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# Chapter 13 Fourier Series

##  A Fourier series is a representation of a function as a series of constants times

Sine and/or Cosine functions of different frequencies.

## 13.2 The Fourier Series of a Function

 Main idea:
L
Let f(x) be a function defined for –L  x  L. Assume that  L
f ( x)dx exist.
Explore the possibility of choosing a0, a1,….and b1, b2 …. such that

1 
 n x n x 
f ( x )  a0    an cos( )  bn sin( ) (13.1)
2 n 1  L L 

Eq. (13.1) is a decomposition of the function f(x) into a sum of terms, each
representing the influence of a different fundamental frequency on the behavior
of the function.

Lemma 13.1

L m x n x
L
cos(
L
)sin(
L
)dx  0 (13.3)

## (2) If nm and n,m 0 (n,m)

L m x n x L m x n x
  cos( ) cos( ) dx   sin( )sin( ) dx 0 (13.4)
L L L L L L
Recall:
cos(1  2 )  cos(1 )cos(2 )  sin(1 )sin(2 )
cos(1  2 )  cos(1 )cos(2 )  sin(1 )sin(2 )
cos(1   2 )  cos(1   2 )
 cos(1 ) cos( 2 ) 
2
L m x n x 1 L m x n x m x n x 
  cos( ) cos( ) dx    cos(  )  cos(  ) dx
L L L 2  L L L L L 

103
L
1 L m x n x L m x n x 
  sin(  ) sin(  ) 0
2  ( m  n ) L L (m  n ) L L   L

## (3) For any n>0 (nN)

2 n x n x
L L
 L cos (
L
) dx   L
sin 2 (
L
)dx  L (13.5)
1  cos(2 ) 1  cos(2 )
cos 2 ( )  , and sin ( ) 
2

2 2
n x 2n x 2n x 
L
L L 1 x L
  L   [1  cos( )]dx    L
2
cos ( ) dx sin( )
L L 2 L  2 2n L   L

## Back to Eq.(13.1). Integrate Eq.(13.1) term by term (suppose we can do this)

1 
 n x n x 
a0 dx    an  cos(
L L L L
  L
f ( x)dx  
L 2
n 1 
L L
)dx bn  sin(
L L
) dx   La0

1 L
L  L
 a0  f ( x)dx (13.2)

k x
To find an, choose any integer k and multiply Eq.(13.1) by cos( ) to get
L

k x 1 k x 
 n x k x n x k x 
f ( x ) cos( )  a0 cos( )    an cos( ) cos( )  bn sin( ) cos( )
L 2 L n 1  L L L L 

Integrate the above series term by term (suppose we can do this), one will have

L k x
L
f ( x) cos(
L
)dx
1 k x L   n x k x n x k x 
)dx     an cos(
L
 a0 cos( ) cos( )  bn sin( ) cos( ) dx
L 2 L L
n 1  L L L L 
L 1 k x 
 L n x k x n x k x 
)dx     an cos(
L
 a0 cos( ) cos( )dx   bn sin( ) cos( ) dx 
n 1  
L 2 L L L L L L L

k x
when n=k  cos 2 ( )
L

104
Based on Lemma 13.1, it is easy to find that all the integrals on the right side of
the above equation equal zero except for the case n=k, which is

L k x

L
)dx  ak L
f ( x) cos(
L
1 L k x
 ak   f ( x) cos( )dx where k  N
L L L
1 L n x
 an   f ( x) cos( )dx (13.6)
L L L

k x
Similarly, to find bn, multiplying Eq.(13.1) by sin( ) will yield
L

L k x L k x
L
f ( x)sin(
L
)dx  bk  sin 2 (
L L
)dx  bk L
1 L k x
L  L
 bk  f ( x) sin( )dx for k  1, 2...... (13.7)
L

## Definition Fourier Coefficients and Series

Let f be a Riemann integrable function on [–L, L]

