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International

Volume   Journal
II Number 2 2011for Environmental Rehabilitation and Conservation
[23-28]
Volume III No.
[ISSN 0975 1 2012 [18 – 24]
- 6272] [ISSN 0975 - 6272] 

Evaluation of drinking water quality of Navsari District (Gujarat)

and its vicinity

Krishna Vaidya1, Mohini Gadhia2 and N. K. Sharma3

Received: December 22, 2011 ⏐ Accepted: April 16, 2012 ⏐ Online: July 27, 2012

Abstract
Introduction
Navsari district is located in the south eastern
part of Gujarat state in the coastal lowland Water is the most beautiful and precious gift of
along Purna River in India. Its geographical nature without which no life could survive on
coordinates are 20° 51' 0" North, 72° 55' 0" earth (Dara,1998 and Kumar and Kakrani,
East. In the present study, the physico- 2000). Water takes many different shapes on
chemical parameters of Navsari district earth and to study water a new science evolved
(Gujarat, India) have been analyzed regarding named as “Hydrology” which is the science to
their suitability for drinking purpose. The study know the properties, distribution and behavior
was carried out by collection of water samples of water in nature (Fair et al., 1958). Among
from six sampling sites. These samples are the various needs of water, the most essential
analyzed for turbidity, pH, total solids, total need is drinking. Surface water and ground
suspended solids, total dissolved solids, total water are two major sources for the supply of
hardness, magnesium hardness, calcium drinking water. Surface water comes from
hardness, phenolphthalein alkalinity, total lakes, reservoirs, and rivers. Groundwater
alkalinity. The analyze results is compared comes from wells that the water supplier drills
with permissible limits as prescribed by WHO, into aquifers (Park, 1997). Maintaining the
GPCB for drinking water quality. quality of water is the most important one for
human being since it is directly linked with his
Keywords: Drinking water ⏐ Hardness ⏐
daily life (Gosh, 2002). Thus, proper and
Total solids ⏐ Pollution ⏐ Navsari
managed study of water, especially freshwater
is essential to understand the relationship and
For correspondence: interdependence of various constituents of any
1
habitat.
Dept of Biology, K.B.S. College, Vapi. Gujarat.
2 The town of Navsari is approximately about
V. N. South Gujarat University, Surat, Gujarat.
2000 years old. The city is situated at
3
N.V. Patel College of Pure and Applied Sciences V.V. southeastern Gujarat state, west-central India.
Nagar, Gujarat, (India).
It is situated in the coastal lowland along the
E-mail: nitin584@yahoo.co.in

Evaluation of Drinking Water Quality Of Navsari District (Gujarat)


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Volume III Number 1 2012 [18 – 24]
[ISSN 0975 - 6272] Krishna et al.

Purna River. The district covers an area of is stored in a small reservoir called “Dudhiya
2,211 square kilometers and has population of Talao” (Patel et al., 2000). The kakrapar wier
1,229,463 of which 27.36% is urban. It lies is constructed across the river Tapi and down
between 72.5 east latitude and 65.3 west stream of Ukai dam. To monitor the potable
longitudes. Weather is pleasant almost all the water quality, total selected six sampling sites
year around, sunny from September to May, shown in Plate 1 are untreated water of
rainy from June to August. There are two Dudhiya Talao (Site 1), treated water of
lakes in the city namely Dudhiya Talao and Navsari water works (Site 2), Station area (Site
Sarbatiya Talao. The main source of 3), Lunsikui area (Site 4), Chhapra village (Site
Nagarpalika Water Works Supply in Navsari 5) and Viraval village (Site 6).
city comes from Kakarapar through a canal and

Material and Methods through pipes. Water samples were collected at


In the present study, six sampling sites were fixed time to maintain the consistency in the
selected. The sampling was done on seasonal results. Care was also taken for collection
pattern. Composite sampling method was timing depending on water supply from
particularly adopted in Dudhiya Talao (Site 1). Navsari Nagar Palika.
The taps were kept open for 2-3 minutes while The methods of APHA (1995) and Trivedi and
collecting samples from pipeline supply to Goel (1986) were followed for water analysis.
remove the possible impurities in water The parameters such as turbidity, pH, total

Evaluation of Drinking Water Quality of Navsari District (Gujarat)


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Voluume III Numbe r 1 2012 [18 – 24]
[ISSN
N 0975 - 6272]] Krishna et al.

solids, tootal suspend


ded solids, total
t dissolvved
solids, total hardneess, magnesium hardneess,
calcium hardness, phenolphthal
p lein alkaliniity,
total alkkalinity weere broughtt for furthher Totaal Suspended Solidds
analysis. 20.00

((m g /l))
15.00
RESULT
TS
10.00

TSS
The resuults of physicco-chemicall parameters of 5.00

0.00
average of six sam mpling sitees are show wn UNTREATED TREA
ATED STATION LUNSIK
KUI CHHAPRA VIRAVAL

through graph.
g S
SUMMER MONSOON WINTER

Turbidity
Total Hardness
10.00
(N TU )

