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Process Planning, Scheduling and

Flowsheet Design
Process engineering design is the application of chem- The process engineer also develops tests and interprets
ical, mechanical, petroleum, gas and other engineering data and information from the research pilot plant. He
talents to the process-related development, planning, aids in scaling-up the research type flow cycle to one of
designs and decisions required for economical and effec- commercial feasibility.
tive completion of a process project [7]. Although process The process engineer must understand the interrela-
design engineers are organizationally located in research, tionship between the various research, engineering, pur-
technical service, economic evaluation, as well as other chasing, expediting, construction and operational func-
specific departments, the usual arrangement is to have tions of a project. He must appreciate that each function
them available to the engineering groups concerned with may and often does affect or influence the process design
developing the engineering details of a project. This is in decisions. For example, it is foolish to waste time design-
order to provide process details as well as to evaluate bids ing or calculating in detail, when the basic components of
for the various items of equipment. Process design is usu- the design cannot be economically fabricated, or if capa-
ally a much more specific group responsibility in engi- ble of being fabricated, cannot possibly be delivered by
neering contractor organizations than in a chemical or the construction schedule for the project. Some specific
petrochemical production company, and the degree of phases of a project that require process understanding
distinction varies with the size of the organization. include plant layout, materials of construction for corro-
The average process engineer has the following sion as well as strength, start-up operations, trouble-shoot-
responsibilities: ing, maintenance, performance testing and the like.

1. Prepares studies of process cycles and systems for Organizational Structure

various product production or improvements or
changes in existing production units; prepares mate-
The process design function may be placed in any one
rial and heat balances.
of several workable locations in an organization. These
2. Prepares economic studies associated with process locations will be influenced by the primary function of the
overall company, i.e., chemical production, engineering,
3. Designs a n d / o r specifies items of equipment engineering sales, design and manufacture of packaged or
required to define the process flowsheet or flow sys- specific equipment manufacture, etc. For best efficiency,
tem; specifies corrosion resistant materials of con- regardless of the business nature of the company, the
struction. process design being a specialty type operation, works best
4. Evaluates competitive bids for equipment. when specifically identified and given the necessary free-
5. Evaluates operating data for existing or test equipment. dom of contact within and without the company to main-
6. Guides flowsheet draftsmen in detailed flowsheet tain a high level of practical, yet thorough direction.
preparation. A typical working arrangement is shown in Figure 1-1 [7].
2 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

Chief Process En-gineer or I
Process Engineering Manager _ [
_ _ L. __ 7 - . _ i __ _.i
FGroup Leader l(if Needed) (if Needed) [Group Leader I
--rT/-- -- ~- l
/7~Typlcal; Permanent Assignment
r _ ~ iI i. t i _
is to Group Leader
-- " i [
1 | ........ !
P oo','7 [ P,oo," I
ec. or !./~ Spec. or I ! Spec.~ I I Spec. or Spec.or Spec. or I / Spec-~
, I LeadMan IdMon Le=d Man I

~L "*ProcessEngineers (Typical)
Flowsheet Draftsman
Note 9Process Engineers, C), Assigned as Needed to Project where Ability Allows,
Any Process Engineer may be Assigned as Process Lead Man.

Figure 1-1. A process engineering section supervision chart. By permission, E. E. Ludwig [7].

In a consulting or engineering contractor organiza-

tion, process design a n d / o r process engineering is usual-
ly a separate group responsible for developing the process
with the customer, or presenting the customer with a
turnkey proposed process. \ /
\ /
In an operating or producing chemical or petrochem- \ /
ical company the process engineering and design may be
situated in a research, technical service, or engineering
department. In most cases it is associated with an engi-
neering department if new projects and processes are
being planned for the company. If located elsewhere, the
designs and planning must be closely coordinated with
the engineering activity.
Most current thinking establishes a project team head-
ed by a project engineer or manager to oversee the Planning Team
accomplishment of a given plant development for a
process company. If the projects or jobs are small, then Figure 1-2. Typical organization of 'engineering planning team.' By
the scope of activity is limited and may often be consoli- permission, E. E. Ludwig [7].
dated in a single individual for project and process
responsibility. For projects larger than $500,000, the pro-
ject and process responsibility usually are best kept sepa- tive on all phases of the engineering functions by devel-
rate in order to expedite the specific accomplishment of oping a working atmosphere of understanding for accom-
the process design phase. When the process design engi- plishing the engineering design. This is physically repre-
neer is required to interrupt calculations and specifica- sented by mechanical vessels, piping, structures,
tion development and to follow some electrical, structur- electrical, instrumentation, civil and any other specialized
al or even expediting delivery question or problem, the functions. In many projects, the Lead Process Engineer
design work cannot be completed at best efficiency and and the Project Lead Engineer are the only individuals
often the quality of process design suffers, assuming there who see the details of the overall scope of the project.
is a fixed target date for completion of the various phases
as well as the overall project. Process Design Scope
Figure 1-2 diagrammatically suggests a team arrange-
ment for accomplishing the planning of a process project. The term process design is used here to include what is
The arrows indicate directions of flow of communications sometimes referred to as process engineering. Yet in some
and also the tie-in relationship of the process design func- process engineering operations, all process design func-
tion in the accomplishment of an assignment. The plan- tions may not be carried out in detail. As discussed,
ning team in the box works to place the proper perspec- process design is intended to include:
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 3

1. Process material and heat balances. that the process engineer visualize the flow and pro-
2. Process cycle development, correlation of pilot or cessing of the fluids through the system and inside
research data, and correlation of physical data. the various items of equipment in order to ade-
3. Auxiliary services material and heat balances. quately recognize what will take place during the
4. Flowsheet development and detailed completion. process.
5. Chemical engineering performance design for spe- 6. Prepare/supervise preparation of draft of process
cific items of equipment required for a flowsheet, flowsheets for review by others.
and mechanical interpretation of this to a practical 7. Prepare/supervise preparation of piping or
and reasonable specification. Here the process mechanical flow diagram (or P and ID), with neces-
requirements are converted into hardware details to sary preliminary sizing of all pipe lines, distillation
accomplish the process end results at each step in equipment, pumps, compressors, etc., and repre-
the product production process. sentation of all instrumentation for detailing by
6. Instrumentation as related to process performance, instrument engineers.
presentation and interpretation of requirements to 8. Prepare mechanical and process specifications for
instrument specialists. all equipment, tanks, pumps, compressors, separa-
7. Process interpretation for proper mechanical, struc- tors, drying systems, refrigeration systems. This
tural, civil, electrical, instrument, etc., handling of must include the selection of materials of construc-
the respective individual phases of the project. tion and safety systems and the coordination of
8. Preparation of specifications in proper form a n d / o r specifications with instrumentation and electrical
detail for use by the project team as well as for the requirements.
purchasing function. 9. Determine size and specifications for all safety
9. Evaluation of bids and recommendation of qualified relief valves a n d / o r rupture disks for process safety
vendor. relief (including run-a-way reactions) and relief in
case of external fire.
Most of the functions are fairly self explanatory; there- 10. Prepare valve code specifications for incorporation
fore, emphasis will be placed only on those requiring on item 6 above, or select from existing company
detailed explanation. standards for the fluids and their operating condi-
tions (see Figures 1-25 and 1-26).
Role of the Process Design Engineer 11. Select from company insulation standards (or pre-
pare, if necessary) the insulation codes to be applied
Mthough the working role of the process design engi- to each hot or cold pipe or equipment. Note that
neer may include all of the technical requirements listed insulation must be applied in some cases only to pre-
above, it is very important to recognize what this entails in vent operating personnel from contacting the base
some detail. The process design engineer, in addition to equipment. See Table 1-1 for typical insulation thick-
being capable of participating in evaluation of research ness from which code numbers can be established.
and pilot plant data and the conversion of this data into a 12. Establish field construction hydraulic test pressures
proposed commercial process scheme, must also: for each process equipment. Sometimes the equip-
ment is blanked or blocked off, and no test pres-
1. Prepare heat and material balance studies for a sure is applied in the field, because all pressure
proposed process, both "by hand" and by use of equipment must be tested in the fabricators' or
computer programs. manufacturers' shop per ASME Code.
2. Prepare rough cost economics, including prelimi- 13. Prepare drafts of line schedule and/or summary
nary sizing and important details of equipment, fac- sheets (Figures 1-24 A-D), and equipment summary
tor to an order of magnitude capital cost estimate schedules (Figures 1-27, 1-28, 1-29, 1-30), plus sum-
[34] (see also [19]), prepare a production cost esti- mary schedules for safety relief valves and rupture
mate, and work with economic evaluation repre- disks, compressors and other major equipment.
sentatives to establish a payout and the financial 14. Prepare detailed process and mechanical specifica-
economics of the proposed process. tions for developing proposals for purchase by the
3. Participate in layout planning for the proposed purchasing department.
plant (see [46] [47]).
4. Prepare final detailed heat and material balances. The process design engineer actually interprets the
5. Prepare detailed sizing of all process equipment process into appropriate hardware (equipment) to
and possibly some utility systems. It is important accomplish the process requirements. Therefore, the
4 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

Table 1-1 brittlement (see latest charts [54]). Another important

Typical T h i c k n e s s C h a r t - - I n s u l a t i o n for S e r v ic e s 70~ area is water service (see [49]). The engineer selecting the
t h r o u g h 1200~ Piping, V e s s e l s & E q u i p m e n t 36 n materials of construction should recognize the impor-
D i a m e t e r & Smaller tance of plastics and plastic composites in the design of
industrial equipment and appreciate that plastics often
Pipe Insulation Thickness
serve as better corrosive resistant materials than do metals.
size 1~' 1~ n 2w 2~ ~' 3 ~'
2~"& Smaller 700~ 1000~ 1200~ Flowsheets--Types
3" 700 900 1100 1200~
4" 700 900 1100 1200
The flowsheet is the "road-map" of a process, and
6" 600 800 1000 1200
serves to identify and focus the scope of the process for all
8" -- 800 1000 1200
10" -- 800 1000 1200 interested and associated functions of the project. As a
12" -- 800 1000 1200 project progresses, the various engineering disciplines
14" -- 800 1000 1100 1200~ read their portions of responsibility from the flowsheet,
16" -- 800 900 1100 1200 although they may not understand the process or other
18" -- 800 900 1100 1200 details relative to some of the other phases of engineer-
20" -- 800 900 1100 1200 ing. Here is where the process a n d / o r project engineer
24" -- 800 900 1100 1200 serves to tie together these necessary segments of work.
30" -- 800 900 1100 1200 This often involves explanations sufficiently clear to
36" -- 800 900 lO00 1200 enable these other groups to obtain a good picture of the
Temperatures in chart are maximum operating temperatures in degrees objective and the problems associated with attaining it.
Fahrenheit for given thickness.
Note: All hot insulated piping shall be coded, including piping insulated for The flowsheet also describes the process to manage-
personnel protection. Thickness is a function of insulation composition. ment as well as those concerned with preparing econom-
ic studies for process evaluation.
A good process flowsheet pictorially and graphically
identifies the chemical process steps in p r o p e r sequence.
engineer must be interested in and conversant with the
It is done in such a m a n n e r and with sufficient detail to
layout of the plant; the relationship of e q u i p m e n t for
present to others a proper mechanical interpretation of
maintenance; the safety relationships of e q u i p m e n t in the
the chemical requirements.
plant; the possibilities for fire a n d / o r explosion; the pos-
There are several types of flowsheets:
sibilities for external fire on the e q u i p m e n t areas of the
plant; the existence of hazardous conditions, including
toxic materials and pollution, that could arise; and, in 1. Block Diagram, Figure 1-3
general, the overall picture.
Usually used to set forth a preliminary or basic pro-
The engineer's ability to recognize the interrelation- cessing c o n c e p t without details. The blocks do n o t
ships of the various engineering disciplines with the describe how a given step will be achieved, but r a t h e r
process requirements is essential to thorough design. For what is to be done. These are often used in survey stud-
example, the recognition of metallurgy and certain metal- ies to m a n a g e m e n t , research summaries, process pro-
lurgical testing requirements as they relate to the corro- posals for "packaged" steps, and to "talk-out" a process-
sion in the process environment is absolutely necessary to ing idea. For m a n a g e m e n t presentations the diagrams
obtain a reliable process design and equipment specifica- of Figures 1-4, 1-5A and B and 1-6A and B are pictorial
tion. An example of the importance of this is hydrogen and help illustrate the basic flow cycle.

Ammonia Process

o.:.m,rotur. I 1C~176 II 3500psi ]Reaction, 1 [ Pr~

Cooling, I_AStorage,I
or "-I Condensing~
I Shipment
c'- -~176
Refinery ~
Gas I Pressure I Tank Cars
5000psi Jieporation,j-j [ Spheres J and Barges
99 +% N2 from
Air Separation Plant CompressionI

Figure 1-3. Block flow diagram.

Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 5

Figure 1-4. Pictorial flow diagram establishes key processing steps: Cement manufacture. By permission, E-M Synchronizer, Electric Machin-
ery Mfg. Co.

2. Process Flowsheet or Flow Diagram, Figure 1-7 detailed specifications cannot be completed until this
flowsheet is basically complete.
Used to present the heat and material balance of a
process. This may be in broad block form with specific key 4. Combined Process and Piping Flowsheet or Diagram, Figures
points delineated, or in more detailed form identifying 1-10 and 1-11
essentially every flow, temperature and pressure for each
basic piece of process equipment or processing step. This Used to serve the same purpose as both the process
may and usually does include auxiliary services to the and the piping flow diagram combined. This necessarily
process, such as steam, water, air, fuel gas, refrigeration, results in a drawing with considerably more detail than
circulating oil, etc. This type of sheet is not necessarily dis- either of types 2 and 3 just discussed. However, the advan-
tributed to the same groups as would receive and need tage is in concentrating the complete data and informa-
the piping flowsheet described next, because it may con- tion for a project at one point. It does require close atten-
tain detailed confidential process data. tion in proper reading and often opens data to larger
groups of persons who might misinterpret or misuse it.
Some companies do not allow the use of this sheet in
3. Piping Flowsheet or Mechanical Flow Diagram, Figures 1-8,
their work primarily because of the confidential nature of
1-9, or Piping and Instrumentation Diagram
some of the process data. Where it is used, it presents a
concise s u m m a r y of the complete process and key
Used to present "mechanical-type" details to piping mechanical data for assembly. This type of sheet requires
and mechanical vessel designers, electrical engineers, more time for complete preparation, but like all engi-
instrument engineers, and other engineers not directly in neering developments preliminary issues are made as
need of process details. This sheet contains pipe sizes, all information is available. Often the sheet is not complete
valves (sizes and types), temperature points, and special until the piping and other detailed drawings are finished.
details needed to insure a c o m m o n working basis for all This then is an excellent record of the process as well as a
persons on a project. In some engineering systems, work sheet for training operators of the plant.
6 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants


i!! !! ! ! i ! ! i I !!


Figure 1-5B. Isometric pictorial flow diagram. By permission, J. W.
ADD WATER TO Keating and R. D. Geckler, Aerojet General Corp.
47% SOo~,~[;~. t_...J
These are quite valuable and time saving during the engi-
neering of the project. They also identify the exact flow
,. direction and sequence of fie-in reiationships for the
operating and maintenance personnel.

DENVER DILLON ~ W 4 A T E R SPRAYS " 6. Special Flowsheets or Diagrams

From the basic process-containing flowsheet other

engineering specialties develop their own details. For
example, the instrument engineer often takes the
- 4 0 0 MESH SH DE requirements of the process and prepares a completely
DENVER 4-7% SOLIDS )a,__ ' ' detailed flowsheet which defines every action of the
IAF ~CONES SRL instruments, control valves, switches, alarm horns, signal
lights, etc. This is his detailed working tool.
)ENVER HCONES The electrical engineer likewise takes basic process and
I plant layout requirements and translates them into details
~ 5 % SOLIDS
SOLII~'x~~E ~R for the entire electrical performance of the plant. This
t TOP FEED will include the electrical requirements of the instrumen-
, ~,JJF~R tation in many cases, but if not, they must be coordinated.
WATER O'Donnell [9] has described the engineering aspects
REUSE of these special flowsheets.
SL,Sw,T ~

Figure 1-5A. Pictorial sections flow diagram for principal operations: 7. Special or Supplemental Aids
phosphate recovery. By permission, Deco Trefoil, 1958, Denver
Equipment Co. (a) Plot Plans, Figure 1-14
Plot plans are necessary for the proper development of
a final and finished process, piping or utility flowsheet.
5. Utility Flowsheets or Diagrams, Figures 1-12 and 1-13
After broad or overall layout decisions are made, the
detailed layout of each processing area is not only helpful
Used to summarize and detail the interrelationship of but necessary in determining the first realistic estimate of
utilities such as air, water (various types), steam (various the routing, lengths and sequence of piping. This is
types), heat transfer mediums such as Dowtherm, process important in such specifications as pipe sizing, and pump
vents and purges, safety relief blow-down, etc., to the basic head and compressor discharge pressures. The nature of
process. The amount of detail is often too great to com- the fluidsmwhether hazardous, toxic, etc.,mas well as the
bine on other sheets, so separate sheets are prepared. direction or location or availability for entrance to the
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 7

Arornolics (20 psia) Fuel Gas (20 psio)

Caustic Synthesis Gas (4:55 psia)~(3[IH2:N2)
Vents I Nifrogen
iv Air Plant

Figure 1-6A. Typical flow scheme

for separation and purification of
vent streams.




