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ESSENCE - International Journal for Environmental Rehabilitation and Conservation

Midha et al./Vol. VII [1] 2016/26 – 35

Volume VII: No. 1 2016 [26 – 35] [ISSN 0975 - 6272]

Physico-chemical Characterization of Indira Gandhi Canal, Sri Ganganagar (Rajasthan)

Midha, Rachna1; Dhingra, Abha1 and Malhotra, G.S. 2

Received: January 25, 2016  Accepted: March 16, 2016  Online: June 30, 2016

Abstract Introduction

The present study was carried out on the Indira The Indira Gandhi Canal Project (IGNP) was
Gandhi Canal to evaluate the water quality with introduced for arid north-western part of
special reference to physico-chemical parameters Rajasthan to meet the demand for food
like pH, conductance, DO, BOD, COD, TA, production against the increasing population
TDS, TSS, TS, Total Hardness, Chloride growth. Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh
Content, Sulphate Content, Nitrate Content and districts fall within the project, and form large
Calcium Content for ten different sites of command area. These are the very productive
selected canal stretch. Average estimated values areas of Rajasthan, which has been famous for
are compared with BIS. The Comparison is high yields of wheat, rice and cotton after the
showing that all water quality parameters that are inception of lndira Gandhi Nahar Project (IGNP).
examined are above the BIS’s permissible limit. Along the irrigation the entire population of the
It figures out that it is not suitable for drinking both districts is depended upon the IGNP for
purpose and there is strong need forpreservation drinking water supply.
and monitoring of Indira Gandhi Canal water.
In the recent years it was observed that pollution
Keywords: IGCW | Physico-chemical Characters level in Indira Gandhi Canal has been raised due
to the freely discharge of industrial effluents and
municipal sewage to IGNP. So, IGNP water has
For correspondence: direct concern with the society and human health.
Department of Botany, Tantia University, Sri Ganganagar
Department of Environmental Science, MaharshiDayanand
Method and Material
College, Sri Ganganagar
E-mail: gurmeet.malhotra@gmail.com The grab samples were collected in thoroughly
cleaned polythene bottles once a month from

Midha et al./Vol. VII [1] 2016/26 – 35

each sampling site in between the Jan 2014 – Sampling Site-1 (GPS Cordinate-29.450815,
Dec. 2015. After taking the samples, they were 74.521113)

analysed for specified parameters in the 2) Sampling Site-2 (GPS Cordinate-29.385735,

laboratory and appropriate statistical test were 74.452418)

performed. 3) Sampling Site-3 (GPS Cordinate-29.327498,

All the samples were analysed according to the
4) Sampling Site-4 (GPS Cordinate-29.262598,
Standard Methods given by the APHA. The pH
and EC were measured on the spot at each
sampling site with the digital pH and 5) Sampling Site-5 (GPS Cordinate-29.224826,
6) Sampling Site-6 (GPS Cordinate-29.205480,
The area selected for the present study falls under 73.899846)
theSri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh districts of
7) Sampling Site-7 (GPS Cordinate-29.141824,
Rajasthan. This study area is climatically the 73.761634)
mixture of arid and semi-arid climates regimes
8) Sampling Site-8 (GPS Cordinate-29.107877,
and local human population have high
dependency on the IGNP.
9) Sampling Site-9 (GPS Cordinate-29.064322,
A total 10 sampling stations were chosen and 10 73.567485)
replicate samples were taken from each sampling 10) Sampling Site-10 (GPS Cordinate-29.008041,
sites, overall a total 100 samples were analysed. 73.482458)
The mean values of phyisco-chemical parameters
All the statistical analysis and graphical work
of each sampling sites were shown in the Table
were done with the help of Microsoft Office
1.The sampling sites are marked in topological
2011 and PaSt 3.14 (Paleontological Statistics).
map with their GPS coordinates. The GPS
coordinates of all 10 sampling sites are given
here and also marked in the map (Map 1).

Map 1: Showing all sampling sites and

their GPS coordinates

Midha et al./Vol. VII [1] 2016/26 – 35

Result and Discussion accurate and precise measurement of pH

(APHA 2005). The pH of canal water is
The scales of stipulated physico-chemical
varying between 7.6-8.3 in observed sampling
parameters werefound as per the observation
sites. There was a sequential increase in pH
Table-1, after the analysis of samples.
with distance travelled by canal water was
The pH measurement is the determination of observed due to the dilution and sedimentation
the activity of hydrogen ions in aqueous effect. pH of canal water was found within the
solution. In applications, ranging from acceptable range in almost all the sampling
industrial operations to geological and sites.
chemical processes, it is important to have an

Parameter/Site BIS Site-1 Site-2 Site-3 Site-4 Site-5 Site-6 Site-7 Site-8 Site-9 Site-10
pH 6.5-8.5 7.6 7.6 7.8 8.1 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.3
EC 50 420 410 380 380 370 340 340 315 310 310
DO (mg/l) 4-8 4.4 4.8 4.8 5.1 5.6 6.0 6.0 6.1 6.0 6.0
BOD (mg/l) 200 2100 2100 2000 1850 1700 1650 1520 1500 1500 1400
COD (mg/l) 300 2650 2650 2500 2350 2250 2150 2020 2000 2000 1900
Total Alkalinity 200 295 290 282 273 260 255 242 238 229 221
TDS (mg/l) 500 2120 2090 2060 1990 1910 1800 1760 1720 1690 1650
TSS (mg/l) 200 1550 1440 1300 1210 1070 910 850 750 700 640
Chloride (mg/l) 250 530 615 690 720 750 805 845 850 850 860
Total Hardness 300 980 985 870 810 760 730 695 680 670 590
Calcium (mg/l) 12 16 16 15 15 15 14 13 13 13 13
Magnesium 18 22 22 22 21 21 21 21 21 21 21
Sulphate (mg/l) 200 253 245 244 236 231 225 226 218 217 217
Nitrate (mg/l) 45 62 62 62 61 61 60 59 59 59 59
Table-1: Showing the average magnitude of various
physico-chemical parameters in all sampling sites

