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Basic Concepts for NetApp ONTAP 9

November 2016 | SL10280 Version 1.3.1


Before You Begin

Figure :

You must choose whether you want to complete this lab using OnCommand System Manager, NetApp's
GUI management tool, or the Command Line Interface (CLI) for configuring the ONTAP system in this lab.
This document contains two complete versions of the lab guide, one which utilizes System Manager for the lab's
ONTAP configuration activities, and another that utilizes the CLI. Both versions walk you through the same set of
management tasks.
• If you want to use System Manager, begin here.
• If you want to use the CLI, begin here.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 GUI Introduction.............................................................................................................................. 5

2 Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 6

2.1 Why clustered Data ONTAP?................................................................................................... 6

2.2 Lab Objectives........................................................................................................................... 6

2.3 Prerequisites.............................................................................................................................. 7

2.4 Accessing the Command Line.................................................................................................7

3 Lab Environment........................................................................................................................... 10

4 Lab Activities................................................................................................................................. 12

4.1 Clusters.....................................................................................................................................12
4.1.1 Connect to the Cluster with OnCommand System Manager............................................................................. 13

4.1.2 Advanced Drive Partitioning............................................................................................................................... 15

4.1.3 Create a New Aggregate on Each Cluster Node...............................................................................................19

4.1.4 Networks............................................................................................................................................................. 26

4.2 Create Storage for NFS and CIFS..........................................................................................32


4.2.1 Create a Storage Virtual Machine for NAS........................................................................................................ 34

4.2.2 Configure CIFS and NFS................................................................................................................................... 48

4.2.3 Create a Volume and Map It to the Namespace............................................................................................... 63

4.2.4 Connect to the SVM From a Windows Client.................................................................................................... 80

4.2.5 Connect to the SVM From a Linux Client.......................................................................................................... 85

4.2.6 NFS Exporting Qtrees (Optional)....................................................................................................................... 86

4.3 Create Storage for iSCSI........................................................................................................ 93


4.3.1 Create a Storage Virtual Machine for iSCSI...................................................................................................... 93

4.3.2 Create, Map, and Mount a Windows LUN....................................................................................................... 105

4.3.3 Create, Map, and Mount a Linux LUN............................................................................................................. 151

5 References....................................................................................................................................169

6 Version History............................................................................................................................ 170

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7 CLI Introduction........................................................................................................................... 171

8 Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 172

8.1 Why clustered Data ONTAP?............................................................................................... 172

8.2 Lab Objectives....................................................................................................................... 172

8.3 Prerequisites.......................................................................................................................... 173

8.4 Accessing the Command Line............................................................................................. 173

9 Lab Environment......................................................................................................................... 176

10 Using the clustered Data ONTAP Command Line..................................................................178

11 Lab Activities............................................................................................................................. 180

11.1 Clusters.................................................................................................................................180
11.1.1 Advanced Drive Partitioning........................................................................................................................... 181

11.1.2 Create a New Aggregate on Each Cluster Node........................................................................................... 184

11.1.3 Networks......................................................................................................................................................... 185

11.2 Create Storage for NFS and CIFS......................................................................................188


11.2.1 Create a Storage Virtual Machine for NAS.................................................................................................... 189

11.2.2 Configure CIFS and NFS............................................................................................................................... 193

11.2.3 Create a Volume and Map It to the Namespace Using the CLI.....................................................................196

11.2.4 Connect to the SVM From a Windows Client................................................................................................ 200

11.2.5 Connect to the SVM From a Linux Client...................................................................................................... 205

11.2.6 NFS Exporting Qtrees (Optional)................................................................................................................... 206

11.3 Create Storage for iSCSI.................................................................................................... 210


11.3.1 Create a Storage Virtual Machine for iSCSI.................................................................................................. 210

11.3.2 Create, Map, and Mount a Windows LUN..................................................................................................... 213

11.3.3 Create, Map, and Mount a Linux LUN........................................................................................................... 250

12 References..................................................................................................................................258

13 Version History.......................................................................................................................... 259

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1 GUI Introduction
This begins the GUI version of the Basic Concepts for NetApp ONTAP 9.

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2 Introduction
®
This lab introduces the fundamentals of NetApp ONTAP . In it you will start with a pre-created 2-node cluster,
and configure Windows 2012R2 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.7 hosts to access storage on the cluster using
CIFS, NFS, and iSCSI.

2.1 Why clustered Data ONTAP?


One of the key ways to understand the benefits of ONTAP is to consider server virtualization. Before server
virtualization, system administrators frequently deployed applications on dedicated servers in order to maximize
application performance, and to avoid the instabilities often encountered when combining multiple applications
on the same operating system instance. While this design approach was effective, it also had the following
drawbacks:
• It did not scale well — adding new servers for every new application was expensive.
• It was inefficient — most servers are significantly under-utilized, and businesses are not extracting the
full benefit of their hardware investment.
• It was inflexible — re-allocating standalone server resources for other purposes is time consuming, staff
intensive, and highly disruptive.
Server virtualization directly addresses all three of these limitations by decoupling the application instance
from the underlying physical hardware. Multiple virtual servers can share a pool of physical hardware, allowing
businesses to consolidate their server workloads to a smaller set of more effectively utilized physical servers.
Additionally, the ability to transparently migrate running virtual machines across a pool of physical servers
reduces the impact of downtime due to scheduled maintenance activities.
NetApp ONTAP brings these same benefits, and many others, to storage systems. As with server virtualization,
clustered Data ONTAP enables you to combine multiple physical storage controllers into a single logical cluster
that can non-disruptively service multiple storage workload needs. With ONTAP you can:
• Combine different types and models of NetApp storage controllers (known as nodes) into a shared
physical storage resource pool (referred to as a cluster).
• Support multiple data access protocols (CIFS, NFS, Fibre Channel, iSCSI, FCoE) concurrently on the
same storage cluster.
• Consolidate various storage workloads to the cluster. Each workload can be assigned its own Storage
Virtual Machine (SVM), which is essentially a dedicated virtual storage controller, and its own data
volumes, LUNs, CIFS shares, and NFS exports.
• Support multi-tenancy with delegated administration of SVMs. Tenants can be different companies,
business units, or even individual application owners, each with their own distinct administrators whose
admin rights are limited to just the assigned SVM.
• Use Quality of Service (QoS) capabilities to manage resource utilization between storage workloads.
• Non-disruptively migrate live data volumes and client connections from one cluster node to another.
• Non-disruptively scale the cluster out by adding nodes. Nodes can likewise be non-disruptively
removed from the cluster, meaning that you can non-disruptively scale a cluster up and down during
hardware refresh cycles.
• Leverage multiple nodes in the cluster to simultaneously service a given SVM's storage workloads.
This means that businesses can scale out their SVMs beyond the bounds of a single physical node in
response to growing storage and performance requirements, all non-disruptively.
• Apply software and firmware updates, and configuration changes without downtime.

2.2 Lab Objectives


This lab explores fundamental concepts of ONTAP, and utilizes a modular design to allow you to focus on
the topics that specifically interest you. The “Clusters” section is prerequisite for the other sections. If you are

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interested in NAS functionality then complete the “Storage Virtual Machines for NFS and CIFS” section. If you are
interested in SAN functionality, then complete the “Storage Virtual Machines for iSCSI” section, and at least one
of it's Windows or Linux subsections (you may do both if you choose).
Here is a summary of the exercises in this lab, along with their Estimated Completion Times (ECT):
• Clusters (Required, ECT = 20 minutes).
• Explore a cluster.
• View Advanced Drive Partitioning.
• Create a data aggregate.
• Create a Subnet.
• Storage Virtual machines for NFS and CIFS (Optional, ECT = 40 minutes)
• Create a Storage Virtual Machine.
• Create a volume on the Storage Virtual Machine.
• Configure the Storage Virtual Machine for CIFS and NFS access.
• Mount a CIFS share from the Storage Virtual Machine on a Windows client.
• Mount a NFS volume from the Storage Virtual Machine on a Linux client.
• Storage Virtual Machines for iSCSI (Optional, ECT = 90 minutes including all optional subsections)
• Create a Storage Virtual Machine.
• Create a volume on the Storage Virtual Machine.
• For Windows (Optional, ECT = 40 minutes)
• Create a Windows LUN on the volume and map the LUN to an igroup.
• Configure a Windows client for iSCSI and MPIO and mount the LUN.
• For Linux (Optional, ECT = 40 minutes)
• Create a Linux LUN on the volume and map the LUN to an igroup.
• Configure a Linux client for iSCSI and multipath and mount the LUN.
This lab includes instructions for completing each of these tasks using either System
Manager, NetApp's graphical administration interface, or the ONTAP command line. The end
state of the lab produced by either method is exactly the same so use whichever method you
are the most comfortable with.

2.3 Prerequisites
This lab introduces NetApp ONTAP, and makes no assumptions that the user has previous experience with
ONTAP. The lab does assume some basic familiarity with storage system related concepts such as RAID, CIFS,
NFS, LUNs, and DNS.
This lab includes steps for mapping shares and mounting LUNs on a Windows client. These steps assume that
the lab user has a basic familiarity with Microsoft Windows.
This lab also includes steps for mounting NFS volumes and LUNs on a Linux client. All steps are performed from
the Linux command line, and assumes a basic working knowledge of the Linux command line. A basic working
knowledge of a text editor such as vi may be useful, but is not required.

2.4 Accessing the Command Line


PuTTY is the terminal emulation program used in the lab to log into Linux hosts and storage controllers in order to
run command line commands.
1. The launch icon for the PuTTY application is pinned to the task bar on the Windows host JUMPHOST as
shown in the following screen shot; just double-click on the icon to launch it.

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Tip: If you already have a PuTTY session open and you want to start another (even to a different
host), you need to right-click the PuTTY icon and select PuTTY from the context menu.

Figure 2-1:

Once PuTTY launches you can connect to one of the hosts in the lab by following these steps. This
example shows a user connecting to the ONTAP cluster named “cluster1”.
2. By default PuTTY should launch into the “Basic options for your PuTTY session” display as shown in the
screen shot. If you accidentally navigate away from this view just click on the Session category item to
return to this view.
3. Use the scrollbar in the “Saved Sessions” box to navigate down to the desired host and double-click it to
open the connection. A terminal window will open and you will be prompted to log into the host. You can
find the correct username and password for the host in the Lab Host Credentials table found in the “Lab
Environment” section of this guide.

Figure 2-2:

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If you are new to the ONTAP CLI, the length of the commands can seem a little intimidating. However,
the commands are actually quite easy to use if you remember the following 3 tips:
• Make liberal use of the Tab key while entering commands, as the ONTAP command shell
supports tab completion. If you hit the Tab key while entering a portion of a command word,
the command shell will examine the context and try to complete the rest of the word for you.
If there is insufficient context to make a single match, it will display a list of all the potential
matches. Tab completion also usually works with command argument values, but there are
some cases where there is simply not enough context for it to know what you want, in which
case you will just need to type in the argument value.
• You can recall your previously entered commands by repeatedly pressing the up-arrow key,
and you can then navigate up and down the list using the up-arrow and down-arrow keys.
When you find a command you want to modify, you can use the left-arrow, right-arrow, and
Delete keys to navigate around in a selected command to edit it.
• Entering a question mark character (?) causes the CLI to print contextual help information. You
can use this character on a line by itself, or while entering a command.
The ONTAP command line supports additional usability features that make the command line easier
to use. If you are interested in learning more about this topic, refer to the “Hands-On Lab for Advanced
Features of ONTAP” lab, which contains an entire section dedicated to this subject.

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3 Lab Environment
The following figure contains a diagram of the environment for this lab.

Figure 3-1:

All of the servers and storage controllers presented in this lab are virtual devices, and the networks that
interconnect them are exclusive to your lab session. While we encourage you to follow the demonstration steps
outlined in this lab guide, you are free to deviate from this guide and experiment with other ONTAP features that
interest you. While the virtual storage controllers (vsims) used in this lab offer nearly all of the same functionality
as physical storage controllers, they are not capable of providing the same performance as a physical controller,
which is why these labs are not suitable for performance testing.
Table 1 provides a list of the servers and storage controller nodes in the lab, along with their IP address.

Table 1: Table 1: Lab Host Credentials

Hostname Description IP Address(es) Username Password


Windows 20012R2 Remote
JUMPHOST 192.168.0.5 Demo\Administrator Netapp1!
Access host
RHEL1 Red Hat 6.7 x64 Linux host 192.168.0.61 root Netapp1!
RHEL2 Red Hat 6.7 x64 Linux host 192.168.0.62 root Netapp1!
DC1 Active Directory Server 192.168.0.253 Demo\Administrator Netapp1!
cluster1 ONTAP 9 cluster 192.168.0.101 admin Netapp1!
cluster1-01 ONTAP cluster node 192.168.0.111 admin Netapp1!
cluster1-02 ONTAP cluster node 192.168.0.112 admin Netapp1!

Table 2 lists the NetApp software that is pre-installed on the various hosts in this lab.

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Table 2: Table 2: Preinstalled NetApp Software

Hostname Description
Data ONTAP DSM v4.1 for Windows MPIO, Windows Unified Host Utility Kit
JUMPHOST
v7.0.0, NetApp PowerShell Toolkit v4.2.0
RHEL1, RHEL2 Linux Unified Host Utilities Kit v7.0

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4 Lab Activities
• Clusters on page 12
• Connect to the Cluster with OnCommand System Manager on page 13
• Advanced Drive Partitioning on page 15
• Create a New Aggregate on Each Cluster Node on page 19
• Networks on page 26
• Create Storage for NFS and CIFS on page 32
• Create a Storage Virtual Machine for NAS on page 34
• Configure CIFS and NFS on page 48
• Create a Volume and Map It to the Namespace on page 63
• Connect to the SVM From a Windows Client on page 80
• Connect to the SVM From a Linux Client on page 85
• NFS Exporting Qtrees (Optional) on page 86
• Create Storage for iSCSI on page 93
• Create a Storage Virtual Machine for iSCSI on page 93
• Create, Map, and Mount a Windows LUN on page 105
• Create, Map, and Mount a Linux LUN on page 151
• References on page 169
• Version History on page 170

4.1 Clusters
Expected Completion Time: 20 Minutes
A cluster is a group of physical storage controllers, or nodes, that are joined together for the purpose of serving
data to end users. The nodes in a cluster can pool their resources together so that the cluster can distribute it's
work across the member nodes. Communication and data transfer between member nodes (such as when a
client accesses data on a node other than the one actually hosting the data) takes place over a 10Gb cluster-
interconnect network to which all the nodes are connected, while management and client data traffic passes over
separate management and data networks configured on the member nodes.
Clusters typically consist of one, or more, NetApp storage controller High Availability (HA) pairs. Both controllers
in an HA pair actively host and serve data, but they are also capable of taking over their partner's responsibilities
in the event of a service disruption by virtue of their redundant cable paths to each other's disk storage. Having
multiple HA pairs in a cluster allows the cluster to scale out to handle greater workloads, and to support non-
disruptive migrations of volumes and client connections to other nodes in the cluster resource pool. This means
that cluster expansion and technology refreshes can take place while the cluster remains fully online, and serving
data.
Since clusters are almost always comprised of one or more HA pairs, a cluster almost always contains an even
number of controller nodes. There is one exception to this rule, the “single node cluster”, which is a special
cluster configuration that supports small storage deployments using a single physical controller head. The primary
difference between single node and standard clusters, besides the number of nodes, is that a single node cluster
does not have a cluster network. Single node clusters can be converted into traditional multi-node clusters, at
which point they become subject to all the standard cluster requirements like the need to utilize an even number
of nodes consisting of HA pairs. This lab does not contain a single node cluster, so does not discuss them further.
ONTAP 9 clusters that only serve NFS and CIFS can scale up to a maximum of 24 nodes, although the node limit
can be lower depending on the model of FAS controller in use. ONTAP 9 clusters that also host iSCSI and FC
can scale up to a maximum of 8 nodes, but once again the limit may be lower depending on the FAS controller
model.

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This lab utilizes simulated NetApp storage controllers rather than physical FAS controllers. The simulated
controller, also known as a “VSIM”, is a virtual machine that simulates the functionality of a physical controller
without the need for dedicated controller hardware. The vsim is not designed for performance testing, but does
offer much of the same functionality as a physical FAS controller, including the ability to generate I/O to disks.
This makes the vsim a powerful tool to explore and experiment with Data ONTAP product features. The vsim
is limited when a feature requires a specific physical capability that the vsim does not support. For example,
vsims do not support Fibre Channel connections, which is why this lab uses iSCSI to demonstrate block storage
functionality.
This lab starts with a pre-created, minimally configured cluster. The pre-created cluster already includes ONTAP
licenses, the cluster's basic network configuration, and a pair of pre-configured HA controllers. In this next section
you will create the aggregates that are used by the SVMs that you will create in later sections of the lab. You will
also take a look at the new Advanced Drive Partitioning feature that was introduced in ONTAP 8.3.

4.1.1 Connect to the Cluster with OnCommand System Manager

OnCommand System Manager is NetApp's browser-based management tool for configuring and managing
NetApp storage systems and clusters. Prior to 8.3, System Manager was a separate application that you had
to download and install on your client OS. As of 8.3, System Manager has moved on-board the cluster, so you
just point your web browser to the cluster management address. The on-board System Manager interface is
essentially the same that NetApp offered in the System Manager 3.1, the version you install on a client.
On the Jumphost, the Windows 2012R2 Server desktop you see when you first connect to the lab, open the web
browser of your choice. This lab guide uses Chrome, but you can use Firefox or Internet Explorer if you prefer one
of those. All three browsers already have System Manager set as the browser home page.
1. Launch Chrome to open System Manager.

Figure 4-1:

The OnCommand System Manager Login window opens.


2. Enter the User Name as admin, and the Password as Netapp1!, and then click Sign In.

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2

Figure 4-2:

System Manager is now logged in to cluster1, and displays the Dashboard page for the cluster.
System Manager's user interface (UI) has undergone some fundamental redesign in ONTAP 9 in order
to improve usability. If you are unfamiliar with System Manager, or have used a prior version, here is a
quick introduction to the new ONTAP 9 System Manager UI layout.
Previous versions of System Manager displayed tabs on the left side of the window that corresponded to
three different configuration views of the cluster: Cluster, Storage Virtual Machines, and Nodes. ONTAP
9 System Manager has removed these left-side tabs in favor of a simplified row of tabs near the top of
the window called the “command bar”. The command bar tabs offer more streamlined access to the most
commonly needed management actions.
The remainder of this section introduces the basic layout of the new System Manager interface, focusing
on the controls available on the command bar.
3. The Dashboard is the page you first see when you log into System Manager, and displays summary
information for the whole cluster. You can return to this view at any time by using the Dashboard tab.
4. Many of the commonly accessed configuration settings for the cluster and cluster nodes are now directly
accessed using the Hardware and Diagnostics tab.
5. Additional configuration settings for the cluster can be accessed by clicking on the Configurations tab.
(You may need to expand your browser to see this tab.)
6. The Network tab on the command bar provides access to the all the network interfaces for the cluster
and the storage virtual machines.
7. The Storage Virtual Machines tab allows you to manage individual Storage Virtual Machines (SVMs,
also known as Vservers).
8. The LUNs tab allows you to manage individual LUNs.
9. The Protection tab allows you to manage settings for SnapMirror and SnapVault relationships.

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10. The Plus Sign button at the far right of the horizontal tab list allows you to quickly launch wizards for
many common administrative tasks such as creating an aggregate, creating a subnet, and creating/
resizing/moving a volume.
Please take a few moments to expand and browse these tabs to familiarize yourself with their contents.

3 8 7 6 4 9 5

10

Figure 4-3:

Note: As you use System Manager in this lab, you may encounter situations where buttons at
the bottom of a System Manager pane are beyond the viewing size of the window, and no scroll
bar exists to allow you to scroll down to see them. If this happens, then you have two options;
either increase the size of the browser window (you might need to increase the resolution of
your Jumphost desktop to accommodate the larger browser window), or in the System Manager
window, use the tab key to cycle through all the various fields and buttons, which eventually
forces the window to scroll down to the non-visible items.

4.1.2 Advanced Drive Partitioning

Disks, whether Hard Disk Drives (HDD) or Solid State Disks (SSD), are the fundamental unit of physical storage
in ONTAP, and are tied to a specific cluster node by virtue of their physical connectivity (i.e., cabling) to a given
controller head.
ONTAP manages disks in groups called aggregates. An aggregate defines the RAID properties for a group of
disks that are all physically attached to the same node. A given disk can only be a member of a single aggregate.
By default each cluster node has one aggregate known as the root aggregate, which is a group of the node's
local disks that host the node's ONTAP operating system. A node's root aggregate is automatically created
during ONTAP installation in a minimal RAID-DP configuration This means it is initially comprised of 3 disks

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(1 data, 2 parity), and has a name that begins the string aggr0. For example, in this lab the root aggregate of
the node cluster1-01 is named “aggr0_cluster1_01.”, and the root aggregate of the node cluster1-02 is named
“aggr0_cluster1_02”.
On higher end FAS systems that have many disks, the requirement to dedicate 3 disks for each controller's root
aggregate is not a burden, but for entry level FAS systems that only have 24 or 12 disks this root aggregate
disk overhead requirement significantly reduces the disks available for storing user data. To improve usable
capacity, NetApp introduced Advanced Drive Partitioning in 8.3, which divided the Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) on
nodes that have this feature enabled into two partitions; a small root partition, and a much larger data partition.
ONTAP allocates the root partitions to the node root aggregate, and the data partitions for data aggregates. Each
partition behaves like a virtual disk, so in terms of RAID, ONTAP treats these partitions just like physical disks
when creating aggregates. The key benefit is that a much higher percentage of the node's overall disk capacity is
now available to host user data.
ONTAP only supports HDD partitioning for FAS 22xx and FAS25xx controllers, and only for HDDs installed in
their internal shelf on those models. Advanced Drive Partitioning can only be enabled at system installation time,
and there is no way to convert an existing system to use Advanced Drive Partitioning other than to completely
evacuate the affected HDDs, and re-install ONTAP.
All-Flash FAS (AFF) supports a variation of Advanced Drive Partitioning that utilizes SSDs instead of HDDs. The
capability is available for entry-level, mid-range, and high-end AFF platforms. ONTAP 8.3 also introduced SSD
partitioning for use with Flash Pools, but the details of that feature lie outside the scope of this lab.
In this section, you will use the GUI to determine if a cluster node is utilizing Advanced Drive Partitioning. System
Manager provides a basic view into this information, but if you want to see more detail then you will want to use
the CLI.
1. In System Manager, click the Hardware and Diagnostics tab.
2. In the drop down menu that appears, click Disks .

Figure 4-4:

System Manager displays the “Disks” pane.


3. Scroll the main window down so you can see the “Spare Disks” pane.
4. Observe that each cluster node has 12 spare disks, each with a disk size of 14.16 GB. These spares
represent the data partitions of the physical disks that belong to each node.

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3
4

Figure 4-5:

5. Click on the Inventory tab inside the top of the “Disks” pane.

Figure 4-6:

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System Manager's main window now shows a list of the disks available across all the nodes in the
cluster, which nodes own those disks, and so on. If you look at the Container Type column you see
that the disks in your lab all show a value of “shared”; this value indicates that the physical disk is
partitioned. For disks that are not partitioned you would typically see values like “spare”, “data”, “parity”,
and “dparity”.
For an FAS controller that is using Advanced Drive Partitioning, ONTAP automatically determines the
size of the root and data disk partitions at system installation time based on the quantity and size of the
available disks assigned to each node. In this lab each cluster node has twelve 32 GB hard disks, and
the spare disks listed here reflect the available capacity of the data partitions, which as you can see each
have approximately 14 GB of available space.
Note: You may have noticed that this is less than 50% of each disk's 32 GB physical capacity.
This is due to the relatively small size of the simulator disks used in this lab. When using disks
that are hundreds of GBs or larger, the root partition will consume a much smaller percentage of
each disk's total capacity.
6. Navigate to Hardware and Diagnostics > Aggregates.

Figure 4-7:

System Manager displays the “Aggregates” pane.


7. In the “Aggregates” list, select aggr0_cluster1_01, which is the root aggregate for cluster node
cluster1-01. Notice that the total size of this aggregate is a little over 100 GB. The Available and Used
space shown for this aggregate in your lab may vary from what is shown in this screen shot, depending
on the quantity and size of the snapshots that exist on your node's root volume.
8. Click the Disk Layout tab at the bottom of the window. The lower pane of System Manager now displays
a list of the disks that are members of this aggregate. Notice that the usable size of each disk is 14.24
GB, which is the size of the root partition on the disk. The Physical Space column displays the total
capacity of the whole physical disk that is available to ONTAP, including the space allocated to both the
disk's root and data partitions.

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7

Figure 4-8:

4.1.3 Create a New Aggregate on Each Cluster Node

The only aggregates that exist on a newly created cluster are the node root aggregates. The root aggregate
should not be used to host user data, so in this section you will create a new aggregate on each of the nodes in
cluster1 so they can host the storage virtual machines, volumes, and LUNs that you will create later in this lab.
A node can host multiple aggregates depending on the data sizing, performance, and isolation needs of the
storage workloads that it will be hosting. When you create a Storage Virtual Machine (SVM) you assign it to use
one or more specific aggregates to host the SVM's volumes. You can assign multiple SVMs to use the same
aggregate, which offers greater flexibility in managing storage space, whereas dedicating an aggregate to just a
single SVM provides greater workload isolation.
In this lab activity, you create a single user data aggregate on each node in the cluster.
If you completed the last exercise then System Manager should still be displaying the contents of the Aggregates
view. If you skipped that exercise then, starting from the Dashboard view, you can navigate to the Aggregates
view by going to Hardware and Diagnostics > Aggregates.
1. Click on the Create button to launch the Create Aggregate Wizard.

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1

Figure 4-9:

The Create Aggregate wizard window opens.


2. Specify the “Name” of the aggregate as aggr1_cluster1_01
3. Click Browse.

Figure 4-10:

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The “Select Disk Type” window opens.
4. Select the Disk Type entry for the node cluster1-01.
5. Click OK.

Figure 4-11:

The “Select Disk Type” window closes, and focus returns to the “Create Aggregate” window.
6. The “Disk Type” should now show as VMDISK.
7. Set the “Number of Disks” to 5.
8. Click Create to create the new aggregate, and to close the wizard.

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Figure 4-12:

The “Create Aggregate” window closes, and focus returns to the Aggregates view in System Manager.
The newly created aggregate should now be visible in the list of aggregates.
9. Select the entry for the aggregate aggr1_cluster1_01 if it is not already selected.
10. Click the Details tab to view more detailed information about this aggregate's configuration.
11. Notice that aggr1_cluster1_01 is a 64-bit aggregate. In earlier versions of clustered Data ONTAP
8, an aggregate could be either 32-bit or 64-bit, but Data ONTAP 8.3 and later only supports 64-bit
aggregates. If you have an existing clustered Data ONTAP 8.x system that has 32-bit aggregates and
you plan to upgrade that cluster to 8.3+, you must convert those 32-bit aggregates to 64-bit aggregates
prior to the upgrade. The procedure for that migration is not covered in this lab, so if you need further
details then please refer to the clustered Data ONTAP documentation.

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11

10

Figure 4-13:

Now repeat the process to create a new aggregate on the node "cluster1-02".
12. Click the Create button again.

12

Figure 4-14:

The “Create Aggregate” window opens.


13. Specify the Aggregate's “Name” as aggr1_cluster1_02.
14. Click Browse.

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14

Figure 4-15:

The “Select Disk Type” window opens.


15. Select the Disk Type entry for the node cluster1-02.
16. Click OK.

15 16

Figure 4-16:

The “Select Disk Type” window closes, and focus returns to the “Create Aggregate” window.
17. The “Disk Type” should now show as VMDISK.

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18. Set the Number of Disks to 5.
19. Click Create to create the new aggregate.

17

18

19

Figure 4-17:

The “Create Aggregate” window closes, and focus returns to the “Aggregates” view in System Manager.
20. The new aggregate, “aggr1_cluster1_02” now appears in the cluster's aggregate list.