! I ~ '
Amine Scrubbing Feed Gas Aromatic Auxiliary Drier Nitrogen
Unit Compressor Removal Refrigeration Scrubbing Column







(100 PSIA)

Figure 1-6B. This low pressure cycle is used for production of oxygen in steady state conditions. By permission, Air Products and Chemicals Inc.
8 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

Saturated steam-\
I00 psig. ~ E-I (:-2
12 lb./hr. \ Distillation tower Product condenser
14,275 Btu./hr. ~, , , 2"4"dio.x 3 8 " 0 " and separator
1'--6" dia.x I0'- O"
F.A. vapor . . . .
280 MW --- ....._ .,~ 41OF.
950 lb. of E A. vapor/hr. I / T - i-- -" Cooling water
12 lb. of steam/hr. ~...z.~/ 5 mm.Hgabs. 280,000 Btu./hr.
~v" I 28 gpm.
[ ram. I 18OF.
~;;;- 150_. oHsg. r~Tovacuum eq~-ipment
~ I 121b.ofwater vapor/hr.
I . . . . 9Cooling ~ ...,' Traceof noncondens-
water ables.
13,075 Btu./hr.
/-Fatty acid i
i 2BO MW r-F. A.distillate
I 1710Ib.of vapor/hr. 41 ' '
,, ~
C-I i 58 Ib.of liquid/hr. L-Reflux

| 950 lb./hr.
Reboiler ~, 527 F. (not required 134 gal./hr.
T'301,400 ~ "~ ,, for design zero Btu./hr.
~ Bt../hr. r----1 feed) ; leaF=
[-Crude fatty acid
~'"-~ [
[ /-EA.liquid
16~nm. I
Hg i Product pump
l 0.85 s p . g r . ~ ] ; 0.75 sp.gr. , abs. I -- J-4
~ I,O001b./hr ~ / ' 1,768lb./hr. I 22.5/-E. A. pitch
141gal./hr. g pro./ 0.71sp.gr.
zero Btu./hr. 475 F.
Y 4"m F.
50 lb./hr.
0.14 gpm.
,t ;~,eoo et.../~.

Charge pump Bottoms pump

J-J d-3
2.35 gpm.

Figure 1-7. Heat and material balance establishes material and thermal requirements. By permission, J. R O'Donnell [9].

area, definitely influences decisions regarding the equip- A complete model usually includes piping, valves, lad-
m e n t layout on the ground, in the structures, and in rela- ders, floor grating, etc. This essentially completes the visu-
tion to buildings. Prevailing wind direction and any other alization of the condition of the layout. In fact, many engi-
unusual conditions should also be considered. neering offices use models to varying degrees and often
make direct space-clearance measurements from them.
The use of pictorial isometric or oblique views of plot
Others photograph the models, or sections, for use by the
areas as shown in Figure 1-15 is very helpful for equip-
piping engineers at their desks. In some few instances,
m 6 ~ o c a t i o n evaluation. With talented personnel, this
dimensioned photographs have been issued directly to
type of layout study can replace model studies. These lay-
construction forces in place of drawings.
outs are also useful for m a n a g e m e n t presentations.
The models are even more helpful to the process engi-
(b) Models, Figure 1-16A and 16B neer than simple plot plans. The advantages are multi-
Scale models are a real asset in the effective and effi- plied, as with models the process engineer can study as
cient layout and sometimes process development of a well as solicit the advice of other engineers in visualizing
plant. Although any reasonable scale can be used, the a processing condition.
degree of detail varies considerably with the type of Plant model costs vary depending u p o n the degree of
process, plant site, and overall size of the project. In some detail included. Considerable decision making informa-
instances cardboard, wooden, or plastic blocks cut to a tion can be obtained from a set-up of block layout only,
scale and placed on a cross-section scale board will serve and these costs would be extremely small. For a reason-
the purpose. Other more elaborate units include realistic ably complete scale piping detail model the costs are
scale models of the individual items of equipment. These reported 5 as 0.1 to 0.6 percent of the cost of the plant.
are an additional aid in visualizing clearances, orienta- The large plants over $20 million cost in the lower 0.1 per-
tion, etc. cent range while small plant models cost in the 0.6 to 1.0
! . ~ - 2 2 5 M 14"-Is (PH # 2)

224A 3 0 , , _ i ' s ~ . ~ / ~

_ME:200 22 7 A- 3'LIs
Pre condense r F-F6"- =
_ ~ !-~5-
259A ---" 259A-1-1/2'-' t ~, // ,f -I

~:.p, _jI ,~ ,,
~,, / 225A- 6"-lTr
r ,..._

257A-6"- Is

,,,, H .. /~ z

,,,,,_ 218CA-8"-'IV
y f
212CA-3"- ]ZT ,(
212CA-5"- X/l"

216 CA-I 1/2"Is 2 51A - 3/4".
-. ~.... IXl
Figure 1-8. Mechanical detail flow dia- 14,, To Torque Tube E O"J
gram. By permission, Fluor Corp. Ltd.
I ..._ 211CA-6"-1TF
V-201 "~- . . . .

ZX 5
(PH#2) - - -qI rI - - - -
208CA-50"-'vr ___l t 5/4"P T
30''j~ . . . . ~ ''

~ ( t-I ~ l-~-d / 3/4"

~,206E} \206 } ,, P ~ -4 I /216CA-I I/2 'LIs
",..__.z ~ 314 P T. F_- I- IJ
..- ~ ]- D-,,I------, ---L.. #~ ("bet
206M-4"- ! ~ I205CA-4"Is i i 3", ' I ,.__k A /
5 ~ ~ " . ~,~, ,----=-:T--m_.,_257N-2,-=
~,~ ~ ~%'-I ~1,:4 -E"7-1 (PH-~2_:)

.,,~,, o --_~
o ~
,, :~li~,,,
~ I,~1' zl~
=:~- ~'
10 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

,---'--"=---- ........ :.L..~..'.. ........................................ '., "

............................................................... ..... i ....... ii
i pj ** .. I Iv.,6,~,R z~ - =,':
I "_ ~_ ' , ,,
l, o, l%__f ' "

i 11

" ii!
i! F-"--] I I Ti
i! r -~ ii
. II
vapA'.~ I ) k

OTr JMT'r - ~'i --- r .......... /L~'v'u'v" "~l~ "4P.Iqa

, ' - , . . , ~ " g=v-=-4 I

. . . . . . . . ~ ~ l

--T~L_L_.II : - I
: 9 L..] 14,T~,e'.,
9~ ~'*',, ~ I ELL:,I I I


~'~. .~,,4

Figure 1-9. Typical process and piping flow diagram. By permission, E. E. Ludwig [56].

percent range. Even these costs can be reduced if all Flowsheet Presentation
minute detail is avoided, and only basic decision making
piping is included. The necessary model structure and Experienced flowsheet layout personnel all emphasize
rough block outline equipment for a $1 million hydro- the importance of breaking processes into systems and
carbon compression and processing plant costs around logical parts of systems such as reaction, compression, sep-
$1,000 to $2,000. arating, finishing, refrigeration, storage, etc., for detailed
drafting. This point cannot be overemphasized, since con-
siderably more space is needed for final completion of all
Paton [15] reports total model costs of 0.4 to 1.0 per- details than is usually visualized at first. The initial layout
cent of erected plant costs for a $1 million plant. These of the key equipment should be spread farther than looks
are actual costs and do not reflect profits. Material costs good to the eye. In fact, it probably looks wasteful of draw-
are less than 10 percent of total model costs, and usually ing space.
less than 5 percent. For a $30 million plant model costs Later as process and sometimes service lines, valves,
run as low as 0.1 percent. These are for models which controls and miscellaneous small accessories are added
include plant layout, piping layout, and piping details. If this "extra" space will be needed to maintain an easily
simpler models are used the costs should be less. readable sheet. As this develops, attention should be
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 11

• bir,r

; 'o ~" i!

I 9 i
s J
9 l .: f
." g
s s
i o i

| ! i
l I i +"

/ | I !

, ,, -tf,,jP
i"---+-, t.,',


t. i0 ~

Figure 1-10. Piping detail isometric flow diagram.

given to the relative weights and styles of lines to aid in the offs, tie-ins to existing or known points, etc. Only in this
readability of the sheets. way can all the decisions as well as specifications be delin-
Figure 1-11 suggests an approach to standardization of eated for the various parts contributing to the entire pro-
form for general use. It can be rearranged in several ways ject. The master process or mechanical flowsheet must
to provide a format suitable for any one of several pur- contain specific references to the other sheets for contin-
poses. Of particular importance is the flexibility of adding uation of the details and complete coordination.
or deleting data without changing other details. Some
companies prefer to place the process data on a separate Flowsheet size may vary d e p e n d i n g upon the prefer-
sheet, although the same basic form for the table can be ences of the individuals using them. The most popular
retained as shown in Figure 1-11. The layout principles of system uses one size sheet about 24 x 36 inches for all
Figure 1-8 are also standardized by some companies. flowsheets. The use of miscellaneous large and small sizes
to represent the entire project is often awkward when col-
General Arrangements Guide lected, and increases the possibilities of sheets becoming
misplaced. Some groups use sheets from a roll and these
Each phase of the process is best represented on indi- are sized to length by systems, becoming 24 x 60 inches,
vidual flowsheets. Electric power, fuel gas, drainage and 24 x 72 inches or longer. These are fine for initial study
the many other auxiliary system requirements are also but become tedious to handle on the usual desk. These
best defined by separate individual flowsheets. These sheets can be reduce to 11 x 36 inches or 11 by 48 inches
should be complete including all headers, branch take- (text continued on page 15)
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 13

I I ......

1- , ' -
Ii I
I....."l<',"'a'- =l~,~-~a- !i'-i.........

i q I
. . . . . [
r I
I i

'l 1
. . . . . . . . .]1
-~/~" I /4rz r~'-t.j-~. PP'~.~h
r- 1i
i i
~-~ ..... N --- t~ --- '

'l " ", ', '

c~,=,,.,~,~ ~ o = , , , i z,,~. ,'3 , OPP,'c,, I
i [P~'oo'u~ / ) A,-,
' ~ "1" '
'., . . . . . " , J

Figure 1-12. Standard type layout for service piping diagram.



DZ C.OI D2.4Ot
NIN E)/k~E L05S" 8"/6PM 1 COOLER COOLF. I~
EvAPoR~'nON- 8?0 GPM / j

IVA<E' UP ,O8"1GPlVl { 8~'F4 S,S%O

D6 9OI 03.904

D Z.41"L DE{"

Figure 1-13. Typical utility flow dia-

gram. By permission, Stearns-
Roger Mfg. Co. =

D I 4i5 DZ.414
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 15

Figure 1-15. Pictorial plot plan

layout. Courtesy of Prengle,
Dukler and Crump, Houston,

Since the flowsheet is the primary reference for all

engineers working on a project, it must contain all of the
decisions, data, flow connections, vents, drains etc., which
can reasonably be included without becoming confusing
and difficult to read.
It is important that the various items of equipment and
valves be spaced, pictorially represented and sized as to be
easy to read, recognized and followed. On the surface this
may sound easy, while in reality it takes an experienced
flowsheet detailer to arrange the various items in an eye-
pleasing and efficient arrangement. Suggestive outline fig-
ures plus shading often yields the best looking flowsheet
(Figure 1-10); however, the extra time for detail costs time
and money. Some compromise is often indicated. Refer-
ence to the various flowsheets illustrated here indicates
that the equipment can be arranged by (1) working from
a base line and keeping all heights relative and (2) by plac-
ing the various items in a straight-through flow pattern
without relative heights. The first scheme is usually pre-
ferred for working flowsheets. Whenever possible, all aux-
iliary as well as spare equipment is shown. This facilitates
the full and proper interpretation of all the details.
Figure 1-17 [2] can be used as a guide in establishing
relative sizes of e q u i p m e n t as represented on a flowsheet.
This chart is based on approximate relative proportions
Figure 1-16A. Simple block model plant layout. Courtesy of Socony pictured by the mind's eye [2]. For example, the 10-foot
Mobil Oil Co. Inc. diameter x 33-foot high tank would scale to 1.5 inches
high. By using the height-developed scale factor, the
diameter would be (1.5"/33') (10') = 0.45" or say 0.5"
(text continued from page 11) diameter on the flowsheet.
both of which are more convenient to work with. These For some purposes the addition of equipment specifi-
strip-type sheets allow large portions of the process to be cation and performance data on the flowsheets adjacent
grouped together, and are adaptable for folding into to the item is of value. In many cases though, this addi-
reports, etc. tional information makes the sheets difficult to read. The
16 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

Figure 1-16B. Detailed layout and piping model for a refinery unit. Courtesy of Socony Mobil Oil Co. Inc.

i0- !!i! -~
t ! ! I

i i 14"5oo'., _........
i i,
3 i 1

cl !

. , m

o 1.0


Q2'= 0.1'
t-: i8"--I !
i 28'
I ,

_----~T-f I

G3 , j r

iL..- j FI 30"

U i
i ,

0"~i 03 o~; llO

I III ! !I
3 6 I0 30 6O I00 300 oo0 " ,:ooo
Feel acluol dimension

Figure 1-17. Flowsheet scale reference diagram. By permission, R. H. Berg [2].

Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 17

use of equipment summary tables similar to flow and pipe chemical, petrochemical, and p e t r o l e u m industry is
data tables can avoid this objection and yet keep the infor- accustomed to using. The bare symbolic outlines given in
mation on the sheets. Some flowsheets include relief valve some of the standards do not adequately illustrate the
set pressures adjacent to the valves, volume capacities of detail n e e d e d to make them useful. Accordingly, many
storage tanks, etc. process engineers develop additional detail to include on
flowsheets, such as Figures 1-19 A-E and 1-20 A-B-C which
Computer-Aided Flowsheet Design/Drafting enhance the detail in many of these standards. Various
types of processing suggest unique, yet understandable,
Current technology allows the use of computer pro- symbols, which do n o t f i t the generalized forms.
grams and data bases to construct an accurate and Many symbols are pictorial which is helpful in repre-
detailed flowsheet. This may be a process type diagram or senting process as well as control and mechanical opera-
a piping and m e c h a n i c a l / i n s t r u m e n t diagram, depend- tions. In general, experience indicates that the better the
ing on the input. See Figures 1-9, 1-10, 1-18A and 1-18B. representation including relative locating of connections,
key controls and even utility connections, and service sys-
Flowsheet Symbols tems, the more useful will be the flowsheets for detailed
project engineering and plant design.
To reduce detailed written descriptions on flowsheets,
To aid in readability by plant m a n a g e m e n t as well as
it is usual practice to develop or adopt a set of symbols
engineering and operating personnel, it is important that
and codes which suit the purpose. Flowsheet symbol stan-
a set of symbols be developed as somewhat standard for a
dardization has been developed by various professional
particular plant or company. Of course, these can be
and technical organizations for their particular fields.
improved and modified with time and as needed, but with
Most of these have also been adopted by the American
the basic forms and letters established, the sheets can be
National Standards Institute (ANSI). The following sym-
quite valuable. Many companies consider their flowsheets
bol references are related and useful for many chemical
quite confidential since they contain the majority of key
and mechanical processes:
processing information, even if in summary form.
1. American Institute of Chemical Engineers
(a) Letter Symbols for Chemical Engineering, ANSI
Line Symbols and Designations
The two types of lines on a flowsheet are (1) those rep-
2. American Society of Mechanical Engineers
resenting outlines and details of equipment, instruments,
(a) Graphic Symbols for Plumbing, ANSI or ASA
etc., and (2) those representing pipe carrying process or
utility liquids, solids, or vapors and electrical or instru-
(b) Graphic Symbols for Railroad Maps and Profiles,
m e n t connections. The latter must be distinguished
ANSI or ASA Y32.7
among themselves as suggested by Figure 1-21.
(c) Graphic Symbols for Fluid Power Diagrams,
In order to represent the basic type of solution flowing
ANSI or ASA Y32.10
in a line, designations or codes to assign to the lines can
(d) Graphic Symbols for Process Flow, ANSI or ASA
be developed for each process. Some typical codes are:
(e) Graphic Symbols for Mechanical and Acoustical
R W m River Water
Elements as Used in Schematic Diagrams, ANSI
T W I n Treated Water
or ASA Y32.18
(f) Graphic Symbols for Pipe Fittings, Valves and Pip- SW ~ Sea Water
ing, ANSI or ASA Z32.2.3 B W m Brackish Water
(g) Graphic Symbols for Heating, Ventilating and Air CW ~ Chilled Water
Conditioning, ANSI or ASA Z32.2.4 S ~ Low Pressure Steam
(h) Graphic Symbols for Heat-Power Apparatus, S150 ~ 150 psi Steam
ANSI or ASA Z32.2.6 $400 m 400 psi Steam
3. Instrument Society of America V ~ Vent or Vacuum
(a) Instrumentation Symbols and Identification, ISA- C ~ Condensate (pressure may be indicated)
$5.1, also see Reference 27 D ~ Drain to sewer or pit
EX m Exhaust
Other symbols are established for specialized purposes. M--Methane
The physical e q u i p m e n t symbols established in some of A ~ M r (or PA for Plant Air)
these standards are often not as descriptive as those the F m Freon
18 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

