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Name: Catangay, Marie Antoinette P.

Date Performed: 11/24/17


Esporlas, Juan Miguel Date Submitted: 12/01/17
Group no: 4
Experiment No. 2
Viscosity

TREATMENT OF RESULTS

Table 1. Data Gathered from the Experiment


Substance 40 degrees Celsius 50 degrees Celsius 60 degrees Celsius
Time Time
Density (g/ml) Time (s) Density (g/ml) Density (g/ml)
(s) (s)
Water 0.9827 2.8 0.9769 2.6 0.953 2.15
Methanol 0.7232 2.62 0.7339 2.5 0.7137 2.44
Ethanol 0.7134 3.4 0.7572 3.25 0.7759 3.2
Propanol 0.7748 4.03 0.7747 4.3 0.7788 4.7

Time vs Temperature
5
4.5
4
3.5
3
TIME

2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
35 40 45 50 55 60 65
TEMPERATURE

Figure 1. Graph of Temperature vs Time

* Absolute Viscosity
Absolute Viscosity of water
at 40 0.6531
𝜌1∗𝑡1
Formula 𝜇1 = (𝜌2∗𝑡2)(𝜇2) at 50 0.5471

at 60 0.4658
Table 2. Absolute Viscosities of Methanol, Ethanol, 1-Propanol at 40, 50 and 60℃
# of C
40 degrees Celsius 50 degrees Celsius 60 degrees Celsius atoms
Methanol 0.4497388501 0.395202928 0.3958891932 1
Ethanol 0.5757218581 0.5300748797 0.5644478899 2
Propanol 0.7411316404 0.7175385997 0.8321314273 3

Viscosity vs Temperature
0.9
0.8
0.7
ABSOLUTE VISCOSITY

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
35 40 45 50 55 60 65
TEMPERATURE

Figure 2. Graph of Absolute Viscosity vs Temperature

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
1. What is the effect of trapped bubbles in the viscometer during the run on (a) the
measured time? (b) the relative viscosity? Explain your answer.
Trapped bubbles in the viscometer cause great error if neglected. Based on the group’s
observations, the trapped bubbles make the measured time faster compared to the time measured
without bubbles. These bubbles could also affect the relative viscosity since time is directly
𝜌1∗𝑡1
proportional to viscosity based on Equation 1: 𝜇1 = (𝜌2∗𝑡2)(𝜇2) . If the measured time is faster,
the value of the viscosity tends to be smaller.
2. How would you explain the difference in the viscosities of methanol, ethanol and propanol
relative to that of water? What factors bring about such difference?
The main difference among water and the three other samples is their type of compound.
Water is inorganic compared to the other three substances which are all organic compounds
containing an OH-functional group. The viscosities of the organic compound tend to be closer to
one another because they have the same functional groups thus exhibiting similar properties.
3. Why is it necessary to measure the viscosity of a liquid (or a gas)? Give practical examples
where such physical property is needed.
Measuring the viscosity of a liquid is vital role to our daily lives. Doctors have to know the
viscosity of our blood when performing operations. In addition, people with viscous blood tend to
get their heart’s arteries blocked easily and this is why determination of the blood’s viscosity is
important. Viscosity also plays a big role in pipelines. The water flow running smoothly helps
meet the water demands of people in a town. It gets even more complicated in designing chemical
plants, where a lot of different fluids other than water, with different viscosities, have to be
considered.
4. Why do you think the Brookfield viscotester have many spindles of different sizes? How
does the size of the spindle relate to the viscosity measurement? With the aid of illustrations,
explain your answer.

The Brookfield viscometer contains spindles that differ in sizes. The goal is to choose a
spindle that will obtain a reading of 10% to 100% on the digital display. If it so happens that the
reading exceeds 100% or if it is lower that 10%, then the user must try changing the speed or
change the size of the spindle. The minimum viscosity is obtained by using the largest spindle at
the highest speed and the maximum range by using the smallest spindle at the lowest speed.

REFERENCES
1. Zumdahl, S. & Zumdahl, S. (2010). Chemistry: An Atom’s First Approach 8th ed. USA:
Brooks/Cole. Viscosity. pg. 444.
2. Water Viscosity. Retrieved from
http://www.engineersedge.com/physics/water__density_viscosity_specific_weight_1314
6.htm on October 11, 2015.
3. Rohde, A. (n.d.). Viscosity and Temperature. Retrieved from
http://classroom.synonym.com/changing-temperature-affect-viscosity-surface-tension-
liquid-16797.html on October 11, 2015.
4. Brookfield Ametek FAQ, http://www.brookfieldengineering.com/learning-center/faq.
Retrieved October 17, 2017
5. Why should you measure viscosity? http://www.cscscientific.com/viscosity Retrieved
October 17, 2017