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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

1.1 Introduction

Air conditioner is used worldwide, it is known to satisfy the comforts of

people by producing a comfortable atmosphere with the right wind velocity,

humidity and temperature for them in times of summer when the temperature

rises but it is not very practical due to energy consumption and purchasing

the unit itself is expensive.

Another disadvantage of using air conditioner is that it emits a lot of

Carbon dioxide when there are leaks in the system, which is harmful to our

environment. America itself produces 100 million ton of Carbon dioxide

emissions yearly because of air conditioning, and it is the number one country

that uses air conditioner and there are more countries in the world that uses

the air conditioner.

The world that we are living, our country the Philippines, and our city

Cagayan de Oro needs aconcrete solution for this issue, which helps reduce

carbon emissions, reduce electric power consumption, gives cool air, energy

efficient, low maintenance and repair cost, could be used in indoors and

outdoors and many more.

Evaporative cooling is one of the oldest inventions of climate control

indoors still found today and with special innovation it will be a little more

efficient, it is very effective and efficient when it comes to saving energy, and

these cooling units are not for use everywhere.

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This study is done to seek minimization of the emission of Carbon dioxide

to our environment and also to be able to provide everyone with satisfying

cool air for their houses and offices.

1.2 Background of the Study

The study was conceptualized by the researchers because of the harmful

effects most refrigerants in the atmosphere and the primary use of these

Freon are refrigerants for air conditioners and freezers. The CFC has big

impact to the atmosphere and the ozone layer that needs to be stopped

immediately if possible.

First is it will deteriorate the ozone layer which protects us from excessive

radiation from the sun. Second is it is a very harmful greenhouse gas that is

several times more powerful than carbon dioxide emitted by combustion of

fuels in trapping heat.

As a possible replacement of air conditioners in this very hot tropical

climate of the Philippines, the researchers has come up with an idea of

making an evaporative air cooler that could compete with the air conditioner

in performance, have low operational cost, have low upfront cost and most

especially more environmentally friendly machine.

1.3 Statement of the Problem

Generally, this study is conducted to propose a possible design and

fabrication of an evaporative air cooler.

Specifically, the study aims to answer the following sub-problems, to wit:

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1. How well will the fabricated evaporative cooler compare to a one (1)

horsepower window-type air conditioner in terms of cooling

performance?

2. How much will be the difference of operational cost of the fabricated

evaporative cooler and a one horsepower window-type air conditioner?

3. How much will be the difference of the upfront cost and cost of

installation of the fabricated evaporative air cooler and the one (1)

horsepower window-type air conditioning unit?

1.4 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to design and fabricate an evaporative

air cooler and the following are the specific objectives of the study:

 To compare the temperature drop of the area when the fabricated

evaporative air cooler and the one horsepower window-type air

conditioning unit is in use.

 To determine the difference of the fabricated evaporative air cooler and

the one horsepower window-type air conditioning unit installed in the room

in terms of the usage of power or operational cost.

 To determine the difference of the fabricated evaporative air cooler and

the one horsepower window-type air conditioning unit in terms of upfront

and installation costs.

1.5 Significance of the Study

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This study benefits the consumers, to be able to have refreshing cool

air, the environment, to reduce the CO2 emissions and reducing electric

consumption in houses specifically, this study is significant to the following:

The Engineering Students - this study will adddata and information to

evaporative air cooler designs and give ideas for further researches in the field of

mechanical engineering.

The University Administrators – this study will be a good source of information

and empirical data on the feasibility of the installation of evaporative air coolers to

the offices or any facility thereof, that needs the specifications of thus.

The Engineering Faculty – this study will be a good material for demonstration

or instructional materials of lessons involving evaporation, air flow, evaporative

air cooling, and air conditioning.

1.6 Conceptual Framework

This research study is anchored on improvement, data gathering, and

design of evaporative air cooler. Shown below is the schematic diagram of the

conceptual framework, the interrelated processes that constitute in order to

come-up with a well-designed output.

Compare the difference of


Test the fabricated evaporative air
Design and fabricate an temperature drop, the upfront
cooler with a one horsepower
evaporative air cooler cost, and the operational cost of
window-type air conditioning unit.
the fabricated evaporative air
cooler and the 1 hp air
conditioning unit.