Materials of Construction for Lines

The process designer must also consider the corrosive

nature of the fluids involved when selecting construction
materials for the various process and utility service lines.
Some designers attach these materials designations to the
line designation on the flowsheets, while others identify
them on the Line Summary Table (Figure 1-24D). Some
typical pipe materials designations are:

CS40 - - C a r b o n steel, Sch. 40

CS80 ~ Carbon steel, Sch. 80
SS316/10 ~ Stainless steel
316m Sch. 10
GL/BE ~ Glass bevel ends
N40 ~ Nickel, Sch. 40
T L / C S m Teflon-lined carbon
Figure 1-18A. Computer generated R and I D. flowsheet. Courtesy steel
of Intergraph Corp., Bul. DP016A0. PVC/CS Polyvinyl c h l o r i d e - lined CS
PP ~ Solid polypropylene
(designate weight sch)

Test Pressure for Lines

The process designer also needs to designate the

hydraulic test pressures for each line. This testing is per-
formed after construction is essentially complete and
often is conducted by testing sections of pipe systems,
blanking off parts of the pipe or equipment, if necessary.
Extreme care must be taken to avoid over pressuring any
portion of pipe not suitable for a specific pressure, as well
as e x t e n d i n g test pressure t h r o u g h e q u i p m e n t not
designed for that level. Vacuum systems must always be
designed for "full vacuum," regardless of the actual inter-
nal process absolute vacuum expected. This absolute zero
design basis will prevent the collapse of pipe and equip-
m e n t should internal conditions vary. Some line design
systems include the test pressure in the line code, but this
Figure 1-18B. Computer generated instrumentation detail for R and often becomes too unwieldly for drafting purposes.
I D. flowsheet. Courtesy of Integraph Corp., Bul. DP016A0. The usual complete line designation contains the fol-
lowing: (1) line size (nominal); (2) material code; (3)
sequence number; and (4) materials of construction.
G m Glycol Examples: 2"--CL6--CS40
SA ~ Sulfuric Acid 3"--CL6a--CS40
B - Brine 4"--RW1--CS40
CL m Chlorine 16"---S 150mCS40
P - - P r o c e s s mixture (use for in-process lines not 3"---P~TL/CS
definitely designated by other symbols) See Figures 1-23 and 1-24A through D.
Some engineers rearrange the sequence of the code
although the information remains essentially the same.
The line n u m b e r sequence is conveniently arranged to
Sometimes it is convenient to prefix these symbols by L start with one (1) or 100 for each of the fluid designations
to indicate that the designation is for a line and not a ves- (CL, P, etc.). Since the sequence numbers are for co0rdi-
sel or instrument. (text continued on page 23)
Figure 1 - 19A. Process vessels. Figure 1-19B. Pumps and solids.

Plate Column Packed Column Spray Column Pulse Column

Feed ~ I~!

V F,,tro,e
f'; Vibrating Feeder
Batch Centrifuge
\/ i
.Q C.!
Absorbers, Strippers and Fractionators
, | Rotary Feeder Ribbon Blender or Conveyor

Medium In 3
Coolant or Htg. Medium Out
Horizontal Vessel
(Jacketed & Agitated) Oil-Fired Heater Pump (All Types)
, ,, Sump Pump
,~ Show:
Show: o' o o - - ~ } Voltage
l KW 9 Phase
e---- ~ Voltage 9 o Cycle 5
Y Cycle 3 O o ~ o O
Reciprocating Pump Rotary Compressor
Vessel With Immersion Or Compressor
Vessel with Electrical
Heaters Strip Heaters

Coolant or Htg.
~ Medium
Coolant or ---e
Htg. Medium In Out Proportioning Pump
Coolant or
Htg. Medium
Vertical Vessel Out Horizontal Vessel
(Jacketed & Agitated) (Internal Coils & Agitated)

Coolant or --~ o / o
Htg. Medium In ~LO Coolant or
Vertical Vessel o o-~ Htg. Medium Out
(Internal Coils & Agitated) Weigh Scale
Bucket Elevator

Figure 1-19C. Storage equipment.


Horizontal Vessel
(Pressure Storage)
Cooler-Condenser Heater Heat Interchanger Receiver.Surge Tank

, ,,,! ...... ]

- - - - ~__.~
Gas Holder
YY Atmospheric
'e-e '
Tank Car

(Wet or Dry) Bag Collector Storage Tank

Hopper Bin
Spherical Storage Tank
, , , . ,, , ,=, ,, , ,, ,, ,

Handling Figure 1-19D. Flow and instruments. i 1

i i

Feed ~1 Main ProcessFlow ~ Solids in Chutes

~ UtilityFlow Gases in Ducts ,,, !

Flow Rote I
, , , J , ,, 9

Filtrate Solids
Continuous Centrifuge Material Balance
Feed ,

Stream Feed Overhead Bottoms C, 10 !

C~ 40 35 5 C, 20
C= 20 15 5 C, 30
' C= 20 10 10 Total 60 Pressure
Screw Feeder C 4 ' 20 2 18 .....
Total Lb' 100 62 38
Total Gal. 20 12 8 I 500 OF. ]

Overall Material Balance Flow Balance I

(At Bottom of Flow Sheet) Temperature
Blower or Fan
Or Centrifugal Compressor
Flame "~ Vacuum Breaker
"--~~AII Manual Valves Arrestor

- ~ Steam Trap Thermowell

_ ~ AllControlValves i

~~ Orifice Flowmeter ._~_ Thermocouple ( ~ Temperature Element

For Instrument
O ()

Belt Conveyor
Rotameter :Pressure Temperature
Flight Conveyor I Controller Controller
I , ,

,l , , i i

Level Controller Controller
Size Reduction Equipment

Figure 1-1gE. Filters, evaporators and driers.

t L-J

- illli
Htg. Medium f - -F- - - '~L_
~--- In Coolant In--~-oO OO Htg. i ~Medium
m Out Coolant Out Medium_ I ~ Out
- Htg. Medium Y i!
( )r ,noo, Single Effect Evaporator Crystallizer Downflow Spray Drier

~------Htg. Medium Wash Wash

Tower with Integral Reboiler '~

Feed- ~ JJJI JJJJ ~ ~'tarshte

~ Htg. Medium
Out Cake ake
> . Medium Out Rotary Drier
Plate and Frame Filter Filtrate
. . . . . ContinuousRotary Filter
Medium In q

Drum Drier or Flaker

Plate Filter
Rotary Kiln . Medium Out
By permission, D.J. Oriolo, O//and Gas Journa/, 56, Nov. 17, 1958, pp. 152-3.
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 21


! I I
Horizontal, Motor-Driven Steam -Driven Vertical, Motor - Driven Vertical, Motor-Driven Rotary Bloler Motor-Driven

9~ Turbine Driven ~ Steam Driven

! ~ Centrifugal Compressor Motor Driven Sump Pump Reciprocating Pump

. • Engine Driven Pump

(G = Gas or D = Diesel) ._• Vertical Centrifugal
Pump with Motor
[ ~ Motor Driven
Reciprocating Pump

Rotary Pump
Turbine Driven
Centrifugal Pump ,•• Motor Driven
Centrifugal Pump

Figure 1-20A. Special types of descriptive flowsheet symbols.

tli Orifice Plate

----I~1 Diaphragm Operated Butterfly Valve /~"~ 0 \ Pilot Light

Orifice Plate in Quick Change Fitting

Diaphragm Operated Angle Valve Data to Computer

Venturi Tube or Flow Nozzle" (~ Computer Set

Self-Contained Regulating Valve

Pitot Tube or Pitot Venturi Tube

Double Diaphragm Control Valve Relay Function Designations
Turbine or Propeller Type Element
Hydraulic or Pneumatic Piston = Add
Operated Control Valve
9~ ~ Rotameter ~ = Subtract
Rotary Motor Operated Control Valve + = Bias
Rotameter with Integral u

Throttle Valve = Extract Square Root

Solenoid Operated Gate Valve
Chemical Seal = Divide

[~ Rupture Disc for Pressure Relief Three-Way Solenoid Valve -~ = Multiply

~;] Rupture Disc for Vacuum Relief

Latch Type With Manual Reset
I'1 = Booster
I','1 Multiple Orifice Plate ~-~ = High Select
,~ Pressure or Safety Valve
~ = Low select

~ Vacuum Relief Valve Locally Mounted Instr. R EV Rev = Reverse

E/P E/P = Potential to Pneumatic

Pressure and vacuum relief Valve
(Conservation Vent) G --------- Main Panel Mounted Instr.
]~/p I/P = Current to Pneumatic
O Local Panel Mounted Instr.
Float Operated Valve (LCV) E/]~ E/I = Potential to Current
Figure 1-20B. Commonly used
(~ Instr. Mounted Behind Panel
Hand Control Valve instruments for process instrumenta-
tion flowsheets. Adapted by permis-
__ _FoCr Diaphragm Operated Control Valve
FC = Fail Closed, FO = Fail Open
Instr. with Two Functions sion, ISA Std. ANSI Y32.20---1975,
ISA $5.1---1973, "Instrumentation
Diaphragm Operated Control Valve , Heat Traced Instr. Symbols and Identification," Latest
with Handwheel S = Steam, E = Electric edition, 1984.
22 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

•!• Gate Valve

f A
LTj Filter-AirIntake
"1~ ~1-" RemovablePipe
[~ Globe Valve Steam Traced
Angle Valve Fire Hydrant ~ Air Cleaner lr----- --"1- Line
-~ (Compressor
Plug Cock
S.C. ~P.T.,, Suction) Steam Jacketed
-~~ Plug Valve
Sample Connection PressureTap Steam
~ CheckValve ( ~ Separator Duct

Stop Check C.S.O. = Car Sealed Open [~ Swage

C.S.C. = Car Sealed Closed ~ ~)
L.O. = Locked Open Bootleg
Blowdown Valve L.C. = Locked Closed Dresser
O Ball Valve y Equipment
Filter 7 Seal Legs Drain Funnel
11"~ ~ ButterflyValve
Strainer L.l_j Area Drain
1 (B=Basket, ---- ~ / Fitting
9 ManuallyOperated yB C = Cone, ~ GageHatch
P'~ Control Valve P = Plate)
Drain Conn. to
-•• Diaphragm Valve ~ "T" Type Strainer
Manhole ////~/// Closed System

~ Needle Valve ~ I "Y" Type Strainer Flame Arrester

v~ (Tag on Flow Sheet) ~f Steam
N.V. ~ ExhaustHead
~ Three-WayP l u g ~ ~ Diffuser ~ [ ~
Valve Twin Basket Sample
Filler Mixer Cooler

. ~ ~ Four-WayPlug ] Screwed
Valve ~ Trap-Steam ........ Cap ](p~ Slip Blind
1 1
Valve D Weld Cap
Trap-Vacuum I~! Spectacle
Booster (Lift) Blind
l~T, Slide Valve ~- II Blind Flange

,•• Angle Valve P9~ Spray Nozzle |'1"~ Bull Plug "-'~1 Hamer Blind
Stop Check Angle
Valve Suction Tee }~ b Pipe Plug ~ ExpansiOnjoint

I ~ Boiler Blowdown ~ Ejector, Eductor, C Hose Connection X~ Open

to Drain
Valve (Tandem) injector.
& Exhauster
i-..ii ,, ~,
Damper ~ ~ Flexible Hose
with Connection I~t ~ Strainer

Figure 1-20C. Flow diagram symbols: valves, fittings and miscellaneouspiping. (Compiledfrom several sources, and in particular, Fluor
Corp, Ltd.)
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 23

'- - . . . . Key or Principal Process Lines

Line Schedule
- Utility, S e r v i c e , A u x i l i a r y Process Lines Line Size, Line Insulation Test Special
No. In. From To Class or Code Code Pressure, psig Remarks
9 Existing Lines in a System

Flow Arrow, Indicates Flow Direction

Pneumatic Signal

Electric Signal
Figure 1-24A. Line Schedule.
Capillary Tubing (Filled System)

Hydraulic Signal
9 9 -
Figure 1-21. Line Sym-
Radioactive, Sonic or Light Signal bols. By permission, This contributes materially to the readability of the flow-
Connection to Process, Mechanical
ISA Std. $5.1--1973 sheets. Each line on the flowsheet must represent an actu-
L i n k or Instrument Air S u p p l y and 1984. al section or run of piping in the final plant and on the
piping drawings.
6"-P-21 2"-LCW-3o Suggested guides for line identification for any one
principal fluid composition:

u 1. Main headers should keep one sequence n u m b e r

(Figure 1-23).
2. New sequence numbers should be assigned:
(a) Upon entering and leaving an item of equipment
Figure 1-22. Use of alpha-
(b) To take-off or branch lines from main headers
betical suffixes with line
symbols. (c) To structural material composition of line changes
3. Alphabetical suffixes should be used in the following
situations as long as clarity of requirements is clear,
2"-FW-5 otherwise add new sequence numbers.
(a) For secondary branches from headers or header-
3"FW-4 branches
(b) For by-pass lines around equipment, control
(A) Line Numbering Around By-Pass valves, etc. Keep same sequence n u m b e r as the
inlet or upstream line (Figure 1-23).
2"-TW-5 4"--TW-5 6"--TW-5 (c) For identical multiple systems, piping corre-
co 2"TW'7 I I":"
sponding identical service items, and lines.

, ~ I'TW'80,~L~.~I'TW'8B
In order to coordinate the process flowsheet require-
ments with the mechanical piping specifications, Line
Schedules are prepared as shown in Figure 1-24A through
(B) Line Numbering of Header with Take- Offs
D. The complete pipe system specifications are summa-
Figure 1-23. Examples of line numbering. rized by codes on these schedules; refer to paragraph on
Working Schedules.
Equipment code designations can be developed to suit
(text continued from page 18) the particular process, or as is customary a master coding
nation purposes and will appear on piping drawings, Line can be established and followed for all projects. A sug-
Schedule (Figure 1-24A through D), the n u m b e r has no gested designation list (not all inclusive for all processes)
significance in itself. It is convenient to start numbering for the usual process plant equipment is given in Table 1-
with the first process flow sheet and carry on sequentially 2 and process functions in Table 1-3.
to each succeeding sheet. Sometimes, however, this is not The various items are usually numbered by type and in
possible when several detailers are preparing different process flow order as set forth on the flowsheets. For
sheets, so each sheet can be given arbitrary beginning example:
numbers such as 100, 300, 1000, etc. Mthough the
sequential n u m b e r may be changed as the line connects Item Code Represents
from equipment to equipment, it is often convenient to Cmla Three compressors of identical size operat-
use the system concept and apply alphabetical suffixes to Cmlb ing in the same process service, connected
the sequence n u m b e r as shown in Figures 1-22 and 1-23. Cmlc in parallel.
24 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants






Figure 1-24B. Pipe line List. By permission: Fluor Corp, Ltd.