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Figure 4-18:

4.1.4 Networks

This section discusses the network components that ONTAP provides to manage your cluster.
Ports are the physical Ethernet and Fibre Channel connections on each node, the interface groups (ifgrps) you
can create to aggregate those connections, and the VLANs you can use to subdivide them.
A logical interface (LIF) is essentially an IP address that is associated with a port, and has a number of associated
characteristics such as an assigned home node, an assigned physical home port, a list of physical ports it can fail
over to, an assigned SVM, a role, a routing group, and so on. A given LIF can only be assigned to a single SVM,
and since LIFs are mapped to physical network ports on cluster nodes this means that an SVM runs, in part, on
all nodes that are hosting its LIFs.
Routing tables in ONTAP are defined for each Storage Virtual Machine. Since each SVM has it's own routing
table, changes to one SVM's routing table does not have impact on any other SVM's routing table.
IPspaces were introduced in ONTAP 8.3, and allow you to configure an ONTAP cluster to logically separate
one IP network from another, even if those two networks are using the same IP address range. IPspaces are a
multi-tenancy feature that allow storage service providers to share a cluster between different companies while
still separating storage traffic for privacy and security. Every cluster includes a default IPspace to which ONTAP
automatically assigns new SVMs, and that default IPspace is probably sufficient for most NetApp customers who
deploy a cluster within a single company or organization that uses a non-conflicting IP address range.
Broadcast Domains are collections of ports that all have access to the same layer 2 networks, both physical
and virtual (i.e., VLANs). Every IPspace has it's own set of Broadcast Domains, and ONTAP provides a default
broadcast domain to go along with the default IPspace. Broadcast domains are used by ONTAP to determine
what ports an SVM can use for it's LIFs.

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Subnets in ONTAP are a convenience feature, intended to make LIF creation and management easier for ONTAP
administrators. A subnet is a pool of IP addresses that you can specify by name when creating a LIF. ONTAP will
automatically assign an available IP address from the pool to the LIF, along with a subnet mask and a gateway.
A subnet is scoped to a specific broadcast domain, so all the subnet's addresses belong to the same layer 3
network. ONTAP manages the pool automatically as you create or delete LIFs, and if you manually configure a
LIF with an address from the pool, it will detect that the address is in use and mark it as such in the pool.
DNS Zones allow an SVM to manage DNS name resolution for it's own LIFs, and since multiple LIFs can share
the same DNS name, this allows the SVM to load balance traffic by IP address across the LIFs. To use DNS
Zones you must configure your DNS server to delegate DNS authority for the subdomain to the SVM.

4.1.4.1 Create Subnets


In this lab activity, you will create a subnet that you will leverage in later sections to provision SVMs and LIFs. You
will not create IPspaces or Broadcast Domains, as the system defaults are sufficient for this lab.
1. On System Manager's command bar, select the Network tab.
2. In the Network pane select the Broadcast Domains tab.
3. Select the Default subnet.

1
2

Figure 4-19:

Review the Port Details section at the bottom of the Network pane and note that the e0c – e0g ports on
both cluster nodes are all part of this broadcast domain. These are the network ports that you will use in
this lab.
Now create a new Subnet for this lab.
4. Select the Subnets tab, and notice that there are no subnets listed in the pane. Unlike Broadcast
Domains and IPSpaces, ONTAP does not provide a default Subnet.
5. Click the Create button.

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Figure 4-20:

The “Create Subnet” window opens.


Set the fields in the window as follows.
6. “Subnet Name”: Demo.
7. “Subnet IP/Subnet mask”: 192.168.0.0/24.
8. The values you enter in the “IP address” field depend on what sections of the lab guide you intend to
complete.
Attention: It is important that you choose the right values here so that the values in your lab will
correctly match up with the values used in this lab guide.
• If you plan to complete just the NAS section, or both the NAS and SAN sections then enter
192.168.0.131-192.168.0.139.
• If you plan to complete just the SAN section then enter 192.168.0.133-192.168.0.139.
9. “Gateway”: 192.168.0.1.
10. Click the Browse button.

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7

10

Figure 4-21:

The “Select Broadcast Domain” window opens.


11. Select the Default entry from the list.
12. Click OK.

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12

Figure 4-22:

The “Select Broadcast Domain” window close, and focus returns to the “Create Subnet” window.
13. The values in your “Create Subnet” window should now match those shown in the following screen
shot, the only possible exception being for the IP Addresses field, whose value may differ depending on
what value range you chose to enter to match your plans for the lab.
14. If it is not already displayed, click on the Show ports on this domain link under the Broadcast Domain
textbox to see the list of ports that this broadcast domain includes.
15. Click Create.

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14

15

Figure 4-23:

The “Create Subnet” window closes, and focus returns to the “Subnets” tab in System Manager.
16. Notice that the main pane of the “Subnets” tab now includes an entry for your newly created subnet,
and that the lower portion of the pane includes metrics tracking the consumption of the IP addresses
that belong to this subnet.

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Figure 4-24:

Feel free to explore the contents of the other available tabs on the Network page. Here is a brief
summary of the information available on those tabs.
• The “Ethernet Ports” tab displays the physical NICs on your controller, which will be a
superset of the NICs that you saw previously listed as belonging to the default broadcast
domain. The other NICs you will see listed on the Ethernet Ports tab include the node's
cluster network NICs.
• The “Network Interfaces” tab displays a list of all of the LIFs on your cluster.
• The “FC/FCoE Adapters” tab lists all the WWPNs for all the controllers NICs in the event they
will be used for iSCSI or FCoE connections. The simulated NetApp controllers you are using
in this lab do not include FC adapters, and this lab does not make use of FCoE.

4.2 Create Storage for NFS and CIFS


Expected Completion Time: 40 Minutes
If you are only interested in SAN protocols then you do not need to complete this section. However, we
recommend that you review the conceptual information found here, and at the beginning of each of this section's
subsections, before you advance to the SAN section, as most of this conceptual material will not be repeated
there.
Storage Virtual Machines (SVMs), previously known as Vservers, are the logical storage servers that operate
within a cluster that serve data out to storage clients. A single cluster can host hundreds of SVMs, with each SVM
managing its own set of volumes (FlexVols), Logical Network Interfaces (LIFs), storage access protocols (e.g.,
NFS/CIFS/iSCSI/FC/FCoE), and for NAS clients, its own namespace.
The ability to support many SVMs in a single cluster is a key feature in ONTAP, and customers are encouraged
to actively embrace this feature in order to take full advantage of a cluster's capabilities. NetApp recommends
against any organization starting out on a deployment intended to scale with only a single SVM.
You explicitly configure which storage protocols you want a given SVM to support at the time you create that
SVM. You can later add or remove protocols as desired. A single SVM can host any combination of the supported
protocols.

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An SVM's assigned aggregates and LIFs determine which cluster nodes handle processing for that SVM. As
you saw earlier, an aggregate is directly connected to the specific node hosting its disks, which means that an
SVM runs in part on any nodes whose aggregates are hosting volumes for the SVM. An SVM also has a direct
relationship to any nodes that are hosting its LIFs. LIFs are essentially an IP address with a number of associated
characteristics such as an assigned home node, an assigned physical home port, a list of physical ports it can fail
over to, an assigned SVM, a role, a routing group, and so on. You can only assign a given LIF to a single SVM,
and since LIFs map to physical network ports on cluster nodes, this means that an SVM runs in part on all nodes
that are hosting its LIFs.
When you configure an SVM with multiple data LIFs, clients can use any of those LIFs to access volumes hosted
by the SVM. Which specific LIF IP address a client will use in a given instance, and by extension which LIF, is a
function of name resolution, the mapping of a hostname to an IP address. CIFS Servers have responsibility under
NetBIOS for resolving requests for their hostnames received from clients, and in so doing can perform some load
balancing by responding to different clients with different LIF addresses. But this distribution is not sophisticated,
and requires external NetBIOS name servers in order to deal with clients that are not on the local network. NFS
Servers do not handle name resolution on their own.
DNS provides basic name resolution load balancing by advertising multiple IP addresses for the same hostname.
DNS is supported by both NFS and CIFS clients, and works equally well with clients on local area and wide
area networks. Since DNS is an external service that resides outside of ONTAP, this architecture creates the
potential for service disruptions if the DNS server is advertising IP addresses for LIFs that are temporarily offline.
To compensate for this condition you can configure DNS servers to delegate the name resolution responsibility
for the SVM's hostname records to the SVM itself, so that it can directly respond to name resolution requests
involving its LIFs. This allows the SVM to consider LIF availability and LIF utilization levels when deciding what
LIF address to return in response to a DNS name resolution request.
The most efficient client access path to a volume's data is through a LIF that is mapped to a physical network port
on the same node as the aggregate that hosts the volume's storage. However, clients can also access volume
data through LIFs bound to physical network ports on other nodes in the cluster; in these cases ONTAP uses the
high speed cluster network to bridge communication between the node hosting the LIF and the node hosting the
volume. NetApp best practice is to create at least one NAS LIF for a given SVM on each cluster node that has an
aggregate that is hosting volumes for that SVM. If you desire additional resiliency then you can also create a NAS
LIF on nodes not hosting aggregates for the SVM.
A NAS LIF (a LIF supporting only NFS and/or CIFS) can automatically failover from one cluster node to another
in the event of a component failure. Any existing connections to that LIF from NFS and SMB 2.0 (and later)
clients can non-disruptively tolerate the LIF failover event. When a LIF failover happens the NAS LIF migrates to
a different physical NIC, potentially to a NIC on a different node in the cluster, and continues servicing network
requests from that new node/port. Throughout this operation the NAS LIF maintains its IP address. Clients
connected to the LIF may notice a brief delay while the failover is in progress, but as soon as it completes the
clients resume any in-process NAS operations without any loss of data.
The number of nodes in the cluster determines the total number of SVMs that can run in the cluster. Each storage
controller node can host a maximum of 125 SVMs, so you can calculate the cluster's effective SVM limit by
multiplying the number of nodes by 125. There is no limit on the number of LIFs that an SVM can host, but there
is a limit on the number of LIFs that can run on a given node. That limit is 256 LIFs per node, but if the node is
part of an HA pair configured for failover, then the limit is half that value, or 128 LIFs per node (so that a node can
also accommodate it's HA partner's LIFs in the event of a failover event).
Each SVM has its own NAS namespace, a logical grouping of the SVM's CIFS and NFS volumes into a single
logical filesystem view. Clients can access the entire namespace by mounting a single share or export at the
top of the namespace tree, meaning that SVM administrators can centrally maintain and present a consistent
view of the SVM's data to all clients rather than having to reproduce that view structure on each individual
client. As an administrator maps and unmaps volumes from the namespace, those volumes instantly become
visible or disappear from clients that have mounted CIFS and NFS volumes higher in the SVM's namespace.
Administrators can also create NFS exports at individual junction points within the namespace, and can create
CIFS shares at any directory path in the namespace.

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4.2.1 Create a Storage Virtual Machine for NAS

In this section you will create a new SVM named svm1 on the cluster and will configure it to serve out a volume
over NFS and CIFS. You will be configuring two NAS data LIFs on the SVM, one per node in the cluster.
Start by creating the storage virtual machine.
1. In System Manager, select the SVMs tab.
2. Click Create to launch the Storage Virtual Machine Setup wizard.

Figure 4-25:

The “Storage Virtual machine (SVM) Setup” window opens.


3. Set the SVM Name: value to svm1.
4. In the Data Protocols: area, check the CIFS and NFS check boxes.
Tip: The list of available Data Protocols is dependent upon what protocols are licensed on your
cluster; if a given protocol is not listed, it is because you are not licensed for it. (In this lab all the
protocols are licensed.)
5. Set the “Security Style:” value to NTFS.
6. Set the “Root Aggregate:” list box to aggr1_cluster1_01.
7. Click Submit & Continue.

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Figure 4-26:

The “Storage Virtual Machine (SVM) Setup” wizard advances to the “Configure CIFS/NFS protocol” step.
8. Set the Assign IP Address dropdown to Using a subnet.

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Figure 4-27:

The “Add Details” window opens.


9. The Subnet chosen: dropdown should be pre-populated with Demo, the name of the subnet you
created in an earlier exercise, since this is the only subnet defined on the cluster.
10. Click OK.

10

Figure 4-28:

The “Add Details” window closes, and focus returns to the “Storage Virtual Machine (SVM) Setup”
window.
11. Click Browse next to the Port text box.

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Figure 4-29:

The “Select Network Port or Adapter” window opens.


12. Expand the list of ports for the node cluster1-01, and select port e0c.
13. Click OK.

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13

Figure 4-30:

The “Select Network Port or Adapter” window closes, and focus returns to the protocols portion of the
Storage Virtual Machine (SVM) Setup wizard.
14. The “Port” text box should have been populated with the cluster and port value you just selected.
15. Set the “CIFS Server Name:” value to svm1.
Note: The CIFS Server Name value does not need to match the name of the SVM. They are
the same in this lab just for the sake of simplicity.
16. Set the “Active Directory:” value to demo.netapp.com.
17. Set the “Administrator Name:” value to Administrator.
18. Set the “Password:” value to Netapp1!.
19. The optional “Provision a volume for CIFS storage” text boxes offer a quick way to provision a simple
volume and CIFS share at SVM creation time, with the caveat that this share will not be multi-protocol.
Since in most cases when you create a share it will be for an existing SVM, rather than create a share
here this lab guide will show that more full-featured volume creation procedure in the following sections.

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19
15

16
17

18

Figure 4-31:

Scroll down in the window to see the NIS Configuration section.


20. In the NIS section, the “Domain Name” and “IP Addresses” fields are blank. In a NFS environment
where you are running NIS, you want to configure these values, but this lab environment does not
utilize NIS, and populating these fields will create a name resolution problem later in the lab.
21. As was the case with CIFS, the “Provision a volume for NFS storage” text boxes offer a quick way
to provison a volume and create an NFS export for that volume. Once again, the volume will not be
inherently multi-protocol, and will be a completely separate volume from the CIFS share volume that
you could have selected to create in the CIFS section. This lab illustrates the more full featured volume
creation process later in the guide.
22. Click Submit & Continue to advance the wizard to the next screen.

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21

22

Figure 4-32:

The SVM Administration step of the Storage Virtual Machine (SVM) Setup wizard opens. This window
allows you to set up an administrative account for this specific SVM so you can delegate administrative
tasks to an SVM-specific administrator without giving that administrator cluster-wide privileges. As the
comments in this wizard window indicate, this account must also exist for use with SnapDrive. Although
you will not be using SnapDrive in this lab, it is a good idea to create this account, and you will do so
here.
23. The “User Name” is pre-populated with the value vsadmin.
24. Set the “Password” and “Confirm Password” text boxes to netapp123.
25. When finished, click Submit & Continue.

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24

25

Figure 4-33:

The “New Storage Virtual Machine (SVM) Summary” window opens.


26. Review the settings for the new SVM, taking special note of the IP Address listed in the “CIFS/NFS
Configuration” section. ONTAP allocated this address from the Subnets pool that you created earlier in
the lab. Make sure you use the scrollbar on the right to see all the available information.
27. When finished, click OK .

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27

Figure 4-34:

The window closes, and focus returns to the “System Manager” window, which now displays a
summary page for your newly created svm1 SVM.
28. Notice that in the “Details” sub-pane of the window the CIFS protocol is listed with a green background.
This indicates that a CIFS server is running for this SVM.
29. Notice too, that the NFS protocol is listed with a green background, which indicates that there is a
running NFS server for this SVM.

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29 28

Figure 4-35:

The New Storage Virtual Machine Setup Wizard only provisions a single LIF when creating a new SVM.
NetApp best practice is to configure a LIF on both nodes in an HA pair so that a client can access the
SVM's shares through either node. To comply with that best practice you will now create a second LIF
hosted on the other node in the cluster.
30. Select the Network tab on the menu bar at the top of System Manager.
31. Select the Network Interfaces tab under the Network pane.
32. Select the only LIF listed for the svm1 SVM. Notice that this LIF is named “svm1_cifs_nfs_lif1” (you may
need to scroll down in the list of interfaces to see it). Follow this same naming convention for the new
LIF that you will be creating.
33. Click Create to launch the Network Interface Create Wizard.

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31

33

32

Figure 4-36:

The “Create Network Interface” window opens.


34. Set the Name: value to svm1_cifs_nfs_lif2.
35. Set the “Interface Role:” radio button to Serves Data
36. Set the “SVM:” dropdown to svm1
37. In the “Protocol Access:” area, check the CIFS and NFS check boxes.
38. In the “Management Access:” area, check the Enable Management Access check box.
39. Set the “Assign IP Address:” dropdown to Using a subnet.

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35
36
37

38
39

Figure 4-37:

The “Add Details” window opens.


40. The “Subnet Chosen:” dropdown should be pre-set to Demo.
41. Click OK.

40

41

Figure 4-38:

The “Add Details” window closes, and focus returns to the “Create Network Interface” window.
42. Expand the Port Selection list box, and select the entry for cluster1-02 port e0c.

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43. Click Create to continue.

42

43

Figure 4-39:

The “Create Network Interface” window closes, and focus returns to the “Network” pane in System
Manager.
44. Notice that a new entry for the svm1_cifs_nfs_lif2 LIF is now present under the Network Interfaces
tab. Select this entry and review the LIF's properties in the lower pane.

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44

Figure 4-40:

Lastly, you need to configure DNS delegation for the SVM so that Linux and Windows clients can
intelligently utilize all of svm1's configured NAS LIFs. To achieve this objective, the DNS server must
delegate to the cluster the responsibility for the DNS zone corresponding to the SVM's hostname,
which in this case will be “svm1.demo.netapp.com”. The lab's DNS server is already configured to
delegate this responsibility, but you must also configure the SVM to accept it. System Manager does
not currently include the capability to configure DNS delegation so you will need to use the CLI for this
purpose.
45. Open a PuTTY connection to cluster1 following the instructions in the “Accessing the Command Line”
section at the beginning of this guide. Log in using the username admin and the password Netapp1!,
then enter the following commands.

cluster1::> network interface modify -vserver svm1 -lif svm1_cifs_nfs_lif1


-dns-zone svm1.demo.netapp.com
cluster1::> network interface modify -vserver svm1 -lif svm1_cifs_nfs_lif2
-dns-zone svm1.demo.netapp.com
cluster1::> network interface show -vserver svm1 -fields dns-zone,address
vserver lif address dns-zone
------- ----------------- ------------- -------------------
svm1 svm1_cifs_nfs_lif1 192.168.0.131 svm1.demo.netapp.com
svm1 svm1_cifs_nfs_lif2 192.168.0.132 svm1.demo.netapp.com
2 entries were displayed.
cluster1::>

46. Validate that delegation is working correctly by opening PowerShell on the Jumphost and using the
nslookup command as shown in the following CLI output. If the nslookup command returns different IP
addresses on different lookup attempts then delegation is working correctly. If the nslookup command
returns a “Non-existent domain” error, then delegation is not working correctly, and you will need to
review the ONTAP commands you entered for any errors. Also notice in the following CLI output that
different executions of the nslookup command return different addresses, demonstrating that DNS load
balancing is working correctly.

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Tip: You may need to run the nslookup command more than 2 times before you see it report
different addresses for the hostname, as ONTAP's delegated DNS load balancing algorithm is
more sophisticated than a simple round-robin scheme.

Windows PowerShell
Copyright (C) 2013 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
PS C:\Users\Administrator.DEMO> nslookup svm1.demo.netapp.com
Server: dc1.demo.netapp.com
Address: 192.168.0.253
Non-authoritative answer:
Name: svm1.demo.netapp.com
Address: 192.168.0.132
PS C:\Users\Administrator.DEMO> nslookup svm1.demo.netapp.com
Server: dc1.demo.netapp.com
Address: 192.168.0.253
Non-authoritative answer:
Name: svm1.demo.netapp.com
Address: 192.168.0.131
PS C:\Users\Administrator.DEMO

4.2.2 Configure CIFS and NFS

ONTAP configures CIFS and NFS on a per SVM basis. When you created the “svm1” SVM in the previous
section, you set up and enabled CIFS and NFS for that SVM. However, it is important to understand that clients
cannot yet access the SVM using CIFS and NFS. That is partially because you have not yet created any volumes
on the SVM, but also because you have not told the SVM what you want to share, and who you want to share it
with.
Each SVM has its own namespace. A namespace is a logical grouping of a single SVM's volumes into a directory
hierarchy that is private to just that SVM, with the root of that hierarchy hosted on the SVM's root volume
(svm1_root in the case of the svm1 SVM), and it is through this namespace that the SVM shares data to CIFS
and NFS clients. The SVM's other volumes are junctioned (i.e., mounted) within that root volume, or within other
volumes that are already junctioned into the namespace. This hierarchy presents NAS clients with a unified,
centrally maintained view of the storage encompassed by the namespace, regardless of where those junctioned
volumes physically reside in the cluster. CIFS and NFS clients cannot access a volume that has not been
junctioned into the namespace.
CIFS and NFS clients can access the entire namespace by mounting a single NFS export or CIFS share declared
at the top of the namespace. While this is a very powerful capability, there is no requirement to make the whole
namespace accessible. You can create CIFS shares at any directory level in the namespace, and you can
create different NFS export rules at junction boundaries for individual volumes, and for individual qtrees within a
junctioned volume.
ONTAP does not utilize an /etc/exports file to export NFS volumes; instead it uses a policy model that dictates
the NFS client access rules for the associated volumes. An NFS-enabled SVM implicitly exports the root of its
namespace and automatically associates that export with the SVM's default export policy. But that default policy
is initially empty, and until it is populated with access rules no NFS clients will be able to access the namespace.
The SVM's default export policy applies to the root volume and also to any volumes that an administrator
junctions into the namespace, but an administrator can optionally create additional export policies in order to
implement different access rules within the namespace. You can apply export policies to a volume as a whole
and to individual qtrees within a volume, but a given volume or qtree can only have one associated export policy.
While you cannot create NFS exports at any other directory level in the namespace, NFS clients can mount from
any level in the namespace by leveraging the namespace's root export.
In this section of the lab, you are going to configure a default export policy for your SVM so that any volumes you
junction into its namespace will automatically pick up the same NFS export rules. You will also create a single
CIFS share at the top of the namespace so that all the volumes you junction into that namespace are accessible
through that one share. Finally, since your SVM will be sharing the same data over NFS and CIFS, you will be
setting up name mapping between UNIX and Windows user accounts to facilitate smooth multi protocol access to
the volumes and files in the namespace.

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When you create an SVM, ONTAP automatically creates a root volume to hold that SVM's namespace. An SVM
always has a root volume, whether or not it is configured to support NAS protocols. Before you configure NFS and
CIFS for your newly created SVM, take a quick look at the SVM's root volume:
1. On the System Manager command bar select SVMs.
2. In the SVMs pane, click on the link for svm1.

Figure 4-41:

3. Click the Volumes button to display a list of the volumes that belong to the SVM svm1.
4. Select the svm1_root volume if it is not already selected.

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Figure 4-42:

The root volume hosts the namespace for the SVM. The root volume is not large; only 20 MB in this
example. Root volumes are small because they are only intended to house the junctions that organize
the SVM's volumes. All of the files hosted on the SVM should reside inside other volumes that are
junctioned into the namespace, rather than directly in the SVM's root volume.
Confirm that CIFS and NFS are running for the svm1 SVM.
5. Click the Overview button (which is next to the svm1 dropdown).
6. In the “Protocol Status” pane, observe the green check marks above the NFS and CIFS links. These
green check marks indicate that the NFS and CIFS servers for this SVM are running.
7. Click the CIFS link.

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Figure 4-43:

The “SVM Settings” view opens, and displays the “Configuration” tab for the CIFS protocol.
8. Note that the Service Status field is listed as “Started”, which indicates that there is a running CIFS
server for this SVM. If CIFS was not already running for this SVM, you could configure and start it using
the Setup button found under the “Configuration” tab.

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Figure 4-44:

Now check that NFS is enabled for your SVM.


9. In the left side of the SVM Settings view, under the “Protocols” section, select NFS.
10. Notice that the NFS Server Status field shows as “Enabled”. Use the Enable and Disable buttons on
the pane's menu bar to place the NFS server online and offline if needed. Please leave NFS enabled
for this lab.
11. NFS version 3 is enabled, but versions 4 and 4.1 are not. If you wanted to change this use the Edit
button to do so, but for this lab NFS version 3 is sufficient.

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9
11

Figure 4-45:

At this point, you have confirmed that your SVM has a running CIFS server and a running NFS server.
However, you have not yet configured those two servers to actually serve any data. The first step in that
process is to configure the SVM's default NFS export policy.
When you create an SVM that supports NFS, ONTAP automatically creates a default NFS export
policy for that SVM. That default export policy contains an empty list of access rules, and without any
access rules the policy will not allow clients to access any exports. If you create an access rule in the
default export policy now, then when you create and junction in new volumes later in this lab they
will automatically be accessible to NFS clients. If any of this seems a bit confusing, do not worry; the
concept should become clearer as you work through this section and the next one.
12. In the left pane of the “SVM Settings” tab, under the “Policies” section, select Export Policies.
13. In the “Policy” pane that now displays on the right, select the default policy.
14. Click the Add button in the bottom portion of the Export Policies pane.

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14
12

Figure 4-46:

The “Create Export Rule” window opens. Using this dialog you can create any number of rules that
provide fine grained client access control, and specify their application order. For this lab, you are going
to create a single rule that grants unfettered access to any host on the lab's private network.
15. Set the “Client Specification:” value to 0.0.0.0/0, which is equivalent to all clients.
16. Set the “Rule Index:” number to 1
17. In the “Access Protocols:” area, check the CIFS and NFS check boxes. The default values in the other
fields in the window are acceptable.
18. When you finish entering these values, click OK.

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17 15

18

Figure 4-47:

The “Create Export Policy” window closes and focus returns to the “Export Policies” pane in System
Manager.
19. The new access rule you created now shows up in the bottom portion of the pane.

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Figure 4-48:

With this updated default export policy in place, NFS clients are now able to mount the root of the svm1
SVM's namespace, and use that mount to access any volumes that you junction into the namespace.
Now create a CIFS share for the svm1 SVM. You are going to create a single share named “nsroot” at
the root of the SVM's namespace.
20. On the menu bar that contains the SVM selection drop down, click Shares.
21. In the “Shares” pane, select Create Share.

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21

Figure 4-49:

The “Create Share” dialog box opens.


22. Set the “Folder to Share:” value to / (If you alternately opt to use the Browse button, make sure you
select the root folder).
23. Set the “Share Name:” value to nsroot
24. Click the Create button.

22

23

24

Figure 4-50:

The “Create Share” window closes, and focus returns to “Shares” pane in System Manager. The new
“nsroot” share now shows up in the list of shares, but you are not finished yet.

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25. Select nsroot from the list of shares.
26. Click the Edit button to edit the share's settings.

25

26

Figure 4-51:

The “Edit nsroot Settings” window opens.


27. Select the Permissions tab. When you create a share, the default permissions are set to grant
“Everyone” Full Control. You can set more detailed permissions on the share from this tab, but this
configuration is sufficient for the exercises in this lab.

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Figure 4-52:

There are other settings to check in this window, so do not close it yet.
28. Click the Options tab.
29. You do not want users to be able to store files inside your root volume, so ensure that the Enable as
read-only check box is checked. Other check boxes that should be checked by default include Enable
Oplocks, Browsable, and Notify Change. All other check boxes should be cleared.
30. If you had to change any of the settings listed on the previous screen then the Save and Close button
will become active, and you should click it. Otherwise, click the Cancel button.

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29

30

Figure 4-53:

The “Edit nsroot Settings” window closes, and focus returns to the “Shares” pane in System Manager.
Setup of the “\\svm1\nsroot” CIFS share is now complete.
For this lab you have created just one share at the root of your namespace that allows users to access
any volume mounted in the namespace through that share. The advantage of this approach is that it
reduces the number of mapped drives that you have to manage on your clients; any changes you make
to the namespace, such as adding/removing volumes or changing junction locations, become instantly
visible to your clients. If you prefer to use multiple shares then clustered Data ONTAP allows you to
create additional shares rooted at any directory level within the namespace.

4.2.2 Setting Up Username Mapping


Since you have configured your SVM to support both NFS and CIFS, you next need to set up username mapping
so that the UNIX root accounts and the DEMO\Administrator account will have synonymous access to each
other's files. Setting up such a mapping may not be desirable in all environments, but it will simplify data sharing
for this lab since these are the two primary accounts you are using in this lab.
1. In System Manager, while still in the Shares view, click the SVM Settings button that is located on the
same menu bar as the SVM selection drop down.
2. The SVM Settings view opens. In the left pane of that view, scroll down to the “Host Users and Groups”
section.
3. Click Name Mapping.
4. In the “Name Mapping” pane, click Add.

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3
2

Figure 4-54:

The “Add Name Mapping Entry” window opens.


Complete the following fields with the supplied values to create a Windows to UNIX mapping:
5. Set the “Direction:” value to Windows to UNIX.
6. Set the “Position:” number to 1.
7. Set the “Pattern:” value to demo\\administrator
Note: The two backslashes listed here are not a typo, and “administrator” should not be
capitalized.
8. Set the “Replacement:” value to root.
9. When you have finished populating these fields, click Add.