700.00
8.00 600.00

(m g/l)
6.00 500.00
T u rb id ity

400.00
4.00 300.00

TH
2.00 200.00
100.00
0.00
0.00
UNTR
REATED TREATED STAT
TION LUNSIKUI CHHAPR
RA VIRAVAL
UNTREATED TREA
ATED STATION LUNSIK
KUI CHHAPRA VIRAVA
AL

SUMMER MONSOON WINTER SUMMER MONSOON WINTER

M ag
gnesium Hardnes
ss

120.00
100.00
80.00
60.00
40.00
20.00
0.00

SUMMER MONSOO
ON WINTER

Total Solids
S
1200.00
1000.00 Ca
alcium Hardness
g )
Ca Hardness ((mg/l)
T S (m g /l)

800.00
600.00
600.00 500.00
400.00
400.00 300.00
200.00
200.00 100.00
0.00
0.00
D

A
D

IU
N

L
TE

TE

PR
O

A
K

U
UNTREATED TREATED STTATION LUNSIKUI CHHAPPRA VIRAVAL
TI

V
EA

SI
EA

A
A

H
TR

R
ST
TR

LU

VI
C
N
U

SUMMER
R MONSOON WINTER

SUMMER MONSOON
N WINTER

Total Dissolvved Solids


Phenolphthalein Alkalin
nity
1200.00
1000.00 8.00
(m g /l)

800.00
PA (mg/l)

6.00
600.00 4.00
TDS

400.00 2.00
200.00 0.00
0.00
D

UI

A
D

L
TE

TE

PR
O

A
K

UNTREATED TREATED S
STATION LUNSIKUI CHHA
APRA VIRAVAL
TI

AV
SI
EA

EA

A
A

HH

R
TR

ST
TR

LU

VI
C
N
U

SUMMER
R MONSOON WINTEER
SUMMER MONSOON WINTER

Evaluaation of Drinkingg Water Quality of Navsari Distrrict (Gujarat)


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Voluume III Numbe r 1 2012 [18 – 24]
[ISSN
N 0975 - 6272]] Krishna et al.

Total Alkalinity

400.00
( m g /l)

300.00
200.00
TA

100.00
0.00
UNTTREATED TREATED STTATION LUNSIKUI CHHAPRA VIRAVAL

SUMMERR MONSOON WINTERR

Evaluaation of Drinkingg Water Quality of Navsari Distrrict (Gujarat)


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Volume III Number 1 2012 [18 – 24]
[ISSN 0975 - 6272] Krishna et al.

Turbidity of drinking water of Navsari district Total hardness of untreated water (site 1) was
was higher from untreated water (site 1) and found to be minimum during all three seasons.
reduced drastically after treatment (site 2). It was recorded in the range 306.50-
More or less same value was recorded from 486.47mg/l from treated water (site 2), station
remaining sampling sites3-6 in all the three area (site 3) and lunsikui area (site 4) whereas
seasons except in summer season from (site 3). it was found to be in similar range of 426.85-
The pH was predominantly alkaline ranged 565.36mg/l from sampling sites 5 and 6. The
between 7.48 to 7.83 in monsoon season, 7.41 results of calcium hardness, in untreated water
to 8.10 in winter season and 7.41 to 8.08 in (site 1) was far below than the treated water
summer season throughout the study from all (site 2) in summer and monsoon seasons
the six sampling sites of Navsari district. pH of whereas it was found in same range between
drinking water was found highest in untreated 241.82-499.66mg/l from station area (site 3),
water (site1) whereas lowest in Viraval village lunsikui area (site4), chhapra village (site 5)
(site6) during all the three seasons. The pH of and Viraval village (site 6). Magnesium
treated water (site 2), station area (site 3), hardness were recorded in range 58-67.78mg/l
lunsikui area (site 4) and chhapra village (site from untreated water (site1) and was minimum
5) were more or less same in all three seasons. from treated water (site 2) whereas it was more
or less similar range from 67.09-95.63mg/l
Total solids were recorded maximum in the from station area (site 3), lunsikui area (site4),
range of 664.47-990.50mg/l from untreated chhapra village (site 5) and Viraval village
water (site 1), chhapra village (site 5), viraval (site 6) during all the three seasons.
village (site 6), and found to be minimum
488.16mg/l from lunsikui area (site 4) in Total alkalinity of untreated water (site 1) and
monsoon season whereas it was recorded more treated water (site 2) was found minimum
or less same from sites 2 and 3 during all the during all the three seasons in range 93.50-
three seasons. Total dissolved solids of 156.50mg/l whereas it was more or less similar
untreated water (site 1), chhapra village (site range from 217.69-315.03 mg/l from station
5), viraval village (site 6) were recorded in area (site 3), lunsikui area (site4), chhapra
range of 649.19-972.50mg/l in all three village (site 5) and Viraval village (site 6)
seasons whereas in treated water (site 2), during all the three seasons as shown in above
station area (site 3) and lunsikui area (site 4) graph. Phenolphthalein alkalinity were
were more or less same in range between recorded in the range of 1.66-4.06mg/l from all
472.31-749.38mg/l. the sampling sites 2-6 except during monsoon
season from untreated water (site 1) it was
The results of total suspended solids were highest in range of 7.25mg/l was depicted in
found to be higher from untreated water (site graph.
1) and reduced drastically after the treatment
(site 2). More or less same value was recorded Discussion
from chhapra village (site 5) and Viraval In the present study, turbidity was highest in
village (site6) whereas in station area sampling untreated water and was reduced in all the sites
site3 and lunsikui area sampling site4 results and maintained well. The highest turbidity in
were close to sampling sites 5 and 6. untreated water was due to presence of clay,