Line Schedule Sheet

Line Flow Quantity Quantity Temp.i Press, Densit~ Density, Sp. Gr. Sp. Gr. Expon- ]Press. Est. Line Line Line
or Scfh.
Number Medium Flow, !Lb./Hr. *F.
Gpm.Flow, psi. " Lb,/FLo Lb./Gal. At 60 F. Temp,
~ At Flow Coeff.
sion Formula
Chemical Wt.
Mol. Sizel
Line Dr~ L i n e Press.
IOO Ft. Length Drop Origin Termination
I i I
, 9


' _.f
~,~ ~ ~ ! ~ ~ ' 9 ~ ~ 9

Figure 1-24C. Line schedule sheet (alternate). By permission, J. R O'Donnell, Chemical Engineer, S e p t e m b e r 1957.

Line Summary Table

Title" Job No. i
Sheet No.
Line 0pe~ Oper. Test Quanity Press. Drop
Na Material From Temp. Vel. Remarks No.
Size OF Press. Press. ,It/HR. G "P'M'6OO(Hot)
' * G.P.M.' C.F.$.
(Hot) F.P.S. Per I00' Totai

Figure 1-24D. Line s u m m a r y table.

Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 25

Cm2 Single c o m p r e s s o r in different service (by i n c i n e r a t i o n , vent, a n d c o o l i n g tower waters a n d n u m b e r

fluid or compression ratio) f r o m ~ l ' s above. all like process items within t h a t system, for e x a m p l e :
Sin1 First s e p a r a t o r in a process R e a c t o r System, R: R e a c t o r is RD-1
Sin2 S e c o n d s e p a r a t o r in a p r o c e s s R e a c t o r v e n t c o o l e r is RE-1
S--3a Two identical s e p a r a t o r s c o n n e c t e d in R e a c t o r v e n t c o n d e n s e r is RE-2
S~3b parallel, in same process service. R e a c t o r recycle p u m p is RP-1
Level c o n t r o l valve is RLC-1
Relief valve is RSV-1
S o m e e q u i p m e n t c o d e systems n u m b e r all items o n T h e n , establish the same c o n c e p t for all o t h e r u n i t or
first process flowsheet with 100 series, as C-101, C-102, P- block processing systems. This is often helpful for large
106 to r e p r e s e n t c o m p r e s s o r s n u m b e r 101 a n d 102 in dif- projects, such as r e f i n e r y or grass roots c h e m i c a l processes.
f e r e n t services a n d p u m p 106 as the sixth p u m p o n the Valve identification codes are usually u s e d in prefer-
sheet. T h e s e c o n d s h e e t uses the 200 series, etc. This has e n c e to placing e a c h valve specification o n the flowsheet.
s o m e e n g i n e e r i n g c o n v e n i e n c e b u t is n o t always clear This latter m e t h o d is feasible for small systems, a n d is m o s t
f r o m the process view. workable w h e n a given m a n u f a c t u r e r ( n o t necessarily the
same m a n u f a c t u r e r for all valves) can be selected a n d his
To k e e p process c o n t i n u i t y clear, it is usually best to
valve catalog figure n u m b e r u s e d o n the flowsheet. For
n u m b e r all like items sequentially t h r o u g h o u t the process,
large jobs, or w h e r e m a n y projects are in p r o g r e s s at o n e
with n o c o n c e r n for which flowsheet they a p p e a r on. Also,
time, it is c o m m o n practice to establish valve specifications
a n o t h e r p o p u l a r n u m b e r i n g a r r a n g e m e n t is to identify a
for the various process a n d utility services (see Figures 1-25
system such as reaction, drying, s e p a r a t i o n , purification,
a n d 1-26) by m a n u f a c t u r e r s ' catalog figure n u m b e r s .
T h e s e are c o d e d as V-11, V-12, V-13, etc., a n d such c o d e
n u m b e r s are u s e d o n the flowsheets w h e r e v e r these valves
Table 1-2
A System o f E q u i p m e n t D e s i g n a t i o n s

AD- Air Drier

AF-- Air Filter Table 1-3
Ag m Agitator Typical Identification for Flowsheet Process Functions
Bm Blower
BR ~ Barometric Refrigeration Unit ASmAir Supply
C -- Compressor BD--Blowdown
CP ~ Car Puller
BF--Blind Flange
CT ~ Cooling Tower
CV- Conveyor CBD--Continuous Blowdown
Dm Drum or tank CD--Closed Drain
DS - - Desuperheater CH-OmChain Operated
Em Heat Exchanger, condenser, reboiler, etc. C S O m C a r Seal Open
Ej ~ Jet Ejector C S C - - C a r Seal Closed
Ex~ Expansion Joint D C ~ D r a i n Connection
F~ Fan E B D ~ E m e r g . Blowdown Valve
FA ~ Flame Arrestor E S D ~ Emerg. Shutdown
Fi~ Filter (line type, tank, centrifugal)
F C m Fail Closed
GT ~ Gas Turbine
MB m Motor for Blower F O ~ Fail Open
MC ~ Motor for Compressor H C m Hose Connection
MF ~ Metor for Fan I B D ~ Intermittent Blowdown
MP--- Motor for Pump LO--Lock Open
P~ Pump M L ~ Manual Loading
PH- Process Heater or Furnace N C ~ Normally Closed
R~ Reactor N O - - Normally Open
S- Separator O D - - Open Drain
St ~ Strainer
P - - Personnel Protection
ST ~ Steam Turbine
Q O - - Quick Opening
Str ~ Steam trap
SV ~ Safety Valve S C - - Sample Protection
Tr ~ Trap SO--Steam Out
V- Valve T S O - - T i g h t Shut Off
VRV m Vacuum Relief Valve VB--Vacuum Breaker
26 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants



lg Cr. BODY: C.A.S. A-217 GR WC6 690 694
2g"-14" STEM: WC6 WC6
600# SEATS: Integral Stel Alloy ~4"-6" 8"--14"
RF DISC: Body-Guided
RATING: 2500 psig @ 650~ EDWARDS SW-6933
CS BODY: C.S. A-216 Gr. WCB 6674
~"-2" STEM:
2500# SEATS: Integral, Stellited N"__21A" 1A,,_2,,
RATING: 2500 @ 650~ EDWARDS 125065 WE
CS BODY: C.S.A.-216 Gr. WCB 3994Y
21,4"__12~ STEM: WCB
2500# SEATS: Integral, Stellited 2g"-12" 2g"-10"
BW DISC: Piston Stellited (5)(6)
Add additional valves of all types
as needed for project

NOTE: 1. Vertical columns indicate valves acceptable as equivalent to the specification description.
2. V-11 is a typical valve code to use on flowsheets and piping drawings.
Figure 1-25. Typical valve codes and specifications. By permission, Borden Chemicals and Plastics Operating Limited Partnership.

are required. (Also see Figures 1-8 and 1-9.) By complete- ORFM--6, Orifice flanges and plate for Recording
ly defining the valve specification in a separate specifica- Flow Meter No. 6
tion book the various valves--gate, globe, butterfly, plug, OTrRFC--1, Orifice flanges and plate used with
flanged end, screwed end, welding e n d ~ c a n be identified Transmitter for Recording Flow Con-
for all persons involved on a project, including piping troller No. 1
engineers and field erection contractors.
T r R F C m l F , Flow Transmitter for Recording Flow
Figure 1-20C summarizes a system for representing pip- controller No. 1
ing c o m p o n e n t s on the flow sheets. IPC--8, Indicating Pressure Controller No. 8

The i n s t r u m e n t symbols of Table 1-4 and Figures 1-23B IFCm6, Indicating Flow Controller No. 6
and C are representative of the types developed by the IFM--2, Indicating Flow Meter No. 2
I n s t r u m e n t Society of America and some companies.
R L C - - , Recording Level Controller
Some other designation systems indicate the recording R L M - - , Recording Level Meter
or indicating function in front of rather than behind the
instrument function. For example" I L C - - , Indicating Level Controller
LC-- , Level Controller
RTC--1, Recording Temperature Controller No. 1 PC m , Pressure Controller
VRTC--1, Control Valve for Recording Tempera-
ture Controller No. 1 Control valves carry the same designation as the instru-
RFM ~ 6 , Recording Flow Meter No. 6 m e n t to which they are connected.
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 27



TEMPERATURE LIMITS : 275 PSIG a t - 2 0 / 1 0 0 ~ 100 PSIG at 750~
LIMITED BY : 150# Flanges
C O R R O S I O N AIJ~OWANCE : See Table, This Spec.
CONSTRUCTION : 1~" and SmallermSocket Welded
2" and LargermFlanged and Butt-Welded
PIPE" 1~" and smaller Schedule 80, ASTM-A106 Gr. B Seamless EE. (Plain End). Nipples: Sch. 80 ASTM-
A106 Gr. B
2" through 10" Schedule 40, Standard Weight, ASTM-A53 Gr. B, Seamless, B.E. (Bevel Ends)
12" through 24" Standard Weight, (.375") ASTM-A53, Gr. B, Seamless, B.E.
FITTINGS: 1~" and smaller 3000# ES., Socket Weld, ASTM-A105 Gr. I or II
2" through 10" Schedule 40, Standard Weight, Butt-Weld ASTM-A234 Gr. WPB, Seamless
12" through 24" Same Except Use Standard Weight (.375")
BRANCHES: Full Use Tees
Half header
Size and larger Straight Tee and Reducer or Reducing Tee
Less half header
Size down through 2" Straight Tee and Reducer or Reducing Tee or Weldolets
1~" and smaller Sockolets, Elbolets and Nipolets
FLANGES: 1~" and smaller 150# ASA, 1,46"R.E, Socket Weld ASTM-A181 Gr. I
2" and larger 150# ASA 1,46~R.E Weld Neck, ASTM-A181 Gr. I
UNIONS: 1~" and smaller 3000# ES. Union ASTM-A105 Gr. II,
(6) Socket Weld ASA B16.11. Steel to Steel Seats, Ground Joint. No Bronze
BOLTING: All ASTM-A193 Gr. B7, Alloy Steel Stud Bolts, with ASTM-A194, Class 2H Heavy Series,
Hex. Nuts
GASKETS: ~A6~ Thick, Compressed Asbestos Flat Ring Type. (JM 60 or Equal) 500~ and above,
use Flexitallic CG.
LUBRICANT: 450~ and under Use Teflon Tape
Over 450~ Use "Molycote" G Paste
VALVES: I~A" and smaller VGA-112, 800#, Socket Weld Ends,
(4) Welded Bonnet, ES., ASTM-A105 Gr.II
3/4"and smaller VGA-113, 800#, Screwed Ends, Welded
(1) Bonnet, ES., ASTM-A105 Gr.II
2" and larger VGA-101,150#, Flanged O.S. & Y.,
(2)(7) Cast Steel Body, ASTM-A216 WCB
VALVES: 1~" and smaller VGL-215, 800#, Socket Weld Ends,
(4) Welded Bonnet, ES., ASTM-105
Gr. II
2" through 12" VGL-200, 150#, Flanged, O.S. & Y.,
(7) Cast Steel Body, ASTM-A216 WCB
VALVES: 1~" and smaller VCH-314, 800#, Horizontal Piston
(4) (~) Type Socket Weld Ends, ES., ASTM-A105 Gr. II
VCH-312, 800#, Combination Horizontal & Vertical Ball Type, Socket Weld Ends,
ES., ASTM-A105, Gr. II
2" through 16" VCH-302, 150#, Horizontal Swing Check, Flanged, Cast Steel Body, ASTM-A216 WCB
INSTRUMENTS: 1" and smaller VGA-120, 800#, Male Socket Weld •
(4) Female Thread Ends, Welded Bonnet, ES., ASTM-A105, Gr. II

Figure 1-26. Partial presentation of piping materials specifications for a specific process service. By permission, Borden Chemicals and
Plastics, Operating Limited Partnership. (Figure continued on next page)
28 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

P I P I N G MATERIAL S P E C I F I C A T I O N S ( c o n t i n u e d )
Alternate P r o c e s s Service

Press. /Temp. Limits: 175 P S I G / - 2 0 to 150~ 125 PSIG/350~

Corrosion Allowance: 0.05 inches
2 and smaller Sch. 40 Seamless Carbon steel ASTM A-53, Gr. B, T&C
3 through 6 Sch. 40 ERW Carbon steel ASTM A-53, Gr. B, beveled
8 through 12 Sch. 20 ERW Carbon steel ASTM A-53, Gr. B, beveled
14 through 20 Sch. 10 ERW Carbon steel ASTM A-53, Gr. B, beveled

2 and smaller 150# Screwed Mal. iron ASTM A-197
3 and larger Buttweld-Sch. to Carbon steel ASTM A-234, Gr.
match pipe WPB.

2 and smaller 150# RF or FF Carbon steel ASTM A-105
3 and larger 150# RF or FF Slip- Carbon steel ASTM A-105
on or weld neck

1 and larger 300# RF Weld Neck Carbon steel ASTM A-105

2 and smaller 300# Screwed Mal. iron, ground joint,
brass to iron seats
ASTM A-197

2 and smaller 3000# Threadolet Forged steel ASTM A-105
3 and larger Std. Wt. Weldolet Forged steel ASTM A-105

2 and smaller 150# Screwed Mal. iron ASTM A-197
Sch. 80 Swage Carbon steel ASTM A-234,
3 and larger Buttweld-Sch. to Carbon steel ASTM A-234,
match pipe Gr. WPB

2 and smaller 150 screwed Bronze with 30 mesh monel screen - Mueller #351 or equal.

All sizes ~A in. ring Compressed
All sizes 1,46in. full face Compressed

All sizes Machine bolts w/ Sq. hd. ASTM A-307, Gr.B.
hex nuts

VALVES (Alternate, for different process liquid/vapor service)

2 and smaller 150# screwed gate Bronze, ISRS, union bonnet, Powell 2714 or equal
3 or larger 125# FF gate IBBM, OS&Y, bolted bonnet, Powell 1793 or equal
2 and smaller 300# screwed ball CS body, Teflon seats & seals CS ball, Hills McCanna Fig. S302-CSTCS
3 and larger 150# RF ball CS body, Teflon seats & seals CS ball, Hills McCanna Fig. S151-CSTCS
3 to 6 150# butterfly Cast iron body, Buna N seat &
w/locking handle seals, A1-Brz. disc, 316 SS stem. Keystone Fig. 100/122 or equal

Figure 1-26 (continued). Partial presentation of piping specifications for a specific process service. By permission, Borden Chemicals and
Plastics, Operating Limited partnership.
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 29

Table 1-4
Instrumentation N o m e n c l a t u r e m C o m p l e t e General Identification*


Controlling Devices Measuring Alarm Devices
* Process q)
Variable e-
> c u ~ J
= "-._. i
>a ,-
.- .i
: :~.E

Actuation a .~_~ ~ ~a >, "a,.

u ,...~ 8m 9 8 .~-~ i::~ -~
g :~ --9 ,r
_ "~
,4- o
u :~ 8 a,.."
o ~) .13 9 _~ ;f.,-.,
RC IC C CV V . ,
Flow F FRC FIC , ! |
FV , ,
FR ,
FI !


~ LE I' LG
r . . . . . . i !
I '
Pressure P ! PRC tic i rc rcv PV :PSV ' PR PI PRA PIA ,~ PA ,IPE I
i i i i


. -- ' i |


i-- i i i i i i i I

, I ,
NOTE. Blank s ~aces are impossible or improbable combinations.

By permission, D.J. Oriolo, O. & G. Jour., Nov. 17, 1958; Also see ISA Stds. Latest edition.

Thermocouples carry the same designation as the sheet, but here again the use of detail which does not con-
recorder or indicator to which they are connected. Sequen- tribute to the communication function of the sheets is
tial point numbers are indicated thus (see Table 1-4): avoided. Such detail can be time consuming when consid-
ered over the entire set of sheets for a process. Figures 1-8
R T M m 6 - - 4 , T h e r m o c o u p l e connected to point No. 4
and 1-9 are typical of reasonably good presentation with-
RTM instrument No. 6. Also see Figure
out unnecessary detail. Such specifications as height of a
seal leg, locked open valve, or other information not sum-
Additional symbols include: marized elsewhere m u s t be recorded on the flowsheets.

P G m 6 , Pressure Gage No. 6 connected in the field

on some item of equipment. If panel board
mounted, it b e c o m e s ~ 6 B . Working Schedules
L T A ~ I , Low Temperature Alarm No. 1
H T A ~ I , High Temperature Alarm No. 1
L P A ~ 2 , Low Pressure Alarm No. 2 As a direct companion of the completed flowsheet, the
HPAm2, High Pressure Alarm No. 2 line schedule sheet transmits the process and mechani-
L L A ~ 6 , Low Level Alarm No. 6 cally necessary details for proper interpretation of the
H L A ~ 8 , High Level Alarm No. 8 piping aspects of the flowsheet (see Figures 1-24A, B, C,
P G ~ , Push Button D). These schedules are initiated by the process engineer
to further explain the requirements of the process as
Process flowsheets do not normally show companion shown on the flowsheets. They are often and perhaps usu-
flanges for valves unless these serve as blinds or for orifice ally cooperatively completed by other engineers, particu-
plates. This detail is sometimes shown on the piping flow- larly the piping, mechanical and instrumentation groups.
30 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

Centrifugal Pump Summary

Oper. Sp. Gr.GPM Avail. Discharge
Item No. N:f. Service . Liquid Temp. Oper. Opor. NPSH, Press. Speed BHP H. R Driver Type File
Units "F Temp. Temp. Ft. PSIG RPM Pump Driver Rot.