## (1) The Fourier coefficients of f on [–L, L] are the numbers

1 L n x
an  
L L
f ( x ) cos(
L
)dx for n=0,1,2,… (13.8)
1 L n x
bn   f ( x )sin( )dx for n=1,2… (13.9)
L L L

## (2) The Fourier series of f on [–L, L] is the series

1 
 n x n x 
ao    an cos( )  bn sin( )
2 n 1  L L 
in which the coefficients are the Fourier series coefficients of f on [–L, L]

## Example 13.7: f(x)=x for –  x   where L=. Find Fourier coefficients of

f(x) on   ,  
Sol: According to Definition 13.1
1 L 1  1 x2
 a0   f ( x)dx   xdx  
 0
L L    2
105
1  n x 1   1 x 
   

 an  x cos( )dx  x cos(nx)dx   cos(nx) 
 sin( nx)  0
  
n 
2
n 
1  n x 1   1 x 
 bn   x sin( )dx   x sin(nx)dx   2 sin(nx)  cos( nx)  

     n  n 
1 1 2 2
 0  cos(n )  [0  cos(n )]   (1) n  (1) n 1
n n n n
cos(n )  (1)n

## Definition Piecewise Continuous Function

Let f(x) be defined on [a,b] except possibly at finitely many points, then f(x) is
piecewise continuous on [a,b] if
1. f(x) is continuous on [a,b] except perhaps at finitely many points.
2. Both xlima 
f ( x ) and lim f ( x ) exist and are finite
x b

x 
f ( x ) and
0

x  x0

## Definition Piecewise Smooth Function

f(x) is piecewise smooth on [a,b] if f(x) and f ( x) are piecewise continuous on
[a,b].

 5 , x  

Example: f ( x )   x ,    x  1

 1 x , 1 x  2
2

 4 , 2  x  
Determine whether f(x) is piecewise smooth.
Sol: endpoints: , 
discontinuous at 1 ,2

## (1) . check whether f(x) is piecewise continuous

A. x    xlim 
f ( x)  4 exist and is finite
x    lim f ( x)   exist and is finite
x 

106
B.
at x =1  f (1 )  1  (1) 2  0, f (1 )  1  1

at x =2  f (2 )  4, f (2 )  1  (2  ) 2  3 
exist and is finite
f(x) is discontinuous at x=1 and 2

## (2). check whether f ( x) is piecewise continuous

1   x  1

f ( x )   2 x 1  x  2
 0 2 x 

f '( x) is discontinuous at x=1 and 2
at x =1  f '(1 )  1 at x =2  f '(2 )  4
finite, finite,
 f '(1 )  2  f '(2 )  0
at endpoints: , 
f '(  )  0
finite
f '(   )  1
 Both f '( x) and f(x) are piecewise continuous
 f(x) is piecewise smooth on [,]

## Theorem 13.1 Convergence of Fourier Series

Let f(x) be piecewise smooth on [L, L]. Then for L<x< L, the Fourier series of
f(x) on [L, L] converges to 1 ( f ( x )  f ( x )) .
2
At both L and L, the Fourier series converges to 1 ( f ( L )  f ( L ))
2

## Example: f(x)= x for   x  

Determine whether the Fourier series of f(x) converge to f(x) or not?
Sol:
f(x)= x for –  x    f(x) is piecewise continuous on [,]
f ( x ) =1 for – <x <   f ( x ) is piecewise continuous on (,)

## Check whether the limit of f ( x ) exists at end-points , 

f (   )  lim f ( x) =1 exist
x  

x 

##  f ( x ) is piecewise continuous on [,]

107
 f(x) is piecewise smooth on [,]
 for   x   , the Fourier series of f(x) converges to
1 1
( f ( x )  f ( x ))  [ x  x ]  x  f ( x )
2 2
At both x =  and x =  , the Fourier series of f(x) converges to
1 1
( f (  )  f (  ))  (   )  0
2 2

 e  x for  2  x  1

Example f ( x )   2 x 2 for 1  x  2
 4 for x  2

Sol: Obviously, f(x) is piecewise smooth, being continuous except for jump
discontinuities at 1 and 2.

