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International

Volume   Journal
II Number 2 2011for Environmental Rehabilitation and Conservation
[23-28]
Volume III No.
[ISSN 0975 2 2012 [38 – 61]
- 6272] [ISSN 0975 - 6272] 

Studies on the diatom flora of North Maharashtra Region: Genus


– Caloneis, Neidium, Diploneis, Stauroneis, Anomoeneis

K.D. Mahajan

Received: May 28, 2012 ⏐ Accepted: September 26, 2012 ⏐ Online: December 25, 2012

Abstract
Diatoms are ubiquitous and form quite an by twenty nine species from only North
important group in the aquatic ecosystems. Maharashtra, hitherto unexplored area. The
Diatoms can be easily distinguished from total forty two diatom taxa were reported from
almost all other algal groups by their silicified different localities of North Maharashtra
walls. Every collection of water whether region, from the rivers, dams, nala, lakes,
freshwater, marine, polluted or even ordinary ponds, streams, ditches and several water
drinking water and moist soil invariably bodies as the diatoms are cosmopolitan in
contains diatoms. They are common organisms habitat.
in polluted waters. They are regarded
indicators of pollution. Introduction
Though earlier workers have paid attention on In India, the pioneer work was done by
taxonomy of diatoms in Maharashtra, but Venkatraman (1939, 1940, 1969) on diatoms.
North Maharashtra region is unexplored He gave a systematic account of south Indian
regarding to taxonomy of diatoms. In present Diatoms. Gonzalves (1947) was probably the
study the genus Caloneis, Neidium, Diploneis, first to record the Diatoms from Maharashtra.
Stauroneis, Anomoeneis which are represented Gonzalves and Gandhi (1952 – 1954) gave a
systematic account of the Diatoms of Bombay.
Keywords: Biodiversity⏐ Algae ⏐ Pinnales ⏐   Gandhi (1959, 1962, 1967) made the
                         Diatom ⏐ contribution to our knowledge of fresh water
For correspondence: Diatoms of India. Sarode and Kamat (1984)

Department of Botany, P. R. High School Society’s Arts, studied fresh water diatoms of Maharashtra.
Commerce and Science College, Dharangaon (M.S.),India

Studies on the diatom flora of North Maharashtra Region


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The present investigation is the outcome of This is then mounted in Canada balsam. The
studies on the genus- Caloneis, Neidium, slide is then observed under microscope. Line
Diploneis, Stauroneis, Anomoeneis from North drawings are made with the help of Camera
Maharashtra region, from different habitats of Lucida. All drawings are under oil immersion.
different localities. All the taxa of the genus Caloneis, Neidium,
Materials and Methods Diploneis, Stauroneis, Anomoeneis are
Algal samples were collected from different identified by using standard monograph and
localities of North Maharashtra region or recent literature (Gandhi 1957, 1959, 1962;
Khandesh comprises of three districts – Hustedt 1930; Sarode and Kamat, 1984).
Jalgaon, Dhule and Nandurbar. The present
investigation pertains to nearly 24 places in Results and Discussion
their respective districts. Covering all habitats In present investigation forty two species of
like rivers, ponds, dams, lakes, streams, the genus Caloneis, Neidium, Diploneis,
ditches, barrages, from high altitudes like Stauroneis, Anomoeneis were recorded in
Toranmal, big dams like Hatnoor dam and North Maharashtra region. Such taxonomical
Malangaon dam. Also, collections were made study shows thirty two total taxa of the genus
from epilithic, epiphytic, epipsammonic, and in which 1 variety is newly reported as-
epipelic habitats. Collections as far as possible Stauroneis anceps Ehr. v. nova.
are made through out the year. Smol’s method
SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNT:
was used for isolation of diatoms. One ml. of
Caloneis Cleve
wet sediment from each sample was placed in
1. Caloneis aequatorialis Hustedt v. tugelae
centrifuge tube and 1 % Hydrochloric acid was
Cholnoky (Pl. 1, Fig. 1)
added to remove carbonates and avoids the
Cholnoky 1956, p. 58, f. 7-10
formation of Calcium Sulphate. Samples were
Valves 30- 36.3 µm long, 2.42- 6 µm
then washed several times before they were
broad, linear lanceolate, somewhat inflated
mixed with 1% solution of Sulphuric acid in
in the middle, very slightly constricted
which Potassium dichromate had been
towards both the ends; ends broadly
dissolved (10 ml: 1 gm) in order to remove
rounded; raphe thin with distinct central
organic matter. After five days, the samples
pores and curved terminal fissures; axial
were boiled for one hour to remove any final
area broad; central area large, reaching the
residue. Then samples were washed with
margins; striae 22-24 in 10 µm, fine.
distilled water for eight times. This washed
sample is then placed in a drop of 70% alcohol.

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Distribution in India: Aurangabad Kamat, 1983a); Kolhapur, Dhule, Mahad


(Sarode and Kamat, 1984). (Sarode and Kamat, 1984).
Locality: Tamaswadi Dam (Parola). Locality: Dhule.