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Figure 1.1, The Conceptual design of a Double Stage Evaporative Air

Cooler

The design is based upon the principles of evaporation. Two fans are

used to facilitate air flow in the system. The 1 st stage compressor or the air duct

converge the air flow to create high velocity in the basin of ice cooled water in the

cooling segment. The water is also pump to a nozzle at the top to spray water

and turn it into small droplets for more efficient evaporation. Then it will pass to

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the miss extractor to extract the mist or the excess water droplets. Then cool air

is released by the discharge fans at the front.

1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study focuses on the analysis, design of the evaporative cooler and

the temperature when the evaporative cooler is functioning and the temperature

drop from before the use of evaporative cooler and when the evaporative cooler

is working. The research study will also compare the performance in terms of

temperature drop, operational cost, the upfront and installation costs, and the

emissions of the evaporative air cooler and the 1 horsepower air conditioning

unit.

1.8 Definition of Terms

To understand the terms used in this study, the following are defined

operationally:

Air conditioner -is the process of removing heat from a confined space, thus

cooling the air, and removing humidity.

ASHRAE- stands for the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-

Conditioning Engineers. Founded in 1894, it is a global society advancing human

well-being through sustainable technology for the built environment.

BTU- British thermal unit is a traditional unit of heat; it is defined as the amount of

heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree

Fahrenheit. It is part of the British Imperial system of units.

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CFC- Chlorofluorocarbons, a very harmful gas that are emitted primarily by air

conditioning and refrigeration units that causes the thinning of the ozone layer.

Condensation -the result of being made more compact or dense, when water

vapor is transformed from a gaseous phase to a liquid phase.

Cooling - feeling comfortably or moderately cold due to a decrease of

temperature in the surrounding air.

DEC- Direct Evaporative Coolers

Evaporative cooler- is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water.

Evaporation -matter or the quantity of matter evaporated or passed off in vapor.

Fan -any device for producing a current of air by the movement of a broad

surface or a number of such surfaces.

HVAC- Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning

Ice -the solid form of water, produced by freezing; frozen water.

IEAC- Indirect Evaporative Air Coolers

Insulation -the state of being insulated, when heat and noise is not transferred

very directly .

Latent heat- the heat required to convert a solid into a liquid or vapor, or a liquid

into a vapor, without change of temperature.

Sensible heat -is heat exchanged by a body or thermodynamic system in which

the exchange of heat changes the temperature of the body or system, and some

macroscopic variables of the body or system, but leaves unchanged certain other

macroscopic variables of the body or system, such as volume or pressure.

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Sublimation–the change of phase of a solid to gaseous form without turning into

liquid form.

Water -a transparent, odorless, tasteless liquid, a compound of hydrogen and

oxygen. Made up of (2) hydrogen atoms and one (1) oxygen atom.

Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature

Aside from the data from the study, the researchers have gathered

information from other resources that the researchers have come across by

reading journals, handbooks and other related researches.

The researchers (Amer, Boukhanouf, and Ibrahim 2015) have come

across a definition of evaporative cooling which is,” Evaporative cooling is a heat

and mass transfer process that uses water evaporation for air cooling, in which

large amount of heat is transferred from air to water, and consequently the air

temperature decreases. Evaporative coolers could be classified into: 1) Direct

evaporative coolers, in which the working fluids (water and air) are in direct

contact; 2) Indirect evaporative coolers, where a surface/plate separates

between the working fluids; 3) Combined system of direct and indirect

evaporative coolers and/or with other cooling cycles “.

According to (ASHRAE Handbook-HVAC Systems and Equipment 2008)

active DEC could be divided according to types of wet media into: Random

media DEC, Rigid media DEC and Remote media DEC, However, active DEC

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coolers can be classified in terms of water distribution system type: spray (also

called air washer), slinger (a rotating wheel), and drip (Misting) system .

According to (Palmer, December 2002), Not everybody in the world knows

the evaporative air coolerin terms of performance. The known cause of using

evaporative cooling in New Mexico are usually because in terms of economy of

operation. Operating cost is an important factor when utility budgets are a major

consideration.

According to the study of (Kolokotsa, 2012)The temperature of the water

does not have a great effect upon the cooling produced through evaporation. If

you placed a gallon of 50° F. water on a warm sidewalk (90° F), it would produce

9,000 Btu's of cooling. A gallon of 90° F water would produce 8,700 Btu's of

cooling, only 3% of difference.