Figure 1-27. Centrifugal pumps summary.

Centrifugal Pump Schedule

Item No.
Make Model Type Size Connection Reference Purchase Seal Tyl)e
No. Units Service Suction Disch. Weight Drawings Order No. Tyl~e Coupling

Item [ Rotation, [ Electrical [NEMA Sfq~amConditions Mike Model Steam Weight R0.
No. Type H.P. RPM CW-CCW Characteristics Frame PSIG Temp."F Rate No.

Figure 1-28. Centrifugal pump schedule.

A schedule similar to Figure 1-24A is used to summa- interpreting and designing for the needs of the process,
rize insulation process code or class, and pressure test see Figures 1-27, 1-28, 1-29, 1-30.
information to the erection contractor. The process code Two types of schedules are in use:
is the complete code specification (as a separate fluid 1. The summary sheet which summarizes process con-
process service detailed for each fluid) tabulation for the ditions and equipment selection
required piping materials, fittings, valves, gaskets, thread 2. The schedule sheet which summarizes the key refer-
lubricant, etc., for a specific process or utility fluid (see ence data for a particular class of equipment such as
Figures 1-25 and 1-26.) For example, it identifies the type pumps, but contains no process data. The latter type
of gate, globe, plug, check and needle valves to be used in is prepared for job coordination with and in the var-
the fluid by specific catalog figure number of a manufac- ious departments, i.e., engineering, construction,
turer or its equivalent. This requires attention to materi- purchasing, production. It primarily serves for the
als of construction, pressure-temperature ratings, and construction period but, of course, does have lasting
connections (flanged, screwed, weld-end), bonnet type, cross-reference value.
packing, seat type (removable or nonremovable), stem, From a construction viewpoint these summaries are a
and any other details affecting the selection of a valve for necessary check list to aid in keeping the construction
the process fluid conditions. It also contains the specifica- program organized. Individuals who have no real knowl-
tions for pipe, fittings, flanges, unions, couplings, gaskets, edge of the scope of the job, and in particular the process,
thread compound, bolting and any special materials can properly tie the project together in the field by use of
needed to properly complete the piping requirements. these schedules.

Other schedules and summaries include vessels (tanks Information Checklists

and drums), towers or columns, heat exchangers, pumps,
compressors, motors, etc. These are often developed by The process engineer must summarize in some form
the process engineer for organizational uses by the the raw material and utility requirements for use by oth-
process designers as well as by other engineering groups. ers. For example, the civil engineer is interested in waste
Again, these are often cooperatively and sometimes com- water and sanitary sewer flows for proper layout studies.
pletely prepared by a particular specialty group after He is also in need of special requirements for site devel-
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 31

Vessel and Tank Summary

Capacity I
Thickness,ins. Corro- ] Material
Saddle sion / Shell Saddle
I Pressure, psig ] Temp.,"F.
Item No. Equipment Type O.D. or Gallons Shell Head Skirt Allow., 8 Skirt Oper'n. Design Test Oper'n Design Code Stomp Drawing Notes
Lnth. Supp'L :inches Heads Supp't. No.

Figure 1-29. Vessel and tank summary sheet.

Vessel ond Tank Schedule

Item No. Test Ref. Purchase P.O.
No. Units Service Description Horizontal Diam. Length Head Shell Lining Code Preesure, psig Weight Dwg. Order To Number

Figure 1-30. Vessel and tank schedule.

o p m e n t as well as railroads. The checklist of Figure 1-31 is 9 ASME Code, Materials Specification, Part B, Non-Fer-
an example of a helpful form. Others can be developed to rous Materials
suit the project or general plant situation. 9 ASME Section V Non-Destruction Examination
For immediate job reference as well as for estimating 9 American Society for Testing Materials, Part 10,
requirements of a process for expansion purposes, the Annual Book of ASTM Standards: Metals-Physical,
form shown in Figure 1-32 is convenient and can be Mechanical and Corrosion Testing
expanded to suit the process u n d e r consideration. 9 General Recommendations for Spacing in Refineries,
Petrochemical Plants, Gasoline Plants, Terminals,
Oil Pump Stations and Offshore Properties, Industrial
Standards and C o d e s
Risk Insurance, Hartford, Conn. (See [ 19].)
9 American Standards Association, Petroleum Refinery
The process design engineer must in effect become a
Piping ASA B31.3 (latest Edition)
good general purpose engineer who recognizes the need
9 Standards of the Tubular Exchangers Manufacturers
for integrating the various engineering disciplines into
Association (TEMA Standards, latest edition)
the process details as may be required. The engineer
9 National Fire Protection Association as follows:
becomes what might be termed a pseudo-mechanical,
corrosion, and metallurgical engineer as well as a basic
chemical engineer. The design engineer must, or should
soon, be knowledgeable of all types of information and Standard Code
specifications necessary to totally perform the process Blower and Exhaust Systems 91
design functions in all detail and scope. A partial list of Chemical Reactions, Hazardous 491M
these specifications follows. Chemical Data, Hazardous 49
Chimneys, Vents, Fireplaces, and
It is r e c o m m e n d e d that all pressure vessels and atmos-
Solid Fuel Burning Appliances 211
pheric vessels be designed, fabricated, tested, and code
Coding, Uniform for Fire Protection 901
stamped according to the most applicable code as ASME Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems 17
or API, regardless of service application (nuclear is Electrical Code, National 70
excluded from any discussion in these chapters): Electrical Equipment in Hazardous
(Class.) Locations, Gases, Vapors, Dusts 497M
9 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Electrical Equipment, Purged and
Unfired Pressure Vessel Code Section 8, Division 1 Pressurized Enclosures for 496
Electrical Installations,
9 ASME Code, Materials Specification, Part A, Ferrous Classification of Class 1
Materials (continued on next page)
32 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

Hazardous Locations 497 9 Chapter V Preparation of Equipment for Safe Entry

Explosion Prevention Systems 69 and Work
Explosion Venting 68 9 Chapter VI Pressure Vessels (Tower, Drums, and
Explosive Materials, Code for 495 Reactors)
Fire Hazards of Materials, Identification 704
9 Chapter VII Heat Exchangers, Condensers, and Cool-
Fire Pumps, Centrifugal 20
er Boxes
Fire Pumps, Steam 21
Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Class. 321 9 Chapter IX Fired/Heaters and Stacks
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 30 9 Chapter IXX Atmospheric and Low Pressure Storage
Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Tanks
Farm Storage of 395 9 Chapter XIX Inspection for Accident Prevention
Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 9 Chapter XX Inspection for Fire Protection
Portable Shipping Tanks 386 9 Std. 620 Recommended Rules for Design and Con-
Flammable and Combustible Liquids, struction of Large, Welded, Low Pressure Storage
Tank Vehicles for 385
9 RP-2003 Recommend Practice for Protection Against
Standards and Recommended Practices of American Ignitions Arising Out of Static, Lightning and Stray
Petroleum Institute: Currents
9 2521 Use of Pressure-Vacuum Vent Valves for Atmos-
9 520 Design and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Sys- pheric Pressure Tanks to Reduce Evaporation Loss
tems in Refineries 9 2523 Petrochemical Evaporation Loss from Storage
Part I Design Tanks
Part II Installation
9 521 Guide for Pressure Relief of Depressuring Systems Steel Structures Painting Council, Ref. SSPC-Vis 1-67
9 525 Testing Procedures for Pressure Relieving
Devices Discharging Against Variable Back Pressure 9 No. 1 "Pictorial Surface Preparation Standards for
9 526 Flanged Steel Safety Relief Valves for Use in Painting Steel Structures
Petroleum Refineries
9 527 Commercial Seat Tightness of Safety Relief Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Valves with Metal-to-Metal Seats (OSHA) Regulations Environmental Protection Agency
9 540 Recommended Practice for Electrical Installa- (EPA Regulatory section)
tions in Petroleum Refineries Metals Handbook, ASM International
9 550 Installation of Refinery Instruments and Control
Systems 9 Volume 1 Properties and Selection: Irons and Steels
Part I Process Instrumentation Control (Latest Ed.)
Part II Process Stream Analyzers
9 Volume 2 Properties and Selection: Nonferrous
9 1101 Measurement of Petroleum Liquid Hydro-
Alloys and Pure Metals (Latest Ed.)
carbons by Positive Displacement Meter
9 Volume 4 Heat Treating (1981)
9 2000 Venting Atmospheric and Low Pressure Storage
9 Volume 8 Mechanical Testing (1985)
tanks (Non-refrigerated and Refrigerated)
9 Volume 9 Metallography and Microstructures (1985)
9 2545 Method of Gauging Petroleum and Petroleum
Products 9 Volume 11 Failure Analysis and Prevention (1986)
9 2217 Guidelines for Confined Space Work in the 9 Volume 13 Corrosion (Latest Ed.)
Petroleum Industry 9 Volume 17 Nondestruction Evaluation and Quality
9 2513 Evaporation Loss in the Petroleum Industrym Control (1989)
Causes and Control
9 2516 Evaporation Loss from Low-Pressure Tanks Instrument Society of America, Standards and Practices
9 2517 Evaporation Loss from External Floating Roof
Tanks 9 RP1.1-7 Thermocouples and Thermocouple Exten-
9 2518 Evaporation Loss from Fixed-Roof Tanks sion Wires
9 Chapter II Guide for Inspection of Refinery Equip- 9 RP3.1 Flowmeter Installations. Seal and Condensate
mentmConditions Causing Deterioration or Failures Chambers
9 Chapter IV Guide for Inspection of Refinery Equip- 9 RP3.2 Flange Mounted Sharp Edged Orifice Plates
mentmInspection Tools for Flow Measurement
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 33

9 RP4.1 Uniform Face-to-Face Dimensions for Flanged this conversion has been slow. This is primarily due to the
Control Valve Bodies fact that engineers are more familiar with the "more prac-
9 RP4.2 Standard Control Valve Manifold Designs tical" engineering units and also few text books using SI
9 $5.1 Instrumentation Flow Plan Symbols units are available. The conversion in the industry is awk-
9 RP7.1 Pneumatic Control Circuit Pressure Test ward and confusing because there is no "feel" for the
9 RP7.2 Color Code for Panel Tubing practical meaning of the SI terms.
9 RP8.1 Instrument Enclosures for Industrial Environ-
ments System Design P r e s s u r e s
9 RP12.1 Electrical Instruments in Hazardous Atmos-
In order to coordinate the design pressures for the var-
ious vessels in a given process system, it is necessary to
9 RP12.2 Intrinsically Safe and Non-Incendive Electri-
establish the relationship between the operating and
cal Instruments
design conditions. Figure 1-33 and Tables 1-5 and 1-6 are
9 S12.4 Instrument Purging for Reduction of Haz-
guides to setting the percentage for the design pressure
ardous Area Classification
over the operating pressure. This type of relationship can
9 RP18.1 Specifications and Guides for the Use of Gen-
be established according to the preferences of the respon-
eral Purpose Annunciators
sible engineer or company policy. In the range near
9 RP20.1, and 20.2 Specification Forms for Instruments
atmospheric pressure the preferences vary, however, for

Federal Safety Standards for Pipelines; Part 195-Trans-

portation of liquids by Pipelines.
Often the process design e n g i n e e r will b e c o m e Table 1-5
involved in managing a project, especially if h e / s h e S u g g e s t e d System Design P r e s s u r e s
designed the specifications for fabrication and purchase (Based upon condensation at 100~ with 10~ approach)
of the equipment for the project. It is necessary that the System Design Pressure, psig
process e n g i n e e r ~ participate in e q u i p m e n t l a y o u t /
Freon m 11 (or equivalent) 50
arrangement decisions for the early stages of the plant
Freon m 12 (or equivalent) 200
development. With all this background, the process engi-
Freon - - 22 (or equivalent) 300
neer is the logical person to handle or coordinate the
Ammonia 250
interrelationships of the various engineering disciplines
Chlorine 300
and to review and evaluate the equipment purchase pro-
posals from the purchasing department. The role of a
project engineer often grows from the process design
Table 1-6
engineer's responsibilities (see [19]).
Suggested Maximum Operating Pressure
The process engineer should be responsible for under-
standing the following regulations: Usual Condition of Maximum
System Operating Pressure
1. Occupational Safety and Health Administration reg- Refrigeration Systems Refrigerant vapor pressure at
ulations as they relate to (a) safety of design related temperature 10~ ~ F. above
condensing water.
to injury to personnel (includes such matters as lat-
est vessel design [53], noise level from operating Storage Vessels Vapor pressure of liquid at maxi-
equipment, etc., [20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28]. mum ambient temperature plus
30~ F. (usually 110~ to 140~ F.)
(b) safety of the plant layout environment which
might influence the safety of the plant facilities. Process Vessels Depends upon operating condi-
tions, surge conditions, insulation,
2. Environmental Protection Agency regulations relat- toxicity, explosion hazard, etc.
ed to air, water, solid waste, and land contamination
with toxic substances that a plant might emit/release A. In a compressor or pump
into immediate plant area, or discharge as waste into
( I ) Centrifugal Type Shut-off pressure plus 5 psi
public streams, or inject into u n d e r g r o u n d aquafiers,
or dump or store [29, 30, 31]. (2) Reciprocating Type Normal operating pressure plus
15 psi for low pressures to plus
50 psi for 200-3000 psi system.
Although the U.S. chemical industry is committed to B. Direct Injection of Steam, Supply line pressure plus 5 psi
converting from American Engineering Standard units to Air, M e thane, Cooling to 15 psi.
Water, etc.
the metric standards, or SI units, the actual progress in
34 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants









ELECTRICAL 2300 V ...... .KVA


-'('110 V)


. . . . . ! !

! !

t 1
i . . . . . . . . . . i !
9" ~ ! t . . . . l
i m.t..-- ..
. . . . ! . . . . . ! - - . . . . -. i

STEAM t' ' I LB/HR t

! i i
(400 OR 4~S)PSiO La/NR
i i i
t ! i
/80 PSIG t ; L B / k , I R t
=o PS=G ! Le/.R
i ~. ~-- ' ! I i
CAUSTI(~ (- %) ~ : LB/HR

! i 1
; LPG , ;i ,, L B I H R

i i, ~ =

. . . . . . i .i . i

i . I

I--.-- I


I-" "WASTE'" WAT[R ! GpM !

! ----------- I I


Figure 1-31. General services and utilities checklist.

small diameter (less than 8 feet) vessels operating in a def- For the larger diameter storage vessels operating with a
inite pressure system. Thus, the effect of a reasonable few ounces water to 1 psig, the selection of a design pres-
overpressure for design (as suggested by Figure 1-33) on sure must also consider the system surges in relation to
the vessel wall thickness is usually negligible. the normal conditions. For example, a storage tank 20
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 35


Job Title

Job No. Charge No. Date

Based Upon Cost Estimate Dated or Actual Construction Cost

Summary Prepared By Information Dated

Production Basis (Ibs./day, tons/day, Ibs./month)

Unit Rate/
Service Requirements: Unit Rate Production Basis

i. Steam (30 ibs.) ibs./hr.