2. Caloneis amphisbaena (Bory) Cleve 4. Caloneis beccariana Grun.

(Pl. 1, Fig. 2) (Pl. 1, Fig. 4)


Hustedt 1930, p. 230, f. 346 Cholnoky 1956, p.59, f.11, 12
Valves 64.24 µm long, 21.9 µm broad, Valves 30- 51 µm long, 7.1- 9 µm broad,
decidedly lanceolate or elliptical, axial area lanceolate to linear lanceolate, somewhat
expanded mostly with the central area to inflated in the middle, with constricted
form a lanceolate margin very large forms capitate to subcapitate, broadly rounded
with about 20-21 stripes in 10 µm, central ends; axial area fairly wide; central area
area circular, valves almost under 100 µm quite large and reaching the margins,
long, structure finer, central area rhombish. sometimes more widened on one side than
Locality: Karwand Dam (Shirpur). the other; striae 21-23 in 10 µm,
conspicuously radial but clearly convergent
3. Caloneis bacillum (Grun.)
at the ends, crossed by a fine longitudinal
Mereschkowsky (Pl. 1, Fig. 3)
line near the margin.
Hustedt 1930, p. 236, f. 360 a-c
Distribution in India: Osmanabad,
Valves 37.4- 40 µm long, 8.5- 8.7 µm
Aurangabad (Sarode and Kamat, 1979);
broad, linear to linear lanceolate with broad
Wardha, Gangapur (Sarode and Kamat,
rounded ends; raphe thin and straight with
1983a); Kolhapur, Nagpur, Pavnar, Jalna,
slightly unilaterally bent central pores;
Bhir, Paithan, Bhusaval, Jalgaon, Dhule
axial area moderate, linear lanceolate;
(Sarode and Kamat, 1984); Srinagar
central area wide reaching the sides; striae
(Nautiyal and Singh, 1996).
22-24 in 10 µm, slightly radial, becoming
Locality: Suki River (Raver), Suki Dam
perpendicular towards the ends; striae
(Raver), Mor River (Yawal).
crossed by a fine longitudinal line near the
margin. 5. Caloneis clevei (Lagst.) Cleve

Distribution in India: Lonavala (Gandhi, (Pl. 1, Fig. 5)

1962b); Pali, Jalna, Osmanabad (Sarode Hustedt 1930, p. 236, f. 359

and Kamat, 1979); Nagpur (Sarode and Valves 74.46 µm long, 13.14 µm broad,
Kamat, 1980a); Wardha (Sarode and valves linear lanceolate, with narrowly
constricted poles stripes at the poles

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convergent margin suddenly expanded. somewhat unilateral; striae13-14 in 10 µm,


Structure finer, long lines mostly unclear. radial in the middle and convergent at the
Central area without these markings, raphe ends, crossed by two longitudinal lines
thin, terminal pores curved, striae slightly away from the margin.
convergent towards the ends, striae 21 in Distribution in India: Jalna, Pali (Sarode
10 µm. and Kamat, 1979); Nagpur (Sarode and
Locality: Hartala Lake (Muktainagar). Kamat, 1980a); Chandrapur (Sarode and
Kamat, 1983a); Jalgaon (Sarode and
6. Caloneis latiuscula (Kuetz.) Cleve v.
Kamat, 1984).
subholstei Hust.
Locality: Devbhane Dam (Dhule),
(Pl. 1, Fig. 6)
Manudevi (Yawal).
Hustedt 1930, p. 233, f. 352
Valves are 83.2 µm long, 35.04 µm broad. 8. Caloneis silicula (Ehr.) Cleve

Freshwater forms with about 20 stripes in (Pl. 1, Fig. 8)


10 µm. valves elliptical to lanceolate linear Hustedt 1930, p. 236, f. 362
poles obtusely rounded, not constricted. Valves 40- 48.18 µm long, 10.22- 12.5 µm
Axial area expanded mostly with the broad, linear to linear lanceolate with
central area to form a lanceolate margin, triundulate margins and broadly wedge
the irregular mat like marks widely present. shaped ends; raphe thin and straight with
Central area without markings, raphe thick, slightly curved terminal fissures; axial area
striae parallel, terminal pores curved. moderate, linear lanceolate; central area
Locality: Nakane Lake (Dhule). large striae 20-22 in 10 µm, slightly radial
throughout; crossed by a fine longitudinal
7. Caloneis permagna (Bail.) Cleve
line near the margin.
(Pl. 1, Fig. 7)
Distribution in India: Kolhapur (Gandhi,
Hustedt 1930, p. 231, f. 349
1958b); Bombay (Gandhi, 1955, 1959a,
Frustules large and robust; valves 70- 132
1962a); Lonavala (Gandhi, 1962b); Thane
µm long, 27.4- 41 µm broad, rhombic
(Sarode and Kamat, 1984); Srinagar
lanceolate with somewhat produced,
(Nautiyal and Singh, 1996).
broadly rounded ends; raphe thick and
Locality: Patharad Dam (Bhadgaon),
straight; central pores large; unilaterally
Jamkheli Dam (Sakri).
bent, terminal fissures broadly curved and
clear; axial area large, moderately
lanceolate; central area large, circular and