The wet pad cooler or "swamp cooler" is the most common type of

evaporative air cooler used in 90% of New Mexico homes and school systems

like the Albuquerque Public Schools (APS). According to the study of

(Riangvilaikul 2010) “the average life of an aspen pad cooler [unit] is 10 to 15

years, and with good seasonal maintenance, 15 to 25 years is not too hard to

do”. It is made up of a metal, plastic or fiberglass housing and frame, a supply

fan, water holding sump, water circulation pump, water distribution tubing,

electric connections and a wetted pad. These pads are the surface from which

the water evaporates, and are usually made of aspen shavings, paper or plastic

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media. Typically manufacturers will state that evaporative effectiveness for this

type of wetted media is 65 to 78%.

One other type of indirect evaporative cooling system, that is sometimes

called a waterside economizer and is usually used with a chiller system that

would already use evaporative cooling tower. According to a study by (Pescod

2001) When the water vapor level is very low (also known as a low wet-bulb

temperature) the evaporative cooling tower system works so well that the chillers

(which cost much more to operate) can be turned off. This indirect evaporative

system uses a water-to-air cooling coil in the room air stream, similar to some

refrigerated chilled water systems. The IEAC cooling water circulated through the

coil is cooled by spraying water in a cooling tower. This cool sump water is then

pumped through a strainer or a heat exchanger to keep the room air coils from

becoming clogged. This evaporative cooled water in the cooling tower can get

very cool, especially when the air humidity is low. Depending on the design of

the system, this water can be within 3 to 6 degrees of the wet-bulb temperature.

When a fan blows warm air past this cooling coil, the exiting air will be cooled

without increasing the humidity level of the room air.

The most important environmental considerations in favor of using

evaporative air coolers are the reduced Carbon dioxide emissions, and the

reduction of use of chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, which

have been proven to reduce the earth's ozone layer. according to (Pescod, 1979)

"One example, is the 4 million EAC units in operation in the United States provide

an estimated annual energy savings equivalent to 12 million barrels of crude oil

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and an annual reduction of 5.4 billion bounds of CO2 emissions. They also avoid

the need for 24 million pounds of refrigerant traditionally used in residential

refrigeration systems.

Evaporative air coolers do not waste water, it uses water to provide an

environment that is more comfortable and promotes well-being and increased

productivity. According to (Pistochini 2011) Water use can be regarded as

another extracted fuel like gas or coal for electricity. Even if the cost of pumping

and treating water is typically one-third the charge for the water, the study still

consider the total water bill cost. Wasting fuel or water is costly since there are

no absulute results from use of the resource. This water use performs a useful

function, but the same appliance can also waste water if it is not maintained well.

The New England Waterworks Association cites that one leaky toilet alone can

waste as much as 200 gallons of water a day. Trees provide shade for buildings,

which will lower the comfort cooling requirements and provide an evaporative

cooling effect through a process called evapotranspiration, which will also

provide beneficial cooling. Nevertheless, consider that large cottonwood trees

will still evapotransporate 300 gallons of water per day.

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Chapter 3

METHODOLOGY

This chapter contains how the study is performed by the researchers; this

chapter also presents the research design used in the study. It also includes a

detailed discussion on the following: research design and method, research

setting, participants, , data collection, data sources and data analysis.

3.1 Test Specimen

The research is a comparative study of the evaporative air cooler and a

one (1) horsepower window-type air conditioning unit that is already installed in

a room. The researchers will not only compare the temperature drop of the

evaporative cooler and the air conditioning unit but also the acquisition cost,

operational cost, and the environmental impact of both.

Figure 3.1, Evaporative cooler with dimensions

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The evaporative cooler used in this study is a custom made one-of

prototype conceive and fabricated by the researchers. The dimensions of the

evaporative cooler is as follows; height: forty (40) centimeters, width: forty (40)

centimeters, and length: sixty (60) centimeters. The cover is aluminum plate with

0.2 millimeters thick. It is then riveted to a frame made up of angle bars three (3)

millimeters thick and sixty (60) centimeters in lengths. There are 4 used, one in

each corner edge. The side and bottom coverings are riveted in place with a one-

eighth by one (1/8 by 1) inch rivet and is distanced by 5 centimeters side by side.

The water is drained to a water tight pan, ten (10) centimeters high, thirty

eight (38) centimeters in with and forty (40) centimeters in length. It is made up of

0.2-0.3 inch thick galvanize plain steel sheet (the same as that of the coverings)

and is made without the use of rivets for attachment because it is just folded in its

width.

