israel Electric (IECo) is gradually equipping its turbo- [1] D. J. Albright and D. R. Albright, GeneratorTech Inc., "Generator Field
Winding Shorted Turns: Observed Conditions and Causes". Available:
generators with permanent flux probes, during major outage http://www.generatortech.com
opportunities when the rotor is withdrawn. Some flux probes [2] G. Klempner, Kinectrics Inc., "Rotor Shorted Turns - Detection and
are furnished as a part of contractor's overhaul works; in other Diagnostics", EPRI International Conference on Electric Generator
Predictive Maintenance and Refurbishment, Orlando, 2003.
cases, IECo installs the probes by itself (Fig. 10). A dedicated
[3] D. R. Albright, D. J. Albright and J. D. Albright, GeneratorTech Inc.,
IECo team performs the periodic flux probe tests in all units "Generator Field Winding Shorted Turn Detection Technology".
using mobile PC-based hardware / software package. Available: http://www.generatortech.com
If the flux probe supplier is different than the generator [4] General Electric Company, "Generator Field Winding Shorted-Turn
Detector", GET-6987, 1988.
OEM, the flux probe ordering involves knowledge of relevant [5] D. R. Albright, General Electric Company, "Interturn Short-Circuit
machine internal dimensions. The restrictive outage schedules Detector for Turbine-Generator Rotor Windings", GER-2668, IEEE
require obtaining these data from the OEM before rotor Summer Power Meeting, Los Angeles, 1970.
[6] GeneratorTech, Inc., "Generator Field Winding Shorted Turn Detector",
withdrawal, but this can be an impossible task. One European Information packet, 2005.
manufacturer still refuses to provide us the pertinent data. [7] GeneratorTech, Inc., "Two-Pole Rotor Winding Shorted Turn Detection
IECo implemented some alternative installation solutions to System. Instruction Manual", 2004.
[8] General Electric Company, "Generator Field Winding Shorted Turn
those recommended by the flux probe manufacturer. For Detector (Flux Probe)", GET-6987B, 2001.
instance, in just re-winded generators the dedicated flux probe [9] J. Kapler, S. Campbell and M. Credland, Iris Power Engineering Inc.,
penetration gland is not used; its wires are passed through "Continuous Automated Flux Monitoring for Turbine Generator Rotor
spare holes in RTD / thermo-couplers gland, as in Fig. 11. Condition Assessment", EPRI Workshop, Charlotte, 2004.
[10] K. K. Rao, G. J. Goodrich, "Online Detection of Shorted Turns in a
To date, IECo performed hundreds of flux probe readings. Generator Field Winding", US Patent US 6911838 B2, 2005.
Several generators exhibit shorted turns problems. [11] IEEE C57.116-1989, "IEEE Guide for Transformers Directly Connected
to Generators".
[12] IEEE Std 1110-2002, "IEEE Guide for Synchronous Generator Modeling
Practices and Applications in Power System Stability Analyses".
VIII. CONCLUSIONS [13] Prabha Kundur, "Power System Stability and Control", McGraw-Hill,
1994, pp. 117-118.
This paper presents some flux probe aspects of theoretical
and practical interest, including a simple method intended to
predict the generator loads suitable for test.
The flux probe measurements can help understanding the
synchronous machine theory and behavior.

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TABLE I
ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT CALCULATION AND PREDICTION

RATED INPUT SATURATION FIELD ACTUAL INPUT OUTPUT FLUX PROBE DATA
GENERATOR MAIN TRANSFORMER CORRECTION SLOT ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT δ'
Rated Rated Unsaturated Rated Rated Rated FACTOR Active Reactive System Load
Reactance Calculated Corrected Measured Error Test time
output voltage reactance power low high power power voltage point
MVA kV pu MVA kV kV pu # MW MVAR kV deg (º) deg (º) deg (º) deg (º) # d/m/y h:m
MD1
464.4 18 2.1 450 18 169.05 0.137 1.15 8 22 38 165.2 4.9 4.3 4.6 -0.3 10 17/05/2006 19:41
464.4 18 2.1 450 18 169.05 0.137 1.15 7 75 100 164.5 13.1 11.4 13.4 -2.0 31 23/05/2006 00:11
464.4 18 2.1 450 18 169.05 0.137 1.15 6 130 107 164.0 21.6 18.8 21.8 -3.1 39 23/05/2006 00:36
464.4 18 2.1 450 18 169.05 0.137 1.15 5 150 33 164.2 31.4 27.3 29.8 -2.5 17 22/05/2006 08:57
464.4 18 2.1 450 18 169.05 0.137 1.15 4 350 120 165.0 45.5 39.6 39.9 -0.3 60 28/06/2006 23:52
464.4 18 2.1 450 18 169.05 0.137 1.15 3 350 40 164.8 54.1 47.1 44.9 2.2 59 28/06/2006 23:51
464.4 18 2.1 450 18 169.05 0.137 1.15 2 350 -30 164.0 63.9 55.6 53.7 1.9 58 28/06/2006 23:49
464.4 18 2.1 450 18 169.05 0.137 1.15 1
AT2