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9. Caloneis silicula (Ehr.) Cleve v. (Chopda) (Thomas and Gonzalves, 1965);


intermedia Mayer Osmanabad, Bhir (Sarode and Kamat,
(Pl. 2. Fig. 1) 1979); Amrawati, Wardha, Gangapur
Cleve- Euler 1955, p. 100, f. 1144 i-l (Sarode and Kamat, 1983a); Kolhapur,
Valves 60 µm long, 12.5 µm broad, linear, Panhalgad, Nagpur, Bhandara, Akola,
feebly undulate, slightly inflated in the Jalna, Aurangabad, Jalgaon, Bhusaval,
middle and near the ends; ends somewhat Dhule, Sangli, Barshi, Satara, Karad,
cuneate rounded; raphe thin and straight Ahmednagar, Chiplun, Mahad, Karjat,
with central pores distinct and curved Kalyan (Sarode and Kamat, 1984);
terminal fissures; axial area broadly Bhagalpur (Saha, 1986).
lanceolate; central area reaching the sides; Locality: Jamphal Dam (Shindkheda).
striae 24-26 in 10 µm, slightly radial in the 11.Caloneis silicula (Ehr.) Cleve v.
middle and perpendicular to the middle line truncatula Grun
towards the ends. (Pl. 2, Fig. 3)
Distribution in India: Nagpur (Sarode and Hustedt 1930, p. 236, f. 364
Kamat, 1980a); Yeotmal (Sarode and Valves 39.42 µm long, 10.22 µm broad,
Kamat, 1983a); Jalgaon, Bhusaval (Sarode smoothly linear elliptical with rounded
and Kamat, 1984). ends; raphe thin and straight with distinct
Locality: Suki River (Raver), Mor River central pores and curved terminal fissures;
(Yawal). axial area fairly broad, narrowly lanceolate,
10.Caloneis silicula (Ehr.) Cleve v. minuta central area small and reaching the
Grun. margins; striae 18-20 in 10 µm, fine but
(Pl. 2, Fig. 2) distinct, very slightly radial in the middle
Cleve- Euler 1955, p. 100, f. 1144 m, n but more so towards the ends, crossed by a
Valves 35 µm long, 6.6 µm broad, valves longitudinal marginal line.
linear lanceolate, constricted towards the Distribution in India: Wardha (Sarode
poles; raphe thin and straight; axial area and Kamat, 1983a); Jalgaon (Sarode and
lanceolate; central area large; reaching the Kamat, 1984)

margins; striae 22-24 in 10 µm, fine and Locality: Kanji River (Khapar)

slightly radial.
Distribution in India: Lonavala (Gandhi,
1962b); Palli, Sav, Rajewadi, Unapdev

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12.Caloneis silicula (Ehr.) Cleve v. Distribution in India: Jalgaon, Bhusaval


truncatula Grun. f. borivaliana (Sarode and Kamat, 1984).
Gonzalves et Gandhi Locality: Mehrun Lake (Jalgaon),
(Pl. 2, Fig. 4) Dongargaon Lake (Dhule).
Gonzalves and Gandhi 1953, p. 248, f. 76
Valves 40- 48 µm long, 8.7- 10.22 µm Neidium Pfitzer.
broad, gibbous in the middle with broadly 14. Neidium affine (Ehr.) Cleve

wedge shaped ends; raphe thin and straight; (Pl. 3, Fig. 1)


axial area broadly lanceolate; central area Hustedt 1930, p. 242, f. 376
large, stauroid; striae 18-20 in 10 µm, Valves 50- 55 µm long, 13.75- 16 µm
slightly radial in the middle and broad, margin of the valve less convex,
perpendicular towards the ends, crossed by structures generally fine, over 20 stripes in
a longitudinal line near the margins. 10 µm. Valves with regularly broad and
Distribution in India: Bombay obtuse constricted poles, valves with more
(Gonzalves and Gandhi, 1953); Alibag, or less convex margin, finely punctate
Mahad, Thane (Sarode and Kamat, 1984). striae.
Locality: Kanji River (Khapar). Locality: Panzara River (Dhule),
Arunawati River (Shirpur), Jamda Dam
13.Caloneis ventricosa (Ehr.) Meist. v.
(Chalisgaon), Latipada Dam (Pimpalner),
alpina (Cleve) Part.
Kondaibari (Sakri).
(Pl. 2, Fig. 5)
Lawson and Rushforth 1975, p. 27, pl. 16, 15. Neidium affine (Ehr.) Cleve v.

f. 2 amphirhynchus (Ehr.) Cleve f.