The researchers designed the system to have 2 electric fans, one is place

at front of the cooler and the other is at the back to try to maximize air flow inside

the device and maximize the evaporation and cooling of incoming air and

increase outgoing air flow. This is to satisfy the requirement of 3-5 meter per

second of wind velocity for comfortable atmospheric conditions.

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Figure 3.2, Three Dimensional Drawing of the two stage evaporative air cooler

with the two fans, the air duct and the Mist Extractor.

The researchers have include in the design of the system a 20 watt

submersible pump that pumps water from the reservoir pan to the water spray

module. It is used because in order to make flash evaporation to happen water

needs to be exposed to air in the largest surface area as possible.

3.2 Research Locale

The research data is gathered in the residence of Emmanuel Gallares at

0168 Piaping Itum Macabalan Cagayan de Oro City. In a room 2.5m x 3m x

2.5m. with an air conditioner already installed.

Temperature is measured every 10 minutes and 1 meter from the mouth

of the air conditioning unit and the evaporative cooler. The results are tabulated

and averaged and the researchers will make a simple line graph to interpret the

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data as simple as possible. That will help to make a conclusion on the

performance of both air conditioning unit and the evaporative cooler.

To gather data for the power consumed by the device, the researchers

also get the data from the boxes or the specifications or combined the

specifications of the devices used by the evaporative cooler like the two nova

fans and the submersible pump.

The researchers also computed the product load of ice towers used on the

evaporative cooler. The researchers have weigh the water used to make ice and

got its initial temperature then put it in the freezer of the household refrigerator

the consumes 130 watts per hour of AC electrical energy.

The researchers also have surveyed and tabulated the prices of 1

horsepower air conditioning unit in the locality of Cagayan de Oro City. The

stores that the researchers have gathered the data are the following: Gaisano

City Mall Appliance Center, 4th floor Gaisano City Mall, Abenson Appliance

Center, 2nd Floor Centrio Ayala Mall, Asean Homes Appliances, 3 rd floor Centrio

Ayala Mall, Shopwise Appliance Corner, Shopwise, Limketkai Mall, Robinsons

Appliance Center, 2nd floor Robbinsons Mall, Solidmark, ground floor Limketkai

Center and at SM Apliance Center, ground floor of SM City Mall . The data

acquired is averaged to get the average price of air conditioning unit in the

locality of Cagayan do Oro City.

Lastly, the air conditioning unit will be compared to the evaporative cooler

in their possible contribution to global warming. Their emissions to the

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atmosphere, like gases emitted, energy used, and other perceived effects to the

environment whether good or bad. The information from this will come from the

internet and other journals and books that mention the effects of evaporative

coolers and air conditioning units.

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Chapter 4

Results and Discussion

In this chapter, the researchers will discuss the data gathered from the

data gathering process in the comparative state, the power consumption

acquired, and the acquisition cost. The researchers will also discuss different

point of views of the results gathered and will present it in as simple way as

possible with the use of graphs.

In terms of dimensions, the air cooler is 60 centimeters in length, 40

centimeters in width and 40 centimeters in height. It has a submersible pump that

consumes 20 watts of power from a 220 volt AC power supply and 2 nova

electric fans in front and back that has 30 watts of maximum power consumption

at maximum speed at each receiving end of the cooler one blowing towards the

cooler and the other blowing air to exit the evaporative cooler.

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The accumulated average results for temperature changes are in the

graph below:

Table 4.1. Graphical representation of the Average Performance of 1 Hp window-

type Air Conditioning Unit and the Fabricated Evaporative Air Cooler.

30.2
29.9
29.6
29.3
Room Temperature (C)

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28.7
28.4
28.1
27.8 Aircon
27.5 Evap
27.2
26.9
26.6
26.3
26
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130
Time (min)

The results from the data show that the air conditioning unit have achieved

the 26.16 degrees Celsius temperature in 30 minutes of operation, while the air

cooler have achieved the 26.23 degrees Celsius in 120 minutes. The Complete

Data of this experiment is located at Appendix A.

We have to note that the air conditioning unit is turned on at the same time

with the evaporative cooler and is set to its maximum settings for the whole

duration of the test. This means that the air conditioning unit is working its

compressor all the time and is achieving an outlet air temperature as low as ten

(10) degrees Celsius. It has a rate output of one (1) horsepower or 746 watts but

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when factored with the power factor indicated it will have a consumption of up to

800 watts of power per hour.