5
6
7

8
9

Figure 4-55:

The window closes and focus returns to the “Name Mapping” pane in System Manager.
10. Click the Add button again to create another mapping rule.

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Figure 4-56:

The “Add Name Mapping Entry” window opens.


Complete the following fields with the supplied values to create a UNIX to Windows mapping:
11. Set the “Direction:” value to UNIX to Windows.
12. Set the “Position:” value to 1.
13. Set the “Pattern:” value to root
14. Set the “Replacement:” value to demo\\administrator
Note: The two backslashes listed here are not a typo, and “administrator” should not be
capitalized.
15. When you have finished populating these fields, click Add.

11
12
13

14
15

Figure 4-57:

The second “Add Name Mapping” window closes, and focus again returns to the “Name Mapping” pane
in System Manager.

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16. You should now see two mappings listed in this pane that together make the “root” and “DEMO
\Administrator” accounts equivalent to each other for the purpose of file access within the SVM.

16

Figure 4-58:

4.2.3 Create a Volume and Map It to the Namespace

Volumes, or FlexVols, are the dynamically sized containers used by ONTAP to store data. A volume only resides
in a single aggregate at a time, but any given aggregate can host multiple volumes. Unlike an aggregate, which
can associate with multiple SVMS, a volume can only associate to a single SVM. The maximum size of a volume
can vary depending on what storage controller model is hosting it.
An SVM can host multiple volumes. While there is no specific limit on the number of FlexVols that can be
configured for a given SVM, each storage controller node is limited to hosting no more than 500 or 1000 FlexVols
(varies based on controller model), which means that there is an effective limit on the total number of volumes
that a cluster can host, depending on how many nodes there are in your cluster.
Each storage controller node has a root aggregate (e.g., aggr0_<nodename>) that contains the node's ONTAP
operating system.
Important: Do not use the node's root aggregate to host any other volumes or user data; always create
additional aggregates and volumes for that purpose.
ONTAP FlexVols support a number of storage efficiency features including thin provisioning, deduplication, and
compression. One specific storage efficiency feature you will see in the section of the lab is thin provisioning,
which dictates how space for a FlexVol is allocated in its containing aggregate.
When you create a FlexVol with a volume guarantee of type “volume” you are thickly provisioning the volume,
pre-allocating all of the space for the volume on the containing aggregate, which ensures that the volume will
never run out of space unless the volume reaches 100% capacity. When you create a FlexVol with a volume
guarantee of “none” you are thinly provisioning the volume, only allocating space for it on the containing
aggregate at the time and in the quantity that the volume actually requires the space to store the data.
This latter configuration allows you to increase your overall space utilization, and even oversubscribe an
aggregate by allocating more volumes on it than the aggregate could actually accommodate if all the subscribed
volumes reached their full size. However, if an oversubscribed aggregate does fill up, then all it's volumes will run
out of space before they reach their maximum volume size, therefore oversubscription deployments generally
require a greater degree of administrative vigilance around space utilization.

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In the Clusters section, you created a new aggregate named “aggr1_cluster1_01”; you will now use that
aggregate to host a new thinly provisioned volume named “engineering” for the SVM named “svm1”.
1. Click the Volumes button in the svm1 view of System Manager. (SVMs > svm1 > Volumes if you have
navigated away from this view.).
2. Click Create to launch the Create Volume wizard.

Figure 4-59:

The “Create Volume” window opens.


3. Populate the following values into the data fields in the window.
• “Name:” engineering
• “Aggregate:” aggr1_cluster1_01
• “Total Size:” 10 GB
• “Space Reserve (optional): Thin Provisioned
Leave the other values at their defaults.
4. Click Create .

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Figure 4-60:

The “Create Volume” window closes, and focus returns to the “Volumes” pane in System Manager.
5. The newly created engineering volume now appears in the Volumes list. Notice that the volume is 10 GB
in size, and is thin provisioned.

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Figure 4-61:

6. Click Namespace.
7. Notice that ONTAP automatically junctioned in the engineering volume under the root of the SVM's
namespace, and that this volume has inherited the default NFS Export Policy.

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Figure 4-62:

Since you have already configured the access rules for the default policy, the volume is instantly
accessible to NFS clients. As you can see in the preceding screen shot, the engineering volume was
junctioned as “/engineering”, meaning that any client that had mapped a share to \\svm1\nsroot or NFS
mounted svm1:/ would now instantly see the engineering directory in the respective share and NFS
mount.
Now create a second volume.
8. Click the Volumes button again.
9. Click Create to launch the Create Volume wizard.

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Figure 4-63:

The “Create Volume” window opens.


10. Populate the following values into the data fields in the window:
• “Name:” eng_users
• “Aggregate:” aggr1_cluster1_01
• “Total Size:” 10 GB
• “Space Reserve (optional):” Thin Provisioned
Leave the other values at their defaults.
11. Click the Create button.

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10

10

11

Figure 4-64:

The “Create Volume” window closes, and focus returns again to the “Volumes” pane in System
Manager. The newly created “eng_users” volume should now appear in the Volumes list.
12. Select the eng_users volume in the volumes list, and examine the details for this volume in the
General box at the bottom of the pane. Specifically, note that this volume has a Junction Path value of
“/eng_users”.

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Figure 4-65:

You do have more options for junctioning than just placing your volumes into the root of your
namespace. In the case of the eng_users volume, you will re-junction that volume underneath the
engineering volume, and shorten the junction name to take advantage of an already intuitive context.
13. Click Namespace.
14. In the Namespace pane, select the eng_users junction point.
15. Click Unmount.

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15

14

Figure 4-66:

The “Unmount Volume” window opens asking for confirmation that you really want to unmount the
volume from the namespace.
16. Click Unmount.

16

Figure 4-67:

The “Unmount Volume” window closes, and focus returns to the “NameSpace” pane in System
Manager. The “eng_users” volume no longer appears in the junction list for the namespace, and since
it is no longer junctioned in the namespace, clients can no longer access it or even see it. Now you will
junction the volume in at another location in the namespace.
17. Click Mount.

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Figure 4-68:

The “Mount Volume” window opens.


18. Set the fields in the window as follows.
• “Volume Name:” eng_users.
• “Junction Name:” users.
19. Click Browse.

18

19

Figure 4-69:

The “Browse For Junction Path” window opens.


20. Select engineering, which will populate “/engineering” into the textbox above the list.
21. Click Select to accept the selection.

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21

Figure 4-70:

The “Browse For Junction Path” window closes, and focus returns to the “Mount Volume” window.
22. The fields in the “Mount Volume” window should now all contain values as follows:
• “Volume Name:” eng_users.
• “Junction Name:” users.
• “Junction Path:” /engineering.
23. When ready, click Mount.

22

23
Figure 4-71:

The “Mount Volume” window closes, and focus returns to the “Namespace” pane in System Manager.

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24. The “eng_users” volume is now mounted in the namespace as “/engineering/users”.

24

Figure 4-72:

You can also create a junction within user created directories. For example, from a CIFS or NFS client
you could create a folder named “Projects” inside the engineering volume, and then create a “widgets”
volume that junctions in under the projects folder. In that scenario, the namespace path to the “widgets”
volume contents would be “/engineering/projects/widgets”.
Now you will create a couple of qtrees within the “eng_users” volume, one for each of the users “bob”
and “susan”.
25. Click Qtrees.
26. Click Create to launch the Create Qtree wizard.

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26

Figure 4-73:

The “Create Qtree” window opens.


27. Set the “Name:” value to bob
28. Click on the Browse button next to the Volume: property.

27
28

Figure 4-74:

The “Select a Volume” window opens.


29. Expand the svm1 list, and select the eng_users volume. Remember, here you are selecting the name
of the volume that will host the qtree, not the path where that qtree will reside in the namespace.
30. Click OK.

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30
Figure 4-75:

The “Select a Volume” window closes, and focus returns to the “Create Qtree” window.
31. The “Volume” field is now populated with eng_users.
32. Select the Quota tab.

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31

Figure 4-76:

The Quota tab is where you define the space usage limits you want to apply to the qtree. You will not
actually be implementing any quota limits in this lab.
33. Click the Create button to finish creating the qtree.

33

Figure 4-77:

The “Create Qtree” window closes, and focus returns to the “Qtrees” pane in System Manager.
34. The new “bob” qtree is now present in the qtrees list.
35. Now create a qtree for the user account “susan” by clicking the Create button.

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34

Figure 4-78:

The “Create Qtree” window opens.


36. Select the Details tab and then populate the fields as follows.
• “Name:” susan
• “Volume:” eng_users
37. Click Create.

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37

Figure 4-79:

The “Create Qtree” window closes, and focus returns to the “Qtrees” pane in System Manager.
38. At this point you should see both the “bob” and “susan” qtrees in System Manager.

38

Figure 4-80:

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4.2.4 Connect to the SVM From a Windows Client

The “svm1” SVM is up and running and is configured for NFS and CIFS access, so it's time to validate that
everything is working properly by mounting the NFS export on a Linux host, and the CIFS share on a Windows
host. You should complete both parts of this section so you can see that both hosts are able to seamlessly access
the volume and it's files.
This part of the lab demonstrates connecting the Windows client Jumphost to the CIFS share \\svm1\nsroot
using the Windows GUI.
1. On the Windows host Jumphost, open Windows Explorer by clicking on the folder icon on the task bar.

Figure 4-81:

A Windows Explorer window opens.


2. In the left pane of Windows Explorer click on This PC.
3. On the menu bar, click on Computer.
4. Click on Map network drive to launch the Map Network Drive wizard.

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4
2

Figure 4-82:

The “Map Network Drive” wizard opens.


5. Set the fields in the window to the following values.
• “Drive:” S:
• “Folder:” \\svm1\nsroot
• Check the Reconnect at sign-in check box.
6. When finished click Finish.

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Figure 4-83:

A new Windows Explorer window opens.


7. The engineering volume you earlier junctioned into the svm1's namespace is visible at the top of the
nsroot share, which points to the root of the namespace. If you created another volume on svm1 right
now and mounted it under the root of the namespace, that new volume would instantly become visible
in this share, and to clients like Jumphost that have already mounted the share. Double-click on the
engineering folder to open it.

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Figure 4-84:

File Explorer displays the contents of the engineering folder. Next you will create a file in this folder to
confirm that you can write to it.
8. Notice that the “eng_users” volume that you junctioned in as “users” is visible inside this folder.
9. Right-click in the empty space in the right pane of File Explorer.
10. In the context menu, select New > Text Document, and name the resulting file “cifs.txt”.

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Figure 4-85:

11. Double-click the cifs.txt file you just created to open it with Notepad.
Tip: If you do not see file extensions in your lab, you can enable that by going to the View
menu at the top of Windows Explorer and checking the File Name Extensions check box.
12. In Notepad, enter some text. Ensure that you put a carriage return at the end of the line, otherwise
when you later view the contents of this file on Linux the command shell prompt will appear on the
same line as the file contents.
13. Use the File > Save menu in Notepad to save the file's updated contents to the share. If write access
is working properly then the save operation will complete silently (i.e., you will not receive an error
message).

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13

12

Figure 4-86:

Close Notepad and the File Explorer windows to finish this exercise.

4.2.5 Connect to the SVM From a Linux Client

This section demonstrates how to connect a Linux client to the NFS volume svm1:/ using the Linux command line.
1. Follow the instructions in the “Accessing the Command Line” section at the beginning of this lab guide to
open PuTTY and connect to the system rhel1. Log in as the user root with the password Netapp1!.
2. Verify that there are no NFS volumes currently mounted on rhel1.

[root@rhel1 ~]# df
Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/vg_rhel1-lv_root 11877388 4962504 6311544 45% /
tmpfs 444612 76 444536 1% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1 495844 40084 430160 9% /boot
[root@rhel1 ~]#

3. Create the /svm1 directory to serve as a mount point for the NFS volume you will be shortly mounting.

[root@rhel1 ~]# mkdir /svm1


[root@rhel1 ~]#

4. Add an entry for the NFS mount to the fstab file.

[root@rhel1 ~]# echo "svm1:/ /svm1 nfs rw,defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
[root@rhel1 ~]#

5. Verify the fstab file contains the new entry you just created.

[root@rhel1 ~]# grep svm1 /etc/fstab


svm1:/ /svm1 nfs rw,defaults 0 0
[root@rhel1 ~]#

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6. Mount all the file systems listed in the fstab file.

[root@rhel1 ~]# mount -a


[root@rhel1 ~]#

7. View a list of the mounted file systems.

[root@rhel1 ~]# df
Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/vg_rhel1-lv_root 11877388 4962508 6311540 45% /
tmpfs 444612 76 444536 1% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1 495844 40084 430160 9% /boot
svm1:/ 19456 128 19328 1% /svm1
[root@rhel1 ~]#

The NFS file system svm1:/ now shows as mounted on /svm1.


8. Navigate into the /svm1 directory.

[root@rhel1 ~]# cd /svm1


[root@rhel1 svm1]#

9. Notice that you can see the engineering volume that you previously junctioned into the SVM's
namespace.

[root@rhel1 svm1]# ls
engineering
[root@rhel1 svm1]#

10. Navigate into engineering and list it's contents.


Attention: The following command output assumes that you have already performed the
Windows client connection steps found earlier in this lab guide, including creating the cifs.txt file.

[root@rhel1 svm1]# cd engineering


[root@rhel1 engineering]# ls
cifs.txt users
[root@rhel1 engineering]#

11. Display the contents of the cifs.txt file you created earlier.
Tip: When you cat the cifs.txt file, if the shell prompt winds up on the same line as the file
output then that indicates that you forgot to include a newline at the end of the file when you
created the file on Windows.

[root@rhel1 engineering]# cat cifs.txt


write test from Jumphost
[root@rhel1 engineering]#

12. Verify that you can create file in this directory.

[root@rhel1 engineering]# echo "write test from rhel1" > nfs.txt


[root@rhel1 engineering]# cat nfs.txt
write test from rhel1
[root@rhel1 engineering]# ll
total 4
-rwxrwxrwx 1 root bin 26 Oct 20 03:05 cifs.txt
-rwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Oct 20 03:06 nfs.txt
drwxrwxrwx 4 root root 4096 Oct 20 02:37 users
[root@rhel1 engineering]#

4.2.6 NFS Exporting Qtrees (Optional)

ONTAP 8.2.1 introduced the ability to NFS export qtrees. This optional section explains how to configure qtree
exports, and demonstrates how to set different export rules for a given qtree. For this exercise you will work with
the qtrees you created in the previous section.
Qtrees had many capabilities in Data ONTAP 7-mode that are no longer present in cluster mode. Qtrees do still
exist in cluster mode, but their purpose is essentially now limited to just quota management, with most other 7-

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mode qtree features, including NFS exports, now the exclusive purview of volumes. This functionality change
created challenges for 7-mode customers with large numbers of NFS qtree exports who were trying to transition
to cluster mode and could not convert those qtrees to volumes because they would exceed ONTAP's maximum
number of volumes limit.
To solve this problem, ONTP 8.2.1 introduced qtree NFS. NetApp continues to recommend that customers favor
volumes over qtrees in cluster mode whenever practical, but customers requiring large numbers of qtree NFS
exports now have a supported solution under ONTAP.
While this section provides a graphical method to configure qtree NFS exports, you must still use the command
line to accomplish some configuration tasks.
Begin by creating a new export and rules that only permit NFS access from the Linux host rhel1.
1. On the command bar in System Manager, click SVMs.
2. In the SVM pane, click svm1.

Figure 4-87:

3. Click Qtrees.
4. Select the entry for the susan qtree.
5. Click the Change Export Policy button.

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3

Figure 4-88:

The “Export Policy” window opens.


6. You will be creating a new export policy for this qtree, so click Create Export Policy.

Figure 4-89:

The “Create Export Policy” window opens.


7. Set the “Policy Name” to rhel1-only.
8. Click Add.

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7

Figure 4-90:

The “Create Export Rule” window opens.


9. Set “Client Specification” to 192.168.0.61.
10. Leave all of the “Access Protocol” checkboxes unchecked (see the information note below the
checkboxes for an explanation why).
11. Click OK.

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10

11

Figure 4-91:

The “Create Export Rule” window closes, and focus returns to the “Create Export Policy” window.
12. The new access rule now is now present in the rules window, and the rule's “Access Protocols”
entry indicates that there are no protocol restrictions. If you had selected all the available protocol
checkboxes when creating this rule, then each of those selected protocols would have been explicitly
listed here.
13. Click Create.

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12

13

Figure 4-92:

The “Create Export Policy” window closes, and focus returns to the “Export Policy” window.
14. The “Export Policy:” textbox now displays “rhe1l-only”.
15. Click Save.

14

15

Figure 4-93:

The “Export Policy” window closes, and focus returns to the “Export Policies” pane in System Manager.

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16. The “rhel1-only” policy now shows up in the “Export Policy Details” list for the “susan” qtree.

16

Figure 4-94:

17. Now you need to validate that the more restrictive export policy that you've applied to the qtree “susan”
is working as expected. If you still have an active PuTTY session open to the Linux host rhel1, then
bring that window up now, otherwise open a new PuTTY session to that host (username = root,
password = Netapp1!). Run the following commands to verify that you can still access the susan qtree
from rhel1.

[root@rhel1 ~]# cd /svm1/engineering/users


[root@rhel1 users]# ls
bob susan
[root@rhel1 users]# cd susan
[root@rhel1 susan]# echo "hello from rhel1" > rhel1.txt
[root@rhel1 susan]# cat rhel1.txt
hello from rhel1
[root@rhel1 susan]#

18. Now open a PuTTY connection to the Linux host rhel2 (again, username = root and password =
Netapp1!). This host should be able to access all the volumes and qtrees in the svm1 namespace
*except* “susan”, which should give a permission denied error because that qtree's associated export
policy only grants access to the host rhel1.

[root@rhel2 ~]# mkdir /svm1


[root@rhel2 ~]# mount svm1:/ /svm1
[root@rhel2 ~]# cd /svm1/engineering/users
[root@rhel2 users]# ls
bob susan
[root@rhel2 users]# cd susan
bash: cd: susan: Permission denied
[root@rhel2 users]# cd bob
[root@rhel2 bob]

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4.3 Create Storage for iSCSI
Expected Completion Time: 50 Minutes
This section of the lab is optional, and includes instructions for mounting a LUN on Windows and Linux. If you
choose to complete this section you must first complete the “Create a Storage Virtual Machine for iSCSI” section,
and then complete either the “Create, Map, and Mount a Windows LUN” section, or the “Create, Map, and Mount
a Linux LUN” section as appropriate based on your platform of interest.
The 50 minute time estimate assumes you complete only one of the Windows or Linux LUN sections. You are
welcome to complete both of those section if you choose, but you should plan on needing approximately 90
minutes to complete the entire “Create and Mount a LUN” section.
If you skipped the “Create a Storage Virtual Machine for NFS and CIFS” portion of this lab, consider reviewing the
introductory text found at the beginning of that section, and each of it's subsections, before you proceed further on
this exercise because this section builds on concepts introduced there.
In this section you are going to create another SVM and configure it for SAN protocols, which means you are
going to configure the SVM for iSCSI since this virtualized lab does not support FC. The configuration steps for
iSCSI and FC are similar, so the information provided here is also useful for FC deployment. After you create a
new SVM and configure it for iSCSI, you will create a LUN for Windows and/or a LUN for Linux, and then mount
the LUN(s) on their respective hosts.
NetApp supports configuring an SVM to serve data over both SAN and NAS protocols, but it is common to see
customers use separate SVMs for each in order to separate administrative responsibilities, or for architectural
and operational clarity. For example, SAN protocols do not support LIF failover, so you cannot use NAS LIFs to
support SAN protocols. You must instead create dedicated LIFs just for SAN. Implementing separate SVMs for
SAN and NAS can in this example simplify the operational complexity of each SVM's configuration, making each
easier to understand and manage, but ultimately whether to mix or separate is a customer decision, and not a
NetApp recommendation.
Since SAN LIFs do not support migration to different nodes, an SVM must have dedicated SAN LIFs on every
node that you want to service SAN requests, and you must utilize MPIO and ALUA to manage the controller's
available paths to the LUNs. In the event of a path disruption MPIO and ALUA will compensate by re-routing the
LUN communication over an alternate controller path (i.e., over a different SAN LIF).
NetApp best practice is to configure at least one SAN LIF per storage fabric/network on each node in the cluster
so that all nodes can provide a path to the LUNs. In large clusters where this would result in the presentation of
a large number of paths for a given LUN we recommend that you use portsets to limit the LUN to seeing no more
than 8 LIFs. ONTAP 8.3 introduced a new Selective LUN Mapping (SLM) feature to provide further assistance in
managing fabric paths. SLM limits LUN path access to just the node that owns the LUN and its HA partner, and
ONTAP automatically applies SLM to all new LUN map operations.
In this lab the cluster contains two nodes connected to a single storage network. You will still configure a total of 4
SAN LIFs, because it is common to see implementations with 2 paths per node for redundancy.
This section of the lab allows you to create and mount a LUN for only Windows, only Linux, or both if you desire.
Both the Windows and Linux LUN creation steps require that you complete the “Create a Storage Virtual Machine
for iSCSI” section that comes next. If you want to create a Windows LUN, you need to complete the “Create, Map,
and Mount a Windows LUN” section that follows. Additionally, if you want to create a Linux LUN, you need to
complete the “Create, Map, and Mount a Linux LUN” section that follows after that. You can safely complete both
of those last two sections in the same lab.

4.3.1 Create a Storage Virtual Machine for iSCSI

In this section you will create a new SVM named “svmluns” on the cluster. You will create the SVM, configure it
for iSCSI, and create four data LIFs to support LUN access to the SVM (two on each cluster node).
Return to the System Manager window, and start the procedure to create a new storage virtual machine.
1. On the command bar in System Manager, click SVMs.

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2. Click Create to launch the Storage Virtual Machine Setup wizard.

Figure 4-95:

The “Storage Virtual machine (SVM) Setup” window opens.


3. Set the fields as follows:
• “SVM Name:” svmluns
• “Data Protocols:” check the iSCSI check box.
Tip: The list of available Data Protocols is dependant upon what protocols are licensed
on your cluster. If a given protocol is not listed, it is because you are not licensed for it.
(In this lab the cluster is fully licensed for all features.)
• “Security Style:” UNIX
• “Root Aggregate:” aggr1_cluster1_01. If you completed the NAS section of this lab, you will
note that this is the same aggregate you used to hold the volumes for svm1. Multiple SVMs
can share the same aggregate.
The default values for IPspace, Volume Type, Default Language, and Security Style are already
populated for you by the wizard, as is the DNS configuration.
4. When ready, click Submit & Continue.

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Figure 4-96:

The Configure iSCSI Protocol step of the wizard opens.


5. Set the “LIFs Per Node” text box to 2.
6. “Set the Assign IP Address” dropdown to Using a subnet.

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Figure 4-97:

The “Add Details” window opens.


7. The Auto-select the IP address from this subnet radio button is already selected, which is what you
want for this exercise.
8. Click OK.

Figure 4-98:

The “Add Details” window closes, and focus returns to the “Configure iSCSI Protocol” step in the
“Storage Virtual Machine (SVM) Setup” window.
9. The “Provision a LUN for iSCSI Storage (Optional)” section shows how to quickly create a LUN when
first creating an SVM. This lab guide does not use that method, but instead shows you the much more
common activity of adding a new volume and LUN to an existing SVM in a later step.

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10. Check the Review or modify LIF configuration (Advanced Settings) check box.

10

Figure 4-99:

Once you check the Review or modify LIF configuration check box, the “Configure iSCSI Protocol”
window changes to include a list of the LIFs that the wizard plans to create.
11. Take note of the LIF interface names and home ports that the wizard has chosen to create.
12. Since this lab utilizes a cluster that only has two nodes, and those nodes are configured as an HA pair,
there is no need to create a portset as ONTAP's automatically configured Selective LUN Mapping is
more than sufficient for this lab. In other words, leave “Number of portsets” at 0.
13. Click Submit & Continue.

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11

13

Figure 4-100:

The wizard advances to the SVM Administration step. Unlike data LIFS for NAS protocols, which
automatically support both data and management functionality, iSCSI LIFs only support data protocols
and so you must create a dedicated management LIF for this new SVM.
14. Set the fields in the window as follows:
• “Password:” netapp123
• “Confirm Password:” netapp123
15. Set the “Assign IP Address” dropdown to Using a subnet.

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15

Figure 4-101:

The “Add Details” window opens.


16. The default values are all suitable, so click OK.

16

Figure 4-102:

The “Add Details” window closes, and focus returns to the “SVM Administration” step of the “Storage
Virtual Machine (SVM) Setup” wizard.

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17. Click the Browse button next to the “Port:” text box.

17

Figure 4-103:

The “Select Network Port or Adapter” window opens.


18. Expand cluster1-01 and select port e0c.
19. Click OK.

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19

Figure 4-104:

The “Select Network Port or Adapter” window closes, and focus returns to the “SVM Administration”
step of the “Storage Virtual Machine (SVM) Setup” wizard.
20. Click Submit & Continue.

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Figure 4-105:

The wizard advances to the “New Storage Virtual Machine (SVM) Summary” step. Review the contents
of this window, taking note of the names, IP addresses, and port assignments for the 4 iSCSI LIFs, and
the management LIF that the wizard created for you.
21. Click OK to close the window.

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Figure 4-106:

The “New Storage Virtual Machine (SVM) Summary” window closes, and focus returns to System
Manager, which now displays a summary view for the new “svmluns” SVM.
22. Observe that Protocols listing under the “Protocol Status” pane lists iSCSI with a green checkmark
indicating that iSCSI is running. Click the iSCSI link under the checkmark.

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Figure 4-107:

System Manager displays the ”SVM Settings” page for the svmluns SVM.
23. In the left pane, select “iSCSI” under the Protocols section.
24. In the right pane, under the “Service” tab, observe the status of the iSCSI service displays as running.
25. The “iSCSI Interfaces” box displays details of the network interfaces that are associaed with the iSCSI
service.

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23 24

25

Figure 4-108:

4.3.2 Create, Map, and Mount a Windows LUN

In an earlier section you created a new SVM and configured it for iSCSI. In the following sub-sections you will
perform the remaining steps needed to configure and use a LUN under Windows:
• Gather the iSCSI Initiator Name of the Windows client.
• Create a thin provisioned Windows volume, create a thin provisioned Windows LUN within that volume,
and map the LUN so it can be accessed by the Windows client.
• Mount the LUN on a Windows client leveraging multi-pathing.
You must complete all of the subsections of this section in order to use the LUN from the Windows client.

4.3.2.1 Gather the Windows Client iSCSI Initiator Name


You need to determine the Windows client's iSCSI initiator name so that when you create the LUN you can set up
an appropriate initiator group to control access to the LUN.
On the desktop of the Windows client named “Jumphost” (the main Windows host you use in the lab), perform the
following tasks:
1. Click on the Windows button on the far left side of the task bar.

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1

Figure 4-109:

The “Start” screen opens.


2. Click on Administrative Tools.

Figure 4-110:

Windows Explorer opens to the List of Administrative Tools.


3. Double-click the entry for the iSCSI Initiator tool.

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Figure 4-111:

The “iSCSI Initiator Properties” window opens.


4. Select the Configuration tab.
5. Take note of the value in the “Initiator Name” field, which contains the initiator name for Jumphost.
Attention: The initiator name is “iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:Jumphost.demo.netapp.com”.
You will need this value later, so you might want to copy this value from the properties window
and paste it into a text file on your lab's desktop so you have it readily available when that time
comes.
6. Click OK.

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Figure 4-112:

The “iSCSI Properties” window closes, and focus returns to the “Windows Explorer Administrator Tools”
window. Leave this window open because you will need to access other tools later in the lab.

4.3.2.2 Create and Map a Windows LUN


You will now create a new thin provisioned Windows LUN named “windows.lun” in the volume winluns on
the SVM svmluns. You will also create an initiator igroup for the LUN and populate it with the Windows host
"Jumphost". An initiator group, or igroup, defines a list of the Fibre Channel WWPNs or iSCSI node names of the
hosts that are permitted to see and access the associated LUNs.

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Return to the System Manager window.
1. On the command bar in System Manager, click LUNs.
2. Click Create.

Figure 4-113:

The “Browse” window opens.


3. Select the entry for svmluns.
4. Click the Select button.

Figure 4-114:

The “Create LUN Wizard” opens.


5. Click Next to advance to the next step in the wizard.

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Figure 4-115:

The wizard advances to the “General Properties” step.