Valves 70 µm long, 12.5 µm broad, truncatula Gonzalves et Gandhi
broadly linear, gibbous in the middle with (Pl. 3, Fig. 2)
rounded poles; raphe thin and straight, Gonzalves and Gandhi 1953, p. 249, f. 78
terminal fissures hooked in the same Valves 40- 42 µm long, 10- 12 µm broad,
directions; axial area narrow, widening linear with almost parallel margins,
towards the middle; central area elliptical; suddenly contracted towards the ends and
striae 16-18 in 10 µm, parallel in the produced into broadly truncate poles; raphe
middle and becoming radial near the poles, thin and straight, central pores bent in
crossed by a longitudinal line away from opposite directions and terminal fissures
the margins. narrowly bifurcated; axial area narrow;

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central area small and rhomboid; striae 20- 17.Neidium bisulcatum (Lagerst.) Cleve f.

22 in 10 µm, fine but clearly punctate, undulata O. Muell.


crossed by a hyaline furrow near the (Pl. 3, Fig. 4)
margins. Hustedt 1930, p. 242, f. 375
Distribution in India: Bombay Valves 45.3- 46 µm long, 7.3- 8 µm broad;
(Gonzalves and Gandhi, 1953); Thane, linear, slightly gibbous in the middle, with
Alibag (Sarode and Kamat, 1984). broadly rounded, wedge shaped ends;
Locality: Devali- Bhoras Dam raphe thin and straight with central pores
(Chalisgaon), Dhule-chaufuli Lake bent in opposite directions and terminal
(Dhule), Shirpur, Akkalpada Dam (Dhule), fissures bifurcated; axial area narrow;
Bhokarbari Dam (Parola). central area somewhat elliptical; striae 25-
26 in 10µm, finely punctate, perpendicular
16.Neidium amphigomphous (Ehr.) Cleve v.
to the middle line but convergent at the
obtusum A. Cl.
ends, crossed by a longitudinal furrow near
(Pl. 3, Fig. 3)
the margins.
Cleve- Euler 1955, p. 115, f. 1168 d
Distribution in India: Bombay
Valves 30- 38.72 µm long, 9.68- 10.5 µm
(Gonzalves and Gandhi, 1953). Wardha,
broad, elliptic lanceolate with obtuse,
Alibag (Sarode and Kamat, 1984).
rounded ends; raphe thin and straight with
Locality: Dedargaon Lake (Dhule),
central pores bent in opposite direction;
Dahiwad Nala (Sakri), Mor River (Yawal),
axial area narrow, central area large,
Vidyanagari (Dhule), Prakasha (Shahada).
slightly transversely widened; striae 18-20
in 10 µm, finely punctate, crossed by more 18.Neidium hercynicum Mayer

than two longitudinal furrows. (Pl. 3, Fig. 5)


Distribution in India: Panhalgad (Gandhi, Cleve-Euler 1955, p. 119, f. 1173
1959c); Pune, Matheran, Khandala (Sarode Valves 35- 36 µm long, 13.2- 14.6 µm
and Kamat, 1984). broad, lanceolate to elliptic lanceolate with
Locality: Bori River (Amalner), Mor River obtuse, broadly rounded ends; raphe thin
(Yawal), Waghur River (Jamner), and straight with central pores bent in
Shivkhetale (Sakri), Dhaner- amli Stream opposite directions; axial area narrow;
(Navapur). central area large, roundish; striae 24-26 in
10 µm, finely punctate and crossed by a
marginal longitudinal furrow.

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Distribution in India: Bhusaval (Sarode triundulate margins and constricted broadly


and Kamat, 1984). produced, feebly capitate rounded ends;
Locality: Suki River (Raver), Suki Dam raphe thin and straight with central pores
(Raver), Mor River (Yawal), Amravati bent in opposite directions; axial area very
Dam (Dondaicha). narrow; central area large, transversely
elliptical; striae 22-24 in 10 µm, finely
19.Neidium iridis (Ehr.) Cleve f. dhulensis
punctate, slightly radial, crossed by a faint
Sarode et Kamat
longitudinal furrow near the margins.
(Pl. 3, Fig. 6)
Distribution in India: Ramtek (Sarode
Sarode and Kamat1984, p. 83, pl. 9, f. 194
and Kamat, 1983a).
Valves 39- 52 µm long, 9.5- 12 µm broad,
Locality: Pond at Ground fort (Parola),
linear elliptical to liner lanceolate with
Changadev (Muktainagar), Devabhane
almost parallel margins and broadly
Dam (Dhule).
rounded, somewhat wedge shaped ends;
raphe thin and straight with central pores 21.Neidium marathwadensis Sarode et
bent in opposite directions and terminal Kamat
fissures bifurcated; axial area narrow, (Pl. 3, Fig. 8)
linear; central area large, transversely Sarode and Kamat 1984, p. 83, pl.10, f. 200
rectangular; striae 28-30 in 10 µm, finely Valves 28- 32 µm long, 6- 7.5 µm broad,
punctate, radial, crossed by a marginal linear lanceolate with slightly undulate
furrow. margins and constricted, obtusely capitate
Distribution in India: Dhule (Sarode and ends, raphe thin and straight; axial area
Kamat, 1984). narrow; central area broad, reaching the
Locality: Panzara River (Dhule), Latipada margins; striae about 30 in 10 µm,
Dam (Pimpalner), Gomai Dam (Shahada), punctate, faint, crossed by a longitudinal
Nakane Lake (Dhule), Hartala Lake hyaline furrow near the margins.
(Muktainagar). Distribution in India: Gangapur (Sarode
and Kamat, 1984).
20.Neidium longiceps (Greg.) A. Cl. v.
Locality: Jamphal Dam (Shindkheda),
undulatum (Mayer) A.Cl.
Manyad Dam (Chalisgaon), Aner Dam
(Pl. 3, Fig. 7)
(Shirpur).
Cleve-Euler 1955, p. 112, f. 1163 f
Valves 40- 42 µm long, 10- 11.22 µm
broad, linear elliptical with very slightly