The evaporative cooler started with one (1) liter of water at normal room

temperature of 30.1 degrees Celsius and 4 ice towers that are replaced every

hour. During the ice replacement, the researchers measured the mean water

temperature and got an average of twenty (20) degrees Celsius. We also have

acquired an output air temperature of 24 degrees Celsius. The indicated output

of the fans in the evaporative cooler is 0.350 meters3 per second.

It should be noted that the coldness of the air conditioning unit is nearing

that of becoming a discomfort than that of becoming a comfortable room

temperature. According to West Midlands Public Health Observatory (UK), the

comfortable room temperature ranges from 23-26 degrees Celsius. In that

temperature range you will feel at ease and comfortable, temperature higher than

that will be considered warm and you may consider taking of some kind of

clothing or you will experience some sweating depending on the degree of

warmth of the place, temperatures lower may cause discomfort and you may

want to consider adding some clothing like jackets, wool based clothing, neck

ties, bonnets and scarfs to make yourself warm and preserve your body

temperature. This is observed in most temperate climates. This means that the

evaporative cooler may look defeated in lowering the temperature of the room, it

has achieve the right temperature and could maintain it for the rest of the

duration.

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Table 4.2, Power Consumption of Air Conditioning Unit and Evaporative Cooler

in Watts per hour.

Average Consumption in Watts per


hour
900
800
700
600
500
Average Consumption in
400
Watts per hour
300
200
100
0
Air Con Evap Cool

The next consideration in this study is the power consumption and

operational cost. For every hour of operation, the air conditioning unit uses 800

watts of electrical power, the evaporative cooler on the other hand will only need

79 watts of electrical power which is the sum of the two operating electric fans

with 30 watts of power and a small submersible pump that consumes 20 watts of

electrical power. The evaporative cooler will only consume fifteen (15%) percent

of the power consumed in the air conditioning unit. With the inclusion of ice

towers that has a product load of 42.5 watts. This means that the total power

consumed by the evaporative air cooler is 121.5 watts.

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Cost to operate 12 hours in 30 days
3000

2500

2000

1500 Cost to perate 12 hours


in 30 days
1000

500

0
evap air con

Figure 4.3, Cost to Operate 12 hours and 30 days

The air cooler cost 402 pesos to operate in 12 hours per day in 30 days or

one month, on the other hand, the one horsepower air conditioning unit will cost

2678 pesos to operate in 12 hours per day in 30 days. If you fabricate the

evaporative air cooler for 2300 pesos then the return of investment will be as

soon as 1 month.

The evaporative cooler does not add to the greenhouse gases in the

atmosphere except for water vapor. It will not emit harmful coolants, and

refrigerants like Freon. It uses the solid state of water which is ice. It will only emit

small amounts of water vapor that is evaporated from the bladed fins that absorb

the sensible heat of the ambient air and turn it into latent heat to either melt the

solid ice or turn liquid water into water vapor.

One of the concerns in the use of evaporative cooler is that it adds to the

relative ambient air humidity of the room. This is because of the presence of the

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ice towers absorbing excess water vapor in the air. The water vapor content of

the air will not reach saturation point because the ice will initiate condensation

because of its coldness. This design feature makes our evaporative cooler

feasible to be used in a close room like air conditioning units.

Table 4.4, Price of Air Conditioner and Price of Evaporative Cooler

Price in Php

Air Conditioner

Price in Php

Evaporative Cooler

0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000

The last point of view to be discussed is the acquisition cost of the

evaporative cooler and the 1 horsepower air conditioning unit. First is the air

conditioning unit, we have conducted a canvas on the prices of the 1 horsepower

air conditioning units in almost all malls and appliance center in the locality

(Cagayan de Oro City). We have from the Gaisano City Mall, SM City, Limketkai

Mall, Centrio Ayala Mall, Shopwise and Robinsons Mall. The average price from

the store is Php 22, 777. 34. The actual prices of the air conditioning units and

the stores are in appendix B of this paper.

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In addition to acquisition or the upfront cost, or the price of the air

conditioning unit in the store when you by it, the researchers also have

considered the installation cost of the air conditioning unit. We have the cost of

labor which varies from every store in average it is 500-1000 pesos for every

person involved. We also have the cost of copper coils for piping which cost 1500

pesos for thirty (30) meters and an additional fee of 50 pesos every meter of

excess. We also have the cost of a dedicated power receptacle that needs to

have proper grounding for about 500 pesos. Lastly the cost of putting a whole in

the wall for the window type air conditioner which may vary depending on the

materials of the wall (concrete or wood) and the thickness. This will have a total

of 3,000-8,000 pesos.