## For 2<x<1, f(x) is continuous and is also piecewise smooth,

 The Fourier series of f(x) converges to e  x

## For 1<x<2, f(x) is continuous and is also piecewise smooth

 The Fourier series of f(x) converges to 2x 2

At the jump discontinuity x=1, the Fourier series of f(x) converges at x=1 to
1 1
[ f (1 )  f (1 )]  (e 1  2)
2 2

## At both x = 2 and x = 2, the Fourier series of f(x) converge to

1 1
[ f (2 )  f (2 )]  (e2  8)
2 2

## 13.2.1 Even and Odd functions

Definition
f(x) is an even function on [–L, L] if f(x)= f(x) for Lx L
f(x) is an odd function on [–L, L] if f(x)= f(x) for Lx L

## Example: sin(x)= sin(x)  odd function

cos(x)= cos(x)  even function

108
odd*odd =even; odd*even =odd; even*even =even

## Recall that in Calculus, if f(x) is an even function on [–L, L], then

L L
L
f ( x)dx  2  f ( x)dx
0
Proof:
L L 0 L L
L
f ( x)dx   f ( x)dx   f ( x)dx   f ( x)dx  
0 L 0 0
f ( x)dx
L L L L L L
  f ( x)dx   f ( x)d ( x)   f ( x)dx   f ( x)dx   f ( x)dx   f ( x )dx
0 0 0 0 0 0
(change of variable) (f(x) is even)
L
 2 f ( x )dx
0
L
 If f(x) is an odd function on [–L, L], then  L
f ( x)dx  0

##  Let f(x) be integrable on [–L, L]

1. If f(x) is even on [–L, L], then its Fourier series on this interval is
1 
n x n x
a0   an cos(
2 L
) where an   f ( x ) cos( )dx for n=0,1,2,…
2 n 1 L L 0 L
2. If f(x) is odd on [–L, L], then its Fourier series on this interval is

n x n x

2 L
n 1
bn sin(
L
) where n b  
L 0
f ( x) sin(
L
)dx for n=1,2,3,…

Proof:
n x n x
1). f(x) is even  f ( x) cos( ) is even. f ( x) sin( ) is odd. One will
L L
have
1 L 2 L
L  L L 0
a0  f ( x ) dx  f ( x )dx
1 L n x 2 L n x
an   f ( x ) cos( )dx   f ( x ) cos( )dx
L L L L 0 L
1 L n x
bn   f ( x) sin( )dx  0
L L L
2). Proof is omitted.

## Example: Find the Fourier series of f(x)=x4 on [–,]

Sol: x4 is even and L=  f(x)=x4=f(x)  bn=0

109
2 L 2  4 2
a0  
L 0
f ( x ) dx  
 0
x dx   4
5
 8  3n 2 x 2  6 n2 x3  6 x 
 
2  2 4
an 
 
0
x 4 cos(nx)dx 
n
x sin( nx )  
0 n  n 4
sin( nx ) 
n3
cos( nx ) 0

4 
n   6  cos(n )  4  n 2 2  6  ( 1) n
8 2 2 8

n n
The Fourier series of x on [–,] is
4

1 4  8 2 2
   4  n   6  ( 1) n cos( nx )
5 n 1 n

## § Partial sums of Fourier series

Fourier’s claim for his series were counterintuitive in the sense that functions
such as polynomials and exponentials does not seem to be likely candidates to
be represented by series of sines and cosines. It is instructive to watch graphs of
partial sums of some Fourier series converge to the graph of the function.