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22.Neidium oblique- striatum A.S. v. alternating with a single row of coarse


parallella Gonzalves et Gandhi punctae or alveoli.
(Pl. 3, Fig. 9) Distribution in India: Palli (Thomas and
Gonzalves and Gandhi 1953, p.251, f. 83 Gonzalves, 1965); Aurangabad (Sarode and
Valves 34.5- 40 µm long, 10-12 µm broad, Kamat, 1980b).
broadly linear with parallel margins and Locality: Panzara River (Ner).
wedge shaped rounded ends; raphe thin and
24.Diploneis marginestriata Hust.
straight, central pores slightly bent in
(Pl. 4, Fig. 2)
opposite directions and terminal fissures
Hustedt 1930, p. 250, f. 393
bifurcated; axial area narrow, linear;
Valves 23.36- 30 µm long, 10.22 µm
central area obliquely rectangular; striae
broad; cross ribs alternate with single row
about 24 in 10 µm, strongly oblique and
of punctae or alveoli rows; structure in the
lineate, interrupted by a hyaline furrow
middle not interrupted valves not or only
near the margins.
less narrowed, long ribs unclear the
Distribution in India: Bombay
interspaces between the cross ribs therefore
(Gonzalves and Gandhi, 1953); Wardha
roundish and small punctae seen, valves
(Sarode and Kamat, 1983a); Akola (Sarode
often have fine structure furrows very
and Kamat, 1984).
broad.
Locality: Panzara River (Ner), Anjani
Locality: Karwand Dam (Shirpur).
River (Erandol), Akkalpada Dam (Dhule).
25.Diploneis ovalis (Hilse) Cleve

Diploneis Ehrenberg. (Pl. 4, Fig. 3)

23. Diploneis elliptica (Kuetz.) Cleve Hustedt 1930, p. 249, f. 390

(Pl. 4, Fig. 1) Valves 37.96 µm long, 14.6 µm broad,

Hustedt 1930, p. 250, f. 395 cross ribs alternate with single row of

Valves 30 µm long, 20 µm broad, elliptical punctae or alveoli rows, structure in the

or slightly rhombic elliptical; raphe middle not interrupted valves not or only

between the ribs, widened in the central less narrowed. Long ribs unclear, the inter

nodule; axial area very narrow; central area space between the cross ribs therefore

slightly inflated; furrows narrow, widened roundish and small punctae seen, valves

in the middle, lanceolate; costae 12-13 in often have fine structure, central knots

10 µm, slightly radial in the middle and large, roundish, the inner space between
the cross ribs clearly punctate.
strongly radial towards the ends,

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Distribution in India: Srinagar (Nautiyal 1962b); Wardha, Satnavari, Katta (Sarode


and Singh, 1996). and Kamat, 1983a).
Locality: Karwand Dam (Shirpur). Locality: Kanji River (Khapar).
26.Diploneis ovalis (Hilse) Cleve v.
28.Diploneis subovalis Cleve
oblongella (Naeg.) Cleve
(Pl. 4, Fig. 6)
(Pl. 4, Fig. 4)
Hustedt 1933, p. 667, f. 1063 a, b
Hustedt 1930, p. 249, f. 391
Valves 25 µm long, 15 µm broad, broadly
Valves 75.92 µm long, 26.28 µm broad,
elliptical with rounded ends; central nodule
linear elliptic with almost parallel margins
large and rounded; furrows narrow and
and broadly rounded ends; raphe between
closely following the central nodule and its
the ribs; axial area very narrow; central
horns; costae 8-10 in 10 µm, strong,
area widened, elliptic; costae 14 in 10 µm,
alternating with double row of alveoli;
radial, alternating with a single row of
alveoli 16-18 in 10 µm.
puntae or alveoli; alveoli about 25 in 10
Distribution in India: Madras
µm.
(Venkataraman, 1939); Dahisar (Gonzalves
Distribution in India: Lonavala (Gandhi,
and Gandhi, 1949); Bombay (Gonzalves
1962b); Satnavari, Yeotmal (Sarode and
and Gandhi, 1953); Lonavala (Gandhi,
Kamat, 1983a); Akola (Sarode and Kamat,
1962b); Nagpur (Sarode and Kamat,
1984).
1980a); Jalna, Pali (Sarode and Kamat,
Locality: Nakane Lake (Dhule).
1980b); Allahabad (Pandey and Pandey,
27.Diploneis puella (Schumann) Cleve 1980); Wardha, Katta (Sarode and Kamat,
(Pl. 4, Fig. 5) 1983a); Kolhapur (Sarode and Kamat,
Hustedt 1930, p. 250, f. 394 1984); Bareilly (Chaturvedi, 1985);
Valves 17.52 µm long, 8.76 µm broad, Srinagar (Nautiyal and Singh, 1996).
elliptic with rounded ends, valve surface Locality: Suki River (Raver), Suki Dam
costate; costae 13-14 in 10 µm, thick and (Raver), Mor River (Yawal).
distinct, continued into the furrows as large
alveoli; central nodule large, dilated. Stauroneis Ehrenberg.
Distribution in India: Madras 29.Stauroneis anceps Ehr.

