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2002 Biennial International Powered Lift Conference and Exhibit AIAA 2002-5963

5-7 November 2002, Williamsburg, Virginia


Richard L. Mange, PhD
STOVL Aerodynamics Lead, Joint Strike Fighter Program
Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company
Garry E. Lockley
Technologist Adviser, ASTOVL Configuration Design and Integration
Peter Palmer
Project Supervisor, Wind Tunnels

A Jet Effects experimental investigation of the The purpose of STOVL Jet Effects (SJE) testing is
Lockheed Martin/Northrop Grumman/BAE SYSTEMS to determine the induced effects of nozzle flow on the
Joint Strike Fighter STOVL configuration has been external aerodynamics of the vehicle in the STOVL
carried out, spanning 3 years and 10 wind tunnel regions of its flight envelope. This includes vertical
entries. The tests were conducted in the BAE operations airspeeds (0 to 45 knots) up to airspeeds
SYSTEMS 4.0m and 5.5m Low-Speed Wind Tunnels where the aircraft transitions between fully jet borne
at Warton, UK. The high fidelity 7.5% scale model flight and fully wing borne flight (150 to 250 knots). In
was mounted to a sting via a strut support system, and addition, these effects must be characterized in ground
positioned in pitch (θ) from -6° to 20° without yaw. effect (IGE), as well as out of ground effect (OGE).
The effects of aircraft height were also investigated by The magnitude of these induced jet effects can be a
running sweeps from out of ground effect down to primary driver on both aircraft performance and
extended gear height. handling qualities. Vertical Landing (VL), Vertical
Nozzle characteristics, including thrust coefficient, Takeoff (VTO), and Short Takeoff (STO) performance
discharge coefficient, exhaust plume shape and decay, may all be substantially affected. In addition, control
were measured during nozzle calibrations. Force and effecter/blender schemes, and control schedules must
moment data were measured at all test conditions using take these forces and moments into account.
an internal, 6-component strain gauge balance. Surface This test program, though extensive, was only part
pressures were also measured at all conditions using an of an overall program of STOVL testing. These tests
array of 120 static pressure taps. Flow Visualization were companion tests to those of the production 12%
was utilized to determine the aircraft and ground SJE model, which obtained baseline performance data
surface flow field. for use in the JSF force and moment accounting system.
The primary goal of this investigation was to The 12% model was a much more capable system,
provide data for long-range, high-payoff configuration because of the larger scale and a full yaw capability.
trade studies, outside the principle JSF configuration However, this model was not so suitable, or indeed
development program. A secondary goal was to help available, for the ‘cut and try’ approach available to the
develop experimental techniques, facilities and an 7.5% model.
experienced team in preparation for executing the JSF This SJE investigation was also removed from the
System Design and Development (SDD) contract. principle JSF program to allow thinking free from the
These goals were all satisfied, and primary results rigors and schedule of the contract effort. Company
transferred to JSF program include developmental data facilities were utilized in order to ensure maximum
on the Lift Fan Variable Area Vane Box Nozzle flexibility in schedule, at a minimum cost.
(VAVBN) and Compact Axi-Flap Extension (CAFE) This model was also used for testing not
Core Nozzles. specifically for STOVL aerodynamic improvement.
Prior to commissioning the hover pit at Palmdale, a
7.5% scale model of the pit design was checked out in
the 5.5m wind tunnel. A runway surface treatment
concept, designed to reduce ground effects was also