6. Set the fields in the window as follows.
• “Name:” windows.lun.
• “Description:” Windows LUN.
• “Type:” Windows 2008 or later.
• “Size:” 10 GB.
• “Space Reserve:”Disable.
7. Click Next to continue.

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Figure 4-116:

The wizard advances to the LUN Container step.


8. Select the radio button to Create a new flexible volume, and set the fields under that heading as
follows.
• “Aggregate Name:” aggr1_cluster1_01.
• “Volume Name:” winluns.
9. When finished click Next.

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Figure 4-117:

The wizard advances to the Initiator Mappings step.


10. Click the Add Initiator Group button.

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Figure 4-118:

The “Create Initiator Group” window opens.


11. Set the fields in the window as follows.
• “Name:” winigrp
• “Operating System:” Windows
• “Type:” Select the iSCSI radio button.
12. Click the Initiators tab.

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11

11

Figure 4-119:

The “Initiators” tab displays.


13. Click the first line inside the large text box that displays “Add Initiator”. The line will become editable,
and you should populate it with the value of the iSCSI Initiator name for Jumphost that you noted
earlier.
Attention: The iSCSI Initiator name
iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:jumphost.demo.netapp.com
14. When you finish entering the value, click the Create button.

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14

Figure 4-120:

The “Initiator-Group Summary” window opens.


15. Click OK to acknowledge the confirmation.

15
Figure 4-121:

The “Initiator-Group Summary” window closes, and focus returns to the “Initiator Mapping” step of the
Create LUN wizard.
16. Click the checkbox under the map column next to the winigrp initiator group.
Caution: This is a critical step because this is where you actually map the new LUN to the new
igroup.
17. Click Next to continue.

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17

Figure 4-122:

The wizard advances to the “Storage Quality of Service Properties” step. You will not be creating any
QoS policies in this lab. If you are interested in learning about QoS, please see the Hands-on Lab for
Advanced Concepts for NetApp ONTAP.
18. Click Next to continue.

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Figure 4-123:

The wizards advances to the “LUN Summary” step, where you can review your selections before
proceeding with creating the LUN.
19. If everything looks correct, click Next.

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Figure 4-124:

The wizard begins the task of creating the volume that contains the LUN, creating the LUN, and
mapping the LUN to the new igroup. As it finishes each step, the wizard displays a green check mark in
the window next to that step.
20. Click the Finish button to terminate the wizard.

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Figure 4-125:

The “Create LUN” wizard window closes, and focus returns to the LUNs view in System Manager.
21. The new LUN “windows.lun” now shows up in the LUNs view, and if you select it you can review its
details in the bottom pane.

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Figure 4-126:

ONTAP 8.2 introduced a space reclamation feature that allows ONTAP to reclaim space from a thin
provisioned LUN when the client deletes data from it, and also allows ONTAP to notify the client when
the LUN cannot accept writes due to lack of space on the volume. This feature is supported by VMware
ESX 5.0 and later, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 and later, and Microsoft Windows 2012. Jumphost is
running Windows 2012R2 and so you will enable the space reclamation feature for your Windows LUN.
You can only enable space reclamation through the ONTAP command line.
22. In the cluster1 CLI, view whether space reclamation is enabled for the LUN.

cluster1::> lun show -vserver svmluns -path /vol/winluns/windows.lun


-fields space-allocation
vserver path space-allocation
------- ---------------------- ----------------
svmluns /vol/winluns/windows.lun disabled
cluster1::>

23. Enable space reclamation for the LUN windows.lun.

cluster1::> lun modify -vserver svmluns -path /vol/winluns/windows.lun


-space-allocation enabled
cluster1::>

24. View the LUN's space reclamation setting again.

cluster1::> lun show -vserver svmluns -path /vol/winluns/windows.lun


-fields space-allocation
vserver path space-allocation
------- ---------------------- ----------------
svmluns /vol/winluns/windows.lun enabled
cluster1::>

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4.3.2.3 Mount the LUN on a Windows Client
The final step is to mount the LUN on the Windows client. You will be using MPIO/ALUA to support multiple
paths to the LUN using both of the SAN LIFs you configured earlier on the svmluns SVM. Data ONTAP DSM for
Windows MPIO is the multi-pathing software you will be using for this lab, and that software is already installed on
Jumphost.
You should begin by validating that the Multi-Path I/O (MPIO) software is working properly on this windows host.
The Administrative Tools window should still be open on Jumphost; if you already closed it then you will need to
re-open it now so you can access the MPIO tool
1. On the desktop of JUMPHOST, in the “Administrative Tools” window which you should still have open
from a previous exercise, double-click the MPIO tool.

Figure 4-127:

The “MPIO Properties” window opens.


2. Select the Discover Multi-Paths tab.
3. Examine the Add Support for iSCSI devices checkbox. If this checkbox is NOT greyed out then MPIO
is improperly configured. This checkbox should be greyed out for this lab, but in the event it is not then
place a check in that checkbox, click the Add button, and then click Yes in the reboot dialog to reboot
your Windows host. Once the system finishes rebooting, return to this window to verify that the checkbox
is now greyed out, indicating that MPIO is properly configured.
4. Click Cancel.

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Figure 4-128:

The “MPIO Properties” window closes and focus returns to the “Administrative Tools” window for
Jumphost. Now you need to begin the process of connecting Jumphost to the LUN.
5. In “Administrative Tools”, double-click the iSCSI Initiator tool.

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Figure 4-129:

The “iSCSI Initiator Properties” window opens.


6. Select the Targets tab.
7. Notice that there are no targets listed in the “Discovered Targets” list box, indicating that are currently no
iSCSI targets mapped to this host.
8. Click the Discovery tab.

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6

Figure 4-130:

The Discovery tab is where you begin the process of discovering LUNs, and to do that you must define
a target portal to scan. You are going to manually add a target portal to Jumphost.
9. Click the Discover Portal… button.

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Figure 4-131:

The “Discover Target Portal” window opens. Here you will specify the first of the IP addresses that the
ONTAP Create LUN wizard assigned your iSCSI LIFs when you created the svmluns SVM. Recall that
the wizard assigned your LIFs IP addresses in the range 192.168.0.133-192.168.0.136.
10. Set the “IP Address or DNS name” textbox to 192.168.0.133, the first address in the range for your
LIFs.
11. Click OK.

10

11
Figure 4-132:

The “Discover Target Portal” window closes, and focus returns to the “iSCSI Initiator Properties”
window.
12. The “Target Portals” list now contains an entry for the IP address you entered in the previous step.
13. Click on the Targets tab.

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12

Figure 4-133:

The Targets tab opens to show you the list of discovered targets.
14. In the “Discovered targets” list select the only listed target. Observe that the target's status is Inactive,
because although you have discovered it you have not yet connected to it. Also note that the “Name” of
the discovered target in your lab will have a different value than what you see in this guide; that name
string is uniquely generated for each instance of the lab.
Note: Make a mental note of that string value as you will see it a lot as you continue to
configure iSCSI in later steps of this procedure.
15. Click the Connect button.

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Figure 4-134:

The “Connect to Target” dialog box opens.


16. Click the Enable multi-path checkbox,.
17. Click the Advanced… button.

16

17

Figure 4-135:

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The “Advanced Settings” window opens.
18. In the “Target portal IP” dropdown menu select the entry containing the IP address you specified when
you discovered the target portal, which should be 192.168.0.133. The listed values are IP Address and
Port number combinations, and the specific value you want to select here is 192.168.0.133 / 3260.
19. When finished, click OK.

18

19

Figure 4-136:

The “Advanced Setting” window closes, and focus returns to the “Connect to Target” window.
20. Click OK.

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20

Figure 4-137:

The “Connect to Target” window closes, and focus returns to the “iSCSI Initiator Properties” window.
21. Notice that the status of the listed discovered target has changed from “Inactive” to “Connected”.

21

Figure 4-138:

Up to this point you have added a single path to your iSCSI LUN, using the address for the
cluster1-01_iscsi_lif_1 LIF the “Create LUN” wizard created on the node cluster1-01 for the svmluns
SVM. Now you are going to add each of the other SAN LIFs present on the svmluns SVM. To begin this
procedure you must first edit the properties of your existing connection.
22. Still on the “Targets” tab, select the discovered target entry for your existing connection.
23. Click Properties.

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22

23

Figure 4-139:

The Properties window opens. From this window you will start to connect alternate paths for your newly
connected LUN. You will repeat this procedure 3 times, once for each of the remaining LIFs that are
present on the svmluns SVM.

LIF IP Address Done


192.168.0.134
192.168.0.135
192.168.0.136
24. The Identifier list contains an entry for every path you have specified so far, so it can serve as a visual
indicator of your progress for specifying all your paths. The first time you enter this window you will see
one entry, for the LIF you used to first connect to this LUN. When you are done you will see four entries
in this window.
25. Click Add Session.

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24 25

Figure 4-140:

The “Connect to Target” window opens.


26. Check the Enable muti-path checkbox.
27. Click Advanced….

26
27

Figure 4-141:

The “Advanced Setting” window opens.


28. Select the “Target port IP” entry that contains the IP address of the LIF whose path you are adding in
this iteration of the procedure as an alternate path. The following screenshot shows the 192.168.0.134
address, but the value you specify depends of which specific path you are configuring.
29. When finished, click OK.

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29

Figure 4-142:

The “Advanced Settings” window closes, and focus returns to the “Connect to Target” window.
30. Click OK.

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30

Figure 4-143:

The “Connect to Target” window closes, and focus returns to the “Properties” window where there are
now 2 entries shown in the identifier list.
Repeat steps 24 - 30 for each of the last two remaining LIF IP addresses. When you have finished
adding all the additional paths the Identifiers list in the Properties window should contain 4 entries.
31. There are 4 entries in the Identifier list when you are finished, indicating that there are 4 sessions,
one for each path. Note that it is normal for the identifier values in your lab to differ from those in the
screenshot.
32. Click OK.

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31

32

Figure 4-144:

The “Properties” window closes, and focus returns to the “iSCSI Properties” window.
33. Click OK.

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33

Figure 4-145:

The “iSCSI Properties” window closes, and focus returns to the desktop of Jumphost. If the
“Administrative Tools” window is not still open on your desktop, open it again now.
If all went well, the Jumphost is now connected to the LUN using multi-pathing, so it is time to format
your LUN and build a filesystem on it.
34. In “Administrative Tools”, double-click the Computer Management tool.

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Figure 4-146:

The “Computer Management” window opens.


35. In the left pane of the “Computer Management” window, navigate to Computer Management (Local) >
Storage > Disk Management.

35

Figure 4-147:

36. When you launch Disk Management, an “Initialize Disk” dialog will open informing you that you must
initialize a new disk before Logical Disk Manager can access it.
Note: If you see more than one disk listed, then MPIO has not correctly recognized that the
multiple paths you set up are all for the same LUN. If this occurs, you need to cancel the
Initialize Disk dialog, quit Computer Manager, and go back to the iSCSI Initiator tool to review

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your path configuration steps to find and correct any configuration errors, after which you can
return to the Computer Management tool and try again.
Click OK to initialize the disk.

36

Figure 4-148:

The “Initialize Disk” window closes, and focus returns to the “Disk Management” view in the Computer
Management window.
37. The new disk shows up in the disk list at the bottom of the window, and has a status of “Unallocated”.
38. Right-click inside the Unallocated box for the disk (if you right-click outside this box you will get the
incorrect context menu), and select New Simple Volume… from the context menu.

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37

Figure 4-149:

The “New Simple Volume Wizard” window opens.


39. Click the Next button to advance the wizard.

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39

Figure 4-150:

The wizard advances to the “Specify Volume Size” step.


40. The wizard defaults to allocating all of the space in the volume, so click the Next button.

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40

Figure 4-151:

The wizard advances to the “Assign Drive Letter or Path” step.


41. The wizard automatically selects the next available drive letter, which should be E.
42. Click Next.

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41

42

Figure 4-152:

The wizard advances to the “Format Partition” step.


43. Set the “Volume Label” field to WINLUN.
44. Click Next.

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43

44

Figure 4-153:

The wizard advances to the “Completing the New Simple Volume Wizard” step.
45. Click Finish.

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45

Figure 4-154:

The “New Simple Volume Wizard” window closes, and focus returns to the “Disk Management” view of
the Computer Management window.
46. The new WINLUN volume now shows as “Healthy” in the disk list at the bottom of the window,
indicating that the new LUN is mounted and ready to use.
47. Before you complete this section of the lab, take a look at the MPIO configuration for this LUN by right-
clicking inside the box for the WINLUN volume. From the context menu select Properties.

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46

47

Figure 4-155:

The “WINLUN (E:) Properties” window opens.


48. Click the Hardware tab.
49. In the “All disk drives” list select the NETAPP LUN C-Mode Multi-Path Disk entry.
50. Click Properties.

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48

49

50

Figure 4-156:

The “NETAPP LUN C-Mode Multi-Path Disk Device Properties” window opens.
51. Click the MPIO tab.
52. Notice that you are using the Data ONTAP DSM for multi-path access rather than the Microsoft DSM.
We recommend using the Data ONTAP DSM software, as it is the most full-featured option available,
although the Microsoft DSM is also supported.
53. The MPIO policy is set to “Least Queue Depth”. A number of different multi-pathing policies are
available, but the configuration shown here sends LUN I/O down the path that has the fewest
outstanding I/O requests. You can click the More information about MPIO policies link at the bottom
of the dialog window for details about all the available policies.
54. The top two paths show both a “Path State” and “TPG State” as “Active/Optimized”. These paths are
connected to the node cluster1-01, and the Least Queue Depth policy makes active use of both paths
to this node. Conversely, the bottom two paths show a “Path State” of “Unavailable”, and a “TPG State”
of “Active/Unoptimized”. These paths are connected to the node cluster1-02, and only enter a Path
State of “Active/Optimized” if the node cluster1-01 becomes unavailable, or if the volume hosting the
LUN migrates over to the node cluster1-02.
55. When you finish reviewing the information in this dialog, click OK to exit. If you changed any of the
values in this dialog you should consider using the Cancel button to discard those changes.

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51

53

52
54

55

Figure 4-157:

The “NETAPP LUN C-Mode Multi-Path Disk Device Properties” window closes, and focus returns to the
“WINLUN (E:) Properties” window.
56. Click OK.

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56

Figure 4-158:

The “WINLUN (E:) Properties” window closes.


57. Close the “Computer Management” window.

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57

Figure 4-159:

You may see a pop-up message from Microsoft Windows stating that you must format the disk in drive
E: before you can use it. (This window might be obscured by one of the other windows on the desktop,
but do not close the Administrative tools window as you will be using it again shortly.) As you may
recall, you did format the LUN during the “New Simple Volume Wizard", meaning this is an erroneous
disk format message.
58. Click Cancel to ignore the format request.

58

Figure 4-160:

Finally, verify that Windows has detected that the new LUN supports space reclamation. Remember
that only Windows 2012 and newer OSs support this feature, and you must have a suitable version of
NetApp Windows Unified Host Utilities v6.0.2, or later installed. Jumphost meets this criteria.
59. In the “Administrative Tools” window, double-click Defragment and Optimize drives.

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59

Figure 4-161:

The “Optimize Drives” window opens .


60. Find the WINLUN (E:) entry in the drive list and look at its “Media type” value. If that value is “Thin
provisioned drive”, then Windows has recognized that this drive supports space reclamation. If that
value is “Hard disk drive”, then it does not.
61. Click Close.

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60

61

Figure 4-162:

The “Optimize Drives” window closes.


62. Close the “Administrative Tools” window.

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62

Figure 4-163:

Feel free to open Windows Explorer on Jumphost, and verify that you can create a file on the E: drive.
This completes this exercise.

4.3.3 Create, Map, and Mount a Linux LUN

In an earlier section you created a new SVM, and configured it for iSCSI. In the following sub-sections you will
perform the remaining steps needed to configure and use a LUN under Linux:
• Gather the iSCSI Initiator Name of the Linux client.
• Create a thin provisioned Linux volume, create a thin provisioned Linux LUN named “linux.lun” within
that volume, and map the LUN to the Linux client.
• Mount the LUN on the Linux client.
You must complete all of the following subsections in order to use the LUN from the Linux client. Note that you
are not required to complete the Windows LUN section before starting this section of the lab guide, but the screen
shots and command line output shown here assumes that you have. If you did not complete the Windows LUN
section, the differences will not affect your ability to create and mount the Linux LUN.

4.3.3.1 Gather the Linux Client iSCSI Initiator Name


You need to determine the Linux client's iSCSI initiator name so that you can set up an appropriate initiator group
to control access to the LUN.
You should already have a PuTTY connection open to the Linux host rhel1. If you do not, then open one now
using the instructions found in the “Accessing the Command Line” section at the beginning of this lab guide. The
username will be root, and the password will be Netapp1!.
1. Change to the directory that hosts the iscsi configuration files.

[root@rhel1 ~]# cd /etc/iscsi


[root@rhel1 iscsi]# ls
initiatorname.iscsi iscsid.conf
[root@rhel1 iscsi]#

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2. Display the name of the iscsi initiator.

[root@rhel1 iscsi] cat initiatorname.iscsi


InitiatorName=iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:rhel1.demo.netapp.com
[root@rhel1 iscsi]#

Important: The initiator name for rhel1 is iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:rhel1.demo.netapp.com.

4.3.3.2 Create and Map a Linux LUN


In this activity, you create a new thin provisioned Linux LUN on the SVM “svmluns” under the volume “linluns”,
and also create an initiator igroup for the LUN so that only the Linux host rhel1 can access it. An initiator group,
or igroup, defines a list of the Fibre Channel WWPNs or iSCSI node names for the hosts that are permitted to see
the associated LUNs.
Attention: Switch back to the System Manager window so that you can create the LUN.

1. On the command bar in System Manager click LUNs.


2. You may or may not see a listing presented for the LUN windows.lun, depending on whether or not you
completed the lab sections for creating a Windows LUN.
3. Click Create.

Figure 4-164:

The “Browse” window opens.


4. Select the svmluns entry.
5. Click the Select button.

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4

Figure 4-165:

The “Create LUN Wizard” opens.


6. Click Next to advance to the next step in the wizard.

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6

Figure 4-166:

The wizard advances to the General Properties step.


7. Set the fields in the window as follows.
• “Name:” linux.lun
• “Description:” Linux LUN
• “Type:” Linux
• “Size:” 10 GB
• “Space Reserve:” Disable
8. Click Next to continue.

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7

Figure 4-167:

The wizard advances to the LUN Container step.


9. Select the radio button to Create a new flexible volume, and set the fields under that heading as
follows.
• “Aggregate Name:” aggr1_cluster1_01
• “Volume Name:” linluns
10. When finished click Next.

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9

10

Figure 4-168:

The wizard advances to the Initiator Mapping step.


11. Click Add Initiator Group.

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11

Figure 4-169:

The “Create Initiator Group” window opens.


12. Set the fields in the window as follows.
• “Name:” linigrp
• “Operating System:” Linux
• “Type:” Select the iSCSI radio button.
13. Click the Initiators tab.

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13

12

12

Figure 4-170:

The Initiators tab displays.


14. Click the first line inside the large text box in the window (the box below the dropdown displaying
“Select Initiators”). Populate the entry with the value of the iSCSI Initiator name for rhel1 that you saved
earlier. In case you misplaced that value, it was:
Attention: The iSCSI Initiator name is iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:rhel1.demo.netapp.com

15. When you finish entering the value, click the Create button.

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14

15

Figure 4-171:

The “Initiator-Group Summary” window opens.


16. Click OK to acknowledge the confirmation.

16
Figure 4-172:

The “Initiator-Group Summary” window closes, and focus returns to the “Initiators Mapping” step of the
Create LUN wizard.
17. Click the checkbox under the “Map” column next to the linigrp initiator group. This is a critical step
because this is where you actually map the new LUN to the new igroup.
18. Click Next to continue.

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17

18

Figure 4-173:

The wizard advances to the Storage Quality of Service Properties step. You will not create any QoS
policies in this lab. If you are interested in learning about QoS, please see the Hands-on Lab for
Advanced Concepts for NetApp ONTAP lab.
19. Click Next to continue.

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19

Figure 4-174:

The wizard advances to the LUN Summary step, where you can review your selections before
proceeding to create the LUN.
20. If everything looks correct, click Next.

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20

Figure 4-175:

The wizard begins the task of creating the volume that will contain the LUN, creating the LUN, and
mapping the LUN to the new igroup. As it finishes each step the wizard displays a green check mark in
the window next to that step.
21. Click Finish to terminate the wizard.

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21

Figure 4-176:

The “Create LUN wizard” window closes, and focus returns to the LUNs view in System Manager.
22. The new LUN “linux.lun” now shows up in the LUNs view, and if you select it you can review its details
in the bottom pane.

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22

Figure 4-177:

The new Linux LUN now exists, and is mapped to your rhel1 client.
ONTAP 8.2 introduced a space reclamation feature that allows ONTAP to reclaim space from a thin
provisioned LUN when the client deletes data from it, and also allows ONTAP to notify the client when
the LUN cannot accept writes due to lack of space on the volume. This feature is supported by VMware
ESX 5.0 and later, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 and later, and Microsoft Windows 2012. The RHEL
clients used in this lab are running version 6.7 and so you will enable the space reclamation feature for
your Linux LUN. You can only enable space reclamation through the ONTAP command line.
23. In the cluster1 CLI, view whether space reclamation is enabled for the LUN.

cluster1::> lun show -vserver svmluns -path /vol/linluns/linux.lun


-fields space-allocation
vserver path space-allocation
------- ---------------------- ----------------
svmluns /vol/linluns/linux.lun disabled
cluster1::>

24. Enable space reclamation for the LUN linux.lun.

cluster1::> lun modify -vserver svmluns -path /vol/linluns/linux.lun


-space-allocation enabled
cluster1::>

25. View the LUN's space reclamation setting again.

cluster1::> lun show -vserver svmluns -path /vol/linluns/linux.lun


-fields space-allocation
vserver path space-allocation
------- ---------------------- ----------------
svmluns /vol/linluns/linux.lun enabled
cluster1::>

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4.3.3.3 Mount the LUN on a Linux Client
In this section you will use the Linux command line to configure the host rhel1 to connect to the Linux LUN /vol/
linluns/linux.lun you created in the preceding section.
This section assumes that you know how to use the Linux command line. If you are not familiar with these
concepts, we recommend that you skip this section of the lab.
1. If you do not currently have a PuTTY session open to rhel1, open one now and log in as user root with
the password “Netapp1!”.
2. The NetApp Linux Unified Host Utilities kit has been pre-installed on both Red Hat Linux hosts in this lab,
and the iSCSI initiator name has already been configured for each host. Confirm that is the case:

[root@rhel1 ~]# rpm -qa | grep netapp


netapp_linux_unified_host_utilities-7-0.x86_64
[root@rhel1 ~]# cat /etc/iscsi/initiatorname.iscsi
InitiatorName=iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:rhel1.demo.netapp.com
[root@rhel1 ~]#

3. In the /etc/iscsi/iscsid.conf file the node.session.timeo.replacement_timeout value is set to 5 to better


support timely path failover, and the node.startup value is set to automatic so that the system will
automatically log in to the iSCSI node at startup.

[root@rhel1 ~]# grep replacement_time /etc/iscsi/iscsid.conf


#node.session.timeo.replacement_timeout = 120
node.session.timeo.replacement_timeout = 5
[root@rhel1 ~]# grep node.startup /etc/iscsi/iscsid.conf
# node.startup = automatic
node.startup = automatic
[root@rhel1 ~]#

4. You will find that the Red Hat Linux hosts in the lab have pre-installed the DM-Multipath packages and
a /etc/multipath.conf file pre-configured to support multi-pathing so that the RHEL host can access the
LUN using all of the SAN LIFs you created for the svmluns SVM.

[root@rhel1 ~]# rpm -q device-mapper


device-mapper-1.02.95-2.el6.x86_64
[root@rhel1 ~]# rpm -q device-mapper-multipath
device-mapper-multipath-0.4.9-87.el6.x86_64
[root@rhel1 ~]# cat /etc/multipath.conf
# For a complete list of the default configuration values, see
# /usr/share/doc/device-mapper-multipath-0.4.9/multipath.conf.defaults
# For a list of configuration options with descriptions, see
# /usr/share/doc/device-mapper-multipath-0.4.9/multipath.conf.annotated
#
# REMEMBER: After updating multipath.conf, you must run
#
# service multipathd reload
#
# for the changes to take effect in multipathd
# NetApp recommended defaults
defaults {
flush_on_last_del yes
max_fds max
queue_without_daemon no
user_friendly_names no
dev_loss_tmo infinity
fast_io_fail_tmo 5
}
blacklist {
devnode "^sda"
devnode "^hd[a-z]"
devnode "^(ram|raw|loop|fd|md|dm-|sr|scd|st)[0-9]*"
devnode "^ccis.*"
}
devices {
# NetApp iSCSI LUNs
device {
vendor "NETAPP"
product "LUN"
path_grouping_policy group_by_prio
features "3 queue_if_no_path pg_init_retries 50"
prio "alua"

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path_checker tur
failback immediate
path_selector "round-robin 0"
hardware_handler "1 alua"
rr_weight uniform
rr_min_io 128
getuid_callout "/lib/udev/scsi_id -g -u -d /dev/%n"
}
}
[root@rhel1 ~]#

5. You now need to start the iSCSI software service on rhel1, and configure it to start automatically at boot
time. Note that a force-start is only necessary the very first time you start the iscsid service on host.

[root@rhel1 ~]# service iscsid status


iscsid is stopped
[root@rhel1 ~]# service iscsid force-start
Starting iscsid: OK
[root@rhel1 ~]# service iscsi status
No active sessions
[root@rhel1 ~]# chkconfig iscsi on
[root@rhel1 ~]# chkconfig --list iscsi
iscsi 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
[root@rhel1 ~]#

6. Next discover the available targets using the iscsiadm command. Note that the exact values used
for the node paths may differ in your lab from what is shown in this example, and that after running
this command there will still not yet be active iSCSI sessions because you have not yet created the
necessary device files.

[root@rhel1 ~]# iscsiadm --mode discovery --op update --type sendtargets


--portal 192.168.0.133
192.168.0.133:3260,1028 iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4
192.168.0.136:3260,1031 iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4
192.168.0.135:3260,1030 iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4
192.168.0.134:3260,1029 iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4
[root@rhel1 ~]# iscsiadm --mode session
iscsiadm: No active sessions.
[root@rhel1 ~]#

7. Create the devices necessary to support the discovered nodes, after which the sessions become active.

[root@rhel1 ~]# iscsiadm --mode node -l all


Logging in to [iface: default, target:
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4, portal: 192.168.0.134,3260]
(multiple)
Logging in to [iface: default, target:
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4, portal: 192.168.0.136,3260]
(multiple)
Logging in to [iface: default, target:
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4, portal: 192.168.0.135,3260]
(multiple)
Logging in to [iface: default, target:
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4, portal: 192.168.0.133,3260]
(multiple)
Login to [iface: default, target:
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4, portal: 192.168.0.134,3260]
successful.
Login to [iface: default, target:
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4, portal: 192.168.0.136,3260]
successful.
Login to [iface: default, target:
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4, portal: 192.168.0.135,3260]
successful.
Login to [iface: default, target:
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4, portal: 192.168.0.133,3260]
successful.
[root@rhel1 ~]# iscsiadm --mode session
tcp: [1] 192.168.0.134:3260,1029
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4
tcp: [2] 192.168.0.136:3260,1031
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4
tcp: [3] 192.168.0.135:3260,1030
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4
tcp: [4] 192.168.0.133:3260,1028
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4

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[root@rhel1 ~]#

8. At this point the Linux client sees the LUN over all four paths, but it does not yet understand that all four
paths represent the same LUN.

[root@rhel1 ~]# sanlun lun show


controller(7mode)/ device host lun
vserver(Cmode) lun-pathname filename adapter protocol size
product
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
svmluns /vol/linluns/linux.lun /dev/sde host3 iSCSI 10g cDOT

svmluns /vol/linluns/linux.lun /dev/sdd host4 iSCSI 10g cDOT

svmluns /vol/linluns/linux.lun /dev/sdc host5 iSCSI 10g cDOT

svmluns /vol/linluns/linux.lun /dev/sdb host6 iSCSI 10g cDOT

[root@rhel1 ~]#

9. Since the lab includes a pre-configured /etc/multipath.conf file, you just need to start the multipathd
service to handle the multiple path management and configure it to start automatically at boot time.