(Krishnamurthy, 1954); Kolhapur (Gandhi, (Pl. 5, Fig. 1)


1958b, Sarode and Kamat, 1984); Bombay Hustedt 1930, p. 256, f. 405
(Gandhi, 1962a); Lonavala (Gandhi,

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Valves 35.4- 59 µm long, 7.3- 15.6 µm 20 in 10 µm, indistinctly punctate and


broad, elliptic lanceolate with constricted, strongly radial.
capitate and broadly rounded ends, raphe Distribution in India: Bombay
thin, thread like, straight with slightly (Gonzalves and Gandhi, 1953); Dhule,
curved terminal fissures; axial area narrow, Jalgaon, Thane (Sarode and Kamat, 1984).
linear; central area wide and stauroid Locality: Dhule, Dehali River (Khapar),
widening towards the margins; striae 22-24 Jamphal Dam (Shindkheda).
in 10 µm, finely punctate and radial
31.Stauroneis anceps Ehr. v. amphicephala
throughout.
(Kuetz.) V. H.
Distribution in India: Madras
(Pl. 5, Fig. 3)
(Venkataraman, 1939); Bombay
Cleve- Euler 1953, p. 207, f. 943c
(Gonzalves and Gandhi, 1953); Madras
Valves 41.5- 53 µm, 10.6- 11 µm, linear
(Krishnamurthy, 1954); Panhalgarh
lanceolate with somewhat suddenly
(Gandhi, 1959c); Lonavala (Gandhi,
constricted, slightly produced capitate
1962b); Allahabad (Pandey and Pandey,
ends; raphe thin and straight, threadlike,
1980); Shahajahanpur (Pandey, 1982);
central pores distinct; axial area narrow;
Kolhapur, Wardha, Jalna, Pali,
central area large; stauroid; striae about 25
Aurangabad, Bhir (Sarode and Kamat,
in 10 µm, indistinctly punctate, fine.
1984); Karnataka (Bongale, 1985); Bareilly
Distribution in India: Pali, Bhir,
(Chaturvedi, 1985); Bhagalpur (Saha,
Aurangabad (Sarode and Kamat, 1980b),
1986); Midnapore (Pal and Santra, 1990).
Mansar (Sarode and Kamat, 1983a), Jalna,
Locality: Devbhane Dam (Dhule), Sonvad
Osmanabad (Sarode and Kamat, 1984).
Dam (Shindkheda).
Locality: Bhusaval, Meharun Lake
30.Stauroneis anceps Ehr. f. gracilis (Ehr.) (Jalgaon).
Cleve
32.Stauroneis anceps Ehr.v. hyalina Brun.
(Pl. 5, Fig. 2)
et Perag.
Hustedt 1930, p. 256, f. 406
(Pl. 5, Fig. 4)
Valve 42.34- 105 µm long, 7.3- 17.5 µm
Hustesdt 1930, p. 256, f. 408
broad, lanceolate gradually tapering from
Valves 53.1- 61 µm long, 10- 10.8 µm
the middle towards the poles, ends capitate,
broad, sub elliptical lanceolate with
rounded; raphe thin and straight, axial area
produced, feebly capitate ends; raphe thin
narrow; central area linear, stauroid; striae
and straight, central pores distinct and