Copyright © 2002 by the author(s). Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission.
evaluated. In addition, a model of the P&W C-12 nozzles. This air was fed via four independently
engine test cell was tested, with a stripped down version controlled supplies through pipes alongside the sting
of the model simulating the engine test article, in order and strut, into a power block. This power block
to evaluate flow around the cell. remained earthed (attached to the non-metric end of the
In addition to SJE testing, a range of STOVL balance), inside the model. The air farm allowed
improvement testing was being carried out during the continuous running, assuming no other large demands,
JSF Concept Development phase (CDP). This included and the controllability of the supplies allowed for a very
Hot Gas Ingestion (HGI) tests, measuring the short time to get on condition.
temperature of any jet exhaust flows finding their way All exhaust paths were simulated using true lines
back into the intake; Ground Environment tests downstream of the final choke plates in each system.
measuring acoustic, thermal and pressure data on the This included a fully functional Three Bearing Swivel
airframe and its environs; and Ground Erosion testing, Duct (3BSD), and lift fan transition section. The lift
measuring the impact of jet flows on the various fan and core nozzles remained earthed, with minimal
runway surfaces. clearance from the live model, but the roll posts were
live (attached to the metric end of the balance). Due to
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE the various, highly integrated concepts to be tested, it
The BAE SYSTEMS - Warton test facilities was decided that the roll posts could not be isolated
include 4.0 and 5.5m Low Speed Wind Tunnels, Hot from the live model.
Gas Lab (Ground Erosion Testing), Ground Effects Rig This hybrid metric/non-metric thrust system had
(HGI Testing), and a 1.2m High Speed Wind Tunnel. many advantages. First, having the majority thrust off
These facilities are supported by a high-pressure air the balance allowed the balance to be sized to a sensible
farm capable of supplying 600 psi air at 26 lb/sec. This range for the jet effects parameters being measured.
was a more than sufficient amount of air to power the Second, having the roll thrust on the balance allowed
7.5% SJE model. the direct measurement of ‘net thrust’ from the various
Hover/hover-in-headwind tests were carried out in alternative concepts for utilizing the roll post air supply.
the 5.5m Wind Tunnel, pictured in Figure 1 with the In order to accomplish this metric roll thrust, a
7.5% scale SJE model installed. This is an open return design was derived whereby each wing was fed from
wind tunnel with a contraction ratio of 2.32:1. The the power block via a set of flexible pipes (a so-called
working section is 5.5m wide by 5.0m high. 'trombone' system) to a manifold at the wing root. The
This tunnel was large enough to provide manifold and wing can be seen in Figure 5. This
interference free hovers at scaled heights in excess of system minimized possible balance bridging tares in the
60 feet. Forward speed capability allowed a maximum lift, roll and pitch axes, which were of primary interest,
of 40 knots to be obtained with the model installed and while allowing the freedom to use the roll post air as
the jets on. The ground boundary layer was removed required. The small bridging tares that did exist were
via a system of suction slots. quantified and corrected using check loadings as a
Testing at higher speeds was carried out in the function of pressure in the trombone system.
4.0m Wind Tunnel. This tunnel, pictured in Figure 2 This manifold distribution system also allowed for
with the 7.5% scale SJE model installed, is a closed two model wing designs to be used. The first was a
return wind tunnel with a contraction ratio of 10.6:1. solid wing with a rebate leading from the manifold to
The working section is 4.0m wide by 2.7m high. the baseline roll post position. This enabled slot-in roll
This tunnel was large enough to simulate OGE post assemblies with various roll post designs to be
conditions at the forward airspeeds of interest (>45 installed. This wing also had a slotted trailing-edge flap
knots). Forward speed capability allowed a maximum alternative to the baseline plane flap, and provisions for
of 170 knots to be obtained with the model installed and spanwise blowing over the plain trailing-edge flap
the jets on. The ground boundary layer was removed knuckle.
via a ground plane for IGE testing. The second wing comprised upper and lower
Nozzle calibrations and plume surveys were surface shells, such that when bolted together formed a
carried out in the Nozzle Calibration Lab, shown in plenum chamber, fed from the manifold. The lower
Figure 3. This measures loads via load cells in 2D: surface had six holes machined out, each one able to
requiring a 90° rotation to obtain a full 3D calibration. accept an insert containing a roll post nozzle or a
Full plume surveys were obtained via a computer blanking plate. This was to test various roll post
controlled pitot rake/table. For some applications, such designs over a matrix of positions, including pairs of
as the small roll nozzle exit surveys, a single pitot was positions, to determine the sensitivity of lift loss to roll
substituted for the rake. post position, orientation and vector angle.
The model concept is illustrated in Figure 4. The One concern was that this wing would not act as a
external air farm, mentioned above, supplied air for the true plenum, especially near the tip where the plenum