2. Steam (150 Ibs.) ibs./hr.
3. Steam (400 ibs.) Ibs./hr.
4. S team ( ibs.) Ibs./hr.
5. Treated R.W. gpm
6. Untreated R.W. gpm
7. Fresh Water gpm
8. Sea Water gpm
9. Fuel Gas ( psi) cfm (60OF & i arm.)
I0. Air ( psi) cfm (60~ & i arm.)
ii. Power ( )
12. Horsepower =

13. Condensate Ibs./hr.


Raw Materlals: Uns Rate

i. Chlorine
2. Hydrogen ( ~.)
3. Caustic ( 7.)
4. Salt
5. Sat. Brine
6. Natural Gas
7. Air
8. Ethylene

Products and By-products: Unit Rate

I. Chlorine ,,,,
| I

2. HcI ( 7.)
3. Salt ( Z)
4. Caustic (
5. Ammonia ( 7,)
6. H2SO4 (
7. Gas ( )

Figure 1-32. Process engineering job analysis summary.

feet in diameter which will operate u n d e r 6 oz. water In some low pressure processes it is good practice to set
might be designed for 12 oz. while arbitrarily selecting a a m i n i m u m design pressure of 10 psig or 25 psig for all
design pressure of 10 psig would be quite uneconomical. vessels operating below 5 psig and no larger in diameter
A 40-foot diameter tank for atmospheric storage would than 8 to 10 feet. The m i n i m u m design pressures for a ves-
normally be designed for 2 to 3 oz. of water. (See previous sel will be influenced by the fact that the minimum vessel
listing of API codes and ASME codes.) The bottom shell wall thickness for carbon steel is usually ~6 inch to 1/4inch.
of a 40' diameter x 40' tall vessel must withstand the Economics of the situation dictate where the cutoff pres-
greater pressure of the height of water or process liquid sures a n d / o r diameters lie, as these will vary with the type
when the vessel is full to the vents. For a 6-foot diameter of metal u n d e r consideration.
vessel operating at 3 psig, a reasonable design pressure Vessels operating below atmospheric pressure are
might be 10 psig. designed for f u l l v a c u u m regardless of the actual vacuum.
36 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

Operating Pressure
,~ - vs
50 ~"~ =' ~ ' ~ " " - Design Pressure
-" ~ ' " / ~ ~ ) ~ Increose Over
Operating Pressure

~= I0 ,~ /-~

=o "r i ~'~.,

o ~

Figure 1-33. Guide: Operating pressure

vs. design pressure increase over oper- I I00 1,000 I0,000
ating pressure. Operating Pressure,psia

If it is extremely uneconomical to design at this point, suming calculations can be avoided, or reduced to a rea-
then proper vacuum control must be installed. However, sonable minimum.
this is not the usual approach to the design. If the equip- On the other h a n d there are many situations which
m e n t can operate alternately u n d e r vacuum or positive require the detailed work before a sound decision can be
pressure, it must be designed for the worst or controlling made. In addition, it is often necessary to obtain reason-
condition. ably accurate prices for various items of e q u i p m e n t and
their assembly before the final decision can be made.
Time Planning and Scheduling For groups specializing in this type of design work it
well to maintain records of the time requirements, job
conditions, etc., in order to build a history upon which to
Scheduling of work in process engineering or design is base future estimating. It will be recognized that no two
a near impossibility as far as pin-point accuracy is con- projects or problems are exactly alike. However, with time
cerned. The very developmental and planning nature of certain basic similarities can be recognized, with good
the early phases, as well as the continuous follow-through j u d g m e n t these records can be used to advantage. Thus,
and follow-up, make this difficult. It is seldom that one average information can have some value.
can foresee specific changes, delays, etc. Very few projects
The size of a project does not always have a significant
are clear-cut and well defined ("frozen") as to scope or
bearing on the schedule. Weighted judgment, taking the
design conditions except for small jobs and repeat or
type of job, type of process, and type and nature of the
duplicate projects.
men with the engineering and process responsibility into
With new processes a n d / o r products, the collection of account is necessary to align a balanced and smooth work-
physical data (either from pilot or laboratory operations, ing team.
or from the literature), consideration and evaluation of
alternate conditions and flow schemes with the corre- Activity Analysis
sponding decisions, often become a significant portion of
the time required to complete the actual process calcula- A time study of eight graduate process engineers with a
tions and preparation of design specifications. So that this m i n i m u m of five years experience is shown in Tables 1-7
early phase of work does not unnecessarily slow down the and 1-8. The time includes process calculations, prepara-
project, it is important that close guidance and supervi- tion of specifications, discussions with vendors and han-
sion be given the individual designers and the use of dling the complete scope of small and large projects and
experience, j u d g m e n t and approximations be encour- is helpful in accounting for legitimate time which was
aged. In this way many unnecessarily detailed or time con- obviously not spent in performing process calculations.
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 37

T a b l e 1-7 T a b l e 1-8
Time S t u d y Time S t u d y

Percent of T i m e Percentage
Activity of Engineers of Time
~ingle Avg.
Activity of Engineers ~tudy Range Consulting outside of scheduled jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4
Section supervision duties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7
Process design calculations 34.69 35--52
Conferences, consultation, unscheduled urgent Meetings related to scheduled jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.7
assignments, information assembly 28.98 1.3--29 Discussions with vendors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6
Supervision and administrative, including time
schedules, discussions with salesmen, prepa- Special technical assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4
ration of outside correspondence 4.45 4--15 Communications within section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.9
Preparation of charts, forms, methods for bene-
fit of over-all group 1.95 1--3 Process design calculations (original) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.0
Marking, checking, and reviewing flow sheets Process design calculations (checking) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7
(no drafting) 10.94 9--12
Group meetings, training periods, over-all de- Equipment schedules, line schedules, etc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
partment and company development 1.80 1--3 Flow sheet development, checking, revising (no drafting). 2.5
Literature review (current magazines, etc.) 1.80 0.5--2
Coffee breaks, etc. 5.55 4--6 Coffee breaks, miscellaneous activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.0
Unaccounted, including vacation 9.84 5--10

This does not include total project coordination or pro- be utilized, sometimes to generate a value and sometimes
ject engineering. (For e x p a n d e d reference also see [51].) to check a questionable literature value.
It should be recognized that the data in these tables Therefore, when developing an estimate of process
may not necessarily fit other situations; however, it can engineering time required, it is i m p o r t a n t to recognize
serve as a guide. Since it is based upon engineers associ- the a m o u n t of effort that may be necessary to collect phys-
ated with an engineering d e p a r t m e n t located at an oper- ical property data before any real work can commence.
ating company plant site, there is a basic difference in This same concern exists when evaluating K values and
contacts, availability of production experience, and per- activity data for systems.
haps even philosophy between this type of group and one
centered at an engineering office remote from plant con-
Estimated Equipment Calculation Man-Hours
tacts. The interruptions and requirements for data and
results although similar in many respects are certainly dif-
ferent in other respects. The use of this type of activity The required man-hours for a specific calculation vary
information will be combined with detailed calculation with the process system, availability of physical data, and
data and discussed later. the relative familiarity of the process design engineer.
Records collected over a period of years on a wide cross-
Collection and Assembly of Physical Property Data section of organic and inorganic process e q u i p m e n t cal-
culations are summarized in Table 1-9. It is impossible to
accurately define the limits of the calculations represent-
An important but time-consuming factor in practically
every design situation and in development of flowsheets is ed, but on an average, they have been found to be helpful
the collection and assembly of physical property data for in establishing the order of magnitude of the calculation
the components of the system in question. Often it is not time, as well as the basis for approximating the over-all
extent of the process engineering of the project.
sufficient to obtain single data points from various tables,
since many designs cover rather wide ranges of tempera- Electronic computers, both digital and analog, can be
ture and pressure and the effects of these on the proper- used to great advantage in design studies and calcula-
ties must be taken into account. tions. In evaluating reactor designs it is extremely helpful
Data may be located in many useful handbooks as well to develop a family of performance curves for variables
as published technical papers and company compilations. involved in the system. Usually this type of calculation
However, experience indicates that extensive literature becomes too time consuming with the desk electronic
searches may be necessary to locate specific data on a par- calculator, and is a good problem for the computer.
ticular compound. It is surprising to find so many com- After investing time and talent into a program for the
m o n compounds for which the data is incomplete and computer, it is usually only a matter of minutes or hours
sometimes inaccurate. Empirical correlations must often before a complete series of results can be calculated.
38 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

Table 1-9
Estimated Man-Hours Required for Equipment Design [7] (updated)

Type of Equipment *Design **Computer 9 TotalM-H Type of Equipment *Design **Computer n Checking Total M-H
Solvent c o o l e r ......................... 30 -- 3 33 O r g a n i c - - t r a y - b y - t r a y .............. 50 (12) 25 75 (12)
T a n k h e a t i n g coil .................... 4 -- 2 6 O r g a n i c - - t r a y - b y - t r a y .............. 40 (12) 64 104 (12)
Caustic cross e x c h a n g e r ......... 32 (1) 6 38 D e m e t h a n i z e r - - t r a y - b y - t r a y ..... 31 (15) 22 53 (15)
Caustic cooler .......................... 8 (2) 2 10 (2) O r g a n i c - - t r a y - b y - t r a y .............. 35 (7) 4 46 (7)
Oil cross e x c h a n g e r ................ 32 (3) 5 37 (3) O r g a n i c - - t r a y - b y - t r a y .............. 10 (5) 5 15 (5)
Gas c o o l e r ................................ 8 (3) 4 12 (3) Organic--tray-by-tray 5 (6) 3 11 (6)
C o m p r e s s o r gas O r g a n i c - - t r a y - b y - t r a y .............. 2 (2) 2 4 (2)
aftercooler ........................... 8 (2) 1 9 (2) D e - e t h a n i z e r ............................ 24 (12) 15 39 (12)
S l u r r y c o o l e r ........................... 32 (4) 8 4o (4) D e m e t h a n i z e r .......................... 30 (15) 15 45 (15)
F i n n e d tube e x c h a n g e r .......... 15 -- 4 19 O r g a n i c - - i n c l u d e s tray
Gas c o o l e r ................................ 4 (1) 1 5 (1) layout ................................... 24 (15) 28 52 (15)
O r g a n i c - - i n c l u d e s tray
CONDENSERS: layout ................................... 38 (20) 10 48 (20)
S t e a m ....................................... 7 (2) -- 7 (2)
O r g a n i c .................................... 6 (2) 2 8 (2) PUMPS
HC1 o r g a n i c ............................. 10 (5) 11 21 (5) System ...................................... 8 (2) 6 14 (2)
O r g a n i c .................................... 6 (2) 2 8 (2) Single ....................................... 1.5 (2) 0.5 2 (2)
F i n i s h i n g .................................. 4 (1.5) 1.5 5.5 (1.5) Single ....................................... 1 (1) 1 2 (1)
Single ....................................... 3 (1) 3 6 (1)
O r g a n i c - - a i r ........................... 10 (3) 2 12 (3) RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR:
O r g a n i c - - a i r ........................... 20 (3) 4 24 (3) BHP, t e m p e r a t u r e a n d ........... 3
O r g a n i c - - a i r ........................... 30 (4) 14 44 (4) Data for v e n d o r rating ............ 6 2
I n o r g a n i c - - a i r ......................... 50 (4) 20 7o (4) C E N T R I F U G A L C O M P R E S S O R : A b o u t the same as
REBOILERS (THERMOSIPHON): R e c i p r o c a t i n g above.
O r g a n i c - - s t e a m ...................... 16 -- -- 16 P R O C E S S L I N E SIZES:
O r g a n i c - - s t e a m ...................... 20 (3) 5 25 (3) Single ....................................... 1 (0.5) 0.5 1.5 (0.5)
O r g a n i c - - s t e a m ...................... 14 (3) -- 14 (3) Single ....................................... 0.5 (0.5) 0.5 1 (0.5)
O r g a n i c - - s t e a m ...................... 10 (3) 5 15 (3) System, 22 lines ....................... 20 (3) 9 29 (3)
O r g a n i c - - s t e a m ...................... 16 (3) 6 22 (3) Air h e a d e r for p l a n t ................ 4.5 (3) 2 6.5 (3)
O r g a n i c - - s t e a m ...................... 14 (3) 5 24 (3)
O r g a n i c - - s t e a m ...................... 4 (0.5) -- 4.5 (o.5) SAFETY VALVES:
O r g a n i c - - s t e a m ...................... 5 (1) -- 6 (1) Single ....................................... 2 2 4
O r g a n i c - - s t e a m ...................... 4 (1) -- 5 (1) Single ....................................... 1 1 2
O r g a n i c - - s t e a m ...................... 5 (0.5) 1 6 (0.5)
6 (0.5) STEAM TRAPS:
O r g a n i c - - s t e a m ...................... 5 (0.5) 1
System of 4 .............................. 3 -- 1 4
REBOILERS (FORCED CIRCULATION)" Single ..... .................................. 0.75 -- 0.25 1
O r g a n i c - - s t e a m ...................... 25 (4) 10 35 (4) Single ....................................... 1 -- 1 2
O r g a n i c - - s t e a m ...................... 19 (4) 8 27 (4)
O r g a n i c - - s t e a m ...................... 6 (1) 3
C o n d e n s a t e level d r u m .......... 0.5 -- 0.5 1
O r g a n i c - - s t e a m ...................... 6 (2) 3 9 (2)
Steam flash d r u m .................... 6 -- 3 9
D I S T I L L A T I O N (PACKED): Storage tank ............................ 2 -- -- 2
C a r b o n a t i n g tower .................. 25 (4) 10.5 35.5 (4)
Gas cooler ................................ 20 (4) 8 28 (4)
D e p e n d s o n size of system.
Gas cooler ................................ 25 (6) 7 32 (6)
C o o l i n g .................................... 16 (5) 22 38 (5)
Gas s c r u b b e r ........................... 24 (6) 4 28 (6) Note: The man-hours listed in this table included collection of needed
Gas s c r u b b e r ........................... 12 (6) 8 20 (6) physical and other data and preparation of a specification or summary
Vent gas s c r u b b e r .................... 5 (2) 1.5 6.5 (2) of the requirements.

*Using desk electronic calculators, n o t p r o g r a m m e d .

* * P r o g r a m m e d c o m p u t e r . R e p r e s e n t s d a t a i n p u t plus calculation time, s o m e t i m e s multiple.
[] C h e c k i n g only for "Design" calculations.
( ) A l t e r n a t e calculations by p r o g r a m m e d c o m p u t e r .
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 39

Computers are quite adaptable to the following calcu-

T a b l e 1-10
lations: distillation tray-by-tray and short-cut methods; tray
C a l c u l a t i o n T i m e U s i n g M e d i u m Size Digital C o m p u t e r
hydraulics for bubble cap, sieve or perforated and "dual-
flow"; absorption, heat exchange including condensation, Total Elapsed Time
partial condensation, cooler-condensing, reboiling; dry- Calculation Preparation -~- Calculation
ing; compression; equilibrium flash; fluid flow including Preliminary Distillation
two phase and many others. It is i m p o r t a n t to r e m e m b e r Number of trays, reflux ratio . . . . . . . . . 1-3
that good results cannot be obtained from a poor or inad- Tray-by-Tray Distillation
To 40 trays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
equate c o m p u t e r program. Thus, it is wise to invest the
To 100 trays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
effort into the development of basically sound general
Tray Hydraulics
purpose programs. With these many variations can be Bubble cap, sieve, perforated . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
arranged to suit the special case. In order to have confi- Heat Exchangers
dence in the results of any c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m (whether Condensers, exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5-1.0
self-developed or purchased) it must be tested against Separators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5
extreme conditions or limits. To purchase and use a pro- Flash Vaporization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5
gram without testing is inviting errors. Oil Absorbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Safety Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25
Some programs require only a few days to completely
program for general purpose use, while some others tions. It may not apply well to projects of less than 200
require several months of continuous effort. Whenever process m a n hours.
more than one individual is expected to use the comput-
When a limited time is available to complete a project,
er program, it is good practice to obtain the several views
this may be used to determine the estimates of manpower:
on attacking the problem, i.e., type of input data, solution
approach, range of variables, fixed conditions and type
and form of output or results. Estimated man- hours (process)
Average number of men =
Table 1-10 illustrates some reasonable time require- (Total elapsed weeks) (30 to 33)
ments for solution of problems or designs when using a
medium-sized digital computer, using existing programs. Where: 30 to 33 represents the actual usable job-relat-
A very high speed machine might reduce the pure calcu- ed man-hours per 40-hour week per man, allowing for
lation time to a matter of minutes; however, the time average sickness, vacation, j u r y duty, etc.
required for (1) data collection (specific problem condi-
tions as well as physical data, (2) data input to the com- Approximate maximum number required = (1.67) (Avg.
puter, and (3) evaluation of results and preparation of number of engineers)
design specification sheets all remain essentially fixed. In
some situations the complexity of the calculations
E x a m p l e I-I: M a n - H o u r E v a l u a t i o n
requires the capabilities of the large machines, and in
these cases the time advantage can be the difference From an examination of the process flowsheet the
between a good result and none at all. Total plant mater- man-hours total 685* for the significant equipment. Items
ial and heat balances are a good example. such as steam traps and miscellaneous small time-items
can be omitted from the total. *Includes 75 man-hours for
E s t i m a t e d Total P r o c e s s M a n - H o u r s pipeline sizing.