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terminal fissures very slightly curved; axial Locality: Girna River (Jamda).
area very narrow; central area large,
35.Stauroneis phoenicenteron Ehr. f.
narrowly rectangular and reaching the
capitata Gonzalves et Gandhi
margins; striae about 30 in 10 µm, radial
(Pl. 5, Fig. 7)
and very finely punctate.
Gonzalves and Gandhi 1953, p. 256, f. 92
Distribution in India: Nagpur (Sarode and
Valves 80.7- 93 µm long, 14.8- 19 µm
Kamat, 1980a); Osmanabad (Sarode and
broad, narrowly lanceolate and delicate
Kamat, 1980b); Gangapur (Sarode and
with large, rounded, capitate ends; raphe
Kamat, 1983a).
thick; axial area fairly wide; central area
Locality: Devbhane Dam (Dhule),
stauroid, slightly dilated towards the
Sonavad Dam (Shindkheda), Jamphal Dam
margins; striae 22-24 in 10 µm, fine,
(Shindkheda).
distinctly punctate and radial.
33.Stauroneis anceps Ehr. v. udayensis v. Distribution in India: Bombay
nova (Gonzalves and Gandhi, 1953); Katta
(Pl. 5, Fig. 5) (Sarode and Kamat, 1983a); Midnapore
Hustedt 1930, p.256, f. 405 (Pal and Santra, 1990).
Valves 80.3 µm long, 10.22 µm broad, Locality: Waghur River (Jamner),
valves lanceolate, ends slightly capitate, Jamkheli Dam (Sakri).
central area linear, stauroid, raphe thin and
36.Stauroneis phoenicenteron Ehr. f.
straight; stripes 22 in 10µm.
producta Gandhi
Locality: Nakane Lake (Dhule).
(Pl. 5, Fig. 8)
34.Stauroneis montana Krasske Gandhi 1958a, p. 252, f. 7
(Pl. 5, Fig. 6) Valves 94.38 µm long, 14.52 µm broad,
Hustedt 1930, p. 259, f. 418 narrowly lanceolate, with slightly
Valves 16.06 µm long, 2.92 µm broad, constricted, produced, rounded ends; raphe
Valves without the formation of the septa, thick with distinct central pores and curved
cross stripes regularly thickly punctate, terminal fissures; axial area narrow; central
valves with parallel margin and beak like area a linear stauros; striae 18-24 in 10 µm,
poles, narrow linear, mostly small form radial, fine and distinctly punctate.
stripes at most 20 in 10 µm, stripes in the Distribution in India: Panhalgad (Gandhi,
middle division of the valves strong, 1959c); Lonavala (Gandhi, 1962b); Nagpur
towards the poles becoming narrow. (Sarode and Kamat, 1980a); Wardha, Katta

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(Sarode and Kamat, 1983a); Kolhapur central pores unilaterally bent and terminal
(Sarode and Kamat, 1984); Midnapore (Pal fissures slightly curved; axial area very fine
and Santra, 1990). indistinct punctae, irregularly disposed;
Locality: Mhasawa Lake (Parola). striae 18-20 in 10 µm, radial, coarsely
punctate, crossed by many hyaline
37.Stauroneis phoenicenteron Ehr. v.
longitudinal irregular spaces.
gracilis (Ehr.) Dippel
Distribution in India: Aurangabad
(Pl. 5, Fig. 9)
(Sarode and Kamat, 1984).
Hustedt 1930, p. 255, f. 406
Locality: Mhasawa Lake (Parola).
Valves 131.4 µm long, 21.9 µm broad,
narrowly rhombic lanceolate with 39.Anomoeoneis serians (Breb.) Cleve

produced, rounded ends; raphe straight, (Pl. 6, Fig. 2)


thick with curved shortly bifurcated Hustedt 1930, p. 264, f. 426
terminal fissures, axial area fairly wide; Valves 45.26 µm long, 8.7 µm broad,
central area stauroid, widening towards the valves rhombic lanceolate to narrowly
margins; striae 20-22 in 10 µm, strongly rhombic lanceolate with acute ends, raphe
radial, fine and clearly punctate. thin and straight with closely placed central
Distribution in India: Panhalgad (Gandhi, pores; central area fairly large and
1959c); Nagpur (Sarode and Kamat, quadrate, striae radial perpendicular to
1980a); Aurangabad, Pali (Sarode and marginal striae 16-20 in 10 µm.
Kamat, 1980b); Amravati, Bhandara, Katta Locality: Patharad Dam (Bhadgaon).
(Sarode and Kamat, 1983a); Jalna,
40.Anomoeoneis serians (Breb.) Cleve v.
Osmanabad, Bhir, Karad, Dhule, Kolhapur
brachysira (Breb.) Hust.
(Sarode and Kamat, 1984).
(Pl. 6, Fig. 3)
Locality: Parola, Anjani River (Erandol).
Hustedt 1930, p. 264, f. 427
Valves 30.66 µm long, 7.3 broad, valves
Anomoeoneis Pfitzer.
rhombic narrowly lanceolate with acute
38.Anomoeoneis sculpta (Ehr.) Cleve
ends, raphe thick and straight with straight
(Pl. 6, Fig. 1)
terminal fissures, closely placed central
Hustedt 1930, p. 262, f. 423
pores; central area small, transverse
Valves 31.46 µm long, 12.1 µm broad,
striations interrupted by several
elliptic lanceolate, robust with constricted
longitudinal, zigzag hyaline spaces.
rostrate ends; raphe thin and straight with
Locality: Karwand Dam (Shirpur).