The evaporative cooler was custom made prototype made in the

machineshop of the engineering building, ground floor west side of academic

building 2 of Capitol University. The materials that were bought and used for the

evaporative cooler are in Appendix C of this paper

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Chapter 5

Conclusions

After the researchers have finished the fabrication of evaporative air

cooler prototype, tested it, and evaluated its acquisition cost, operating cost, and

environmental impact then comparing it with the 1 horsepower air conditioning

unit in a room, the researchers have come up with these set of conclusions:

First, the researchers concluded that, the evaporative cooler, in terms of

performance, cannot match the cooling capacity of the 1 horsepower air

conditioning unit, but in its cooling performance is sufficient to make the room

comfortably cool in an average of 26 degrees Celsius for about 2 hours of

operation.

Second, the evaporative cooler, in terms of operating cost, is cheaper to a

1 horsepower air conditioning unit. It will save you as much as 50% in operational

cost even with the factor of energy used to make ice towers in an average

household refrigerator. Without the ice towers, it will consume only 10% of the

electricity that the air conditioning unit does. If you take the factor that the

refrigerator is already used to cool other stuffs like meat, vegetables and

leftovers, and ice making is already complied because of factors like in cases of

power outages and for cooling your drinks, the additional ice tower production

may not be a hassle to be added to household and office chores.

Third, the evaporative cooler, in terms of acquisition cost, is cheaper than

any air conditioning unit. It cost only 10% to the average cost of a 1 horsepower

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air conditioning unit in the locality of Cagayan de Oro City. It is because the

evaporative cooler is a one-of prototype that is at normal circumstances very

expensive to make. If you factor economies of scale in a factory the cost may be

decrease to about 80%. This makes it viable to investment and capitalization.

Lastly, the researchers have concluded that, the evaporative cooler, in

terms of environmental impact, is friendly to the environment. It emits only cool

air and water vapor. The one horsepower air conditioning unit on the other hand,

will emit Chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere and ozone layer because of its

refrigerant Freon, that should be banned as to the effect of Montreal Protocol on

reducing CFCs emission but is still widely used as refrigerants in air conditioners

at home and offices because of its availability in the market. As a reminder,

CFCs greatly affects global warming because it will make a whole in the earth’s

ozone layer and make the by-products as greenhouse gases like killing two birds

with one stone.

Evaporative coolers could be the viable option for the future of air

conditioning. It is cheaper to operate and acquire, friendly to the environment and

will still make a satisfyingly cool place to live and work with every day.

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Recommendation

After performing the methodology of this study, gathered data, and make

conclusions, the researchers come-up with this set of recommendations for

further study and development of the evaporative cooler:

First, the researchers highly recommend to study on the relationships and

behaviour of latent and sensible heat. A high degree of understanding to the

relationship, principles, or governing laws of science that affect the latent and

sensible heat of water will make improvements to the developments of

evaporative coolers and its derivatives. The high degree of understanding of this

subject will also make advancement on thermal power plants that uses steam as

the working fluid.

Second, the researchers highly recommend to study on high heat

conducting materials. High heat conduction in the fins will result to high

evaporation rate and decrease of output temperature of steam. Materials that we

know that has high thermal conductivity have also high market value like gold

and silver. The challenge is to discover or innovate low cost materials like alloy

that will rival that of silver and gold. This will also have great impact to cooking

materials, thermal power plants, and etc.

Third, the researchers highly recommend to have is the comparative study

on the best method to make water evaporate and decrease sensible

temperature. There are a lot of methods to do this, one is to make a mist spray,

then the sponge bath, and the method in our study the blade fins heat

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exchanger. The study that should be initiated should be as comprehensive as

possible, that should cover performance in terms of change of air temperature

and humidity, difficulty of construction of the prototype, acquisition cost in the

nearest store, and operational cost in years, and environmental impact for

sustainability.

Lastly, the researchers highly recommend the study on efficient

refrigerators and refrigerants. The efficient ice production that may use the least

amount of electricity and uses the most environmentally friendly refrigerant is one

of the greatest contributions of a mechanical engineer or a scientist could ever

have. This could be applied to a very wide range of applications from the air-

conditioning system at home to the cooling system of a superconducting

processor of supercomputers. An earth free of CFCs that destroy the protective

ozone layer and decrease of greenhouse gas to pre-industrial period is the key to

have a healthy future of this planet.