## 13.2.3 The Gibbs phenomenon

The Gibbs phenomenon is characteristic of Fourier series at jump discontinuities
of the function. (The graph of partial sum of Fourier series has jumps near the
endpoints).
To illustrate this phenomenon, consider
  / 4 for    x  0

f ( x)   0 for x  0
  / 4 for 0  x  

110
After some calculations, it is found that the Fourier series of f(x) is

1
 2n  1 sin((2n  1) x )
n 1

By the convergence theorem, this series converges to f(x) for – < x < . There
is jump discontinuity at 0, but 1 [ f (0 )  f (0 )]  1 (     )  0  f (0)
2 2 4 4

## However, the Nth partial sum of this Fourier series is

N
1
SN ( x)   sin((2n  1) x ) .
n 1 2 n  1

The following figures shows graphs of S5(x), S14(x), and S22(x). Each of these
partial sums shows a peak near zero. Intuitively, since the partial sum
approaches f(x) as N  , we might expect these peaks flatten out and become
smaller as N is chosen larger. But they don’t. Instead, the peaks maintain
roughly the same height, but move closer to the y axis as N increases.

111
Approach:

## Define a new function fe(x) for  L  x  L

 f ( x) , 0  x  L
where f e ( x)  
 f ( x) ,  L  x  0
 fe(x) is an even function on [L, L] and fe(x)= f(x) on [0, L]

Explanation:
case 1: x  0 then f e (  x )  f ( (  x ))  f ( x )  f e ( x ) 
  fe(x) is even.
case 2 : x  0 then f e (  x )  f (  x )  f e ( x ) 
We call fe(x) the even extension of f(x) to [L, L].

## Find the Fourier series of fe(x) for L  x  L

f e ( x ) is even, its Fourier series on [L, L] is
1 
n x
a0   an cos( )
2 n 1 L
2 L 2 L
where a0   f e ( x )dx   f ( x )dx
L 0 L 0
2 L n x 2 L n x
an   f e ( x ) cos( )dx   f ( x ) cos( )dx
L 0 L L 0 L

Definition
Based on these ideas, define the Fourier cosine coefficients of f(x) on [0, L] to be
the numbers
2 L n x
an   f ( x)cos( )dx (13.10)
L 0 L
for n=0,1,2,…

## The Fourier cosine series for f(x) on [0, L] is the series

1 
n x
a0   an cos( ) (13.11)
2 n 1 L
in which an’s are the Fourier Cosine coefficients of f(x) on [0, L].

## Theorem 13.2 Convergence of Fourier Cosine Series

Let f(x) be piecewise smooth on [0, L]. Then

112
1. If 0 <x <L, then at x, the Fourier cosine series for f(x) on [0, L] converges to
1
( f ( x )  f ( x ))
2
2. At x=0, the Fourier cosine series converges to f (0 )
3. At x=L, the Fourier cosine series converges to f ( L)

 
 1, 0  x 
Example: f ( x )   2 Find its Fourier cosine series.
2,   x  
 2
Sol: Clearly, L=.

2 L 2  2 2 
a0   f ( x)dx  a0   f ( x)dx  (  1  dx   2  dx )  3
L 0  0  0 2
2  n x
an   f ( x)cos( )dx
 0 

2  2 n
 (  2 1  cos(nx)dx   2  cos(nx)dx)  sin( )
 0
2 n 2
for n=1,2,3,…

##  Fourier cosine series of f(x) on [0, ] is

3  2 n
  ( )sin( ) cos( nx )
2 n 1 n 2

## In addition, by the theorem of convergence of Fourier cosine series, the above

series converges to:
for 0  x   , since f(x) is continuous and is also piecewise smooth
2
 converge to f(x), i.e., 1
at x   , converge to 1 [ f (  )  f (   )]  3
2 2 2 2 2
for   x   , f(x) is continuous and is also piecewise smooth
2

##  The Fourier cosine series converges to f(x), i.e., 2

At x=0, The Fourier cosine series converges to f(0+)=1
At x=, The Fourier cosine series converges to f()=2

113
13.3.2 Fourier Sine Series

## Goal: Expand f(x) in a series of sine functions on [0, L]

 f ( x) , 0  x  L
Approach: Define a new function f o ( x )  
 f ( x) ,  L  x  0
Claim: fo(x) is an odd function!
We call fo(x) the odd extension of f(x) to [L, L]
Since fo(x) is an odd function  Fourier coefficients a0=an=0
Fourier Series of fo(x) is (for –L  x  L)

n x where 2 L n x 2 L n x

n1
bn sin(
L
), bn 
L 0
f o ( x )sin(
L
)dx 
L 0
f ( x )sin(
L
)dx

Definition:
Let f(x) be integrable on [0, L]. Then the Fourier sine coefficients of f(x) on [0, L]
are
2 L n x
bn   f ( x)sin( )dx (13.12)
L 0 L
for n=1,2,…
(13.13)
With these coefficients, the series

n x

n 1
bn sin(
L
)
is called Fourier sine series for f(x) on [0, L].