After the man-hours have been estimated for all of the Total Estimated Job Man- Hours - 685
- 1525
individual items of e q u i p m e n t on the project, a guide to 0.45
total man-hours is:
If the work must be complete, including flowsheet
supervision, etc., in three weeks:
Estimated Equipment man-
hours (including checking)
Total Estimated Job Process = 1525
0.45 Average no. engineers required = = 15.9
Engineering Man- Hours (3) (32)

This applies to work where at least 50 percent of the time This is impractical since a j o b of this magnitude cannot
is by electronic desk calculator for the numerical calcula- be p l a n n e d and decisions reached in this time. Therefore,
40 A p p l i e d P r o c e s s D e s i g n for C h e m i c a l and Petrochemical Plants

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Figure 1-34A. Process engineering manhours accumulation pattern: Project A. By permission, E. E. Ludwig [7].

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=|' +ill; t

~-.;, ;::. . . . . j~ ~t:+:'~:i~: ::"::[]~+[1',!!f i~ ~I I~ ill' ' i" ! 'I
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. ++ ; ; ;. : . ,J,,,
i iJ,"+~. i. .i .i . . ... i_+;i
. ii+;-
.~ ;m-+-~_~_H._l__l__
,. , . : : .i-o-+:i i Oil 1 .... I |
_ _ - : II i : i I i1( I I I i ! ! 1
.... i~ii
-r!!! !!+ l+l
' '+*"+
llli+ 5z:u-+_+-: ~ ~ ~ !!+
! ! i
+! :
ll I 1 1
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I i I I
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- - :
........ ''" i~ iJ+ ~::: iJ i, ~ i i ~ .: '
9 ,

. . . . . . .
: i

. . . . . . . . . . .
I I 1!
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
!!!! !!i till iii iiiiii.++Fl~ ' i ~TT-!!
4+ ~ - - f - i ~..LI-I-~

: : :~ :T!~-:I i li i+i ' i!! I,!~++_L ~++L:- : 7f4-t-H

: : ::
: :: ;;: ;+:; ,; . . . . . . . . . . . i +~t- +~ ! ~--
-i iii
: : :: -,-.~
.+-77.-4'.- ----7-1______-: .... ., - . . . . . + "~-'-7
. . . i t__~
. .r,,~-'. n.~ . . [- -'--~--: :'-+ ,
g-i .... ' ....... X,-I-I- Ti iti~ ii +++~+~'++ :++' ! ''-~ ~ '
~ ~.,~ [ ! I i ~ ~ ~i Cumulative Man- houri Frequency, Per Cent ' + ' '-~I
I i-I-l-i ;: , .....
0 ili, Ill!! t [ I ~ I lil illiltl+,ii."F171+l-rT-T]7-T-7-.T-I.'.]]llll!i-II I ! i i I i----1 ~:~.i i i ! ,itil l
0.Ol 0.05 0.1 0'2 0:5 I 2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 98 99 99.5 99,8 99.9 .... lltt.N

Figure 1-34B. Process engineering manhours accumulation pattern: Project B. By permission, E. E. Ludwig [7].

the m e n could not be kept busy. It will be necessary to Typical Man-Hour Patterns
spread out the time, using fewer engineers.
Figures 1-34, A, B, C illustrate accumulation patterns
for the process engineering man-hours of a few typical
For a twelve weeks program: projects. In general the smaller the project and the better
defined the scope, the more the pattern of Project B is
approached. Projects A or C represent the larger projects
Average no. engineers required = = 3.97_--4 where there may be changes in plant capacity or location,
(12) (32)
as well as a concurrent pilot plant research program to
Peak man power _=_3.97 x 1.67 = 6.6, use 7 men continually obtain a better answer. The slow-down por-
tions of the curves can be accounted for as significant
changes in the process or process-related factors. In gen-
Near peak manpower requirements will be n e e d e d eral, most large (six months or longer) process engineer-
from 30 to 50 percent of the total time schedule, unless ing projects undergo significant changes by the time 50
other factors influence the timing. percent of the project has b e e n c o m p l e t e d . T h e s e
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 41

n I HI I N H I aim i I 9149 H i illlN inUlin nmnnlmmmm lNliUl i i l l l i i n IIIInnl/

in INHI INIH uNnnN IIIHIIINI m i n i mmlnnuunmu l U N m n i I i anon m a i m
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III llllimi|l lUl in unnnn nu 9 amman ulunniil m m i m m m i m m n n m m m n n u m i m I H U i 9
iii IIIN llllllIl I umi im nmmm 9 mmmmm m m i m u unman n n n u n nmmmim u m i n l n n m m mal 9 B i n lalHn mum~nl
i l l n l l l inn
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in Bill!ilia| n i 9149 mmuHmm m i n i m l9 m~'.~..dm i a m i nmimmlmlmi immn mmllillmmlm lIIimimimm
mmmm l m i m m H U n luamman-, H a H N mmumu iMP. Imam u i l m n n i n m n u m munro mllmll!nmlmiimm=
It m H D H I imm m i l m a n n a mum. i,".inmmmmm u m m m l l n m n l a m m m m m m H m n l u m l n n n n
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I 9 ~IIIHI I imimmmmmmammmnmmi, m nmimlmnmmm mmmmmulnunnllmu uumiimlmullllmummui
20 - ~ II U l I I H N I I
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m mamma mamma Blip. 9 Hum mamma nmmama i n
mmmnn mamma a i m
m H n i m a m
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I =~.=...-=====.,=,,.,.,,,,== 9
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m- -a- , n, . = , =i = l0 =i m n i
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I~II~NI IM_M!!!9
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~NI |H~ I
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i. ,1111'1P" .=_=m.=.----.=
m n m l ~ m n m H i H m m m n m m m H l l i
...,,,,,~.. =. =.--
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II ~ n i IHII I d uinii imDmml ~ m imlmIliDmmmmi m m u i n i l i n m m m e o H i m i n H n i n H H i
II I N I I I I ~ I I _m~II IHN Ul. N I l N 9 mmmmmmlnlmm i9149 mnmiin a m m a n I m m m u m
i I I ~ n m_N U N mmlmmm a l b u m ummmmmmmm9 n i m m m nliimmmlll mmmlumm~mll aummui~
mu I I N I I H I I I I m a n n a m m m i i l , limmmm nubia naaman m i m m m m i n 9 moummmumnmmu mmamlmmmmlli
I m 9149 mamma 9 9 mamma u n m a n m i u m i n l m ~ m m m i | | m m m ulmlu ninmmnm unmummmmmnm
II I ' " ' ' " '
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I = ,ill ilill .... :''r~;:;l I I 9
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-+~.~- ~, -~ -+-
+,..' ~-~-;, i ll~
i-+ ! + ~--' i 1' i.l .i l. . =1" I ~ l i. . .~,. .I. . T I , I Nil: : I
~ +_L.. . ...,,r._u, ~ ~ ~ .... - ,~,,,i,,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I ,~i+ ...
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--.-~- ..-..:q~+4~44~-i',I iii!!ii iLl',t.. ~i :!i ~i;i + Ii I inI tI l.l !~l - H -I ~ i i i ~" H If i i
Ill I1111 i l~r" i i 1111 i 1
~ - {.mli.i.. Min.kiir, Feoq~onc#, Pit ~ t ' ;;;~iii i i i
o ~ -i-I-.i-- --,,,,,,,,,,,,,-,-TT-,-,-.',...................... +,++,~iiiiiiii :, ; i Iwi ~ , ni ni~l ivl ~l ! 1 1~ i i
~ ] .... i i
O.01 O.0l 0.1 0.2 0.6 1 2 5 1O 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 96 99 99.5 '99.8 09.9 N.N

Figure 1-34C. Process engineering manhours accumulation pattern: Project C. By permission, E. E. Ludwig [7].

changes may not be setbacks, but they are reflected in the includes complete process engineering, equipment speci-
ability of the project to properly utilize the available engi- fications, flowsheets, detailed complete plant drawings,
neering manpower in the "normal" manner. purchasing and expediting. The lower curve represents
Figure 1-35 presents some typical monthly require- only the process engineering including material and heat
ments of process engineering for projects of different balances, equipment specifications, flowsheets, plot plan
magnitudes. In some organizations the schedule is set by and elevations, and cost estimate. The middle curve cov-
the available manpower, and does not always represent all ers the balance of all engineering detailing, purchasing
that could be accomplished if a limitless supply of quali- and expediting.
fied manpower were available.
In some cases, they may be anticipated by a knowledge
A summary of process engineering costs as they are
of the status of the process data prior to the start of engi-
related to total erected plant costs is shown in Figure 1-36.
neering activity. The larger projects are somewhat easier
The process engineering man-hour requirements are
to group than the smaller ones. Process engineering is not
related to total engineering for the project in Figure 1-37.
always handled as completely for the small jobs. This is to
These data are based on the operation of a complete
say that flowsheets may be simplified, detailed equipment
process engineering section in the engineering depart-
and line schedules may not be required, and the over-all
ment of a relatively large petrochemical plant complex.
project can be completely visualized at the outset, which
Since the assignment of responsibility varies with compa-
is not the case with large projects.
ny policy and types of processes, this information is rea-
sonably valid only for the particular plant relationship. It Figure 1-39 illustrates that for average capital expendi-
should establish order of magnitude information for tures of $10-30 million per year covering the very small
other related operations. By studying the progress history hundred thousand dollar to very large ($5-8 million) pro-
of the individual projects, the major deviations from a so- jects, the process engineering work leads the expendi-
called average straight-forward job can be recognized. tures in a somewhat regular pattern by about three calen-
Figure 1-38 is reasonably typical of fixed-fee costs as dar quarters. This actual lead interval is a function of a
charged by contract engineering organizations. The top company policy in scheduling its projects. The curves are
curve representing the total engineering and related costs believed representative for an aggressive program.
42 Applied Process Design for C h e m i c a l and P e t r o c h e m i c a l Plants


/ ~ .o1~EcT,! !~,o...qo.oc...~..;.,s
: I!LI I

/ '"'T..!c~176 wi'" 7
-~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ - . . - . ~_ , J
J F M A M J J A S O N O J V M A M J J A S 0 N
/\ !
/ ",q
=E 0
J F M A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M- J J A S 0 N
/\ l I I "'I l I I
l l l I I l l ,

/" \
f I I I l.! 1 I I I I ! I
/ \/\

/' \
,oo /
0 '
J F M A M d J A S 0 N O J F M A M J J A S

,. , w.,.,
, , , ,

/\iv /\

1500 I ! !


0 I000 ~\ \ ! I I !
Z 750 r
/ \
:S 500
/ \
250 . . . .
I / %

J F M A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J J A S 0
150 - i i I I I t I I I I i ! I
I J I I i, I 1 l 1 t 1


J F M A M J J A S 0 N D J F M A M J J A S 0

Figure 1-35. Process engineering manpower requirements by project and by months from start. By permission, E. E. Ludwig [7].

equipment will usually be reflected in efficient handling
for the project when the bulk of the general engineering
The principal factor which runs the process engineer- manpower is assigned to the detailed work. When deci-
ing man-hours over expected time for a "straight sions are made at the time of the need, all concerned can
through" project is the comparison studies of equipment produce to the most benefit of the project. If the basic
or process schemes when compared to the relatively sim- process can be designed and the flowsheet approved prior
ple and limited work after the decisions are made. to initiating the detailed mechanical, structural and elec-
Any rushed program of process engineering develop- trical engineering, the project usually runs well through-
ment will usually be inefficient in manpower for certain out the department. This situation is more likely to occur
parts of the work. Thus lead time for proper thinking and in a contractor organization than a producing company
evaluation of significant process schemes and types of engineering department.
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 43

The schedule of projects must often be adjusted to
reflect the influence of the key decision maker assigned to
Process Engineering, [ [
Data of James P. O'Donnel, I the work. If he requires complete detailed figures before
Chem. Eng. 60, No. 1, p. 188-90 (1953)
reaching any decision, time will necessarily be consumed.
1 On the other hand if he applies judgment and experience
Project Engineering (ref. al~oveJ I
(not including Process Engineering) to the basic factors (less details), then the over-all direc-
tion of the project can be continually pointed in a prof-
I~IlH l l itable direction in the minimum of time. In reality actual
IHIH I ', "multipliers" are often applied to the time schedule of a
IHH \ ',
project to reflect the type of decision-maker involved.
Based on Process Engineering
Charged at $7.00 per Man-Hour
~ , ~ ~,'~ Chemical Plant Engineering Operations Assignment of Personnel
f (Updated 1:75 to $14.00/Hr.) I

$1,000,000 JlIIV ! VI k " It is important to plan ahead for the proper assignment
lq~l ! . ~ of qualified engineers to various projects as they arise.
Jobs cannot be assigned on an unconsidered basis; that is,
II 1r AI II Mi ll l ll l /ml | ll l l
m ' m m each lead or principal process engineer and others in his
I l'4'l 9 l l m l l l l m group on a project must be selected for their (1) basic
IrA I r l l l I I l m Z l
ability to understand the process under consideration, (2)
background know-how, (3) design ability for the equip-
ment involved, and (4) compatibility with the project
engineer and other key decision making representatives
with whom they will be in daily contact.
\ There are two approaches to developing qualified per-
"% sonnel:

1. The generalist approach--each process engineer
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Percent of Erected Plant Cost becomes competent over-all with preferential areas
of specialization. With this approach, all personnel
Figure 1-36. Process engineering costs (1975), based on process
are urged to study and keep up to date in order to
engineering charged at $14 per manhour. Chemical plant engineer-
ing operations, includes flowsheet development and drafting, mater- handle any type of project. This simplifies the assign-
ial and heat balances, equipment designs, ratings, checking, and bid ment of the men, since there are more chances of
reviews and selection of equipment. By permission, E. E. Ludwig [7].
El Large Projects or Major Addition# to
Existing Facilities
-- _- o Small Projects,Small Addition# to
Existing Facilities
I ~=
Notes iPoints (I),(2),(3] and Similar
L Represent Large Projects
0 Which ore =Duplicates= or
r I0000
I Nearly so, of known Facilities.
Points (4),(5) and Similar
.c_ Represent Large Projects
ClJ Where All Research or other
._ Decisions not Available as
Needed for Normal Job
~- 1,000
9 ,e B m m m ; I s l m

l # [ l l , 'I ~ I m l l 1 I 1 l l ~lol~ ~ ~_ l l
I1 / ~-"%ZL 1 ll klo.l ~ 1 IZ Ill L1 I~ 11/1
Figure 1-37. Process engi-
neering manhours for new
construction or major addi- I / I / I l l / I l l / m i l l ,oo I
tions to existing facilities and 100 I I i I l ! i I ITCH, I
0 2 4 6 8 I0 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 46 50 60
small projects. By permis-
sion, E. E. Ludwig [7]. Percent Process Engineering Manhours
44 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

22~ t [ Note: This Guide will vary with the

20 !!. I |. particular organization and the
"- ~J~k [ l type of pr~ inv~
18 ~'! ,1 !. . . . Generally applicable to chemical
0 16 l)~ll~" [ and petroleum type projects, but
"~ ! / ~ [ [~1J not to industrial manufacturing
~ 14r ! \~""~ projects. -
= | IV/ i11 ,, Total Cost for (A) + (B) I I I
_c "~ 121 ~V' / ~ 1 I1~-,," I I I l !

. E ~ 10 i . J I !1 -
~1 9 .--.~'~"= /' / [/ / / , -; . . z zz~.= z= =, , I

~ .. ~)% Engineering Drawings, I ! J

Purchasing and Expediting
~ 1 7 6
~ Process Engineering ,
I i ]
2 2 64 8 10 12 14 16 18
Estimated Plant Cost, X 106, Dollars (1975), Figure 1-38. Estimating fixed engineer-
not including Engineering Fees or Construction Overhead ing fees.

Calendar Quarters
1953 1954 1955
I0 I ~I 111" ~r I 11" 111" I~ I 11" wr "IV
[ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ I I Note : The Time lnterval for Log
/ / / / / / / / I I or Lead is o Function of
i / / / / / / / / / CompanyPractice in
~~ ~ ~ ~. ~. ~. ~. ~. ~ ~ Scheduling New Projects.

0 I 7r ]E I~ I Ir ~II IE I ~i m ~E
1953 1954 1955 Figure 1-39. Process design man-
Calendar Quarters hours versus capital expenditures.

having some available who are relatively strong in becomes an expert in a single field, or if reasonable,
the needed specialties of a particular job. This does in a broad range of related topics. Each problem for
not require that projects or specific designs be lined design or study for every project of the particular
up waiting for the specialist. With over-all good gen- type passes to the specialist for detailed handling of
eral knowledge by each m e m b e r of the group there design, specification, and evaluation. His work passes
is better appreciation for the exchange of views and into the project and he turns to another assignment
understanding of specific design problems. on the same or some other project.