[root@rhel1 ~]# service multipathd status


multipathd is stopped
[root@rhel1 ~]# service multipathd start
Starting multipathd daemon: OK
[root@rhel1 ~]# service multipathd status
multipathd (pid 8656) is running...
[root@rhel1 ~]# chkconfig multipathd on
[root@rhel1 ~]# chkconfig --list multipathd
multipathd 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
[root@rhel1 ~]#

10. The multipath command displays the configuration of DM-Multipath, and the multipath -ll command
displays a list of the multipath devices. DM-Multipath maintains a device file under /dev/mapper that
you use to access the multipathed LUN (in order to create a filesystem on it and to mount it). The
first line of output from the multipath -ll command lists the name of that device file (in this example
“3600a0980774f6a34515d464d486c7137”). The autogenerated name for this device file will likely differ
in your copy of the lab. Also pay attention to the output of the sanlun lun show -p command which
shows information about the ONTAP path of the LUN, the LUN's size, its device file name under /dev/
mapper, the multipath policy, and also information about the various device paths themselves.

[root@rhel1 ~]# multipath -ll


[1m3600a0980774f6a34515d464d486c7137 dm-2 NETAPP,LUN C-Mode
size=10G features='3 queue_if_no_path pg_init_retries 50' hwhandler='1 alua' wp=rw
|-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=50 status=active
| |- 6:0:0:0 sdb 8:16 active ready running
| `- 3:0:0:0 sde 8:64 active ready running
`-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=10 status=enabled
|- 5:0:0:0 sdc 8:32 active ready running
`- 4:0:0:0 sdd 8:48 active ready running
[root@rhel1 ~]# ls -l /dev/mapper
total 0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 Aug 20 06:50 3600a0980774f6a34515d464d486c7137 -> ../dm-2
crw-rw---- 1 root root 10, 58 Aug 19 18:57 control
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 Aug 19 18:57 vg_rhel1-lv_root -> ../dm-0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 Aug 19 18:57 vg_rhel1-lv_swap -> ../dm-1
[root@rhel1 ~]# sanlun lun show -p
ONTAP Path: svmluns:/vol/linluns/linux.lun
LUN: 0
LUN Size: 10g
Product: cDOT
Host Device: 3600a0980774f6a34515d464d486c7137
Multipath Policy: round-robin 0
Multipath Provider: Native
--------- ---------- ------- ------------ ----------------------------------------------
host vserver
path path /dev/ host vserver
state type node adapter LIF
--------- ---------- ------- ------------ ----------------------------------------------
up primary sdb host6 cluster1-01_iscsi_lif_1
up primary sde host3 cluster1-01_iscsi_lif_2
up secondary sdc host5 cluster1-02_iscsi_lif_1
up secondary sdd host4 cluster1-02_iscsi_lif_2

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[root@rhel1 ~]#

You can see even more detail about the configuration of multipath and the LUN as a whole by issuing
the multipath -v3 -d -ll or iscsiadm -m session -P 3 commands. Because the output of these
commands is rather lengthy, it is omitted here, but you are welcome to run these commands in your lab.
11. The LUN is now fully configured for multipath access, so the only steps remaining before you can use
the LUN on the Linux host is to create a filesystem and mount it. When you run the following commands
in your lab you will need to substitute in the /dev/mapper/… string that identifies your LUN (get that
string from the output of ls -l /dev/mapper).
Note: You can use bash /lintab completion when entering the multipath file name to save
yourself some tedious typing.

[root@rhel1 ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/3600a0980774f6a34515d464d486c71377


mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Discarding device blocks: 0/204800 done
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=1 blocks, Stripe width=16 blocks
655360 inodes, 2621440 blocks
131072 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=2684354560
80 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
This filesystem will be automatically checked every 34 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
[root@rhel1 ~]# mkdir /linuxlun
[root@rhel1 ~]# mount -t ext4 -o discard /dev/mapper/3600a0980774f6a345515d464d486c7137
/linuxlun
[root@rhel1 ~]# df
Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/vg_rhel1-lv_root 11877388 4962816 6311232 45% /
tmpfs 444612 76 444536 1% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1 495844 40084 430160 9% /boot
svm1:/ 19456 128 19328 1% /svm1
/dev/mapper/3600a0980774f6a34515d464d486c7137 10321208 154100 9642820 2% /linuxlun
[root@rhel1 ~]# ls /linuxlun
lost+found
[root@rhel1 ~]# echo "hello from rhel1" > /linuxlun/test.txt
[root@rhel1 ~]# cat /linuxlun/test.txt
hello from rhel1
[root@rhel1 ~]# ls -l /linuxlun/test.txt
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6 Aug 20 06:54 /linuxlun/test.txt
[root@rhel1 ~]#

The discard option for mount allows the Red Hat host to utilize space reclamation for the LUN.
12. To have RHEL automatically mount the LUN's filesystem at boot time, run the following command
(modified to reflect the multipath device path being used in your instance of the lab) to add the mount
information to the /etc/fstab file. Enter the following command as a single line.

[root@rhel1 ~]# echo '/dev/mapper/3600a0980774f6a34515d464d486c7137


/linuxlun ext4 _netdev,discard,defaults 0 0' >> /etc/fstab
[root@rhel1 ~]#

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5 References
The following references were used in writing this lab guide.
• TR-3982: “NetApp Clustered Data ONTAP 8.3.X and 8.2.X – an Introduction:, November 2015
• TR-4100: “Nondisruptive Operations and SMB File Shares for Clustered Data ONTAP”, April 2013
• TR-4129: “Namespaces in clustered Data ONTAP”, July 2014
• TR-4523: “DNS Load Balancing in ONTAP - Configuration and Best Practices”, July 2016

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6 Version History
Version Date Document Version History
Version 1.0 October 2014 Initial Release for Hands On Labs
Version 1.0.1 December 2014 Updates for Lab on Demand
Version 1.1 April 2015 Updated for Data ONTAP 8.3GA and other application
software. NDO section spun out into a separate lab guide.
Version 1.2 October 2015 Updated for Data ONTAP 8.3.1GA and other application
software.
Version 1.3 September 2016 Updated for ONTAP 9.0RC1 and other application software.
Version 1.3 Rev 1 November 2016 Updated for ONTAP 9.0P1, various errata.

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7 CLI Introduction
This begins the CLI version of the Basic Concepts for NetApp ONTAP 9 Lab Guide.

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8 Introduction
®
This lab introduces the fundamentals of NetApp ONTAP . In it you will start with a pre-created 2-node cluster,
and configure Windows 2012R2 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.7 hosts to access storage on the cluster using
CIFS, NFS, and iSCSI.

8.1 Why clustered Data ONTAP?


One of the key ways to understand the benefits of ONTAP is to consider server virtualization. Before server
virtualization, system administrators frequently deployed applications on dedicated servers in order to maximize
application performance, and to avoid the instabilities often encountered when combining multiple applications
on the same operating system instance. While this design approach was effective, it also had the following
drawbacks:
• It did not scale well — adding new servers for every new application was expensive.
• It was inefficient — most servers are significantly under-utilized, and businesses are not extracting the
full benefit of their hardware investment.
• It was inflexible — re-allocating standalone server resources for other purposes is time consuming, staff
intensive, and highly disruptive.
Server virtualization directly addresses all three of these limitations by decoupling the application instance
from the underlying physical hardware. Multiple virtual servers can share a pool of physical hardware, allowing
businesses to consolidate their server workloads to a smaller set of more effectively utilized physical servers.
Additionally, the ability to transparently migrate running virtual machines across a pool of physical servers
reduces the impact of downtime due to scheduled maintenance activities.
NetApp ONTAP brings these same benefits, and many others, to storage systems. As with server virtualization,
clustered Data ONTAP enables you to combine multiple physical storage controllers into a single logical cluster
that can non-disruptively service multiple storage workload needs. With ONTAP you can:
• Combine different types and models of NetApp storage controllers (known as nodes) into a shared
physical storage resource pool (referred to as a cluster).
• Support multiple data access protocols (CIFS, NFS, Fibre Channel, iSCSI, FCoE) concurrently on the
same storage cluster.
• Consolidate various storage workloads to the cluster. Each workload can be assigned its own Storage
Virtual Machine (SVM), which is essentially a dedicated virtual storage controller, and its own data
volumes, LUNs, CIFS shares, and NFS exports.
• Support multi-tenancy with delegated administration of SVMs. Tenants can be different companies,
business units, or even individual application owners, each with their own distinct administrators whose
admin rights are limited to just the assigned SVM.
• Use Quality of Service (QoS) capabilities to manage resource utilization between storage workloads.
• Non-disruptively migrate live data volumes and client connections from one cluster node to another.
• Non-disruptively scale the cluster out by adding nodes. Nodes can likewise be non-disruptively
removed from the cluster, meaning that you can non-disruptively scale a cluster up and down during
hardware refresh cycles.
• Leverage multiple nodes in the cluster to simultaneously service a given SVM's storage workloads.
This means that businesses can scale out their SVMs beyond the bounds of a single physical node in
response to growing storage and performance requirements, all non-disruptively.
• Apply software and firmware updates, and configuration changes without downtime.

8.2 Lab Objectives


This lab explores fundamental concepts of ONTAP, and utilizes a modular design to allow you to focus on
the topics that specifically interest you. The “Clusters” section is prerequisite for the other sections. If you are

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interested in NAS functionality then complete the “Storage Virtual Machines for NFS and CIFS” section. If you are
interested in SAN functionality, then complete the “Storage Virtual Machines for iSCSI” section, and at least one
of it's Windows or Linux subsections (you may do both if you choose).
Here is a summary of the exercises in this lab, along with their Estimated Completion Times (ECT):
• Clusters (Required, ECT = 20 minutes).
• Explore a cluster.
• View Advanced Drive Partitioning.
• Create a data aggregate.
• Create a Subnet.
• Storage Virtual machines for NFS and CIFS (Optional, ECT = 40 minutes)
• Create a Storage Virtual Machine.
• Create a volume on the Storage Virtual Machine.
• Configure the Storage Virtual Machine for CIFS and NFS access.
• Mount a CIFS share from the Storage Virtual Machine on a Windows client.
• Mount a NFS volume from the Storage Virtual Machine on a Linux client.
• Storage Virtual Machines for iSCSI (Optional, ECT = 90 minutes including all optional subsections)
• Create a Storage Virtual Machine.
• Create a volume on the Storage Virtual Machine.
• For Windows (Optional, ECT = 40 minutes)
• Create a Windows LUN on the volume and map the LUN to an igroup.
• Configure a Windows client for iSCSI and MPIO and mount the LUN.
• For Linux (Optional, ECT = 40 minutes)
• Create a Linux LUN on the volume and map the LUN to an igroup.
• Configure a Linux client for iSCSI and multipath and mount the LUN.
This lab includes instructions for completing each of these tasks using either System
Manager, NetApp's graphical administration interface, or the ONTAP command line. The end
state of the lab produced by either method is exactly the same so use whichever method you
are the most comfortable with.

8.3 Prerequisites
This lab introduces NetApp ONTAP, and makes no assumptions that the user has previous experience with
ONTAP. The lab does assume some basic familiarity with storage system related concepts such as RAID, CIFS,
NFS, LUNs, and DNS.
This lab includes steps for mapping shares and mounting LUNs on a Windows client. These steps assume that
the lab user has a basic familiarity with Microsoft Windows.
This lab also includes steps for mounting NFS volumes and LUNs on a Linux client. All steps are performed from
the Linux command line, and assumes a basic working knowledge of the Linux command line. A basic working
knowledge of a text editor such as vi may be useful, but is not required.

8.4 Accessing the Command Line


PuTTY is the terminal emulation program used in the lab to log into Linux hosts and storage controllers in order to
run command line commands.
1. The launch icon for the PuTTY application is pinned to the task bar on the Windows host JUMPHOST as
shown in the following screen shot; just double-click on the icon to launch it.

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Tip: If you already have a PuTTY session open and you want to start another (even to a different
host), you need to right-click the PuTTY icon and select PuTTY from the context menu.

Figure 8-1:

Once PuTTY launches you can connect to one of the hosts in the lab by following these steps. This
example shows a user connecting to the ONTAP cluster named “cluster1”.
2. By default PuTTY should launch into the “Basic options for your PuTTY session” display as shown in the
screen shot. If you accidentally navigate away from this view just click on the Session category item to
return to this view.
3. Use the scrollbar in the “Saved Sessions” box to navigate down to the desired host and double-click it to
open the connection. A terminal window will open and you will be prompted to log into the host. You can
find the correct username and password for the host in the Lab Host Credentials table found in the “Lab
Environment” section of this guide.

Figure 8-2:

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If you are new to the ONTAP CLI, the length of the commands can seem a little intimidating. However,
the commands are actually quite easy to use if you remember the following 3 tips:
• Make liberal use of the Tab key while entering commands, as the ONTAP command shell
supports tab completion. If you hit the Tab key while entering a portion of a command word,
the command shell will examine the context and try to complete the rest of the word for you.
If there is insufficient context to make a single match, it will display a list of all the potential
matches. Tab completion also usually works with command argument values, but there are
some cases where there is simply not enough context for it to know what you want, in which
case you will just need to type in the argument value.
• You can recall your previously entered commands by repeatedly pressing the up-arrow key,
and you can then navigate up and down the list using the up-arrow and down-arrow keys.
When you find a command you want to modify, you can use the left-arrow, right-arrow, and
Delete keys to navigate around in a selected command to edit it.
• Entering a question mark character (?) causes the CLI to print contextual help information. You
can use this character on a line by itself, or while entering a command.
The ONTAP command line supports additional usability features that make the command line easier
to use. If you are interested in learning more about this topic, refer to the “Hands-On Lab for Advanced
Features of ONTAP” lab, which contains an entire section dedicated to this subject.

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9 Lab Environment
The following figure contains a diagram of the environment for this lab.

Figure 9-1:

All of the servers and storage controllers presented in this lab are virtual devices, and the networks that
interconnect them are exclusive to your lab session. While we encourage you to follow the demonstration steps
outlined in this lab guide, you are free to deviate from this guide and experiment with other ONTAP features that
interest you. While the virtual storage controllers (vsims) used in this lab offer nearly all of the same functionality
as physical storage controllers, they are not capable of providing the same performance as a physical controller,
which is why these labs are not suitable for performance testing.
Table 1 provides a list of the servers and storage controller nodes in the lab, along with their IP address.

Table 3: Table 1: Lab Host Credentials

Hostname Description IP Address(es) Username Password


Windows 20012R2 Remote
JUMPHOST 192.168.0.5 Demo\Administrator Netapp1!
Access host
RHEL1 Red Hat 6.7 x64 Linux host 192.168.0.61 root Netapp1!
RHEL2 Red Hat 6.7 x64 Linux host 192.168.0.62 root Netapp1!
DC1 Active Directory Server 192.168.0.253 Demo\Administrator Netapp1!
cluster1 ONTAP 9 cluster 192.168.0.101 admin Netapp1!
cluster1-01 ONTAP cluster node 192.168.0.111 admin Netapp1!
cluster1-02 ONTAP cluster node 192.168.0.112 admin Netapp1!

Table 2 lists the NetApp software that is pre-installed on the various hosts in this lab.

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Table 4: Table 2: Preinstalled NetApp Software

Hostname Description
Data ONTAP DSM v4.1 for Windows MPIO, Windows Unified Host Utility Kit
JUMPHOST
v7.0.0, NetApp PowerShell Toolkit v4.2.0
RHEL1, RHEL2 Linux Unified Host Utilities Kit v7.0

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10 Using the clustered Data ONTAP Command Line
If you choose to utilize the ONTAP command line to complete portions of this lab then you should be aware
that supports command line completion. When you enter a command in the ONTAP command line, you can at
any time mid-typing hit the Tab key, and if you have entered enough unique text for the command interpreter to
determine what the rest of the argument will be, it will automatically fill in that text for you. For example, entering
the text “cluster sh“ and then hitting the tab key will automatically expand the entered command text to cluster
show.
At any point mid-typing you can also enter the ? character, and the command interpreter will list any potential
matches for the command string. This is a particularly useful feature if you cannot remember all of the various
command line options for a given ONTAP command; for example, to see the list of options available for the
cluster show command you can enter:

cluster1::> cluster show ?


[ -instance | -fields <fieldname>, ... ]
[[-node] <nodename>] Node
[ -eligibility {true|false} ] Eligibility
[ -health {true|false} ] Health
cluster1::>

When using tab completion, if the ONTAP command interpreter is unable to identify a unique expansion it will
display a list of potential matches similar to what using the ? character does.

cluster1::> cluster s
Error: Ambiguous command. Possible matches include:
cluster show
cluster statistics
cluster1::>

ONTAP commands are structured hierarchically. When you log in you are placed at the root of that command
hierarchy, but you can step into a lower branch of the hierarchy by entering one of the base commands. For
example, when you first log in to the cluster, enter the ? command to see the list of available base commands, as
follows:

cluster1::> ?
up Go up one directory
cluster> Manage clusters
dashboard> (DEPRECATED)-Display dashboards
event> Manage system events
exit Quit the CLI session
export-policy Manage export policies and rules
history Show the history of commands for this CLI session
job> Manage jobs and job schedules
lun> Manage LUNs
man Display the on-line manual pages
metrocluster> Manage MetroCluster
network> Manage physical and virtual network connections
qos> QoS settings
redo Execute a previous command
rows Show/Set the rows for this CLI session
run Run interactive or non-interactive commands in
the nodeshell
security> The security directory
set Display/Set CLI session settings
snapmirror> Manage SnapMirror
statistics> Display operational statistics
storage> Manage physical storage, including disks,
aggregates, and failover
system> The system directory
top Go to the top-level directory
volume> Manage virtual storage, including volumes,
snapshots, and mirrors
vserver> Manage Vservers
cluster1::>

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The > character at the end of a command signifies that it has a sub-hierarchy; issue the vserver command to
enter the vserver sub-hierarchy.

cluster1::> vserver
cluster1::vserver> ?
active-directory> Manage Active Directory
add-aggregates Add aggregates to the Vserver
add-protocols Add protocols to the Vserver
audit> Manage auditing of protocol requests that the
Vserver services
check> The check directory
cifs> Manage the CIFS configuration of a Vserver
context Set Vserver context
create Create a Vserver
dashboard> The dashboard directory
data-policy> Manage data policy
delete Delete a Vserver
export-policy> Manage export policies and rules
fcp> Manage the FCP service on a Vserver
fpolicy> Manage FPolicy
group-mapping> The group-mapping directory
iscsi> Manage the iSCSI services on a Vserver
locks> Manage Client Locks
modify Modify a Vserver
name-mapping> The name-mapping directory
nfs> Manage the NFS configuration of a Vserver
peer> Create and manage Vserver peer relationships
remove-aggregates Remove aggregates from the Vserver
remove-protocols Remove protocols from the Vserver
rename Rename a Vserver
security> Manage ontap security
services> The services directory
show Display Vservers
show-protocols Show protocols for Vserver
smtape> The smtape directory
start Start a Vserver
stop Stop a Vserver
vscan> Manage Vscan
cluster1::vserver>

Notice how the prompt changes to reflect that you are now in the vserver sub-hierarchy, and that some of the
subcommands have sub-hierarchies of their own. To return to the root of the hierarchy issue the top command;
you can also navigate upwards one level at a time by using the up or .. commands.

cluster1::vserver> top
cluster1::>

The ONTAP command interpreter supports command history. By repeatedly hitting the up arrow key you can step
through the series of commands you ran earlier, and you can selectively execute a given command again when
you find it by hitting the Enter key. You can also use the left and right arrow keys to edit the command before you
run it again.

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11 Lab Activities
• Clusters on page 12
• Connect to the Cluster with OnCommand System Manager on page 13
• Advanced Drive Partitioning on page 15
• Create a New Aggregate on Each Cluster Node on page 19
• Networks on page 26
• Create Storage for NFS and CIFS on page 32
• Create a Storage Virtual Machine for NAS on page 34
• Configure CIFS and NFS on page 48
• Create a Volume and Map It to the Namespace on page 63
• Connect to the SVM From a Windows Client on page 80
• Connect to the SVM From a Linux Client on page 85
• NFS Exporting Qtrees (Optional) on page 86
• Create Storage for iSCSI on page 93
• Create a Storage Virtual Machine for iSCSI on page 93
• Create, Map, and Mount a Windows LUN on page 105
• Create, Map, and Mount a Linux LUN on page 151
• References on page 169
• Version History on page 170

11.1 Clusters
Expected Completion Time: 20 Minutes
A cluster is a group of physical storage controllers, or nodes, that are joined together for the purpose of serving
data to end users. The nodes in a cluster can pool their resources together so that the cluster can distribute it's
work across the member nodes. Communication and data transfer between member nodes (such as when a
client accesses data on a node other than the one actually hosting the data) takes place over a 10Gb cluster-
interconnect network to which all the nodes are connected, while management and client data traffic passes over
separate management and data networks configured on the member nodes.
Clusters typically consist of one, or more, NetApp storage controller High Availability (HA) pairs. Both controllers
in an HA pair actively host and serve data, but they are also capable of taking over their partner's responsibilities
in the event of a service disruption by virtue of their redundant cable paths to each other's disk storage. Having
multiple HA pairs in a cluster allows the cluster to scale out to handle greater workloads, and to support non-
disruptive migrations of volumes and client connections to other nodes in the cluster resource pool. This means
that cluster expansion and technology refreshes can take place while the cluster remains fully online, and serving
data.
Since clusters are almost always comprised of one or more HA pairs, a cluster almost always contains an even
number of controller nodes. There is one exception to this rule, the “single node cluster”, which is a special
cluster configuration that supports small storage deployments using a single physical controller head. The primary
difference between single node and standard clusters, besides the number of nodes, is that a single node cluster
does not have a cluster network. Single node clusters can be converted into traditional multi-node clusters, at
which point they become subject to all the standard cluster requirements like the need to utilize an even number
of nodes consisting of HA pairs. This lab does not contain a single node cluster, so does not discuss them further.
ONTAP 9 clusters that only serve NFS and CIFS can scale up to a maximum of 24 nodes, although the node limit
can be lower depending on the model of FAS controller in use. ONTAP 9 clusters that also host iSCSI and FC
can scale up to a maximum of 8 nodes, but once again the limit may be lower depending on the FAS controller
model.

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This lab utilizes simulated NetApp storage controllers rather than physical FAS controllers. The simulated
controller, also known as a “VSIM”, is a virtual machine that simulates the functionality of a physical controller
without the need for dedicated controller hardware. The vsim is not designed for performance testing, but does
offer much of the same functionality as a physical FAS controller, including the ability to generate I/O to disks.
This makes the vsim a powerful tool to explore and experiment with Data ONTAP product features. The vsim
is limited when a feature requires a specific physical capability that the vsim does not support. For example,
vsims do not support Fibre Channel connections, which is why this lab uses iSCSI to demonstrate block storage
functionality.
This lab starts with a pre-created, minimally configured cluster. The pre-created cluster already includes ONTAP
licenses, the cluster's basic network configuration, and a pair of pre-configured HA controllers. In this next section
you will create the aggregates that are used by the SVMs that you will create in later sections of the lab. You will
also take a look at the new Advanced Drive Partitioning feature that was introduced in ONTAP 8.3.

11.1.1 Advanced Drive Partitioning

Disks, whether Hard Disk Drives (HDD) or Solid State Disks (SSD), are the fundamental unit of physical storage
in ONTAP, and are tied to a specific cluster node by virtue of their physical connectivity (i.e., cabling) to a given
controller head.
ONTAP manages disks in groups called aggregates. An aggregate defines the RAID properties for a group of
disks that are all physically attached to the same node. A given disk can only be a member of a single aggregate.
By default each cluster node has one aggregate known as the root aggregate, which is a group of the node's
local disks that host the node's ONTAP operating system. A node's root aggregate is automatically created
during ONTAP installation in a minimal RAID-DP configuration This means it is initially comprised of 3 disks
(1 data, 2 parity), and has a name that begins the string aggr0. For example, in this lab the root aggregate of
the node cluster1-01 is named “aggr0_cluster1_01.”, and the root aggregate of the node cluster1-02 is named
“aggr0_cluster1_02”.
On higher end FAS systems that have many disks, the requirement to dedicate 3 disks for each controller's root
aggregate is not a burden, but for entry level FAS systems that only have 24 or 12 disks this root aggregate disk
overhead requirement significantly reduces the disks available for storing user data. To improve usable capacity,
NetApp introduced Advanced Drive Partitioning in ONTAP 8.3, which divides the Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) on
nodes that have this feature enabled into two partitions; a small root partition, and a much larger data partition.
ONTAP allocates the root partitions to the node root aggregate, and the data partitions for data aggregates. Each
partition behaves like a virtual disk, so in terms of RAID, ONTAP treats these partitions just like physical disks
when creating aggregates. The key benefit is that a much higher percentage of the node's overall disk capacity is
now available to host user data.
ONTAP only supports HDD partitioning for FAS 22xx, FAS25xx,, and only for drives installed in the internal shelf
on those models. Advanced Drive Partitioning can only be enabled at system installation time. To convert an
existing system to use Advanced Drive Partitioning you must completely evacuate the affected drives and re-
install ONTAP.
All-Flash FAS (AFF) supports a variation of Advanced Drive Partitioning that utilizes SSDs instead of HDDs. The
capability is available for entry-level, mid-range, and high-end AFF platforms. Data ONTAP 8.3 also introduces
SSD partitioning for use with Flash Pools, but the details of that feature lie outside the scope of this lab.
In this section, you use the CLI to determine if a cluster node is utilizing Advanced Drive Partitioning.
If you do not already have a PuTTY session established to cluster1, launch PuTTY as described in the “Accessing
the Command Line” section at the beginning of this guide, and connect to the host cluster1 using the username
admin and the password Netapp1!.
1. List all of the physical disks attached to the cluster:

cluster1::> storage disk show


Usable Disk Container Container
Disk Size Shelf Bay Type Type Name Owner
---------------- ---------- ----- --- ------- ----------- --------- --------

Basic Concepts for NetApp ONTAP 9


181 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
Info: This cluster has partitioned disks. To get a complete list of spare disk
capacity use "storage aggregate show-spare-disks".
VMw-1.25 28.44GB - 0 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.26 28.44GB - 1 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.27 28.44GB - 2 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.28 28.44GB - 3 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.29 28.44GB - 4 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.30 28.44GB - 5 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.31 28.44GB - 6 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.32 28.44GB - 8 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.33 28.44GB - 9 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.34 28.44GB - 10 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.35 28.44GB - 11 VMDISK shared - cluster1-01
VMw-1.36 28.44GB - 12 VMDISK shared - cluster1-01
VMw-1.37 28.44GB - 0 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.38 28.44GB - 1 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.39 28.44GB - 2 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.40 28.44GB - 3 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.41 28.44GB - 4 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.42 28.44GB - 5 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.43 28.44GB - 6 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.44 28.44GB - 8 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.45 28.44GB - 9 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.46 28.44GB - 10 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.47 28.44GB - 11 VMDISK shared - cluster1-02
VMw-1.48 28.44GB - 12 VMDISK shared - cluster1-02
24 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

The preceding command listed a total of 24 disks, 12 for each of the nodes in this two-node cluster.
The container type for all the disks is “shared”, which indicates that the disks are partitioned. For disks
that are not partitioned, you would typically see values like “spare”, “data”, “parity”, and “dparity”. The
Owner field indicates which node the disk is assigned to, and the Container Name field indicates which
aggregate the disk is assigned to. Notice that two disks for each node do not have a Container Name
listed; these are spare disks that ONTAP can use as replacements in the event of a disk failure.
2. At this point, the only aggregates that exist on this new cluster are the root aggregates. List the
aggregates that exist on the cluster:

cluster1::> aggr show

Aggregate Size Available Used% State #Vols Nodes RAID Status


--------- -------- --------- ----- ------- ------ ---------------- ------------
aggr0_cluster1_01 97.28GB 52.21GB 46% online 1 cluster1-01 raid_dp,
normal
aggr0_cluster1_02 97.28GB 52.21GB 46% online 1 cluster1-02 raid_dp,
normal
2 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

3. Now list the disks that are members of the root aggregate for the node cluster-01. Here is the command
that you would ordinarily use to display that information for an aggregate that is not using partitioned
disks.

cluster1::> storage disk show -aggregate aggr0_cluster1_01


There are no entries matching your query.