## Theorem 13.3 Convergence of Fourier Sine Series

Let f(x) be piecewise smooth on [0, L]. Then
1. If 0 <x <L, then at x, the Fourier sine series for f(x) on [0, L] converges to
1
( f ( x )  f ( x ))
2
2. At 0 and at L, the Fourier sine series for f(x) on [0, L] converges to 0.

## Theorem 13.4 Integration of Fourier series

Let f(x) be piecewise continuous on [L, L], with Fourier series

114
1 
n x n x .
a0  [an cos( )  bn sin( )]
2 n 1 L L
Then, for any x with Lx L,
1 L  1 n x n x

x
 L f ( t ) dt 
2
a0 ( x  L ) 
 n 1 n
[ a n sin(
L
)  bn (cos(
L
)  cos(n ))]

## Example 13.11: f(x)=x for –  x  , find term-by-term integration.

Sol: Use Fourier Series.

Recall: Example 13.7, the Fourier series of f(x)=x has been found, that is

2

n 1 n
( 1)n 1 sin(nx ) . Moreover, by Theorem 13.4, we have

x  2

x
 n1 n  xdx
n 1
( 1) sin( nx ) dx 
 x 2  x x
2 1 1
  (1) sin(nx)dx  (1) n2 [ cos( nx)]
n 1
 ( x2 )
n 1
 n
n 1 n n  2 

2 1 2
  2 (1) n [cos(nx)  cos(n )]  ( x   )
2

n1 n 2

## One interesting observation:

Since  22 ( 1)n [cos(nx )  cos( n )]  1 ( x 2   2 )
n 1 n 2
 1 1
If we let x=0  1  2   2 ( 1)n [cos(0)  cos(n )]  4(1  2  2  ......)
2
2 n 1 n 3 5

1 1 1 2
  (1  2  2  ......)  (It can be used to compute .)
n1 (2n  1)
2
3 5 8

## With stronger conditions on f(x), we can derive a result on term-by-term

differentiation of Fourier series.

## Theorem 13.5 Term-by-Term Differentiation

Let f(x) be continuous on [L, L], and suppose f(L)= f(L). Let f ( x) be

115
piecewise continuous on [L, L]. Then the Fourier series of f(x) on [L, L]
converges to f(x) on [L, L]:
1 
n x n x
f ( x )  a0  [an cos( )  bn sin( )] for Lx L.
2 n 1 L L

Further, at each point in (L, L) where f ( x) exists, the term by term
derivative of the Fourier series converges to the derivative of the function:

n n x n x
f ( x )   [an sin( )  bn cos( )]
n 1 L L L

## Theorem 13.6 Bessel’s Inequalities

Let f be integrable on [0, L]. Then
1. The coefficients in the Fourier sine expansion of f on [0, L] satisfy

2 L
n 1
bn
2
 
L 0
f ( x ) 2 dx

## 2. The coefficients in the Fourier cosine expansion of f on [0, L] satisfy

1 2  2 2 L
a0   an   f ( x ) 2 dx
2 n 1 L 0
3. If f is integrable on [L, L], then the Fourier coefficients of f on [L, L] satisfy
1 2  2 1 L
a0   (an  bn2 )   f ( x) 2 dx
2 n 1 L L

## Theorem 13.7 Parseval’s Theorem

Let f(x) be continuous on [L, L] and let f ( x) be piecewise continuous.
Suppose f(L)  f(L). Then the Fourier coefficients of f(x) on [L, L] satisfy
1 2  2 1 L
a0   (an  bn2 )   f ( x) 2 dx
2 n 1 L L

## Theorem 13.8 Uniform and Absolute Convergence of Fourier Series

Let f(x) be continuous on [L, L] and let f ( x) be piecewise continuous.
Suppose f(L)  f(L). Then, the Fourier series of f(x) on [L, L] converges
absolutely and uniformly to f(x) on [L, L].