133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 169.05 0.13 1.07 7 10 0 163.0 8.7 8.1 6.7 1.4 5 20/03/2006 16:29
133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 169.05 0.13 1.07 6 20 25 163.5 12.0 11.2 14.7 -3.4 7 20/03/2006 16:31
133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 169.05 0.13 1.07 5 40 30 164.3 21.8 20.4 24.3 -4.0 10 20/03/2006 16:33
133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 169.05 0.13 1.07 4 70 30 164.3 35.0 32.7 34.6 -1.9 15 20/03/2006 16:36
133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 169.05 0.13 1.07 3 110 30 165.0 47.7 44.6 43.8 0.8 21 20/03/2006 16:40
133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 169.05 0.13 1.07 2 110 10 164.7 54.9 51.4 52.2 -0.9 26 20/03/2006 16:52
133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 169.05 0.13 1.07 1 110 -10 164.5 63.7 59.5 55.2 4.4 29 20/03/2006 16:55
AT2

133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 169.05 0.13 1.07 7 6 0 163.5 5.2 4.9 5.9 -1.0 3 23/10/2006 08:56
133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 169.05 0.13 1.07 6 19 0 163.2 16.2 15.1 16.4 -1.3 6 23/10/2006 09:01
133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 169.05 0.13 1.07 5 32 0 162.8 26.2 24.5 26.7 -2.2 11 23/10/2006 09:14
133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 169.05 0.13 1.07 4 100 60 165.5 36.7 34.3 34.7 -0.4 12 23/10/2006 09:53
133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 169.05 0.13 1.07 3 100 27 164.6 46.1 43.0 43.0 0.1 16 23/10/2006 10:04
133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 169.05 0.13 1.07 2 100 4 163.4 55.2 51.6 49.5 2.1 17 23/10/2006 10:07
133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 169.05 0.13 1.07 1 100 -10 162.8 62.0 58.0 54.0 4.0 20 23/10/2006 10:09
HG6

148.5 11.5 1.959 150 11.5 421.23 0.12 1.04 7 12 0 399.6 10.0 9.6 8.4 1.2 8 07/03/2006 14:50
148.5 11.5 1.959 150 11.5 421.23 0.12 1.04 6 20 0 399.6 16.3 15.7 13.8 1.9 10 07/03/2006 14:51
148.5 11.5 1.959 150 11.5 421.23 0.12 1.04 5 60 40 408.4 27.4 26.3 29.4 -3.0 102 10/05/2006 16:01
148.5 11.5 1.959 150 11.5 421.23 0.12 1.04 4 80 40 408.4 34.7 33.3 33.1 0.2 104 10/05/2006 16:04
148.5 11.5 1.959 150 11.5 421.23 0.12 1.04 3 90 20 408.4 44.0 42.3 43.2 -0.9 109 10/05/2006 16:08
148.5 11.5 1.959 150 11.5 421.23 0.12 1.04 2 90 5 408.4 49.7 47.7 47.8 -0.1 112 10/05/2006 16:10
148.5 11.5 1.959 150 11.5 421.23 0.12 1.04 1
HG6

148.5 11.5 1.959 150 11.5 421.23 0.12 1.04 7 7 0 403.4 5.7 5.5 6.5 -0.9 6 08/01/2007 08:35
148.5 11.5 1.959 150 11.5 421.23 0.12 1.04 6 21 0 403.4 16.8 16.2 17.2 -1.0 8 08/01/2007 08:37
148.5 11.5 1.959 150 11.5 421.23 0.12 1.04 5 37 0 403.4 28.0 27.0 29.1 -2.2 12 08/01/2007 08:40
148.5 11.5 1.959 150 11.5 421.23 0.12 1.04 4 100 52 404.4 38.1 36.6 37.8 -1.2 19 08/01/2007 08:49
148.5 11.5 1.959 150 11.5 421.23 0.12 1.04 3 100 20 404.6 47.4 45.6 45.1 0.5 23 08/01/2007 08:51
148.5 11.5 1.959 150 11.5 421.23 0.12 1.04 2 100 -6 404.0 58.0 55.8 52.6 3.1 26 08/01/2007 08:54
148.5 11.5 1.959 150 11.5 421.23 0.12 1.04 1 100 -13 404.0 61.4 59.0 54.7 4.3 28 08/01/2007 08:55
RH2