2. The specialist approach--each process engineer

becomes a specialist in one or more related fields. In general, the specialist may often be much more of
Even in this arrangement some over-all general an expert in a particular subject under this system than
process engineers are needed to cover and tie togeth- under the generalist approach, and consequently more
er the areas handled by the specialist. Each specialist depth into the pertinent factors of a problem may come
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 45

to light for evaluation. By contrast it is easy to make a wig [ 19]. A general check list of factors which usually need
career of even a small assignment when the field of inter- reviewing for the proper layout considerations of chemical
est is narrow and the over-all project perspective is not and petrochemical plants is given in Table 1-11.
clearly in view. There are many other factors which affect project plan-
When the work load is low, it is important to have other ning as it is related to process engineering. However,
assignments for these men. This is the time to develop these are usually peculiar to the process or objective of
standards for: the project. On first glance some of the items listed in
Table 1-11 may appear to be unrelated to the process
1. Design of various types and items of e q u i p m e n t engineering requirements, and this can be the case for
2. Methods of practice and general details some types of projects. In these situations they become
3. Electronic computer programs for these design stan- more of a project engineering responsibility. However, in
dards many cases these have a relationship either to the process
4. Evaluation of field data. engineering requirements or to the decisions which must
take this into account.
These should all be viewed from the long range and
repetitive value to the group effort. The individuals who Cost Estimates
develop these standards in effect become specialists if
they handle the assignment in good detail. Although this chapter is not intended to present the
total details on preparation of capital or p r o d u c t i o n /
Plant Layout o p e r a t i n g / m a n u f a c t u r i n g cost estimates, it is worthwhile
and helpful to provide some usable current references for
The final plant layout combines the various engineer- the engineer who for many situations will be called on to
ing considerations for soil conditions; drainage; railroad, provide total estimates or contribute to their develop-
truck and services access; raw materials receiving; waste ment. As a guide to information, procedure and neces-
materials removal; climate effect on outdoor versus indoor sary data, references [10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24,
operations and on types of structures; prevailing wind 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 34] can be useful, but they are
direction for vent as well as climatic moisture; corrosion; not all-inclusive, nor do they take the place of a thorough
plant expansion and growth; access to public, and many book on cost estimating for chemical and petrochemical
other general evaluation points. From these broad consid- plants. One of the most difficult problems is locating reli-
erations the details are developed to suit the particular able up-to-date capital costs for e q u i p m e n t (see [43]). It
plant process and the combined effects of the location. is not "safe" to escalate or update by indexes [42] for costs
The process engineer has an important responsibility that are more than six years old, and certainly not over
in site selection as well as plant layout, since many of the ten years old.
decisions regarding physical location of buildings and The details of the preparation of cost estimates will not
associated equipment require a knowledge of what is tak- be covered. However, it is important to recognize that the
ing place in the operation as well as the hazardous factors process engineer plays a key role in estimate develop-
of explosion, fire, toxicity, etc. The process engineer is ment. From a first draft flowsheet and a preliminary plot
usually called upon to describe the process requirements plan, a preliminary cost estimate can be prepared by the
and limitation to the other engineers--civil, structural, "factoring" or equivalent method. This basically accumu-
mechanical, electrical, and instrument. By progressively lates the individual costs of each item of major e q u i p m e n t
discussing the process each of the others can note the and then multiplies by an experience factor to produce
requirements which might affect the normal or routine one or all of (1) total plant cost installed with or without
design approach to each phase of the project. This review overhead costs (2) piping installed (3) e q u i p m e n t
must not be limited to the design aspects of the engi- installed. For accuracy, these factors must be developed
neering but rather must describe how the plant is to oper- from actual plant costs, and are often peculiar to a specif-
ate and how product is to be shipped, stored, etc. ic type of construction or engineering approach to the
After the project begins to take shape and preliminary project. That is, they may be a function of a "poor-boy"
layouts of the over-all as well as sections of the plant are par- job, turn-key job, middle-of-the road, or "gold-plated'job.
tially complete, design work by the other phases of engi- These types are peculiar to either the engineering con-
neering will require the answering of questions as well as tractor, the customer or to both. The factor of 2.5 to 6.0
evaluating details of a particular phase as they are related usually covers most petrochemical processing plants. This
to the process performance. Some useful considerations factor times the costs of major equipment (pumps, com-
for selected details are given by Thompson [17] and Lud- pressors, tanks, columns, exchangers) but not instru-
46 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

T a b l e 1-11
Layout and Process Development Engineering Check-List

SITE (AssuMEs SITE SELECTED) and methods of shipment (trailer truck, box car, tank car, hop-
per or special car). Consider in-transit and turnaround time
I. Ground contour and its relation to general orientation of build- to determine number in use.
ings and equipment.
2. Drainage and waste disposal, details to prevent erosion.
3. Set plant elevations: floor elevations of buildings and bottom of
steel footings for equipment and large storage tanks. 1. Use of models.
4. Location of any existing or probable locations for new railroads, 2. Maintenance considerations associated with each building,
roads, power lines and power sources, telephone lines, water sup- process area and equipment. Consider (a) access for cranes and
ply, residential a n d / o r industrial buildings or structures. trucks (b) work space for local repairs (c) operating conditions
of adjacent parts of process to allow local repairs.
5. Legal Requirements and Permits.
a. Rights of way for pipe crossing of road, highway, railroad, 3. Initial construction sequence and problems.
rivers, canals, etc. 4. Materials of construction for buildings.
b. Easements for pipe lines, power lines, etc. 5. Roads: paving, width.
c. C.A.A. approval on airports, and for construction and paint-
ing of structures in certain areas in airport vicinity. 6. Basic pattern for concrete, gravel or asphalt paving or work
floors in operating and adjacent areas.
d. Underground storage wells for chemical and hydrocarbon
products. 7. Fencing.
e. Railroad approval of road crossings, additions to existing 8. Plant guard or security system.
facilities, automatic railroad gates, required state and railroad
f. Navigable stream requirements and permits. ELECTRICAL AND FIRE HAZARDS
1. Define plant areas handling hazardous and lethal materials and
CLIMATE set rules for design considerations, such as ventilation, explosion
walls, etc. Flammable storage materials may require enclosed
I. Prevailing wind; locate hazardous vents, burning flares, waste dikes, foam systems and the like. Refer to National Board of
burning pits, waste settling ponds down-wind of plant proper. Fire Underwriters or specific insurance company to coordinate
2. Nature of climate. Consider seasonal and daily temperature recommended protection. Attaway 1 has details on many points
variations, dust, fog, tornados, hurricanes, earthquakes. Define to consider.
duration of conditions for design. Determine from U.S. Weather 2. Define plant areas requiring explosion-proof, drip-proof and
Bureau yearly statistics for above, as well as rainfall. Establish open motor and associated electrical components. Refer to Na-
if conditions for earthquakes, hurricanes prevail. For stormy tional Electrical Code and National Electrical Manufacturer's
conditions, structural design for 100 miles per hour winds Association Standards.
usually sufficient. For hurricanes, winds of 125 miles per hour
may be design basis. 3. Define areas and buildings to use wet and dry sprinkler systems,
foam systems, location of hand and hose fire extinguishers, fire
3. Corrosion. Plants located close (within 100 feet) to seas, oceans, carts, fire engines.
bays, lakes encounter more severe corrosion than if located one-
fourth mile or more away. Some highly industrial areas are 4. Define location of fire walls, fire hydrants.
more corrosive than rural or non-industrial locations. Additional 5. Review layout for fire equipment access, and secondary and
details are presented by Mears. 1'~ emergency exit roads from each area.
4. Pollution of Air and water. Determine allowable limits for 6. Review entire fire and other hazards program with insurance
atmospheric vent as well as liquid wastes. Consider neutraliza- representatives. Industrial insurance companies have excellent
tion. Determine federal, state and local regulations and effect of facilities for evaluating the associated problems.
climatic conditions on dispersion.


1. Special design problems for emergency handling of dangerous
I. Sources and methods of transportation and packaging. or lethal materials.
a. Water: potable, service, brackish, sea or ocean, cooling tower.
2. Safety as it is reflected in factors of safety in design of pressure
b. Steam: condensate disposal, feed-water make-up vessels, pressure testing of piping and vessels, etc. Use of A.P.I.,
c. Gas: (1) Process; may not be odorized A.S.M.E. and ASA Codes; Code Stamps on equipment.
(2) Fuel; odorized 3. Areas requiring safety showers and eye wash stations.
d. Oil: fuel, lubrication (or Liquefied Petroleum Gas)
4. Design and selection philosophy for use of safety devices for
e. Air, (1) Utility pressure relief and alarm.
(2) Instrument; must be dry below lowest equivalent
dew point to prevent moisture condensation and 5. Inside block valves on acid and caustic storage vessels.
freezing. 6. Emergency power and other facilities to control safe operation
f. Power or shut-down.
2. Warehouse receiving and storage: drums, boxes, carboys for raw
processing materials as well as laboratory control and testing
chemicals. FUTURE GROWTH
1. Define areas of future growth and associated space requirements.
PRODUCT SHIPMENTS 2. Correlate future expansion plans to required utilities and raw
materials as related to economics of required installation.
I. Conditions for pipe line transfer of product to user or customer.
2. Warehouse conditions for bagging, boxing, crating, palletizing 3. Consider spare equipment, present and future.
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 47

ments will give total plant costs. The plant will include Pa = Cost of plant or section of plant of original capac-
usual control buildings, structure, foundations, overhead ity "a."
charges, construction fees, engineering costs, etc. A value Cb = Capacity of plant or section of new requirements.
of 4.0 is usually quite good. Ca = Capacity of plant or section of original requirements.
The process designer must be aware of costs as reflect-
ed in the (1) selection of a basic process route (2) the This is applicable for any given year of installation but
equipment to be used in the process and (3) the details does not correct for the differences in cost from year to
incorporated into the equipment. The designer must not year. This is conveniently done as described in the section
arbitrarily select equipment, specify details or set pressure for year indices. Experience has indicated that this six-
levels for design without recognizing the relative effect on tenths rule is reasonably accurate for capacity scale-up of
the specific cost of an item as well as associated equip- individual items of equipment. Thus, if the cost of one size
ment such as relieving devices, instruments, etc. of a piece of equipment is known, an estimating figure for
With more and better information regarding the one twice as large can be found by multiplying by (2) 0.6.
process and layout plans, estimating engineers can pre-
The most difficult feature of this m e t h o d is that for
pare detailed estimates which are often quite accurate,
each type of plant or plant product as well as for each type
usually +10 percent for the best. It is the duty of the
of equipment there is a break-point where the 0.6 no
process designer to supply the best information in order
longer correlates the change in capacity. For small equip-
to contribute to better or improved estimates.
ment or plants in reasonable pilot or semi-works size, the
Estimating equipment costs is a specialty field in itself.
slope of the cost curve increases and the cost ratio is
Therefore, the estimator must have access to continuous-
greater than 0.6, sometimes 0.75, 0.8 or 0.9. From several
ly updated basic reference costs and to graphical costs
cost values for respective capacities a log-log plot of capac-
relations which are a function of capacity of this equip-
ity versus cost will indicate the proper exponent by the
ment. Page's [10] Estimator's Manual of Equipment and
slope of the resultant curve. Extrapolation beyond eight
Installation Costs is a helpful reference. Since the equip-
or ten fold is usually not too accurate.
ment is only a portion of the total cost of a plant, or an
addition to a chemical project, installation costs which
reflect the labor portion of the total cost must also be Yearly Cost Indices
determined. Useful and comprehensive data for such
needs are presented for equipment [10], general con- The three most used cost indices for the chemical,
struction [11], heating, air-conditioning, ventilating, petrochemical, and refining industry for relating the cost
plumbing [12], piping [13], electrical [14] and all disci- level of a given year or m o n t h to a reference point are
plines [42] in the references indicated.
From such information even the inexperienced esti- 1. Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index [42]. Probably
mator can establish an approximation of the costs, pro- the most commonly used cost adjusting index print-
vided he adequately visualizes the work functions and e d / u p d a t e d monthly is in Chemical Engineering Mag-
steps involved. From the same type of work reference, the azine and has established continuity over many years.
experienced estimator can develop a realistic cost, usual- Its breakdown c o m p o n e n t costs apply to plants and
ly expressed with certain contingencies to allow for plant equipment/systems.
unknown factors and changing conditions. The profes-
2. Marshall and Swift Equipment Cost Index [57]. Com-
sional estimator will normally develop cost charts and
monly used for process industry equipment and
tables peculiar to the nature of his responsibilities and
index numbers presented by industries in Chemical
requirements of his employer.
Engineering Magazine on a monthly basis.
Six-Tenths Factor 3. Nelson Index [58]. This is generally suited to petrole-
um refining plants and is referenced to them. It is
This factor as presented by Chilton [4] has been used updated and published regularly in The Oil and Gas
for scale-up of total or segments of plant cost. Journal.

These indices are used to up-date costs when values at

C b 10.6 some date are known. The new costs are of estimating
Pb = Pa ~'~"a )
accuracy and should be verified whenever possible, just as
the results of using the 0.6 power for correlating cost and
where Pb = Cost of plant or section of plant of new capacity "b." capacity.
48 Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

l/ie/ Return =
(Gross savings -Depreciation x Investment ) (1-Federal Tax )
where index value for year represented by 2, (usually
12 = Example 1-2: Justifiable Investment For Annual
current) Savings [6]
I] - index value for earlier year represented by 1.
E C 2 = equipment estimated cost for year represented
Find the justifiable investment for a gross annual sav-
by2. ings of $15,000 when a return of 10% and a depreciation
EC1 = equipment purchased cost (when available) for
rate of 15 percent are specified.
year represented by 1.

1. From Figure 1'40, connect scales A and B.

2. From the intersection with the C scale, connect a
line to the D scale.
3. At the intersection of line (2) with the inclined
Return on Investment investment scale, E, read that a $43,000 investment is
justified to save $15,000 gross per year.
The proper evaluation of costs as they affect the selec-
tion of processes and e q u i p m e n t is not included in this Accounting Coordination
book. However, it is important to emphasize that every
process engineer must be cognizant of the relationships. All new plants as well as changes to existing facilities
There are several methods to evaluate return on invested and plants must be coordinated with a cost accounting
money, and the n o m o g r a p h of Figure 1-40 represents one. system. Often the building, services and utilities, and site
It is a useful guide [6] to estimate the order of magnitude development must be separated cost-wise from each
of a return on an expenditure to gain savings in labor other. Each company has reason and need for various
a n d / o r material costs. The n o m o g r a p h is used to deter- arrangements in order to present proper information for
mine the investment justified by a gross annual savings, tax purposes and depreciation. Although the project engi-
assuming a percent return, a percent annual depreciation neer is usually responsible for this phase of coordination
charge, and a 50 percent Federal tax on net savings. through the engineering groups, it is often necessary that

50- o -25

4O - 5,ooo -20

,?..% X q ~
.=l ,=.=
e= c

30- ~- .Ooo./ -,o,oo~. -i~ o" t.


oo / .... ....=.. e-

t. +=- / c.,.l _ - - " - .9

~o.o'~176 ..- .o_


20- ~,o 'Oo./...-'" o

'~,Oo.'~ ( 2L ......... ,s,ooo -I0 ~.

7 o,~/. . . . . . . . . . .
~ , qpo~
~ -2o,ooo -5
Figure 1-40. Annual saving, return, and depreciation of
fixed adjustable investment. By permission, G. A. Lar-
0~ 625,000 ~0 son [6].
Process Planning, Scheduling and Flowsheet Design 49

Plant Block Limit Lines----~

Plant Block 9 New SteamLine
to StorarjeTanks Plant Block 16
Water AccountNo.6001
Distribution I /

AccountNo.6013 New 50% Caustic

~ Caustic Transfer L i n e ._[/////!
.. f l Bldg.No.96 A c c o u ~ / / ~ ~

"~Additional Evaporation New Caustic'Storage / |

Capacity Plus In-Plant Tanks,3-70 D.X 40', / ~/.~//~ Dock 3
Storage. Also All Intra- AccountNo.8531 / /
Black Service Lines, / i , 1 Figure 1-41. Account diagram for accumulation of
Account No.6014 LNew Loading Dock
and Line, project costs. Cost estimates must be made to con-
Account No. 8532 form to same scope basis.

the process e n g i n e e r present p r o p e r breakdown details, 18. Warren, C. W., "How to Read Instrument Flow Sheets, Part I
and these then serve to coordinate the cost breakdowns. and II," Hydrocarbon Processing54, No. 7, 1975, p. 163 and No.
Figure 1-41 is an example of such an accounting diagram. 9, 1975, p. 191.
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