Electronic Conductivity is the ability of a much higher from the BIS desirable limit. The
material in the water where these are present in high value of EC is indicating the high
the acidic forms, capable of conducting current availability of dissolved solids, which is due to
and therefore, conductivity is a good and rapid the low quantum of water and the ions coming
measure of the total dissolved solids. The through the drainage of sewage and industrial
conductivity fluctuated between 420-310 that effluents.

Midha et al./Vol. VII [1] 2016/26 – 35

The dissolved oxygen (DO) content plays an

important role in supporting aquatic life in
running water and is susceptible to
environmental changes. The DO is a sort of
oxygen that present in the water as molecular
form, it remain trapped in water molecules.
This is an essential component of the water,
which is being used by the aquatic organisms
for respiration (Wetzel 2002; Gagan Matta et
al. (2015a); Gagan Matta et al. (2015b) and Figure 2 Showing spatial variability in EC
Gagan Matta (2015). The value of DO is among all sampling sites
varying between 4.4-6.0, this is indicating the
hypoxic condition of the canal water and
showing less suitability for drinking purpose.

The COD or Chemical Oxygen Demand is the

total measurement of all chemicals (organics &
in-organics) in the water and BOD is a
measure of the amount of oxygen that require
for the bacteria to degrade the organic
components present in water. It is a highly
acceptable measure for the pollution
measurement. The high values of both
Figure 3 Showing spatial variability in DO
parameters indicate the high pollution load
among all sampling sites
(Vanloon 2000).

Figure-1 Showing spatial variability in pH

among all sampling sites
Figure-4 Showing spatial variability in BOD
among all sampling sites

Midha et al./Vol. VII [1] 2016/26 – 35

Figure-5 Showing spatial variability in COD Figure-8 Showing spatial variability in TSS
among all sampling sites among all sampling sites

Figure-6 Showing spatial variability in Total

Figure-9 Showing spatial variability in
Alkalinity among all sampling sites
Chloride among all sampling sites

Figure-7 Showing spatial variability in TDS

Figure-10 Showing spatial variability in Total
among all sampling sites
Hardness among all sampling sites

Midha et al./Vol. VII [1] 2016/26 – 35

fundamentally a measure of how much an

alkali is dissolved in the water. The natural
water contains alkalinity due to the water
carbonate system and it is essential for the
survival of the living organisms. In general,
this alkalinity reach upto the level of 8.5 pH
but mixing of the industrial effluents neutralize
the natural water and force to leach out the
essential minerals from the natural water. The
Figure-11 Showing spatial variability in
Total Alkalinity of the all-sampling sites
Calcium among all sampling sites
ranging from the 295-221 mg/l (Carbonate
Scale) as shown in figure 6. Which is higher
than the BIS desirable limit. There was a
sequential decrease in Total Alkalinity with
distance travelled by canal water was observed
due to the dilution and sedimentation effect.

The Solids refer to matter suspended or

dissolved in water. Solids may affect water or
effluent quality adversely in a number of ways.
Waters with high dissolved solids generally are
Figure-12 Showing spatial variability in
of inferior palatability and may induce an
Sulphate among all sampling sites
unfavorable physiological reaction in the
transient consumer. A limit of 500 mg
dissolved solids/L is desirable for drinking
waters but highly mineralized waters are
The value of BOD is varying from the 2100- unsuitable for drinking. Waters high in
1400 and the value for COD is varying from suspended solids may be esthetically
2650-1900, shown in the figure 4 and 5. Both unsatisfactory for such purposes as bathing
parameters are suggesting the high pollution (APHA 2005). The magnitude of the TDS is
load in the canal water. These high values are ranging from the 2120-1650 mg/l (Carbonate
supporting the formation of hypoxic water Scale) and TSS is ranging from 1550-640 mg/l
condition that is further lethal to the aquatic (Carbonate Scale) in the canal water as shown
organisms. It is noticeable that the values of in figure 7 and 8. These values are much
BOD and COD are much higher than the BIS higher than the BIS desirable limits. These
desirable limit. higher values are suggesting the mixing of
Total Alkalinity is a measure of the acid- sewage and effluents in canal water.
neutralizing capacity of water. Alkalinity is
Midha et al./Vol. VII [1] 2016/26 – 35

The chloride comes into the water by the Conclusion

natural process like weathering of rocks and it
The results of the present work indicate that
found to be combined with other cations viz.
there are significant variations in the
Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium.
physicochemical parameters in canal water
The chloride of sodium, potassium, calcium
along the sampled stretch. The investigation
and magnesium are highly soluble in water.
reveals that the quality of canal water at these
But the high amount of the chloride comes
sampling sites is found to be not safe and
from the degradation of the organic matter and
cannot be used for the domestic purposes
industrial effluents (APHA 2005). The
without any treatment. Surely this water is
concentration of chloride in canal water is
hazardous to the human and can become the
ranging from the 530-860 mg/l within the
cause of many diseases.
sampling stretch of the canal, shown in the
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