To the University President and the University Administrators:

The researchers recommend conducting feasibility study and making

necessary University policies on the adoption and production of evaporative

coolers to be used by the school offices.

The researchers also recommend on the advancement or the upgrade of

the auxiliary laboratory on cooling systems like that of the refrigeration systems

and air conditioning systems for the engineering students and future researchers

of this university.

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To the Engineering Department Dean and Faculty Members:

The researchers of this study recommendallowing and giving particular

attention on the advancement of refrigeration and air conditioning systems like

evaporative air coolers.

To the Engineering Student Body Organization and Junior Society of

Mechanical Engineering Capitol University Chapter Officers:

The researchers recommend creating seminars and workshop on air

conditioning systems and evaporative cooling systems to stimulate interest on

the subject and have researches on the development of air conditioning systems

and evaporative cooling system.

To the Engineering Students Reading this research:

The researchers recommend to do your part in the advancement of

evaporative coolers and air conditioning systems for a cool and comfortable

future ahead of us free of pollution and global warming caused by harmful and

highly toxic refrigerants that not just cause air pollution, and global warming but

also making a hole in the ozone layer. Let’s not allow the things that cool us now

makes the earth a little warmer tomorrow.

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Bibliography

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30
Appendix A

. Results in temperature drop of Evaporative air cooler and Air Conditioning Unit

Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Aver


Time in
Air Con Evap Evap Evap Evap
Minutes
(celcius) Cool Air Con Cool Air Con Cooler Air Con Cooler

0 30 30 30.1 30.1 30.2 30.2 30.1 30.1

10 29.5 29.8 29.4 29.7 28 29.2 28.96 29.6

20 27.5 29.3 28 29.3 27 28 27.5 28.86

30 26 29 26.3 28.9 26.2 27.9 26.16 28.6

40 25.5 28.5 25.8 28.6 26 27.8 25.76 28.3

50 25.3 28.2 25 28.2 25.5 27.5 25.26 27.96

60 25 28 24 27.9 25.1 27.2 24.7 27.7

70 24.5 27.7 23.8 27.6 24.5 27 24.26 27.43

80 24.3 27.3 23.7 27.2 24 26.9 24 27.13

90 24 27 23.6 26.9 23.8 26.7 23.8 26.86

100 23.8 26.8 23.5 26.7 23.6 26.6 23.63 26.7

110 23.4 26.5 23.3 26.5 23.3 26.5 23.33 26.33

120 23 26.1 23.1 26.2 23 26.4 23.03 26.23

31
Appendix B

List of 1 HP Air-conditioning Units in Cagayan de Oro City and its price

PRICE IN

STORE BRAND Php

GAISANO

APPLIANCE MARKES 21950

Haier 12888

ABENSON Kelvinator 12498

Panasonic 15098

15798

Codura 17498

Carrier 22098

LG 15498

16998

ASIAN HOMES Sharp 25998

Carrier Optima 26000

Hitachi 35800

Everbest 11588

Midea 13495

Panasonic 17199

Carrier 20700

SOLIDMARK Kolin 14795

32
16105

Koppel 15525

Sharp 24545

GE 18595

19995

16575

Mabe 17365

Samsung 29999

Everbest 27399

Koppel 32839

Panasonic 31499

Kolin 33709

LG 36495

31995

SHOPWISE Haier 23599

13988

Electrolux 23699

Hanabishi 11999

11499

TCL 15495

ROBINSONS Kolin 15480

16846

25250

33
Codura 17200

Carrier 22100

LG 17995

16495

Panasonic 14899

SM Appliance TCL 35499

Carrier 36500

Condura 28995

Koppel 27495

Hitachi 35795

Kolin 29525

York 21995

Mitsubishi 30500

Panasonic 35499

Carrier 34900

Condura 28850

Kolin 25250

Hitachi 35200

Average Price 22777.34483

34
Appendix C

List of Materials used in the Evaporative Cooler

Price in

Materials Used Quantity Php

Aluminum sheet

1 (0.2 mm) 1 roll 180

Square

2 Aluminum bars 0.5x0.5x6m 270

3 Nova Electric fan 2 pieces 1218

4 Drill bit 1 piece 50

5 Philip screws 10 pieces 29

6 Blind rivets 60 pieces 30

submersible

7 pump 1 piece 250

8 Nozzle 2 pieces 60

9 Tie wire 1/2 kg 30

10 Extension wire 5m 120

Total 2237

35
Figure , the thermometer is
showing a 26 degrees Celsius
temperature reading after the end
of the first testing phase in the
room that has the evaporative air
cooler.