became very shallow. Because of this concern, an
extensive risk reduction experiment was conducted to RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
determine the best approach. Several bellmouth The purpose of these tests was to explore STOVL
choking configurations were tested, along with various aerodynamic improvements in all nozzle systems. This
perforated plate concepts. The result of this risk included basic roll nozzle design, as well as more
reduction testing was fully satisfactory plenum integrated circulation control concepts, alternate lift fan
performance, obtained through the use of perforated nozzle designs, and alternate core nozzle designs. The
plates in the nozzle inserts. following section is divided into these subsections for
In addition to roll nozzle parametrics, this plenum convenience.
wing was built with provision for chordwise slot
blowing over the trailing-edge flap. By incorporating a Roll Nozzle/Circulation Control
shim around the root, tip and leading edge of the wing Lift loss per pound of thrust due to the baseline roll
shells, a gap was left at the trailing edge for use in a nozzle geometry is somewhat higher than the lift fan or
blown flap design. More details of the plenum wing, its core nozzle for several reasons. First, the roll jets are
design, fabrication and validation are given in Palmer1. located centrally under the wing surface. This leaves
The primary test data were the 6 component force the locally accelerated ambient flow plenty of area on
and moment data from the main balance. The balance which to act in low airspeeds, and destroys a good deal
used for this experiment was a Lockheed Martin of the power-off wing circulation at higher airspeeds.
Aeronautics 1.5-inch internal strain gage balance, Secondly, the roll nozzle is non-circular, which causes
designated C-5.5-1.50. For added sensitivity, this higher ambient air entrainment rates, and
balance was rolled 90° for hover testing, giving it a correspondingly higher lift loss. Finally, there are
normal force capacity of 150 pounds. For transition various undercarriage components and external store
testing, the balance was used in the standard loadings in close proximity to the roll nozzle plumes,
orientation, giving it a normal force capacity of 500 risking direct jet impingement.
pounds. In each case, pitching moment capacity was In addition, the engine cycle design requires that
the respective normal force capacity times 2 inches, and the roll posts receive a certain amount of airflow at all
rolling moment capacity was 500 inch-pounds. times during STOVL operations. Because of these
In addition to force and moment data, it was issues, many proposals for alternative roll post concepts
desired to obtain an understanding of the underlying were considered, as were proposals to utilize the roll
flow field characteristics. To this end, some 120 post flow for various circulation improvement concepts.
surface pressure taps were installed on the external The results of these experiments will be described
surface of the model, and static pressures were below.
measured during all data runs. As stated above, the plenum wing allowed various
These taps were laid out in three distinct patterns. positions for the roll post to be tested and compared.
First, in order to provide direct tie-in data, half of the The roll nozzle inserts were designed square, so that the
lower surface was instrumented identically to the letterbox nozzle design could be tested in both
production 12% SJE model. Second, the other half of chordwise and spanwise orientations, at each location,
the lower surface was instrumented for the with multiple vector angles. As an example, Figure 7
configuration areas of interest in this testing, e.g. shows the mid-span aft location, in a spanwise
around the lift fan and roll post nozzles. Finally, a orientation, with an aft vector angle nozzle. Multiple
series of chordwise tap rows were installed on the wing roll post combinations could also be tested, but the
upper and lower surface in order to evaluate the airflow split was a fall out of the plenum system design.
sectional effects of the various circulation control The results of this study generally confirmed the
concepts to be tested. limited previous data, and the engineering judgment
Various flow visualization techniques were also used in the original design. Roll nozzle positions aft
used to provide qualitative information about this and/or outboard of the baseline position reduced OGE
underlying flow field. These techniques included: lift loss at both hover and transition airspeeds. This
Smoke introduced into the ambient air to illustrate jet was due to the reduction in surface area/lifting surface
plume entrainment; Water vapor introduced into the that the roll nozzle affected. In addition, these alternate
nozzle flow to illuminate the various jet plumes; roll nozzle positions generally increased the roll nozzle
Fluorescent dyes on the model surfaces, to illustrate augmentation of hover IGE fountain formation. Roll
direct fountain impingement; Fluorescent dyes on the nozzle positions forward and inboard of the baseline
ground surface (Figure 6), to illustrate the ground jet position were not tested.
flow field. In transition, the baseline chordwise orientation
was preferable because it presented less blockage to the
oncoming air. However, orientation had little effect in