Info: This cluster has partitioned disks. To get a complete list of spare disk
capacity use "storage aggregate show-spare-disks".
One or more aggregates queried for use shared disks. Use "storage
aggregate show-status" to get correct set of disks associated with these
aggregates.

cluster1::>

4. As you can see, in this instance the preceding command is not able to produce a list of disks because
this aggregate is using shared disks. Instead it refers you to use the storage aggregate show command
to query the aggregate for a list of it's assigned disk partitions.

cluster1::> storage aggregate show-status -aggregate aggr0_cluster1_01

Basic Concepts for NetApp ONTAP 9


182 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
Owner Node: cluster1-01
Aggregate: aggr0_cluster1_01 (online, raid_dp) (block checksums)
Plex: /aggr0_cluster1_01/plex0 (online, normal, active, pool0)
RAID Group /aggr0_cluster1_01/plex0/rg0 (normal, block checksums)
Usable Physical
Position Disk Pool Type RPM Size Size Status
-------- --------------------------- ---- ----- ------ -------- -------- ----------
shared VMw-1.25 0 VMDISK - 14.24GB 28.44GB (normal)
shared VMw-1.26 0 VMDISK - 14.24GB 28.44GB (normal)
shared VMw-1.27 0 VMDISK - 14.24GB 28.44GB (normal)
shared VMw-1.28 0 VMDISK - 14.24GB 28.44GB (normal)
shared VMw-1.29 0 VMDISK - 14.24GB 28.44GB (normal)
shared VMw-1.30 0 VMDISK - 14.24GB 28.44GB (normal)
shared VMw-1.31 0 VMDISK - 14.24GB 28.44GB (normal)
shared VMw-1.32 0 VMDISK - 14.24GB 28.44GB (normal)
shared VMw-1.33 0 VMDISK - 14.24GB 28.44GB (normal)
shared VMw-1.34 0 VMDISK - 14.24GB 28.44GB (normal)
10 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

The output shows that aggr0_cluster1_01 is comprised of 10 disks, each with a usable size of 14.24 GB,
and you know that the aggregate is using the listed disk's root partitions because aggr0_cluster1_01 is a
root aggregate.
For a FAS controller that uses Advanced Drive Partitioning, ONTAP automatically determines the size
of the root and data disk partitions at system installation time based on the quantity and size of the
available disks assigned to each node. In this lab each cluster node has twelve 32 GB hard disks, and
the spare disks listed here reflect the available capacity of the data partitions, which as you can see each
have approximately 14 GB of available space. (You may have noticed that this is less than 50% of each
disk's 32 GB physical capacity. This is due to the relatively small size of the simulator disks used in this
lab. When using disks that are hundreds of GB or larger, then the root partition will consume a much
smaller percentage of each disk's total capacity.)
5. The ONTAP CLI includes a diagnostic level command that provides a more comprehensive single view
of a system's partitioned disks. The following command shows the partitioned disks that belong to the
node cluster1-01.

cluster1::> set -priv diag


Warning: These diagnostic commands are for use by NetApp personnel only.
Do you want to continue? {y|n}: y
cluster1::*> disk partition show -owner-node-name cluster1-01
Usable Container Container
Partition Size Type Name Owner
------------------------- ------- ------------- ----------------- -----------------
VMw-1.25.P1 14.16GB spare Pool0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.25.P2 14.24GB aggregate /aggr0_cluster1_01/plex0/rg0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.26.P1 14.16GB spare Pool0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.26.P2 14.24GB aggregate /aggr0_cluster1_01/plex0/rg0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.27.P1 14.16GB spare Pool0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.27.P2 14.24GB aggregate /aggr0_cluster1_01/plex0/rg0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.28.P1 14.16GB spare Pool0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.28.P2 14.24GB aggregate /aggr0_cluster1_01/plex0/rg0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.29.P1 14.16GB spare Pool0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.29.P2 14.24GB aggregate /aggr0_cluster1_01/plex0/rg0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.30.P1 14.16GB spare Pool0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.30.P2 14.24GB aggregate /aggr0_cluster1_01/plex0/rg0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.31.P1 14.16GB spare Pool0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.31.P2 14.24GB aggregate /aggr0_cluster1_01/plex0/rg0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.32.P1 14.16GB spare Pool0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.32.P2 14.24GB aggregate /aggr0_cluster1_01/plex0/rg0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.33.P1 14.16GB spare Pool0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.33.P2 14.24GB aggregate /aggr0_cluster1_01/plex0/rg0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.34.P1 14.16GB spare Pool0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.34.P2 14.24GB aggregate /aggr0_cluster1_01/plex0/rg0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.35.P1 14.16GB spare Pool0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.35.P2 14.24GB spare Pool0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.36.P1 14.16GB spare Pool0 cluster1-01
VMw-1.36.P2 14.24GB spare Pool0 cluster1-01
24 entries were displayed.

cluster1::*> set -priv admin


cluster1::>

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183 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
11.1.2 Create a New Aggregate on Each Cluster Node

The only aggregates that exist on a newly created cluster are the node root aggregates. The root aggregate
should not be used to host user data, so in this section you will create a new aggregate on each of the nodes in
cluster1 so they can host the storage virtual machines, volumes, and LUNs that you will create later in this lab.
A node can host multiple aggregates depending on the data sizing, performance, and isolation needs of the
storage workloads that it will host. When you create a Storage Virtual Machine (SVM) you assign it to use one or
more specific aggregates to host the SVM's volumes. Multiple SVMs can be assigned to use the same aggregate,
which offers greater flexibility in managing storage space, whereas dedicating an aggregate to just a single SVM
provides greater workload isolation.
For this lab, you will be creating a single user data aggregate on each node in the cluster.
1. Display a list of the disks attached to the node cluster-01. (Note that you can omit the -nodelist option
to display a list of the disks in the entire cluster.)
Note: By default the PuTTY window may wrap output lines because the window is too small;
if this is the case for you then simply expand the window by selecting its edge and dragging it
wider, after which any subsequent output will utilize the visible width of the window.

cluster1::> disk show -nodelist cluster1-01

Usable Disk Container Container


Disk Size Shelf Bay Type Type Name Owner
---------------- ---------- ----- --- ------- ----------- --------- --------

Info: This cluster has partitioned disks. To get a complete list of spare disk
capacity use "storage aggregate show-spare-disks".
VMw-1.25 28.44GB - 0 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.26 28.44GB - 1 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.27 28.44GB - 2 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.28 28.44GB - 3 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.29 28.44GB - 4 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.30 28.44GB - 5 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.31 28.44GB - 6 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.32 28.44GB - 8 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.33 28.44GB - 9 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.34 28.44GB - 10 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_01 cluster1-01
VMw-1.35 28.44GB - 11 VMDISK shared - cluster1-01
VMw-1.36 28.44GB - 12 VMDISK shared - cluster1-01
VMw-1.37 28.44GB - 0 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.38 28.44GB - 1 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.39 28.44GB - 2 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.40 28.44GB - 3 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.41 28.44GB - 4 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.42 28.44GB - 5 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.43 28.44GB - 6 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.44 28.44GB - 8 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.45 28.44GB - 9 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.46 28.44GB - 10 VMDISK shared aggr0_cluster1_02 cluster1-02
VMw-1.47 28.44GB - 11 VMDISK shared - cluster1-02
VMw-1.48 28.44GB - 12 VMDISK shared - cluster1-02
24 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

2. Display a list of the aggregates on the cluster.

cluster1::> aggr show

Aggregate Size Available Used% State #Vols Nodes RAID Status


--------- -------- --------- ----- ------- ------ ---------------- ------------
aggr0_cluster1_01 97.28GB 52.21GB 46% online 1 cluster1-01 raid_dp,
normal
aggr0_cluster1_02 97.28GB 52.21GB 46% online 1 cluster1-02 raid_dp,
normal
2 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

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184 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
3. Create the aggregate named “aggr1_cluster1_01” on the node cluster1-01.

cluster1::> aggr create -aggregate aggr1_cluster1_01 -node cluster1-01 -diskcount 5

Info: The layout for aggregate "aggr1_cluster1_01" on node "cluster1-01" would


be:

First Plex

RAID Group rg0, 5 disks (block checksum, raid_dp)


Position Disk Type Size
---------- ------------------------- ---------- ---------------
shared VMw-1.25 VMDISK -
shared VMw-1.26 VMDISK -
shared VMw-1.27 VMDISK 14.14GB
shared VMw-1.28 VMDISK 14.14GB
shared VMw-1.29 VMDISK 14.14GB

Aggregate capacity available for volume use would be 38.18GB.

Do you want to continue? {y|n}: y

[Job 37] Job is queued: Create aggr1_cluster1_01.


[Job 37] creating aggregate aggr1_cluster1_01 ...
[Job 37] Job succeeded: DONE

cluster1::>

4. Create the aggregate named “aggr1_cluster1_02” on the node cluster1-02.

cluster1::> aggr create -aggregate aggr1_cluster1_02 -node cluster1-02 -diskcount 5

Info: The layout for aggregate "aggr1_cluster1_02" on node "cluster1-02" would


be:

First Plex

RAID Group rg0, 5 disks (block checksum, raid_dp)


Position Disk Type Size
---------- ------------------------- ---------- ---------------
shared VMw-1.37 VMDISK -
shared VMw-1.38 VMDISK -
shared VMw-1.39 VMDISK 14.14GB
shared VMw-1.40 VMDISK 14.14GB
shared VMw-1.41 VMDISK 14.14GB

Aggregate capacity available for volume use would be 38.18GB.

Do you want to continue? {y|n}: y


[Job 38] Job is queued: Create aggr1_cluster1_02.
[Job 38] Job succeeded: DONE

cluster1::>

5. Display the list of aggregates on the cluster again.

cluster1::> aggr show

Aggregate Size Available Used% State #Vols Nodes RAID Status


--------- -------- --------- ----- ------- ------ ---------------- ------------
aggr0_cluster1_01 97.28GB 52.21GB 46% online 1 cluster1-01 raid_dp,
normal
aggr0_cluster1_02 97.28GB 52.21GB 46% online 1 cluster1-02 raid_dp,
normal
aggr1_cluster1_01 38.18GB 38.18GB 0% online 0 cluster1-01 raid_dp,
normal
aggr1_cluster1_02 38.18GB 38.18GB 0% online 0 cluster1-02 raid_dp,
normal
4 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

11.1.3 Networks

This section discusses the network components that ONTAP provides to manage your cluster.

Basic Concepts for NetApp ONTAP 9


185 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
Ports are the physical Ethernet and Fibre Channel connections on each node, the interface groups (ifgrps) you
can create to aggregate those connections, and the VLANs you can use to subdivide them.
A logical interface (LIF) is essentially an IP address that is associated with a port, and has a number of associated
characteristics such as an assigned home node, an assigned physical home port, a list of physical ports it can fail
over to, an assigned SVM, a role, a routing group, and so on. A given LIF can only be assigned to a single SVM,
and since LIFs are mapped to physical network ports on cluster nodes this means that an SVM runs, in part, on
all nodes that are hosting its LIFs.
Routing tables in ONTAP are defined for each Storage Virtual Machine. Since each SVM has it's own routing
table, changes to one SVM's routing table does not have impact on any other SVM's routing table.
IPspaces were introduced in ONTAP 8.3, and allow you to configure an ONTAP cluster to logically separate
one IP network from another, even if those two networks are using the same IP address range. IPspaces are a
multi-tenancy feature that allow storage service providers to share a cluster between different companies while
still separating storage traffic for privacy and security. Every cluster includes a default IPspace to which ONTAP
automatically assigns new SVMs, and that default IPspace is probably sufficient for most NetApp customers who
deploy a cluster within a single company or organization that uses a non-conflicting IP address range.
Broadcast Domains are collections of ports that all have access to the same layer 2 networks, both physical
and virtual (i.e., VLANs). Every IPspace has it's own set of Broadcast Domains, and ONTAP provides a default
broadcast domain to go along with the default IPspace. Broadcast domains are used by ONTAP to determine
what ports an SVM can use for it's LIFs.
Subnets in ONTAP are a convenience feature, intended to make LIF creation and management easier for ONTAP
administrators. A subnet is a pool of IP addresses that you can specify by name when creating a LIF. ONTAP will
automatically assign an available IP address from the pool to the LIF, along with a subnet mask and a gateway.
A subnet is scoped to a specific broadcast domain, so all the subnet's addresses belong to the same layer 3
network. ONTAP manages the pool automatically as you create or delete LIFs, and if you manually configure a
LIF with an address from the pool, it will detect that the address is in use and mark it as such in the pool.
DNS Zones allow an SVM to manage DNS name resolution for it's own LIFs, and since multiple LIFs can share
the same DNS name, this allows the SVM to load balance traffic by IP address across the LIFs. To use DNS
Zones you must configure your DNS server to delegate DNS authority for the subdomain to the SVM.

11.1.3.1 Create Subnets


This lab activity describes how to create subnets using the ONTAP CLI.
1. Display a list of the cluster's IPspaces. A cluster actually contains two IPspaces by default; the Cluster
IPspace, which correlates to the cluster network that ONTAP uses to have cluster nodes communicate
with each other, and the Default IPspace to which ONTAP automatically assigns all new SVMs. You can
create more IPspaces if necessary, but that activity is not covered in this lab.

cluster1::> network ipspace show


IPspace Vserver List Broadcast Domains
------------------- ----------------------------- ----------------------------
Cluster
Cluster Cluster
Default
cluster1 Default
2 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

2. Display a list of the cluster's broadcast domains. Remember that broadcast domains are scoped to
a single IPspace. The e0a ports on the cluster nodes are part of the Cluster broadcast domain in the
Cluster IPspace. The remaining ports are part of the Default broadcast domain in the Default IPspace.

cluster1::> network port broadcast-domain show


IPspace Broadcast Update
Name Domain Name MTU Port List Status Details
------- ----------- ------ ----------------------------- --------------
Cluster Cluster 1500
cluster1-01:e0a complete
cluster1-01:e0b complete

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cluster1-02:e0a complete
cluster1-02:e0b complete
Default Default 1500
cluster1-01:e0c complete
cluster1-01:e0d complete
cluster1-01:e0e complete
cluster1-01:e0f complete
cluster1-01:e0g complete
cluster1-02:e0c complete
cluster1-02:e0d complete
cluster1-02:e0e complete
cluster1-02:e0f complete
cluster1-02:e0g complete
2 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

3. Display a list of the cluster's subnets.

cluster1::> network subnet show


This table is currently empty.

cluster1::>

4. ONTAP does not include a default subnet, so you will need to create a subnet now. The specific
command you use depends on which sections of this lab guide you plan to complete, because you need
to correctly align the IP address pool in your lab with the IP addresses used in those sections.
• If you plan to complete the NAS portion of this lab, enter the following command. Use this
command as well if you plan to complete both the NAS and SAN portions of this lab.

cluster1::> network subnet create -subnet-name Demo -broadcast-domain Default


-ipspace Default -subnet 192.168.0.0/24 -gateway 192.168.0.1
-ip-ranges 192.168.0.131-192.168.0.139
cluster1::>

• If you only plan to complete the SAN portion of this lab, then enter the following command
instead.

cluster1::> network subnet create -subnet-name Demo -broadcast-domain Default


-ipspace Default -subnet 192.168.0.0/24 -gateway 192.168.0.1
-ip-ranges 192.168.0.133-192.168.0.139
cluster1::>

5. Re-display the list of the cluster's subnets. This example assumes you plan to complete the whole lab.

cluster1::> network subnet show


IPspace: Default
Subnet Broadcast Avail/
Name Subnet Domain Gateway Total Ranges
--------- ---------------- --------- --------------- --------- ---------------
Demo 192.168.0.0/24 Default 192.168.0.1 9/9 192.168.0.131-192.168.0.139

cluster1::>

6. If you are want to see a list of all of the network ports on your cluster, use the following command.

cluster1::> network port show

Node: cluster1-01
Speed(Mbps) Health
Port IPspace Broadcast Domain Link MTU Admin/Oper Status
--------- ------------ ---------------- ---- ---- ----------- --------
e0a Cluster Cluster up 1500 auto/1000 healthy
e0b Cluster Cluster up 1500 auto/1000 healthy
e0c Default Default up 1500 auto/1000 healthy
e0d Default Default up 1500 auto/1000 healthy
e0e Default Default up 1500 auto/1000 healthy
e0f Default Default up 1500 auto/1000 healthy
e0g Default Default up 1500 auto/1000 healthy

Node: cluster1-02
Speed(Mbps) Health
Port IPspace Broadcast Domain Link MTU Admin/Oper Status
--------- ------------ ---------------- ---- ---- ----------- --------
e0a Cluster Cluster up 1500 auto/1000 healthy

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e0b Cluster Cluster up 1500 auto/1000 healthy
e0c Default Default up 1500 auto/1000 healthy
e0d Default Default up 1500 auto/1000 healthy
e0e Default Default up 1500 auto/1000 healthy
e0f Default Default up 1500 auto/1000 healthy
e0g Default Default up 1500 auto/1000 healthy
14 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

11.2 Create Storage for NFS and CIFS


Expected Completion Time: 40 Minutes
If you are only interested in SAN protocols then you do not need to complete this section. However, we
recommend that you review the conceptual information found here, and at the beginning of each of this section's
subsections, before you advance to the SAN section, as most of this conceptual material will not be repeated
there.
Storage Virtual Machines (SVMs), previously known as Vservers, are the logical storage servers that operate
within a cluster that serve data out to storage clients. A single cluster can host hundreds of SVMs, with each SVM
managing its own set of volumes (FlexVols), Logical Network Interfaces (LIFs), storage access protocols (e.g.,
NFS/CIFS/iSCSI/FC/FCoE), and for NAS clients, its own namespace.
The ability to support many SVMs in a single cluster is a key feature in ONTAP, and customers are encouraged
to actively embrace this feature in order to take full advantage of a cluster's capabilities. NetApp recommends
against any organization starting out on a deployment intended to scale with only a single SVM.
You explicitly configure which storage protocols you want a given SVM to support at the time you create that
SVM. You can later add or remove protocols as desired. A single SVM can host any combination of the supported
protocols.
An SVM's assigned aggregates and LIFs determine which cluster nodes handle processing for that SVM. As
you saw earlier, an aggregate is directly connected to the specific node hosting its disks, which means that an
SVM runs in part on any nodes whose aggregates are hosting volumes for the SVM. An SVM also has a direct
relationship to any nodes that are hosting its LIFs. LIFs are essentially an IP address with a number of associated
characteristics such as an assigned home node, an assigned physical home port, a list of physical ports it can fail
over to, an assigned SVM, a role, a routing group, and so on. You can only assign a given LIF to a single SVM,
and since LIFs map to physical network ports on cluster nodes, this means that an SVM runs in part on all nodes
that are hosting its LIFs.
When you configure an SVM with multiple data LIFs, clients can use any of those LIFs to access volumes hosted
by the SVM. Which specific LIF IP address a client will use in a given instance, and by extension which LIF, is a
function of name resolution, the mapping of a hostname to an IP address. CIFS Servers have responsibility under
NetBIOS for resolving requests for their hostnames received from clients, and in so doing can perform some load
balancing by responding to different clients with different LIF addresses. But this distribution is not sophisticated,
and requires external NetBIOS name servers in order to deal with clients that are not on the local network. NFS
Servers do not handle name resolution on their own.
DNS provides basic name resolution load balancing by advertising multiple IP addresses for the same hostname.
DNS is supported by both NFS and CIFS clients, and works equally well with clients on local area and wide
area networks. Since DNS is an external service that resides outside of ONTAP, this architecture creates the
potential for service disruptions if the DNS server is advertising IP addresses for LIFs that are temporarily offline.
To compensate for this condition you can configure DNS servers to delegate the name resolution responsibility
for the SVM's hostname records to the SVM itself, so that it can directly respond to name resolution requests
involving its LIFs. This allows the SVM to consider LIF availability and LIF utilization levels when deciding what
LIF address to return in response to a DNS name resolution request.
The most efficient client access path to a volume's data is through a LIF that is mapped to a physical network port
on the same node as the aggregate that hosts the volume's storage. However, clients can also access volume
data through LIFs bound to physical network ports on other nodes in the cluster; in these cases ONTAP uses the
high speed cluster network to bridge communication between the node hosting the LIF and the node hosting the

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volume. NetApp best practice is to create at least one NAS LIF for a given SVM on each cluster node that has an
aggregate that is hosting volumes for that SVM. If you desire additional resiliency then you can also create a NAS
LIF on nodes not hosting aggregates for the SVM.
A NAS LIF (a LIF supporting only NFS and/or CIFS) can automatically failover from one cluster node to another
in the event of a component failure. Any existing connections to that LIF from NFS and SMB 2.0 (and later)
clients can non-disruptively tolerate the LIF failover event. When a LIF failover happens the NAS LIF migrates to
a different physical NIC, potentially to a NIC on a different node in the cluster, and continues servicing network
requests from that new node/port. Throughout this operation the NAS LIF maintains its IP address. Clients
connected to the LIF may notice a brief delay while the failover is in progress, but as soon as it completes the
clients resume any in-process NAS operations without any loss of data.
The number of nodes in the cluster determines the total number of SVMs that can run in the cluster. Each storage
controller node can host a maximum of 125 SVMs, so you can calculate the cluster's effective SVM limit by
multiplying the number of nodes by 125. There is no limit on the number of LIFs that an SVM can host, but there
is a limit on the number of LIFs that can run on a given node. That limit is 256 LIFs per node, but if the node is
part of an HA pair configured for failover, then the limit is half that value, or 128 LIFs per node (so that a node can
also accommodate it's HA partner's LIFs in the event of a failover event).
Each SVM has its own NAS namespace, a logical grouping of the SVM's CIFS and NFS volumes into a single
logical filesystem view. Clients can access the entire namespace by mounting a single share or export at the
top of the namespace tree, meaning that SVM administrators can centrally maintain and present a consistent
view of the SVM's data to all clients rather than having to reproduce that view structure on each individual
client. As an administrator maps and unmaps volumes from the namespace, those volumes instantly become
visible or disappear from clients that have mounted CIFS and NFS volumes higher in the SVM's namespace.
Administrators can also create NFS exports at individual junction points within the namespace, and can create
CIFS shares at any directory path in the namespace.

11.2.1 Create a Storage Virtual Machine for NAS

In this section you create a new SVM named “svm1” on the cluster, and configure it to serve out a volume over
NFS and CIFS. You will configure two NAS data LIFs on the SVM, one per node in the cluster.
Start by creating the storage virtual machine.
If you do not already have a PuTTY connection open to cluster1 then open one now following the directions in
the “Accessing the Command Line” section at the beginning of this lab guide. The username is admin and the
password is Netapp1!.
1. Create the SVM named “svm1”. Notice that the ONTAP command line syntax refers to storage virtual
machines as vservers.

cluster1::> vserver create -vserver svm1 -rootvolume svm1_root -aggregate aggr1_cluster1_01


-language C.UTF-8 -rootvolume-security ntfs -snapshot-policy default
[Job 39] Job is queued: Create svm1.
[Job 39]
[Job 39] Job succeeded:
Vserver creation completed

cluster1::>

2. Display the list of protocols the SVM supports by default.

cluster1::> vserver show-protocols -vserver svm1

Vserver: svm1
Protocols: nfs, cifs, fcp, iscsi, ndmp

cluster1::>

3. Remove the FCP, iSCSI, and NDMP protocols from the SVM svm1, leaving only CIFS and NFS.

cluster1::> vserver remove-protocols -vserver svm1 -protocols fcp,iscsi,ndmp


cluster1::>

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189 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
4. Display the list of protocols assigned to the SVM “svm1”.

cluster1::> vserver show-protocols -vserver svm1

Vserver: svm1
Protocols: nfs, cifs

cluster1::>

5. Display a list of the vservers in the cluster.

cluster1::> vserver show


Admin Operational Root
Vserver Type Subtype State State Volume Aggregate
----------- ------- ---------- ---------- ----------- ---------- ----------
cluster1 admin - - - - -
cluster1-01 node - - - - -
cluster1-02 node - - - - -
svm1 data default running running svm1_root aggr1_
cluster1_
01
4 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

6. Display a list of the cluster's network interfaces:

cluster1::> network interface show


Logical Status Network Current Current Is
Vserver Interface Admin/Oper Address/Mask Node Port Home
----------- ---------- ---------- ------------------ ------------- ------- ----
Cluster
cluster1-01_clus1 up/up 169.254.102.151/16 cluster1-01 e0a true
cluster1-01_clus2 up/up 169.254.95.159/16 cluster1-01 e0b true
cluster1-02_clus1 up/up 169.254.78.229/16 cluster1-02 e0a true
cluster1-02_clus2 up/up 169.254.100.67/16 cluster1-02 e0b true
cluster1
cluster1-01_mgmt1 up/up 192.168.0.111/24 cluster1-01 e0c true
cluster1-02_mgmt1 up/up 192.168.0.112/24 cluster1-02 e0c true
cluster_mgmt up/up 192.168.0.101/24 cluster1-01 e0c true
7 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

7. Notice that there are not any LIFs defined for the SVM “svm1” yet. Create the svm1_cifs_nfs_lif1 data
LIF for svm1.

cluster1::> network interface create -vserver svm1 -lif svm1_cifs_nfs_lif1 -role data
-data-protocol nfs,cifs -home-node cluster1-01 -home-port e0c -subnet-name Demo
-firewall-policy mgmt

cluster1::>

8. Create the svm1_cifs_nfs_lif2 data LIF for the SVM svm1.

cluster1::> network interface create -vserver svm1 -lif svm1_cifs_nfs_lif2 -role data
-data-protocol nfs,cifs -home-node cluster1-02 -home-port e0c -subnet-name Demo
-firewall-policy mgmtcluster1::>

9. Display all of the LIFs owned by svm1.

cluster1::> network interface show -vserver svm1


Logical Status Network Current Current Is
Vserver Interface Admin/Oper Address/Mask Node Port Home
----------- ---------- ---------- ------------------ ------------- ------- ----
svm1
svm1_cifs_nfs_lif1 up/up 192.168.0.131/24 cluster1-01 e0c true
svm1_cifs_nfs_lif2 up/up 192.168.0.132/24 cluster1-02 e0c true
2 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

10. Display the SVM svm1's DNS configuration.

cluster1::> vserver services dns show


Name

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190 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
Vserver State Domains Servers
--------------- --------- ----------------------------------- ----------------
cluster1 enabled demo.netapp.com 192.168.0.253
cluster1::>

11. Configure the DNS domain and nameservers for the svm1 SVM.

cluster1::> vserver services dns create -vserver svm1 -name-servers 192.168.0.253


-domains demo.netapp.com
cluster1::>

12. Display the DNS configuration for all SVMs.

cluster1::> vserver services dns show


Name
Vserver State Domains Servers
--------------- --------- ----------------------------------- ----------------
cluster1 enabled demo.netapp.com 192.168.0.253
svm1 enabled demo.netapp.com 192.168.0.253
2 entries were displayed.
cluster1::>

Configure the LIFs to accept DNS delegation responsibility for the svm1.demo.netapp.com zone so that
you can advertise addresses for both of the NAS data LIFs that belong to svm1. You could have done
this as part of the network interface create commands, but we opted to perform it separately here so
you could see how to modify an existing LIF.
13. Configure lif1 to accept DNS delegation responsibility for the svm1.demo.netapp.com zone.

cluster1::> network interface modify -vserver svm1 -lif svm1_cifs_nfs_lif1


-dns-zone svm1.demo.netapp.com
cluster1::>

14. Configure lif2 to accept DNS delegation responsibility for the svm1.demo.netapp.com zone.

cluster1::> network interface modify -vserver svm1 -lif svm1_cifs_nfs_lif2


-dns-zone svm1.demo.netapp.com
cluster1::>

15. Display the DNS delegation for svm1.

cluster1::> network interface show -vserver svm1 -fields dns-zone,address


vserver lif address dns-zone
------- ------------------ ------------- --------------------
svm1 svm1_cifs_nfs_lif1 192.168.0.131 svm1.demo.netapp.com
svm1 svm1_cifs_nfs_lif2 192.168.0.132 svm1.demo.netapp.com
2 entries were displayed.
cluster1::>

16. Verify that DNS delegation is working correctly by opening a PuTTY connection to the Linux host rhel1
(username root" and password Netapp1!) and executing the following commands. If the delegation is
working correctly you should see IP addresses returned for the host svm1.demo.netapp.com, and if you
run the command several times you will eventually see that the responses vary the returned address
between the SVM's two LIFs.