Evaluation of Drinking Water Quality of Navsari District (Gujarat)


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Volume III Number 1 2012 [18 – 24]
[ISSN 0975 - 6272] Krishna et al.

silt brought with runoff of water from Magnesium also occurs in all kinds of natural
Kakrapar canal and did not crosses the waters with calcium, but its concentration
standard limits. remains generally lower than the calcium
pH is the measure of the intensity of acidity or (Purohit and Saxena, 1990) So if calcium and
alkalinity and measures the concentration of magnesium is high in water than it may cause
hydrogen ions in water (Mackee and Wolf. kidney disease (Taylor, 1958). In the present
1963). pH value of 7 is considered to be the study magnesium was found below the
best and most ideal (Sawyer abd Mc Carty, desirable limit.
1967). During the present study pH was found Alkalinity in natural waters is due to free
to alkaline range between 7.4-8.10 which was hydroxyl ions and hydrolysis of salts formed
under the desirable limit. by weak acids and strong bases. Water with
The survey regarding the taste threshold level low alkalinity is more likely to be corrosive,
of TDS was done by Bruvold and Ongerth which could cause deterioration of plumbing
(Bruvold and Ongerth, 1969) and was and an increasing chance for lead in water if
concluded that the range between 658-758mg/l present in pipe, solder or plumbing fixtures
was good enough and the range between 1283- (Frank, 1987). In the present study, alkalinity
1333 mg/l unpalatable for drinking. So, water was high from sampling sites 3-6, this may be
with presence of high level of TDS was not due to corrosion in distributing pipes and the
used by the consumers. In the present bore well supply but were found in normal
study TDS was found in the range 472.31- range. All the physico-chemical fall within the
972.50mg/l which was within the desirable permissible limit. This indicates that the water
limit. of Navsari district and its vicinity is suitable
for drinking purpose.
Hardness is defined as the concentration of
calcium and magnesium ions content of water
(Kumar and Kakran, 2000). Most natural water References
supplies contain at least some hardness due to
Dara, S.S. (1998) In: A Textbook of
dissolved calcium and magnesium salts (Fulvio
Environmental Chemistry and
and Olori, 1965). Hardness was higher from
Pollution Control, S. Chand
sampling sites 3-6 compared to untreated and
Publication, New Delhi, pp. 64-69.
treated. However the value did not cross the
limits. Kumar, V. and Kakrani, B. (2000) In: Water-
Environment and Pollution, Agro Bios
Calcium is important as a nutrients, its
Publication, New Delhi, pp.1-26.
deficiency causes rickets (Trivedi and Goel,
1986). High concentrations of calcium are not Fair, G.M. and Geyer, J.C. (1958) In: Elements
desirable in washing, laundering and bathing. of Water Supply and Wastewater
Scale formation in boilers takes place by high Disposal, John Wiley Publication, USA,
calcium along with magnesium (Park, 1997). pp. 1.
In the present study, calcium was found Park, K. (1997) In: Text book of Preventive
highest from sampling sites 5 and 6 due to bore and Social Medicine, Banarsidas
well water.

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Volume III Number 1 2012 [18 – 24]
[ISSN 0975 - 6272] Krishna et al.

Publication, Jabalpur, 15th Edition, pp. Publication, New York 2nd Edition, pp.
468-479. 136-247, 270, 275-277.
Gosh, G.K. (2002) In: Water of India: Quality Bruvold, W.H. and Ongerth, H.J. (1969) In:
and Quantity, A.P.H.Publication, New The taste of water, public health reports,
Delhi, pp. 9, 13, 19, 97,191. Rawat publication, Jaipur, pp. 110-135.
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and quality in Surat branch of Kakrapar McGraw Hill, Toronto, 2nd Edition, pp.
command, pp.1-3. 117-132.
American Public Health Association, Fulvio, D.E. and Olori, L. (1965) In: Hardness
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Water Environment Federation (1995) Pergamon Publication, New York, pp.
In: Standard Methods for the 95.
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Water life and pollution, Agro Botanical
York.
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Trivedi, R.K. and Goel, P.K. (1986) In:
Taylor, E. W. (1958) In: The examination of
Chemical and Biological method for
waters and water supplies, Churchill
water pollution standard, Ashish
publication, London, pp.27-48.
publication, New Delhi, pp. 1-25 and
100-105. Frank, N. (1987). In: Water quality hand book,
Mc Graw hill publication, New York,
Mackee, J.E. and Wolf, H.W. (1963) In: Water
2nd Edition, pp. 13-19.
Quality Criteria, Mc Graw Hill

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