hover because the roll nozzle plume quickly decayed to edge flap. Spanwise flap blowing was explored using
a more circular shape in either orientation. Therefore the solid wing, and chordwise flap blowing was
exit orientation had less of an effect on farther field explored using the plenum wing. Figure 10 is a picture
phenomena such as fountain formation. of the solid wing with the spanwise nozzle installed.
Combinations of nozzles, using the most promising Also shown in this figure is the location of the
positions/orientations in conjunction with the baseline chordwise slot for reference only.
nozzle, were also explored. Combinations could be As mentioned earlier, the plenum wing allowed the
found that reduced lift loss in hover, but all these testing of a chordwise slot blown flap design, using a
combinations increased lift loss in transition. This was slightly repositioned flap. This system, which only
simply due to the increase in blockage caused by required a part of the required roll post airflow, actually
multiple nozzles. achieved five times the lift per unit mass flow as the
The effect of roll nozzle aft vector angle (from the baseline roll nozzle at transition airspeeds. When used
baseline of 3°) was also examined at transition in conjuction with partial roll post thrust, a significant
airspeeds, using several techniques. First, the plenum total system lift benefit was realized. As with the
wing was used to test the sensitivity to moderate vector chordwise blowing roll nozzle, this system retained all
angle changes (up to 45°) at several roll nozzle the roll control power through differential flap
locations. This sensitivity was relatively small, but deflections combined with differential roll thrust, but
increased aft vector angle did noticeably reduce lift loss had increased nose-down pitching moment from the
in all cases. This coupled with the increase in net aft added lift on the trailing-edge flap.
thrust was more than enough to make up for the Spanwise flap blowing was achieved using a small
decrease in net vertical thrust, and provide a substantial bore pipe linked to the roll post air supply manifold, in
benefit in STO performance. order to blow a jet across the solid wing, over the
The larger aft vector angles were also tested in the trailing edge flap knuckle. This system, pictured in
spanwise orientation at the aft positions, in conjunction Figure 10, also only required a part of the roll post
with large trailing-edge flap deflections, in an attempt airflow. Unfortunately, a combination of this blowing
to create an augmentation effect. However, this flap and partial roll nozzle thrust, using the remaining
augmentation could not be achieved without vectoring airflow, only resulted in total system lift comparable to
the roll nozzle aft the full 90°. This chordwise roll simple roll nozzle thrust. Because the system was
nozzle blowing was employed on the solid wing using a developed simply as a concept rather than a fully
hooded type nozzle, in conjunction with both a slotted engineered solution, it is believed that the same lift
and plain trailing-edge flap. A picture of this system, improvements seen with other systems could also be
with the slotted trailing-edge flap, is shown in Figure 8. achieved using this method.
The largest chordwise roll nozzle blowing effect Lift Fan
was actually seen with the plain trailing-edge flap
deflected to 45°. An increase in total lift over the At the time of this testing the baseline lift fan
baseline arrangement on the order of 2000 lb was nozzle design was the D-hood, or Telescoping
achieved with this system at transition airspeeds, due to Vectoring Nozzle (TEVEN) used on the X-35.
a combination of direct thrust vectoring with the flap However, there was a proposed trade study to replace
deflection, and induced benefits of reattached flow on this by a completely different vane box nozzle concept,
the upper surface of the deflected flap. This system which might have weight and performance benefits.
also retained all the roll control power of the baseline However, little was known of possible integration
through differential flap deflections combined with issues associated with this type of nozzle, therefore it
differential roll post thrust. The primary drawback was tested on this model to obtain SJE data. Several
however, was large nose-down pitching moments iterations of the design were made and tested,
caused by the substantial lift increase at the trailing- culminating in the adoption of the Variable Area Vane
edge flap, well aft of the aircraft center of gravity. Box Nozzle (VAVBN) as the current JSF baseline.
Finally, a series of vented roll nozzles, pictured in The baseline lift fan TEVEN nozzle, pictured in
Figure 9, were tested on the solid wing. These nozzles Figure 11, was tested against the initial design of the
were designed to convert the roll post nozzle into a mini vane box nozzle. This initial design, a simple 1-degree
‘ejector’ system. However, ejector pumping was not of freedom system, was shown to have much wider
achieved at the Reynolds numbers tested, and little plume shapes, and corresponding higher lift loss levels
effect was seen. with forward airspeeds. In addition, this design had
In addition to the alternate roll nozzle designs lower thrust coefficients at all vector angles. With the
discussed above, alternate uses for the required roll addition of fore-aft splay, shown in Figure 12, reduced
nozzle airflow were also investigated, mainly in an lift loss levels in transition were obtained, but thrust
attempt to energize the upper surface of the trailing- coefficients were not improved.