[root@rhel1 ~]# nslookup svm1.demo.netapp.com


Server: 192.168.0.253
Address: 192.168.0.253#53
Non-authoritative answer:
Name: svm1.demo.netapp.com
Address: 192.168.0.132
[root@rhel1 ~]# nslookup svm1.demo.netapp.com
Server: 192.168.0.253
Address: 192.168.0.253#53
Non-authoritative answer:
Name: svm1.demo.netapp.com
Address: 192.168.0.131
[root@rhel1 ~]#

17. This completes the planned LIF configuration changes for svm1, so now display a detailed configuration
report for the LIF svm1_cifs_nfs_lif1.

cluster1::> network interface show -lif svm1_cifs_nfs_lif1 -instance

Basic Concepts for NetApp ONTAP 9


191 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
Vserver Name: svm1
Logical Interface Name: svm1_cifs_nfs_lif1
Role: data
Data Protocol: nfs, cifs
Home Node: cluster1-01
Home Port: e0c
Current Node: cluster1-01
Current Port: e0c
Operational Status: up
Extended Status: -
Is Home: true
Network Address: 192.168.0.131
Netmask: 255.255.255.0
Bits in the Netmask: 24
Subnet Name: Demo
Administrative Status: up
Failover Policy: system-defined
Firewall Policy: mgmt
Auto Revert: false
Fully Qualified DNS Zone Name: svm1.demo.netapp.com
DNS Query Listen Enable: true
Failover Group Name: Default
FCP WWPN: -
Address family: ipv4
Comment: -
IPspace of LIF: Default
Is Dynamic DNS Update Enabled?: true

cluster1::>

When you issued the vserver create command to create svm1 you included an option to enable CIFS,
but that command did not actually create a CIFS server for the SVM. Now it is time to create that CIFS
server.
18. Display the status of the cluster's CIFS servers.

cluster1::> vserver cifs show


This table is currently empty.
cluster1::>

19. Create a CIFS server for svm1.

cluster1::> vserver cifs create -vserver svm1 -cifs-server svm1 -domain demo.netapp.com

In order to create an Active Directory machine account for the CIFS server, you
must supply the name and password of a Windows account with sufficient
privileges to add computers to the "CN=Computers" container within the
"DEMO.NETAPP.COM" domain.

Enter the user name: Administrator

Enter the password: Netapp1!

cluster1::>

20. Display the status of the cluster's CIFS servers.

cluster1::> vserver cifs show


Server Status Domain/Workgroup Authentication
Vserver Name Admin Name Style
----------- --------------- --------- ---------------- --------------
svm1 SVM1 up DEMO domain
cluster1::>

As with CIFS, when you created svm1 you included an option to enable NFS, but that command did not
actually create the NFS server. Now it is time to create that NFS server.
21. Display the status of the NFS server for svm1.

cluster1::> vserver nfs status -vserver svm1


The NFS server is not running on Vserver "svm1".
cluster1::>

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192 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
22. Create an NFS v3 NFS server for svm1.

cluster1::> vserver nfs create -vserver svm1 -v3 enabled -access true
cluster1::>

23. Display the status of the NFS server for svm1 again.

cluster1::> vserver nfs status -vserver svm1


The NFS server is running on Vserver "svm1".
cluster1::>

11.2.2 Configure CIFS and NFS

ONTAP configures CIFS and NFS on a per SVM basis. When you created the “svm1” SVM in the previous
section, you set up and enabled CIFS and NFS for that SVM. However, it is important to understand that clients
cannot yet access the SVM using CIFS and NFS. That is partially because you have not yet created any volumes
on the SVM, but also because you have not told the SVM what you want to share, and who you want to share it
with.
Each SVM has its own namespace. A namespace is a logical grouping of a single SVM's volumes into a directory
hierarchy that is private to just that SVM, with the root of that hierarchy hosted on the SVM's root volume
(svm1_root in the case of the svm1 SVM), and it is through this namespace that the SVM shares data to CIFS
and NFS clients. The SVM's other volumes are junctioned (i.e., mounted) within that root volume, or within other
volumes that are already junctioned into the namespace. This hierarchy presents NAS clients with a unified,
centrally maintained view of the storage encompassed by the namespace, regardless of where those junctioned
volumes physically reside in the cluster. CIFS and NFS clients cannot access a volume that has not been
junctioned into the namespace.
CIFS and NFS clients can access the entire namespace by mounting a single NFS export or CIFS share declared
at the top of the namespace. While this is a very powerful capability, there is no requirement to make the whole
namespace accessible. You can create CIFS shares at any directory level in the namespace, and you can
create different NFS export rules at junction boundaries for individual volumes and for individual qtrees within a
junctioned volume.
ONTAP does not utilize an /etc/exports file to export NFS volumes; instead it uses a policy model that dictates
the NFS client access rules for the associated volumes. An NFS-enabled SVM implicitly exports the root of its
namespace and automatically associates that export with the SVM's default export policy. But that default policy
is initially empty, and until it is populated with access rules no NFS clients will be able to access the namespace.
The SVM's default export policy applies to the root volume, and also to any volumes that an administrator
junctions into the namespace, but an administrator can optionally create additional export policies in order to
implement different access rules within the namespace. You can apply export policies to a volume as a whole
and to individual qtrees within a volume, but a given volume or qtree can only have one associated export policy.
While you cannot create NFS exports at any other directory level in the namespace, NFS clients can mount from
any level in the namespace by leveraging the namespace's root export.
In this section of the lab, you configure a default export policy for your SVM so that any volumes you junction into
its namespace will automatically pick up the same NFS export rules. You will also create a single CIFS share
at the top of the namespace so that all the volumes you junction into that namespace are accessible through
that one share. Finally, since your SVM will be sharing the same data over NFS and CIFS, you will set up name
mapping between UNIX and Windows user accounts to facilitate smooth multi protocol access to the volumes and
files in the namespace.
When you create an SVM, ONTAP automatically creates a root volume to hold that SVM's namespace. An SVM
always has a root volume, whether or not it is configured to support NAS protocols.
1. Verify that CIFS is running by default for the SVM svm1.

cluster1::> vserver cifs show


Server Status Domain/Workgroup Authentication
Vserver Name Admin Name Style
----------- --------------- --------- ---------------- --------------
svm1 SVM1 up DEMO domain

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cluster1::>

2. Display the status of the NFS server for svm1 again.

cluster1::> vserver nfs status -vserver svm1


The NFS server is running on Vserver "svm1".
cluster1::>

3. Display the NFS server's configuration.

cluster1::> vserver nfs show -vserver svm1

Vserver: svm1
General NFS Access: true
NFS v3: enabled
NFS v4.0: disabled
UDP Protocol: enabled
TCP Protocol: enabled
Default Windows User: -
NFSv4.0 ACL Support: disabled
NFSv4.0 Read Delegation Support: disabled
NFSv4.0 Write Delegation Support: disabled
NFSv4 ID Mapping Domain: defaultv4iddomain.com
NFSv4 Grace Timeout Value (in secs): 45
Preserves and Modifies NFSv4 ACL (and NTFS File Permissions in Unified Security Style):
enabled
NFSv4.1 Minor Version Support: disabled
Rquota Enable: disabled
NFSv4.1 Parallel NFS Support: enabled
NFSv4.1 ACL Support: disabled
NFS vStorage Support: disabled
NFSv4 Support for Numeric Owner IDs: enabled
Default Windows Group: -
NFSv4.1 Read Delegation Support: disabled
NFSv4.1 Write Delegation Support: disabled
NFS Mount Root Only: enabled
NFS Root Only: disabled
Permitted Kerberos Encryption Types: des, des3, aes-128, aes-256
Showmount Enabled: disabled
Set the Protocol Used for Name Services Lookups for Exports: udp
NFSv3 MS-DOS Client Support: disabled

cluster1::>

4. Display a list of all the export policies.

cluster1::> vserver export-policy show


Vserver Policy Name
--------------- -------------------
svm1 default
cluster1::>

The only defined policy is “default”.


5. Display a list of all the export policy rules.

cluster1::> vserver export-policy rule show


This table is currently empty.
cluster1::>

There are no rules defined for the “default” export policy.


6. Add a rule to the default export policy granting read-write access to all hosts over CIFS and NFS.

cluster1::> vserver export-policy rule create -vserver svm1 -policyname default


-clientmatch 0.0.0.0/0 -protocol cifs,nfs -rorule any -rwrule any -superuser any -anon 65534
-ruleindex 1
cluster1::>

7. Display a listing of all the export policy rules.

cluster1::> vserver export-policy rule show

Policy Rule Access Client RO


Vserver Name Index Protocol Match Rule
------------ --------------- ------ -------- --------------------- ---------

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194 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
svm1 default 1 cifs, 0.0.0.0/0 any
nfs

cluster1::>

8. Display a detailed listing of all the export policy rules.

cluster1::> vserver export-policy rule show -policyname default -instance

Vserver: svm1
Policy Name: default
Rule Index: 1
Access Protocol: cifs, nfs
List of Client Match Hostnames, IP Addresses, Netgroups, or Domains: 0.0.0.0/0
RO Access Rule: any
RW Access Rule: any
User ID To Which Anonymous Users Are Mapped: 65534
Superuser Security Types: any
Honor SetUID Bits in SETATTR: true
Allow Creation of Devices: true

cluster1::>

9. Display a list of the shares in the cluster.

cluster1::> vserver cifs share show


Vserver Share Path Properties Comment ACL
-------------- ------------- ----------------- ---------- -------- -----------
svm1 admin$ / browsable - -
svm1 c$ / oplocks - BUILTIN\Administrators /
Full Control
browsable
changenotify
show-previous-versions
svm1 ipc$ / browsable - -
3 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

10. Create a share at the root of the namespace for the SVM svm1.

cluster1::> vserver cifs share create -vserver svm1 -share-name nsroot -path /
cluster1::>

11. Display a list of the shares in the cluster again.

cluster1::> vserver cifs share show

Vserver Share Path Properties Comment ACL


-------------- ------------- ----------------- ---------- -------- -----------
svm1 admin$ / browsable - -
svm1 c$ / oplocks - BUILTIN\Administrators /
Full Control
browsable
changenotify
show-previous-versions
svm1 ipc$ / browsable - -
svm1 nsroot / oplocks - Everyone / Full Control
browsable
changenotify
show-previous-versions
4 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

Set up CIFS <-> NFS user name mapping for the SVM svm1.
12. Display a list of the current name mappings.

cluster1::> vserver name-mapping show


This table is currently empty.
cluster1::>

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195 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
13. Create a name mapping of DEMO\Administrator (specified in the command as “demo\\administrator”) to
root.

cluster1::> vserver name-mapping create -vserver svm1 -direction win-unix -position 1


-pattern demo\\administrator -replacement root
cluster1::>

14. Create a name mapping of root to DEMO\Administrator.

cluster1::> vserver name-mapping create -vserver svm1 -direction unix-win -position 1


-pattern root -replacement demo\\administrator
cluster1::>

15. Display a list of the current name mappings.

cluster1::> vserver name-mapping show

Vserver: svm1
Direction: win-unix
Position Hostname IP Address/Mask
-------- ---------------- ----------------
1 - - Pattern: demo\\administrator
Replacement: root

Vserver: svm1
Direction: unix-win
Position Hostname IP Address/Mask
-------- ---------------- ----------------
1 - - Pattern: root
Replacement: demo\\administrator
2 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

11.2.3 Create a Volume and Map It to the Namespace Using the CLI

Volumes, or FlexVols, are the dynamically sized containers used by ONTAP to store data. A volume only resides
in a single aggregate at a time, but any given aggregate can host multiple volumes. Unlike an aggregate, which
can associate with multiple SVMS, a volume can only associate to a single SVM. The maximum size of a volume
can vary depending on what storage controller model is hosting it.
An SVM can host multiple volumes. While there is no specific limit on the number of FlexVols that can be
configured for a given SVM, each storage controller node is limited to hosting no more than 500 or 1000 FlexVols
(varies based on controller model), which means that there is an effective limit on the total number of volumes
that a cluster can host, depending on how many nodes there are in your cluster.
Each storage controller node has a root aggregate (for example, aggr0_<nodename>) that contains the node's
ONTAP operating system. Do not use the node's root aggregate to host any other volumes or user data; always
create additional aggregates and volumes for that purpose.
ONTAP FlexVols support a number of storage efficiency features including thin provisioning, deduplication, and
compression. One specific storage efficiency feature you will see in the section of the lab is thin provisioning,
which dictates how space for a FlexVol is allocated in its containing aggregate.
When you create a FlexVol with a volume guarantee of type “volume” you are thickly provisioning the volume,
pre-allocating all of the space for the volume on the containing aggregate, which ensures that the volume will
never run out of space unless the volume reaches 100% capacity. When you create a FlexVol with a volume
guarantee of “none” you are thinly provisioning the volume, only allocating space for it on the containing
aggregate at the time and in the quantity that the volume actually requires the space to store the data.
This latter configuration allows you to increase your overall space utilization, and even oversubscribe an
aggregate by allocating more volumes on it than the aggregate could actually accommodate if all the subscribed
volumes reached their full size. However, if an oversubscribed aggregate does fill up then all it's volumes will run
out of space before they reach their maximum volume size, therefore oversubscription deployments generally
require a greater degree of administrative vigilance around space utilization.

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In the Clusters section, you created a new aggregate named “aggr1_cluster1_01”; you will now use that
aggregate to host a new thinly provisioned volume named “engineering” for the SVM named “svm1”.
1. Display basic information about the SVM's current list of volumes:

cluster1::> volume show -vserver svm1


Vserver Volume Aggregate State Type Size Available Used%
--------- ------------ ------------ ---------- ---- ---------- ---------- -----
svm1 svm1_root aggr1_cluster1_01
online RW 20MB 18.75MB 6%

cluster1::>

2. Display the junctions in the SVM's namespace:

cluster1::> volume show -vserver svm1 -junction


Junction Junction
Vserver Volume Language Active Junction Path Path Source
--------- ------------ -------- -------- ------------------------- -----------
svm1 svm1_root C.UTF-8 true / -

cluster1::>

3. Create the volume “engineering”, junctioning it into the namespace at “/engineering”:

cluster1::> volume create -vserver svm1 -volume engineering -aggregate aggr1_cluster1_01


-size 10GB -percent-snapshot-space 5 -space-guarantee none -policy default
-junction-path /engineering
[Job 47] Job is queued: Create engineering.
[Job 47] Job succeeded: Successful

cluster1::>

4. Display a list of svm1's volumes.

cluster1::> volume show -vserver svm1


Vserver Volume Aggregate State Type Size Available Used%
--------- ------------ ------------ ---------- ---- ---------- ---------- -----
svm1 engineering aggr1_cluster1_01 online RW 10GB 9.50GB 5%
svm1 svm1_root aggr1_cluster1_01 online RW 20MB 18.74MB 6%
2 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

5. Display a list of svm1's volume junction points.

cluster1::> volume show -vserver svm1 -junction


Junction Junction
Vserver Volume Language Active Junction Path Path Source
--------- ------------ -------- -------- ------------------------- -----------
svm1 engineering C.UTF-8 true /engineering RW_volume
svm1 svm1_root C.UTF-8 true / -
2 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

6. Create the volume eng_users, junctioning it into the namespace at /engineering/users.

cluster1::> volume create -vserver svm1 -volume eng_users -aggregate aggr1_cluster1_01


-size 10GB -percent-snapshot-space 5 -space-guarantee none -policy default
-junction-path /engineering/users
[Job 48] Job is queued: Create eng_users.
[Job 48] Job succeeded: Successful

cluster1::>

7. Display a list of svm1's volume junction points.

cluster1::> volume show -vserver svm1 -junction


Junction Junction
Vserver Volume Language Active Junction Path Path Source
--------- ------------ -------- -------- ------------------------- -----------
svm1 eng_users C.UTF-8 true /engineering/users RW_volume
svm1 engineering C.UTF-8 true /engineering RW_volume
svm1 svm1_root C.UTF-8 true / -

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3 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

8. Display detailed information about the volume engineering. Notice here that the volume is reporting as
thin provisioned (Space Guarantee Style is set to “none”), and that the Export Policy is set to “default”.

cluster1::> volume show -vserver svm1 -volume engineering -instance

Vserver Name: svm1


Volume Name: engineering
Aggregate Name: aggr1_cluster1_01
List of Aggregates for FlexGroup Constituents: -
Volume Size: 10GB
Volume Data Set ID: 1026
Volume Master Data Set ID: 2147692843
Volume State: online
Volume Style: flex
Extended Volume Style: flexvol
Is Cluster-Mode Volume: true
Is Constituent Volume: false
Export Policy: default
User ID: -
Group ID: -
Security Style: ntfs
UNIX Permissions: ------------
Junction Path: /engineering
Junction Path Source: RW_volume
Junction Active: true
Junction Parent Volume: svm1_root
Comment:
Available Size: 9.50GB
Filesystem Size: 10GB
Total User-Visible Size: 9.50GB
Used Size: 208KB
Used Percentage: 5%
Volume Nearly Full Threshold Percent: 95%
Volume Full Threshold Percent: 98%
Maximum Autosize (for flexvols only): 12GB
Minimum Autosize: 10GB
Autosize Grow Threshold Percentage: 85%
Autosize Shrink Threshold Percentage: 50%
Autosize Mode: off
Total Files (for user-visible data): 311287
Files Used (for user-visible data): 98
Space Guarantee in Effect: true
Space SLO in Effect: true
Space SLO: none
Space Guarantee Style: none
Fractional Reserve: 0%
Volume Type: RW
Snapshot Directory Access Enabled: true
Space Reserved for Snapshot Copies: 5%
Snapshot Reserve Used: 0%
Snapshot Policy: default
Creation Time: Sun Aug 14 00:41:40 2016
Language: C.UTF-8
Clone Volume: false
Node name: cluster1-01
Clone Parent Vserver Name: -
FlexClone Parent Volume: -
NVFAIL Option: off
Volume's NVFAIL State: false
Force NVFAIL on MetroCluster Switchover: off
Is File System Size Fixed: false
(DEPRECATED)-Extent Option: off
Reserved Space for Overwrites: 0B
Primary Space Management Strategy: volume_grow
Read Reallocation Option: off
Naming Scheme for Automatic Snapshot Copies: create_time
Inconsistency in the File System: false
Is Volume Quiesced (On-Disk): false
Is Volume Quiesced (In-Memory): false
Volume Contains Shared or Compressed Data: false
Space Saved by Storage Efficiency: 0B
Percentage Saved by Storage Efficiency: 0%
Space Saved by Deduplication: 0B
Percentage Saved by Deduplication: 0%
Space Shared by Deduplication: 0B

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Space Saved by Compression: 0B
Percentage Space Saved by Compression: 0%
Volume Size Used by Snapshot Copies: 0B
Block Type: 64-bit
Is Volume Moving: false
Flash Pool Caching Eligibility: read-write
Flash Pool Write Caching Ineligibility Reason: -
Managed By Storage Service: -
Create Namespace Mirror Constituents For SnapDiff Use: -
Constituent Volume Role: -
QoS Policy Group Name: -
Caching Policy Name: -
Is Volume Move in Cutover Phase: false
Number of Snapshot Copies in the Volume: 0
VBN_BAD may be present in the active filesystem: false
Is Volume on a hybrid aggregate: false
Total Physical Used Size: 180KB
Physical Used Percentage: 0%
List of Nodes: -
Is Volume a FlexGroup: false
SnapLock Type: non-snaplock
Vserver DR Protection: -

cluster1::>

9. View how much disk space this volume is actually consuming in it's containing aggregate. The “Total
Footprint” value represents the volume's total consumption. The value here is so small because this
volume is thin provisioned, and you have not yet added any data to it. If you had thick provisioned the
volume, then the footprint here would have been 1 GB, the full size of the volume.

cluster1::> volume show-footprint -volume engineering

Vserver : svm1
Volume : engineering

Feature Used Used%


-------------------------------- ---------- -----
Volume Data Footprint 180KB 0%
Volume Guarantee 0B 0%
Flexible Volume Metadata 13.38MB 0%
Delayed Frees 1.74MB 0%

Total Footprint 15.30MB 0%

cluster1::>

10. Create a qtree in the eng_users volume named “bob”.

cluster1::> volume qtree create -vserver svm1 -volume eng_users -qtree bob
cluster1::>

11. Create a qtree in the eng_users volume named “susan”.

cluster1::> volume qtree create -vserver svm1 -volume eng_users -qtree susan
cluster1::>

12. Generate a list of all the qtrees that belong to svm1.

cluster1::> volume qtree show -vserver svm1


Vserver Volume Qtree Style Oplocks Status
---------- ------------- ------------ ------------ --------- --------
svm1 eng_users "" ntfs enable normal
svm1 eng_users bob ntfs enable normal
svm1 eng_users susan ntfs enable normal
svm1 engineering "" ntfs enable normal
svm1 svm1_root "" ntfs enable normal
5 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

13. Produce a detailed report of the configuration for the qtree “bob”.

cluster1::> volume qtree show -qtree bob -instance

Vserver Name: svm1

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199 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
Volume Name: eng_users
Qtree Name: bob
Actual (Non-Junction) Qtree Path: /vol/eng_users/bob
Security Style: ntfs
Oplock Mode: enable
Unix Permissions: -
Qtree Id: 1
Qtree Status: normal
Export Policy: default
Is Export Policy Inherited: true

cluster1::>

11.2.4 Connect to the SVM From a Windows Client

The “svm1” SVM is up and running and is configured for NFS and CIFS access, so it's time to validate that
everything is working properly by mounting the NFS export on a Linux host, and the CIFS share on a Windows
host. You should complete both parts of this section so you can see that both hosts are able to seamlessly access
the volume and it's files.
This part of the lab demonstrates connecting the Windows client Jumphost to the CIFS share \\svm1\nsroot
using the Windows GUI.
1. On the Windows host Jumphost, open Windows Explorer by clicking on the folder icon on the task bar.

Figure 11-1:

A Windows Explorer window opens.


2. In the left pane of Windows Explorer click on This PC.
3. On the menu bar, click on Computer.
4. Click on Map network drive to launch the Map Network Drive wizard.

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200 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
3

4
2

Figure 11-2:

The “Map Network Drive” wizard opens.


5. Set the fields in the window to the following values.
• “Drive:” S:
• “Folder:” \\svm1\nsroot
• Check the Reconnect at sign-in check box.
6. When finished click Finish.

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5

Figure 11-3:

A new Windows Explorer window opens.


7. The engineering volume you earlier junctioned into the svm1's namespace is visible at the top of the
nsroot share, which points to the root of the namespace. If you created another volume on svm1 right
now and mounted it under the root of the namespace, that new volume would instantly become visible
in this share, and to clients like Jumphost that have already mounted the share. Double-click on the
engineering folder to open it.

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202 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
7

Figure 11-4:

File Explorer displays the contents of the engineering folder. Next you will create a file in this folder to
confirm that you can write to it.
8. Notice that the “eng_users” volume that you junctioned in as “users” is visible inside this folder.
9. Right-click in the empty space in the right pane of File Explorer.
10. In the context menu, select New > Text Document, and name the resulting file “cifs.txt”.

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203 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
8

10

Figure 11-5:

11. Double-click the cifs.txt file you just created to open it with Notepad.
Tip: If you do not see file extensions in your lab, you can enable that by going to the View
menu at the top of Windows Explorer and checking the File Name Extensions check box.
12. In Notepad, enter some text. Ensure that you put a carriage return at the end of the line, otherwise
when you later view the contents of this file on Linux the command shell prompt will appear on the
same line as the file contents.
13. Use the File > Save menu in Notepad to save the file's updated contents to the share. If write access
is working properly then the save operation will complete silently (i.e., you will not receive an error
message).

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11

13

12

Figure 11-6:

Close Notepad and the File Explorer windows to finish this exercise.

11.2.5 Connect to the SVM From a Linux Client

This section demonstrates how to connect a Linux client to the NFS volume svm1:/ using the Linux command line.
1. Follow the instructions in the “Accessing the Command Line” section at the beginning of this lab guide to
open PuTTY and connect to the system rhel1. Log in as the user root with the password Netapp1!.
2. Verify that there are no NFS volumes currently mounted on rhel1.

[root@rhel1 ~]# df
Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/vg_rhel1-lv_root 11877388 4962504 6311544 45% /
tmpfs 444612 76 444536 1% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1 495844 40084 430160 9% /boot
[root@rhel1 ~]#

3. Create the /svm1 directory to serve as a mount point for the NFS volume you will be shortly mounting.

[root@rhel1 ~]# mkdir /svm1


[root@rhel1 ~]#

4. Add an entry for the NFS mount to the fstab file.

[root@rhel1 ~]# echo "svm1:/ /svm1 nfs rw,defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
[root@rhel1 ~]#

5. Verify the fstab file contains the new entry you just created.

[root@rhel1 ~]# grep svm1 /etc/fstab


svm1:/ /svm1 nfs rw,defaults 0 0
[root@rhel1 ~]#

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6. Mount all the file systems listed in the fstab file.

[root@rhel1 ~]# mount -a


[root@rhel1 ~]#

7. View a list of the mounted file systems.

[root@rhel1 ~]# df
Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/vg_rhel1-lv_root 11877388 4962508 6311540 45% /
tmpfs 444612 76 444536 1% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1 495844 40084 430160 9% /boot
svm1:/ 19456 128 19328 1% /svm1
[root@rhel1 ~]#

The NFS file system svm1:/ now shows as mounted on /svm1.


8. Navigate into the /svm1 directory.

[root@rhel1 ~]# cd /svm1


[root@rhel1 svm1]#

9. Notice that you can see the engineering volume that you previously junctioned into the SVM's
namespace.

[root@rhel1 svm1]# ls
engineering
[root@rhel1 svm1]#

10. Navigate into engineering and list it's contents.


Attention: The following command output assumes that you have already performed the
Windows client connection steps found earlier in this lab guide, including creating the cifs.txt file.

[root@rhel1 svm1]# cd engineering


[root@rhel1 engineering]# ls
cifs.txt users
[root@rhel1 engineering]#

11. Display the contents of the cifs.txt file you created earlier.
Tip: When you cat the cifs.txt file, if the shell prompt winds up on the same line as the file
output then that indicates that you forgot to include a newline at the end of the file when you
created the file on Windows.

[root@rhel1 engineering]# cat cifs.txt


write test from Jumphost
[root@rhel1 engineering]#

12. Verify that you can create file in this directory.

[root@rhel1 engineering]# echo "write test from rhel1" > nfs.txt


[root@rhel1 engineering]# cat nfs.txt
write test from rhel1
[root@rhel1 engineering]# ll
total 4
-rwxrwxrwx 1 root bin 26 Oct 20 03:05 cifs.txt
-rwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 Oct 20 03:06 nfs.txt
drwxrwxrwx 4 root root 4096 Oct 20 02:37 users
[root@rhel1 engineering]#

11.2.6 NFS Exporting Qtrees (Optional)

ONTAP 8.2.1 introduced the ability to NFS export qtrees. This optional section explains how to configure qtree
exports and will demonstrate how to set different export rules for a given qtree. For this exercise you will be
working with the qtrees you created in the previous section.
Qtrees had many capabilities in Data ONTAP 7-mode that are no longer present in cluster mode. Qtrees do still
exist in ONTAP, but their purpose is essentially now limited to just quota management, with most other 7-mode

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qtree features, including NFS exports, now the exclusive purview of volumes. This functionality change created
challenges for 7-mode customers with large numbers of NFS qtree exports who were trying to transition to cluster
mode and could not convert those qtrees to volumes because they would exceed ONTAP's maximum number of
volumes limit.
To solve this problem, ONTAP 8.2.1 introduced qtree NFS. NetApp continues to recommend that customers favor
volumes over qtrees in cluster mode whenever practical, but customers requiring large numbers of qtree NFS
exports now have a supported solution under ONTAP.
You need to create a new export policy and configure it with rules so that only the Linux host rhel1 will be granted
access to the associated volume and/or qtree.
1. Display a list of the export policies.

cluster1::> vserver export-policy show


Vserver Policy Name
--------------- -------------------
svm1 default
cluster1::>

2. Create the export policy named “rhel1-only”.

cluster1::> vserver export-policy create -vserver svm1 -policyname rhel1-only


cluster1::>

3. Re-display the list of export policies.

cluster1::> vserver export-policy show


Vserver Policy Name
--------------- -------------------
svm1 default
svm1 rhel1-only
2 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

4. Display a list of the rules for the “rhel1-only” export policy.

cluster1::> vserver export-policy rule show -vserver svm1 -policyname rhel1-only


There are no entries matching your query.
cluster1::>

5. Add a rule to the policy so that only the Linux host rhel1 will be granted access.

cluster1::> vserver export-policy rule create -vserver svm1 -policyname rhel1-only


-clientmatch 192.168.0.61 -rorule any -rwrule any -superuser any -anon 65534
-ruleindex 1

cluster1::>

6. Display a list of all the export policy rules.

cluster1::> vserver export-policy rule show


Policy Rule Access Client RO
Vserver Name Index Protocol Match Rule
------------ --------------- ------ -------- --------------------- ---------
svm1 default 1 cifs, 0.0.0.0/0 any
nfs
svm1 rhel1-only 1 any 192.168.0.61 any
2 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

7. Display a detailed report of the rhel1-only export policy rules.

cluster1::> vserver export-policy rule show -vserver svm1


-policyname rhel1-only -instance

Vserver: svm1
Policy Name: rhel1-only
Rule Index: 1
Access Protocol: any
List of Client Match Hostnames, IP Addresses, Netgroups, or Domains: 192.168.0.61

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RO Access Rule: any
RW Access Rule: any
User ID To Which Anonymous Users Are Mapped: 65534
Superuser Security Types: any
Honor SetUID Bits in SETATTR: true
Allow Creation of Devices: true

cluster1::>

8. Produce a list of svm1's export policies.

cluster1::> vserver export-policy show


Vserver Policy Name
--------------- -------------------
svm1 default
svm1 rhel1-only
2 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

9. List svm1's qtrees.

cluster1::> volume qtree show


Vserver Volume Qtree Style Oplocks Status
---------- ------------- ------------ ------------ --------- --------
svm1 eng_users "" ntfs enable normal
svm1 eng_users bob ntfs enable normal
svm1 eng_users susan ntfs enable normal
svm1 engineering "" ntfs enable normal
svm1 svm1_root "" ntfs enable normal
5 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

10. Apply the rhel1-only export policy to the “susan” qtree.

cluster1::> volume qtree modify -vserver svm1 -volume eng_users -qtree susan
-export-policy rhel1-only

cluster1::>

11. Display the configuration of the “susan” qtree. Notice the Export Policy field shows that this qtree is
using the “rhel1-only” export policy.

cluster1::> volume qtree show -vserver svm1 -volume eng_users -qtree susan

Vserver Name: svm1


Volume Name: eng_users
Qtree Name: susan
Actual (Non-Junction) Qtree Path: /vol/eng_users/susan
Security Style: ntfs
Oplock Mode: enable
Unix Permissions: -
Qtree Id: 2
Qtree Status: normal
Export Policy: rhel1-only
Is Export Policy Inherited: false

cluster1::>

12. Produce a report showing the export policy assignments for all the volumes and qtrees that belong to
svm1.

cluster1::> volume qtree show -vserver svm1 -fields export-policy


vserver volume qtree export-policy
------- --------- ----- -------------
svm1 eng_users "" default
svm1 eng_users bob default
svm1 eng_users susan rhel1-only
svm1 engineering
"" default
svm1 svm1_root "" default
5 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

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Now you need to validate that the more restrictive export policy that you've applied to the qtree susan is
working as expected from rhel1.
Note: If you still have an active PuTTY session open to the Linux host rhel1 then bring that
window up now, otherwise open a new PuTTY session to that host (username = root, password
= Netapp1!).
13. Change directory to /svm1/engineering/users.