36
Figure , shows the air temperature
and wind speed from the mouth of
the evaporative air cooler. The
reading is from an anemometer
which reads, 4.1 meters per
second and 24.0 degrees Celsius.

Figure, shows the reading of the


ambient air temperature of the
rooms before the first testing
phase has started.

37
CURRICULUM VITAE

1. PERSONAL DETAILS:

NAME: RUEL LANZA GALLARES

CONTACT NUMBERS: 09261940810

09551364146

EMAIL ADDRESS: gallaresruel@gmail.com

PARENTS:

FATHER: EMMANUEL SALCEDO GALLARES

Civil and Geodetic Engineer

MOTHER: RHODORA LANZA-GALLARES

Education Program Supervisor

HOME ADDRESS: 0168 Piaping Itum, Macabalan,

Cagayan de Oro City

Motto: “The Fear of the Lord is the Beginning of Wisdom”

2. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

BACCALAUREATE: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN MECHANICAL


ENGINEERING

CAPITOL UNIVERSITY

ONGOING

SECONDARY: MISAMIS ORIENTAL GENERAL COMPREHENSIVE


HIGH SCHOOL

(MOGCHS)

CLASS VALEDICTORIAN (SPECIAL SCIENCE


CURRICULUM)

Cagayan de Oro City

MARCH 2013

38
ELEMENTARY: MACABALAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

CLASS VALEDICTORIAN

Cagayan de Oro City

MARCH 2009

3. SIGNIFICANT RECORDS AND AWARDS

SCIENCE AND MATH QUIZBEE CHAMPION

CAPITOL UNIVERSITY

SY (2014-2015, 2015-2016, 2016-2017)

FOUNDATION DAY QUIZ BEE CHAMPION

CAPITOL UNIVERSITY

SY (2015-2016, 2016-2017)

LIBRARY MONTH QUIZBEE CHAMPION

CAPITOL UNIVERSITY

SY 2016-2017

LIBRARY MONTH ESSAY WRITING 1ST RUNNER UP

CAPITOL UNIVERSITY

SY 2016-2017

ENGLISH MONTH QUIZBEE 1ST RUNNER UP

CAPITOL UNIVERSITY

SY 2016-2017

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING QUIZBEE 2ND RUNNER UP

UJPSME MINDANAO

CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY

SY 2016-2017

39
4. AFFILIATION

Paraprofessional National Service Training


Program

Capitol University

SY (2014-2017)

Vice President for External Affairs- Junior Society of Mechanical


Engineering Capitol University
Chapter

(JPSME-CUC)

SY 2016-2017

President Engineering Student Body


Organization

Capitol University

SY 2017-2018

President Central Student Government

Capitol University

SY 2017-2018

40
CURRICULUM VITAE

1. PERSONAL DETAILS:

NAME: Omer Rosales El-Osmani

CONTACT NUMBERS: 09052732374

EMAIL ADDRESS: elosmaniomer@yahoo.com

PARENTS

FATHER: ANNAN M. EL-OSMANI

Supervisor, KUWAIT FINANCE HOUSE CARS


DEPARTMENT

MOTHER: DHARLEN R. EL-OSMANI

House Wife

HOME ADDRESS: Block 5 lot 15 kisanlu iponan CDOC

Motto:

2. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

BACCALAUREATE: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN MECHANICAL


ENGINEERING

CAPITOL UNIVERSITY

ONGOING

SECONDARY: BLESSED MOTHER COLLEGE

MARCH 2013

ELEMENTARY: PHILIPPINE INTERNATIONAL ENGLISH SCHOOL

MARCH 2009

41
3. SIGNIFICANT RECORDS AND AWARDS

BADMINTON CHAMPION

PHILIPPINE ENTERNATIONAL ENGLISH SCHOOL

(Grade 5 and 6)

PINGPONG CHAMPION

BLESSED MOTHER COLLEGE

CAPITOL UNIVERSITY

SY (2011-2012, 2012-2013, 2014-2015)

SCIENCE MONTH ESSAY WRITING CHAMPION

BLESSED MOTHER COLLEGE

SY (2012-2013)

FUTSAL MEN 1ST RUNNER UP

CAPITOL UNIVERSITY

SY (2014-2015)

4. AFFILIATION

Secretary- Junior Society of Mechanical


Engineering Capitol University
Chapter

(JPSME-CUC)

SY 2016-2017

42