These data contributed to the further understanding determine the sensitivity on SJE to these nozzle design
of the importance of controlling the plume shape, not variations a matrix of area ratio and area settings,
only for minimizing adverse SJE effects, but also pictured in Figure 17, was tested. This database was
effects on nozzle performance, HGI and environmental designed to cover any likely variations and so to
issues. First attempts at improving vane box lift loss provide a look up table as new variations of the design
characteristics centered on redesigning the lift fan doors were adopted.
and adding fences to decrease airframe/jet interactions. An ejector version of CAFE nozzle, designated the
Some improved effects were noted, but the underlying Compact Axis-Symmetric Flap Extension Ejector
issue of plume shape was not addressed. Nozzle (CAFEEN), was also tested. This nozzle,
One mechanism adopted for controlling the plume pictured in Figure 18, was an attempt to draw warm air
shape was to add fixed plume tabs at the vane box out of the engine bay during up-and-away flight, and to
nozzle exit. These tabs, pictured in Figure 13 with the draw in cool air to mix with the core nozzle flow during
second-generation nozzle, dramatically reduced exhaust STOVL operations. The ejector portal section was
plume width, and correspondingly reduced suckdown in formed in stereolithography, attached to the nozzle
transition. In addition, unexpected thrust coefficient convergent section, and bonded to the nozzle tip.
benefits were realized with the smaller tab versions. Despite the different exhaust plume characteristics
As a database was developed, later vane box of each of these nozzles, little effect was seen at any
designs became more sophisticated. Individual vanes airspeed. At transition airspeeds, the core nozzle has
were optimized with airfoil shapes and vane angle very little effect anyway, because there is no surface
control adopted a third degree of freedom system. In area aft of the nozzle on which to act. In hover, this
addition, plume tab designs were refined to provide an round core nozzle produces a fairly uniform wall jet, so
optimum mix of increased thrust coefficient at all it is relatively insensitive to subtle structure changes.
angles and decreased lift loss in transition, without
negatively impacting hover performance. The resulting SUMMARY
integrated vane box concept, pictured in Figure 14, was The test program of a 7.5% JSF SJE model has
designated the Variable Area Vane Box Nozzle been described. The technical objectives were to find
(VAVBN). The details of VAVBN development are lift in STOVL mode, by turning adverse jet effects into
described in Rickman2. benefits, while developing experimental techniques,
With the help of this experimental study, lift loss facilities and an experienced team in preparation for
levels comparable to the X-35 TEVEN were eventually executing the JSF SDD contract. These goals were all
achieved, with all the benefits of variable area and the satisfied and the JSF program has reaped the benefits,
reduced weight of the VAVBN. In addition, possible both direct and indirect.
improvements through further tailoring of the plume In addition to the enormous database gathered
shape have been identified for future study. during the program, there was also a general increase in
Core Nozzle understanding of SJE flow mechanisms, which is now
being incorporated into the design process. Also, much
Several variations of core nozzle were also tested of the staff involved are now utilizing the knowledge
in this program, including the X-35 Short Compact gained, via working on the SDD team.
Axis-Symmetric Nozzle (SCAN) Nozzle pictured in Finally, over the life of the program, the Warton
Figure 15. This nozzle had a typical convergent section facilities were able to dramatically reduce wind tunnel
but a relatively short divergent section, which was installation time, while increasing run rates by 50% -
designed to favor STOVL performance over high-speed 100%, and completely modernizing their computing
performance during the demonstration phase. capability. This is an excellent indicator of a continual
Also at this time, a Compact Axis-Symmetric Flap process of capability and efficiency improvement, now
Extension (CAFE) Nozzle was being examined as a available to the SDD team.
way to improve high-speed performance, without
penalizing STOVL performance. This nozzle, pictured REFERENCES
in Figure 16, had a shortened convergent section, with a
lengthened divergent section. This nozzle also helps in 1
Palmer, P., “Design, Fabrication and Validation of the
the ongoing push toward common nozzles with the JSF 7.5% Plenum Wing Concept for SJE Testing,”
other configurations. AIAA-2002-5964, November 2002.
As the geometry of this CAFE nozzle was still in 2
Rickman, S.J., and Pesyna, K.M., “The Development
work, the area ratio and area variation with core nozzle- of the JSF F35 Lift Fan Variable Area Vane Box
lift fan thrust split was still being developed. Because Nozzle,” AIAA-2002-6028, November 2002.
the relationship of these parameters to SJE was not
known, a database needed to be developed. In order to