133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 165.03 0.13 1.06 7 4 15 160.4 2.8 2.6 5.5 -2.9 8 25/09/2006 12:03
133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 165.03 0.13 1.06 6 19 14 160.4 13.0 12.3 14.5 -2.2 10 25/09/2006 12:05
133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 165.03 0.13 1.06 5 35 13 160.5 23.4 22.0 23.5 -1.5 13 25/09/2006 12:07
133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 165.03 0.13 1.06 4 55 13 160.5 34.2 32.3 34.0 -1.7 19 25/09/2006 12:09
133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 165.03 0.13 1.06 3 74 13 160.6 42.5 40.1 43.0 -2.9 23 25/09/2006 12:12
133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 165.03 0.13 1.06 2 95 0 160.2 55.4 52.2 52.9 -0.6 29 25/09/2006 12:18
133.75 11.5 1.905 140 11.5 165.03 0.13 1
ZA3
295 15.75 2.07 350 15.75 425.25 0.166 1.21 8 11 25 408.2 3.9 3.3 3.8 -0.5 4 28/11/2006 14:56
295 15.75 2.07 350 15.75 425.25 0.166 1.21 7 70 128 410.2 14.2 11.7 13.0 -1.3 13 28/11/2006 15:18
295 15.75 2.07 350 15.75 425.25 0.166 1.21 6 70 29 408.2 23.1 19.1 21.7 -2.6 8 28/11/2006 15:05
295 15.75 2.07 350 15.75 425.25 0.166 1.21 5 70 -20 407.4 33.0 27.2 29.5 -2.2 20 28/11/2006 15:29
295 15.75 2.07 350 15.75 425.25 0.166 1.21 4 230 116 405.6 41.6 34.4 34.8 -0.4 43 28/11/2006 18:03
295 15.75 2.07 350 15.75 425.25 0.166 1.21 3 230 60 404.7 49.7 41.0 41.2 -0.2 39 28/11/2006 17:56
295 15.75 2.07 350 15.75 425.25 0.166 1.21 2 230 14 407.4 57.8 47.8 47.1 0.7 34 28/11/2006 17:45
295 15.75 2.07 350 15.75 425.25 0.166 1.21 1 230 -25 403.7 66.9 55.3 51.0 4.3 36 28/11/2006 17:49
RT1
647 22 1.74 651 22 409.5 0.17 1.28 8 30 10 401.9 4.6 3.6 3.8 -0.2 7 26/04/2006 12:51
647 22 1.74 651 22 409.5 0.17 1.28 7 120 100 403.0 14.1 11.0 10.5 0.5 14 26/04/2006 14:05
647 22 1.74 651 22 409.5 0.17 1.28 6 204 70 402.8 24.8 19.3 19.3 0.0 22 26/04/2006 15:41
647 22 1.74 651 22 409.5 0.17 1.28 5 240 0 402.8 33.8 26.4 26.6 -0.2 24 26/04/2006 15:52
647 22 1.74 651 22 409.5 0.17 1.28 4 390 28 404.7 44.8 35.0 34.8 0.2 30 23/05/2006 00:05
647 22 1.74 651 22 409.5 0.17 1.28 3 450 -70 405.6 58.5 45.7 42.2 3.6 38 23/05/2006 00:39
647 22 1.74 651 22 409.5 0.17 1.28 2 500 -70 403.7 61.6 48.1 46.2 1.9 42 23/05/2006 00:52
647 22 1.74 651 22 409.5 0.17 1.28 1
RT2
647 22 1.74 651 22 409.5 0.17 1.28 8
647 22 1.74 651 22 409.5 0.17 1.28 7
647 22 1.74 651 22 409.5 0.17 1.28 6 219 109 411.8 23.5 18.3 18.6 -0.3 20 21/01/2007 01:45
647 22 1.74 651 22 409.5 0.17 1.28 5 240 3 411.6 32.4 25.3 26.6 -1.3 15 21/01/2007 01:29
647 22 1.74 651 22 409.5 0.17 1.28 4 390 36 410.8 43.3 33.9 34.2 -0.4 9 21/01/2007 00:24
647 22 1.74 651 22 409.5 0.17 1.28 3 575 100 407.4 50.2 39.2 37.6 1.6 1 02/01/2007 12:29
647 22 1.74 651 22 409.5 0.17 1.28 2
647 22 1.74 651 22 409.5 0.17 1.28 1

The highlighted values are for predicted MW and MVAR loads.

Iris Rotating Machine Conference 7


June 2007, San Antonio, TX