##  Absolute convergence: The series an converges absolutely if the series

a n  a1  a2  ...  an  ... converges
116
 Uniform convergence: A sequence of functions {fn}, n=1,2,…, converges
uniformly on E to a function f(x) if every >0 there is an integer N such that nN
implies f n ( x)  f ( x)   for all xE.

## Definition: Periodic function

A function f(x) defined for all real x is periodic with period p if f(x+p) = f(x) for
all x; p>0

 Fundamental period:
The smallest positive period of a function is called its fundamental period, or
principal period.

If f(x) has period p and is integrable, then we can calculate its Fourier
coefficients on [p/2, p/2] and write the Fourier series
1 
2n x 2n x
a0  [an cos( )  bn sin( )] (since L=p/2)
2 n 1 p p
The Fourier coefficients are:
2n x
p
2
an  2p f ( x ) cos( )dx for n=0,1,2,…
p 2 p
2n x
p
2
bn  2p f ( x )sin( )dx for n=1,2,…
p 2 p

## Actually, because of the periodicity, we could choose any convenient number 

and write
2  p 2n x
p 
an  f ( x ) cos( )dx for n=0,1,2,…
p
2  p 2n x
bn  
p 
f ( x )sin(
p
)dx for n=1,2,…

2
Sometimes we write 0 
p

117
Now the Fourier series of f(x) on [p/2, p/2] is

1
a0  [an cos(n0 x )  bn sin(n0 x )]
2 n 1
where
p
2
an  2p f ( x ) cos(n0 x )dx for n=0,1,2,…
p 2
p
2
bn  2p f ( x )sin(n0 x )dx for n=1,2,…
p 2
(In this case, choose = p/2)

## Now, look for numbers cn and n so that

an cos( n0 x )  bn sin(n0 x )  cn cos(n0 x   n )
To solve for these constants, use a trigonometric identity to write this equation
as
an cos(n0 x)  bn sin(n0 x)  cn cos(n0 x)cos( n )  cn sin(n0 x)sin( n )

## One way to satisfy this equation is to put

an  cn cos( n ) and bn  cn sin( n ) .

If we square both sides of these equations and add the results, we obtain
cn2  an 2  bn 2  cn  an 2  bn 2

## Next, divide to obtain

cn sin( n ) b
 tan( n )  n . Assuming that an0. Then  n = tan 1 ( bn )
cn cos( n ) an an

## Definition Phase Angle Form

Let f have fundamental period p. When each an0, the phase angle form of the
Fourier series of f(x) on [p/2, p/2] is

118

1
a0   cn cos(n0 x   n )
2 n 1

## in which 0  2 / p , cn  an2  bn2 , and  n  tan 1 ( bn / an ) for

n=1,2,…

The phase angle form of the Fourier series is also called its harmonic form. The
term cos(n0 x   n ) is the nth harmonic of f(x), cn is the nth harmonic
amplitude, and n is the nth phase angle of f(x).

Example 13.16:
Suppose f(x) has fundamental period p= 3, and f(x)=x2 for 0x3, and
f(x+3)=f(x). Find its Fourier series.
Sol:
2 3
3 0
a0  f ( x)dx  6

2 3 2 2n x 9
3 0
an  x cos( ) dx 
3 n 2 2

2 3 2 2n x 9
3 0
bn  x sin( ) dx 
3 n
( The domain of f(x) is not in [L, L]  The idea of even function cannot be
used to compute the Fourier coefficients in this example.)