Fig. 1: BAE SYSTEMS 5.5 Meter Wind Tunnel

Fig. 4: 7.5% Scale SJE Development Model

Distribution Alternate Roll

Manifold Nozzle Positions


Blowing Slot

Fig. 2: BAE SYSTEMS 4.0 Meter Wind Tunnel Fig. 5: Plenum Wing Concept

Calibration Plume



Fig. 3: BAE SYSTEMS Nozzle Calibration Rig Fig. 6: Ground Plane Surface Oil Flow Visualization


Location of Chordwise Slot

Fig. 7: Roll Nozzle Location/Angle/Orientation Study Edge Flap

Fig. 10: Chordwise and Spanwise TE Flap Blowing

TE Flap Chordwise
Roll Nozzle

Fig. 8: Chordwise Roll Nozzle Blowing

Single Lobe Vented

Fig. 11: X-35 Hooded (TEVEN) Lift Fan Nozzle

Twin Lobe Vented

Fig. 12: First Generation Vane Box Nozzle With Splay

Fig. 9: Vented Roll Nozzles

Added Refined Shortened Lengthened
Plume Vane Box Compression Expansion
Tabs Ramp Ramp

Fig. 16: Compact Axi Flap Extension (CAFE) Nozzle

Fig. 13: Second Generation Vane Box with Plume Tabs

Plume Tab
Attach Points

Vane Box

Fig. 14: Third Generation Vane Box (VAVBN)

Fig. 17: CAFE Nozzle Area/Area Ratio Parametric

Ramp Ejector Ejector
Intakes Exit Slot

Fig. 15: X-35 Short Compact Axi (SCAN) Nozzle

Fig. 18: CAFE Ejector Nozzle