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41.Anomoeoneis sphaerophora (Kuetz.) Valves 30 µm long, 3.4 µm broad, rhombic


Pfitzer lanceolate with broadly rounded ends;
(Pl. 6, Fig. 4) raphe thin and straight with central pores
Hustedt 1930, p. 262, f. 422 wide apart; axial area narrow; central area
Valves 54.02- 63.5 µm long, 14.6- 20 µm constricted in the middle, small; striae
broad, sub elliptical to elliptical lanceolate about 26-28 in 10 µm, punctate, radial and
with narrowed, produced, slightly capitate crossed by many longitudinal wavy hyaline
ends; raphe thin with curved central pores bands.
and semicircular terminal fissures; axial Distribution in India: Kolhapur (Gandhi,
area broad, linear; central area large, 1956b); Nagpur (Sarode and Kamat, 1984)
unilaterally widened; striae 16-18 in 10 Locality: Latipada Dam (Pimpalner),
µm, irregularly interrupted by longitudinal Bopkhel Dam (Sakri).
wavy hyaline bands.
Distribution in India: Madras
(Venkataraman, 1939); Bombay
(Gonzalves and Gandhi, 1953); Kolhapur
(Gandhi, 1958b, Sarode and Kamat, 1984);
Osmanabad, Aurangabad, Bhir (Sarode and
Kamat, 1980b); Allahabad (Pandey and
Pandey, 1980); Yeotmal (Sarode and
Kamat, 1983a); Paithan, Dhule, Karad,
Pune, Satara, Alibag, Thane, Mahad
(Sarode and Kamat, 1984); Bareilly
(Chaturvedi, 1985).
Locality: Dhule, Jamphal Dam
(Shindkheda), Malangaon Dam (Sakri),
Suki River (Raver), Suki Dam (Raver),
Mor River (Yawal).

42.Anomoeoneis styriaca (Grun.) Hust.

(Pl. 6, Fig. 5)
Hustedt 1930, p. 265, f. 432

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PLATE : 1
Caloneis aequatorialis Hustedt v. tugelae Cholnoky
1. Caloneis amphisbaena (Bory) Cleve

2. Caloneis bacillum (Grun.) Mereschkowsky

3. Caloneis beccariana Grun.

4. Caloneis clevei (Lagst.) Cleve

5. Caloneis latiuscula (Kuetz.) Cleve v. subholstei Hust.

6. Caloneis permagna (Bail.) Cleve

7. Caloneis silicula (Ehr.) Cleve

PLATE: 1

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PLATE: 2

1. Caloneis silicula (Ehr.) Cleve v. intermedia Mayer

2. Caloneis silicula (Ehr.) Cleve v. minuta Grun.

3. Caloneis silicula (Ehr.) Cleve v. truncatula Grun.

4. Caloneis silicula (Ehr.) Cleve v. truncatula Grun. f. borivaliana Gonzalves et Gandhi

5. Caloneis ventricosa (Ehr.) Meist. v. alpina (Cleve) Part

PLATE: 2

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PLATE: 3

1. Neidium affine (Ehr.) Cleve

2. Neidium affine (Ehr.) Cleve v. amphirhynchus (Ehr.) Cleve f. truncatula Gonzalves et Gandhi

3. Neidium amphigomphous (Ehr.) Cleve v. obtusum A. Cl.

4. Neidium bisulcatum (Lagerst.) Cleve f. undulata O. Muell.

5. Neidium hercynicum Mayer

6. Neidium iridis (Ehr.) Cleve f. dhulensis Sarode et Kamat

7. Neidium longiceps (Greg.) A. Cl. v. undulatum (Mayer) A.Cl.

8. Neidium marathwadensis Sarode et Kamat

9. Neidium oblique- striatum A.S. v. parallella Gonzalves et Gandhi

PLATE: 3

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PLATE: 4

1. Diploneis elliptica (Kuetz.) Cleve

2. Diploneis marginestriata Hust.

3. Diploneis ovalis (Hilse) Cleve

4. Diploneis ovalis (Hilse) Cleve v. oblongella (Naeg.) Cleve

5. Diploneis puella (Schumann) Cleve

6. Diploneis subovalis Cleve

PLATE: 4

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PLATE: 5

1. Stauroneis anceps Ehr.

2. Stauroneis anceps Ehr. f. gracilis (Ehr.) Cleve

3. Stauroneis anceps Ehr. v. amphicephala (Kuetz.) V.H.

4. Stauroneis anceps Ehr.v. hyalina Brun. et Perag.

5. Stauroneis anceps Ehr. v. anceps

6. Stauroneis montana Krasske

7. Stauroneis phoenicenteron Ehr. f. capitata Gonzalves et Gandhi

8. Stauroneis phoenicenteron Ehr. f. producta Gandhi

9. Stauroneis phoenicenteron Ehr. v. gracilis (Ehr.) Dippel

PLATE: 5

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PLATE: 6

1. Anomoeoneis sculpta (Ehr.) Cleve

2. Anomoeoneis serians (Breb.) Cleve

3. Anomoeoneis serians (Breb.) Cleve v. brachysira (Breb.) Hust.

4. Anomoeoneis sphaerophora (Kuetz.) Pfitzer

5. Anomoeoneis styriaca (Grun.) Hust.

PLATE: 6

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Sarode, P. T. and Kamat, N. D. (1980b): A Algae of the hot springs at Akloli and
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Thermal algae of the Western India – I.

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