## In phase angle form

9
 cn  an  bn 
2 2
1  n 2 2
n
2 2

9 / n
 n   tan 1 ( )  tan 1 (n )
9/n 
2 2

0  2 / 3

9 2n x
 3  1  n 2 2 cos(  tan 1 ( n ))
n 1 n2 2
3
119
The amplitude spectrum of a periodic function f(x) is a plot having value of
cn
n0 on the horizontal axis versus on the vertical axis, for n = 1,2,….
2
c
 The amplitude spectrum consists of points (n0 , n ) for n = 1,2,….
2
Note that it is also common to include the point (0, a0 / 2) on the vertical axis.

##  Useful formulas for complex numbers

Euler Formula: e  cos( x)  i sin( x)
ix

1
cos( x)  (eix  e  ix )
2

1 ix ix
sin( x)  (e  e )
2i

##  Let f(x) be a real-valued, periodic function with fundamental period p

Assume that f(x) is integrable on [p/2, p/2]
 As we did in the phase angle form, write the Fourier series of f(x) as

120

a0    an cos( n0 x )  bn sin( n0 x )  where 0  2
1
2 n 1
p

1 
ein0 x  ein0 x ein0 x  e in0 x
 a0  [an ( )  bn ( )]
2 n 1 2 2i

1 1 1
 a0   [ (an  ibn )eino x  (an  ibn )e  in0 x )]
2 n 1 2 2
1 1 1 1
Now let d o = ao , d n  (an  ibn )  d n  (an  ibn )  (an  ibn )
2 2 2 2
 
=d 0   d n e in0 x
  d n e  in0 x (13.14)
n 1 n 1

1 1 p2
d 0  a0   p f (t )dt
2 p 2

1 1  2 p2 2 p2 
d n  (an  ibn )    p f (t ) cos(not )dt  i  p f (t )sin(not )dt 
2 2p 2 p 2 

1 p2
=  p f (t ) cos( n0t )  i sin( not ) dt for n=1,2,3,…
p 2

1 p2
d n =  p f (t )e  in0t dt (Euler formula)
p 2
Similarly
1 1 p2 1 p2
d n  (an  ibn )  p f (t )  cos( n0t )  i sin( not ) dt   p f (t )ein0t dt
2 p 2 p  2

1 p2
However, by definition d  n   p f (t )ein0t  dn  d n
p 2

## Definition: Complex Fourier Series

121
2
Let f(x) have fundamental period p. Let 0  . Then the complex Fourier
p

## series of f(x) on [p/2, p/2] is :

1 p2

n 
d n ein0 x , where d n  
p 2 p f (t )e
 in0t
dt for n = 0, 1, 2, …

## The numbers dn are the complex Fourier coefficients of f(x).

 Amplitude spectrum
The amplitude spectrum of (for complex Fourier series) a periodic function is a
graph of the points (n0, |dn|), in which |dn| is the magnitude of the complex
coefficient for dn.

Theorem
Let f (x) be periodic with fundamental period p. Let f(x) be piecewise smooth on
[ p / 2, p / 2] . Then at each x the complex Fourier series of f(x) converges to
1
 f ( x )  f ( x ) 
2

## Example: Find the complex Fourier series of the full-wave rectification of

E sin(t ) , in which E,  >0 .
Sol: f (t ) | E sin(t ) |
Let the fundamental period of f(t) be p.
 2
 p   p  0   2
 p

1  p
dn 
p 
f (t )e in0t dt

  E 
  | E sin( t ) | e  i 2 nt dt   sin( t )e i 2 nt dt
 0  0

1 i t
Since sin( t )  (e  e it ) , thus
2i
122
 E  (12 n )it  (1 2 n )it
2 i 0
dn  (e e )dt

E 1 E 1
  (e(12 n )i  1)   (e  (12 n )i  1)
2 i (1  2n )i 2 i (1  2n )i

2 E

(4n 2  1)

2 E 
1
Complex Fourier series of f(t) is

 4n
n 
2
1
e 2 nit

2E
The amplitude spectrum is a plot of (2n, )
(4n 2  1)

123