[root@rhel1 ~]# cd /svm1/engineering/users


[root@rhel1 users]#

14. List the directory contents.

[root@rhel1 users]# ls
bob susan
[root@rhel1 users]#

15. Enter the susan sub-directory.

[root@rhel1 users]# cd susan


[root@rhel1 susan]#

16. Create a file in this directory.

[root@rhel1 susan]# echo "hello from rhel1" > rhel1.txt


[root@rhel1 susan]#

17. Display the contents of the newly created file.

[root@rhel1 susan]# cat rhel1.txt


hello from rhel1
[root@rhel1 susan]#

Next validate that rhel2 has different access rights to the qtree. This host should be able to access
all the volumes and qtrees in the svm1 namespace *except* “susan”, which should give a permission
denied error because that qtree's associated export policy only grants access to the host rhel1.
Note: Open a PuTTY connection to the Linux host rhel2 (again, username = root and password
= Netapp1!).
18. Create a mount point for the svm1 NFS volume.

[root@rhel2 ~]# mkdir /svm1


[root@rhel2 ~]#

19. Mount the NFS volume svm1:/ on /svm1.

[root@rhel2 ~]# mount svm1:/ /svm1


[root@rhel2 ~]#

20. Change directory to /svm1/engineering/users.

[root@rhel2 ~]# cd /svm1/engineering/users


[root@rhel2 users]#

21. List the directory's contents.

[root@rhel2 users]# ls
bob susan
[root@rhel2 users]#

22. Attempt to enter the “susan” sub-directory.

[root@rhel2 users]# cd susan


bash: cd: susan: Permission denied
[root@rhel2 users]#

23. Attempt to enter the “bob” sub-directory.

[root@rhel2 users]# cd bob

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[root@rhel2 bob]

11.3 Create Storage for iSCSI


Expected Completion Time: 50 Minutes
This section of the lab is optional, and includes instructions for mounting a LUN on Windows and Linux. If you
choose to complete this section you must first complete the “Create a Storage Virtual Machine for iSCSI” section,
and then complete either the “Create, Map, and Mount a Windows LUN” section, or the “Create, Map, and Mount
a Linux LUN” section as appropriate based on your platform of interest.
The 50 minute time estimate assumes you complete only one of the Windows or Linux LUN sections. You are
welcome to complete both of those section if you choose, but you should plan on needing approximately 90
minutes to complete the entire “Create and Mount a LUN” section.
If you skipped the “Create a Storage Virtual Machine for NFS and CIFS” portion of this lab, consider reviewing the
introductory text found at the beginning of that section, and each of it's subsections, before you proceed further on
this exercise because this section builds on concepts introduced there.
In this section you are going to create another SVM and configure it for SAN protocols, which means you are
going to configure the SVM for iSCSI since this virtualized lab does not support FC. The configuration steps for
iSCSI and FC are similar, so the information provided here is also useful for FC deployment. After you create a
new SVM and configure it for iSCSI, you will create a LUN for Windows and/or a LUN for Linux, and then mount
the LUN(s) on their respective hosts.
NetApp supports configuring an SVM to serve data over both SAN and NAS protocols, but it is common to see
customers use separate SVMs for each in order to separate administrative responsibilities, or for architectural
and operational clarity. For example, SAN protocols do not support LIF failover, so you cannot use NAS LIFs to
support SAN protocols. You must instead create dedicated LIFs just for SAN. Implementing separate SVMs for
SAN and NAS can in this example simplify the operational complexity of each SVM's configuration, making each
easier to understand and manage, but ultimately whether to mix or separate is a customer decision, and not a
NetApp recommendation.
Since SAN LIFs do not support migration to different nodes, an SVM must have dedicated SAN LIFs on every
node that you want to service SAN requests, and you must utilize MPIO and ALUA to manage the controller's
available paths to the LUNs. In the event of a path disruption MPIO and ALUA will compensate by re-routing the
LUN communication over an alternate controller path (i.e., over a different SAN LIF).
NetApp best practice is to configure at least one SAN LIF per storage fabric/network on each node in the cluster
so that all nodes can provide a path to the LUNs. In large clusters where this would result in the presentation of
a large number of paths for a given LUN we recommend that you use portsets to limit the LUN to seeing no more
than 8 LIFs. ONTAP 8.3 introduced a new Selective LUN Mapping (SLM) feature to provide further assistance in
managing fabric paths. SLM limits LUN path access to just the node that owns the LUN and its HA partner, and
ONTAP automatically applies SLM to all new LUN map operations.
In this lab the cluster contains two nodes connected to a single storage network. You will still configure a total of 4
SAN LIFs, because it is common to see implementations with 2 paths per node for redundancy.
This section of the lab allows you to create and mount a LUN for only Windows, only Linux, or both if you desire.
Both the Windows and Linux LUN creation steps require that you complete the “Create a Storage Virtual Machine
for iSCSI” section that comes next. If you want to create a Windows LUN, you need to complete the “Create, Map,
and Mount a Windows LUN” section that follows. Additionally, if you want to create a Linux LUN, you need to
complete the “Create, Map, and Mount a Linux LUN” section that follows after that. You can safely complete both
of those last two sections in the same lab.

11.3.1 Create a Storage Virtual Machine for iSCSI

If you do not already have a PuTTY session open to cluster1, open one now following the instructions in the
“Accessing the Command Line” section at the beginning of this lab guide and enter the following commands.

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1. Display the available aggregates so you can decide which one you want to use to host the root volume
for the SVM you are creating.

cluster1::> aggr show

Aggregate Size Available Used% State #Vols Nodes RAID Status


--------- -------- --------- ----- ------- ------ ---------------- ------------
aggr0_cluster1_01 97.28GB 52.21GB 46% online 1 cluster1-01 raid_dp,
normal
aggr0_cluster1_02 97.28GB 52.21GB 46% online 1 cluster1-02 raid_dp,
normal
aggr1_cluster1_01 38.18GB 38.12GB 0% online 3 cluster1-01 raid_dp,
normal
aggr1_cluster1_02 38.18GB 38.18GB 0% online 0 cluster1-02 raid_dp,
normal
4 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

2. Create the SVM svmluns on aggregate aggr1_cluster1_01. Note that the ONTAP command line syntax
still refers to storage virtual machines as vservers.

cluster1::> vserver create -vserver svmluns -rootvolume svmluns_root


-aggregate aggr1_cluster1_01 -language C.UTF-8 -rootvolume-security-style unix
-snapshot-policy default
[Job 52] Job is queued: Create svmluns.
[Job 52] Job succeeded:
Vserver creation completed

cluster1::>

3. Add the iSCSI protocol to the SVM “svmluns”.

cluster1::> vserver iscsi create -vserver svmluns


cluster1::>

4. Display svmlun's configured protocols.

cluster1::> vserver show-protocols -vserver svmluns


Vserver: svmluns
Protocols: nfs, cifs, fcp, iscsi, ndmp
cluster1::>

5. Remove all the protocols other than iscsi.

cluster1::> vserver remove-protocols -vserver svmluns -protocols nfs,cifs,fcp,ndmp


cluster1::>

6. Display the configured protocols for svmluns.

cluster1::> vserver show-protocols -vserver svmluns


Vserver: svmluns
Protocols: iscsi
cluster1::>

7. Display detailed configuration for the svmlun SVM.

cluster1::> vserver show -vserver svmluns

Vserver: svmluns
Vserver Type: data
Vserver Subtype: default
Vserver UUID: fe75684a-61c8-11e6-b805-005056986697
Root Volume: svmluns_root
Aggregate: aggr1_cluster1_01
NIS Domain: -
Root Volume Security Style: unix
LDAP Client: -
Default Volume Language Code: C.UTF-8
Snapshot Policy: default
Comment:
Quota Policy: default
List of Aggregates Assigned: -
Limit on Maximum Number of Volumes allowed: unlimited
Vserver Admin State: running

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Vserver Operational State: running
Vserver Operational State Stopped Reason: -
Allowed Protocols: iscsi
Disallowed Protocols: nfs, cifs, fcp, ndmp
Is Vserver with Infinite Volume: false
QoS Policy Group: -
Caching Policy Name: -
Config Lock: false
IPspace Name: Default
Foreground Process: -

cluster1::>

8. Create 4 SAN LIFs for the SVM svmluns, 2 per node. To save some typing, remember that you can use
the up arrow to recall previous commands that you can then edit and execute.

cluster1::> network interface create -vserver svmluns -lif cluster1-01_iscsi_lif_1


-role data -data-protocol iscsi -home-node cluster1-01 -home-port e0d -subnet-name Demo
-failover-policy disabled -firewall-policy data

cluster1::> network interface create -vserver svmluns -lif cluster1-01_iscsi_lif_2


-role data -data-protocol iscsi -home-node cluster1-01 -home-port e0e -subnet-name Demo
-failover-policy disabled -firewall-policy data

cluster1::> network interface create -vserver svmluns -lif cluster1-02_iscsi_lif_1


-role data -data-protocol iscsi -home-node cluster1-02 -home-port e0d -subnet-name Demo
-failover-policy disabled -firewall-policy data

cluster1::> network interface create -vserver svmluns -lif cluster1-02_iscsi_lif_2


-role data -data-protocol iscsi -home-node cluster1-02 -home-port e0e -subnet-name Demo
-failover-policy disabled -firewall-policy data
cluster1::>

9. Now create a Management Interface LIF for the SVM.

cluster1::> network interface create -vserver svmluns -lif svmluns_admin_lif1 -role data
-data-protocol none -home-node cluster1-01 -home-port e0c -subnet-name Demo
-failover-policy system-defined -firewall-policy mgmt

cluster1::>

10. Display a list of the LIFs in the cluster.

cluster1::> network interface show


Logical Status Network Current Current Is
Vserver Interface Admin/Oper Address/Mask Node Port Home
----------- ---------- ---------- ------------------ ------------- ------- ----
Cluster
cluster1-01_clus1 up/up 169.254.102.151/16 cluster1-01 e0a true
cluster1-01_clus2 up/up 169.254.95.159/16 cluster1-01 e0b true
cluster1-02_clus1 up/up 169.254.78.229/16 cluster1-02 e0a true
cluster1-02_clus2 up/up 169.254.100.67/16 cluster1-02 e0b true
cluster1
cluster1-01_mgmt1 up/up 192.168.0.111/24 cluster1-01 e0c true
cluster1-02_mgmt1 up/up 192.168.0.112/24 cluster1-02 e0c true
cluster_mgmt up/up 192.168.0.101/24 cluster1-01 e0c true
svm1
svm1_cifs_nfs_lif1 up/up 192.168.0.131/24 cluster1-01 e0c true
svm1_cifs_nfs_lif2 up/up 192.168.0.132/24 cluster1-02 e0c true
svmluns
cluster1-01_iscsi_lif_1 up/up 192.168.0.133/24 cluster1-01 e0d true
cluster1-01_iscsi_lif_2 up/up 192.168.0.134/24 cluster1-01 e0e true
cluster1-02_iscsi_lif_1 up/up 192.168.0.135/24 cluster1-02 e0d true
cluster1-02_iscsi_lif_2 up/up 192.168.0.136/24 cluster1-02 e0e true
svmluns_admin_lif1 up/up 192.168.0.137/24 cluster1-01 e0c true
14 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

11. Display detailed information for the LIF cluster1-01_iscsi_lif_1.

cluster1::> network interface show -lif cluster1-01_iscsi_lif_1 -instance

Vserver Name: svmluns


Logical Interface Name: cluster1-01_iscsi_lif_1
Role: data
Data Protocol: iscsi

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Home Node: cluster1-01
Home Port: e0d
Current Node: cluster1-01
Current Port: e0d
Operational Status: up
Extended Status: -
Is Home: true
Network Address: 192.168.0.133
Netmask: 255.255.255.0
Bits in the Netmask: 24
Subnet Name: Demo
Administrative Status: up
Failover Policy: disabled
Firewall Policy: data
Auto Revert: false
Fully Qualified DNS Zone Name: none
DNS Query Listen Enable: false
Failover Group Name: -
FCP WWPN: -
Address family: ipv4
Comment: -
IPspace of LIF: Default
Is Dynamic DNS Update Enabled?: false

cluster1::>

12. Display a list of all the volumes on the cluster to see the root volume for the svmluns SVM.

cluster1::> volume show


Vserver Volume Aggregate State Type Size Available Used%
--------- ------------ ------------ ---------- ---- ---------- ---------- -----
cluster1-01 vol0 aggr0_cluster1_01 online RW 44.82GB 41.56GB 7%
cluster1-02 vol0 aggr0_cluster1_02 online RW 44.82GB 41.64GB 7%
svm1 eng_users aggr1_cluster1_01 online RW 10GB 9.50GB 5%
svm1 engineering aggr1_cluster1_01 online RW 10GB 9.50GB 5%
svm1 svm1_root aggr1_cluster1_01 online RW 20MB 18.64MB 6%
svmluns svmluns_root aggr1_cluster1_01 online RW 20MB 18.83MB 5%
6 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

11.3.2 Create, Map, and Mount a Windows LUN

In an earlier section you created a new SVM and configured it for iSCSI. In the following sub-sections you will
perform the remaining steps needed to configure and use a LUN under Windows:
• Gather the iSCSI Initiator Name of the Windows client.
• Create a thin provisioned Windows volume, create a thin provisioned Windows LUN within that volume,
and map the LUN so it can be accessed by the Windows client.
• Mount the LUN on a Windows client leveraging multi-pathing.
You must complete all of the subsections of this section in order to use the LUN from the Windows client.

11.3.2.1 Gather the Windows Client iSCSI Initiator Name


You need to determine the Windows client's iSCSI initiator name so that when you create the LUN you can set up
an appropriate initiator group to control access to the LUN.
On the desktop of the Windows client named “Jumphost” (the main Windows host you use in the lab), perform the
following tasks:
1. Click on the Windows button on the far left side of the task bar.

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Figure 11-7:

The “Start” screen opens.


2. Click on Administrative Tools.

Figure 11-8:

Windows Explorer opens to the List of Administrative Tools.


3. Double-click the entry for the iSCSI Initiator tool.

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Figure 11-9:

The “iSCSI Initiator Properties” window opens.


4. Select the Configuration tab.
5. Take note of the value in the “Initiator Name” field, which contains the initiator name for Jumphost.
Attention: The initiator name is “iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:Jumphost.demo.netapp.com”.
You will need this value later, so you might want to copy this value from the properties window
and paste it into a text file on your lab's desktop so you have it readily available when that time
comes.
6. Click OK.

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4

Figure 11-10:

The “iSCSI Properties” window closes, and focus returns to the “Windows Explorer Administrator Tools”
window. Leave this window open because you will need to access other tools later in the lab.

11.3.2.2 Create and Map a Windows LUN


You will now create a new thin provisioned Windows LUN named “windows.lun” in the volume winluns on
the SVM “svmluns”. You will also create an initiator igroup for the LUN and populate it with the Windows host
Jumphost. An initiator group, or igroup, defines a list of the Fibre Channel WWPNs or iSCSI node names of the
hosts that are permitted to see and access the associated LUNs.

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1. If you do not already have a PuTTY connection open to cluster1 then please open one now following the
instructions in the “Accessing the Command Line” section at the beginning of this lab guide.
2. Create the volume “winluns” to host the Windows LUN you will be creating in a later step.

cluster1::> volume create -vserver svmluns -volume winluns -aggregate aggr1_cluster1_01


-size 10.31GB -percent-snapshot-space 0 -snapshot-policy none -space-guarantee none
-autosize-mode grow -nvfail on

Warning: The export-policy "default" has no rules in it. The volume will therefore be
inaccessible.
Do you want to continue? {y|n}: y
[Job 53] Job is queued: Create winluns.
[Job 53] Job succeeded: Successful

cluster1::>

Note: Remember that export policies are only applicable for NAS protocols. You can ignore the
warning that the default policy has no rules since the svmluns SVM is only configured for the iscsi
protocol.
3. Display a list of the volumes on the cluster.

cluster1::> volume show


Vserver Volume Aggregate State Type Size Available Used%
--------- ------------ ------------ ---------- ---- ---------- ---------- -----
cluster1-01 vol0 aggr0_cluster1_01 online RW 44.82GB 41.51GB 7%
cluster1-02 vol0 aggr0_cluster1_02 online RW 44.82GB 41.60GB 7%
svm1 eng_users aggr1_cluster1_01 online RW 10GB 9.50GB 5%
svm1 engineering aggr1_cluster1_01 online RW 10GB 9.50GB 5%
svm1 svm1_root aggr1_cluster1_01 online RW 20MB 18.62MB 6%
svmluns svmluns_root aggr1_cluster1_01 online RW 20MB 18.80MB 6%
svmluns winluns aggr1_cluster1_01 online RW 10.31GB 10.31GB 0%
7 entries were displayed.

cluster1::>

4. Create the Windows LUN named “windows.lun”.

cluster1::> lun create -vserver svmluns -volume winluns -lun windows.lun


-size 10GB -ostype windows_2008 -space-reserve disabled

Created a LUN of size 10g (10742215680)

cluster1::>

5. Add a comment to the LUN definition.

cluster1::> lun modify -vserver svmluns -volume winluns -lun windows.lun


-comment "Windows LUN"
cluster1::>

6. Display the LUNs on the cluster.

cluster1::> lun show


Vserver Path State Mapped Type Size
--------- ------------------------------- ------- -------- -------- --------
svmluns /vol/winluns/windows.lun online mapped windows_2008 10.00GB

cluster1::>

7. Display a list of the defined igroups.

cluster1::> igroup show


This table is currently empty.
cluster1::>

8. Create a new igroup named “winigrp” that you will use to manage access to the new LUN, and add
Jumphost's initiator to the group.

cluster1::> igroup create -vserver svmluns -igroup winigrp -protocol iscsi


-ostype windows -initiator iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:Jumphost.demo.netapp.com

cluster1::>

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9. Verify the winigrp igroup's existence and member initiator..

cluster1::> igroup show


Vserver Igroup Protocol OS Type Initiators
--------- ------------ -------- -------- ------------------------------------
svmluns winigrp iscsi windows iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:Jumphost.
demo.netapp.com
cluster1::>

10. Map the LUN “windows.lun” to the igroup “winigrp”.

cluster1::> lun map -vserver svmluns -volume winluns -lun windows.lun -igroup winigrp
cluster1::>

11. Display a list of all the LUNs.

cluster1::> lun show


Vserver Path State Mapped Type Size
--------- ------------------------------- ------- -------- -------- --------
svmluns /vol/winluns/windows.lun online mapped windows_2008 10.00GB

cluster1::>

12. Display a list of all the mapped LUNs.

cluster1::> lun mapped show


Vserver Path Igroup LUN ID Protocol
---------- ---------------------------------------- ------- ------ --------
svmluns /vol/winluns/windows.lun winigrp 0 iscsi

cluster1::>

13. Display a detailed report on the configuration of the LUN “windows.lun”.

cluster1::> lun show -lun windows.lun -instance

Vserver Name: svmluns


LUN Path: /vol/winluns/windows.lun
Volume Name: winluns
Qtree Name: ""
LUN Name: windows.lun
LUN Size: 10.00GB
OS Type: windows_2008
Space Reservation: disabled
Serial Number: wOj4s$Ibz8j7
Serial Number (Hex): 774f6a34732449627a386a37
Comment: Windows LUN
Space Reservations Honored: false
Space Allocation: disabled
State: online
LUN UUID: 93eb15f3-fd69-486b-8b1e-00d186153381
Mapped: mapped
Block Size: 512
Device Legacy ID: -
Device Binary ID: -
Device Text ID: -
Read Only: false
Fenced Due to Restore: false
Used Size: 0
Maximum Resize Size: 502.0GB
Creation Time: 8/14/2016 03:23:50
Class: regular
Node Hosting the LUN: cluster1-01
QoS Policy Group: -
Caching Policy Name: -
Clone: false
Clone Autodelete Enabled: false
Inconsistent Import: false

cluster1::>

ONTAP 8.2 introduced a space reclamation feature that allows ONTAP to reclaim space from a thin
provisioned LUN when the client deletes data from it, and also allows ONTAP to notify the client when
the LUN cannot accept writes due to lack of space on the volume. This feature is supported by VMware
ESX 5.0 and later, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 and later, and Microsoft Windows 2012. Jumphost is

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running Windows 2012R2 and so you will enable the space reclamation feature for your Windows LUN.
You can only enable space reclamation through the Data ONTAP command line.
14. In the cluster1 CLI, view whether space reclamation is enabled for the LUN.

cluster1::> lun show -vserver svmluns -path /vol/winluns/windows.lun


-fields space-allocation
vserver path space-allocation
------- ------------------------ ----------------
svmluns /vol/winluns/windows.lun disabled

cluster1::>

15. Enable space reclamation for the LUN “windows.lun”.

cluster1::> lun modify -vserver svmluns -path /vol/winluns/windows.lun


-space-allocation enabled

cluster1::>

16. View the LUN's space reclamation setting again.

cluster1::> lun show -vserver svmluns -path /vol/winluns/windows.lun


-fields space-allocation
vserver path space-allocation
------- ------------------------ ----------------
svmluns /vol/winluns/windows.lun enabled

cluster1::>

11.3.2.3 Mount the LUN on a Windows Client


The final step is to mount the LUN on the Windows client. You will be using MPIO/ALUA to support multiple
paths to the LUN using both of the SAN LIFs you configured earlier on the svmluns SVM. Data ONTAP DSM for
Windows MPIO is the multi-pathing software you will be using for this lab, and that software is already installed on
Jumphost.
You should begin by validating that the Multi-Path I/O (MPIO) software is working properly on this windows host.
The Administrative Tools window should still be open on Jumphost; if you already closed it then you will need to
re-open it now so you can access the MPIO tool
1. On the desktop of JUMPHOST, in the “Administrative Tools” window which you should still have open
from a previous exercise, double-click the MPIO tool.

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1

Figure 11-11:

The “MPIO Properties” window opens.


2. Select the Discover Multi-Paths tab.
3. Examine the Add Support for iSCSI devices checkbox. If this checkbox is NOT greyed out then MPIO
is improperly configured. This checkbox should be greyed out for this lab, but in the event it is not then
place a check in that checkbox, click the Add button, and then click Yes in the reboot dialog to reboot
your Windows host. Once the system finishes rebooting, return to this window to verify that the checkbox
is now greyed out, indicating that MPIO is properly configured.
4. Click Cancel.

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Figure 11-12:

The “MPIO Properties” window closes and focus returns to the “Administrative Tools” window for
Jumphost. Now you need to begin the process of connecting Jumphost to the LUN.
5. In “Administrative Tools”, double-click the iSCSI Initiator tool.

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Figure 11-13:

The “iSCSI Initiator Properties” window opens.


6. Select the Targets tab.
7. Notice that there are no targets listed in the “Discovered Targets” list box, indicating that are currently no
iSCSI targets mapped to this host.
8. Click the Discovery tab.

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6

Figure 11-14:

The Discovery tab is where you begin the process of discovering LUNs, and to do that you must define
a target portal to scan. You are going to manually add a target portal to Jumphost.
9. Click the Discover Portal… button.

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9

Figure 11-15:

The “Discover Target Portal” window opens. Here you will specify the first of the IP addresses that the
ONTAP Create LUN wizard assigned your iSCSI LIFs when you created the svmluns SVM. Recall that
the wizard assigned your LIFs IP addresses in the range 192.168.0.133-192.168.0.136.
10. Set the “IP Address or DNS name” textbox to 192.168.0.133, the first address in the range for your
LIFs.
11. Click OK.

10

11
Figure 11-16:

The “Discover Target Portal” window closes, and focus returns to the “iSCSI Initiator Properties”
window.
12. The “Target Portals” list now contains an entry for the IP address you entered in the previous step.
13. Click on the Targets tab.

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12

Figure 11-17:

The Targets tab opens to show you the list of discovered targets.
14. In the “Discovered targets” list select the only listed target. Observe that the target's status is Inactive,
because although you have discovered it you have not yet connected to it. Also note that the “Name” of
the discovered target in your lab will have a different value than what you see in this guide; that name
string is uniquely generated for each instance of the lab.
Note: Make a mental note of that string value as you will see it a lot as you continue to
configure iSCSI in later steps of this procedure.
15. Click the Connect button.

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Figure 11-18:

The “Connect to Target” dialog box opens.


16. Click the Enable multi-path checkbox,.
17. Click the Advanced… button.

16

17

Figure 11-19:

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The “Advanced Settings” window opens.
18. In the “Target portal IP” dropdown menu select the entry containing the IP address you specified when
you discovered the target portal, which should be 192.168.0.133. The listed values are IP Address and
Port number combinations, and the specific value you want to select here is 192.168.0.133 / 3260.
19. When finished, click OK.

18

19

Figure 11-20:

The “Advanced Setting” window closes, and focus returns to the “Connect to Target” window.
20. Click OK.

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20

Figure 11-21:

The “Connect to Target” window closes, and focus returns to the “iSCSI Initiator Properties” window.
21. Notice that the status of the listed discovered target has changed from “Inactive” to “Connected”.

21

Figure 11-22:

Up to this point you have added a single path to your iSCSI LUN, using the address for the
cluster1-01_iscsi_lif_1 LIF the “Create LUN” wizard created on the node cluster1-01 for the svmluns
SVM. Now you are going to add each of the other SAN LIFs present on the svmluns SVM. To begin this
procedure you must first edit the properties of your existing connection.
22. Still on the “Targets” tab, select the discovered target entry for your existing connection.
23. Click Properties.

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23

Figure 11-23:

The Properties window opens. From this window you will start to connect alternate paths for your newly
connected LUN. You will repeat this procedure 3 times, once for each of the remaining LIFs that are
present on the svmluns SVM.

LIF IP Address Done


192.168.0.134
192.168.0.135
192.168.0.136
24. The Identifier list contains an entry for every path you have specified so far, so it can serve as a visual
indicator of your progress for specifying all your paths. The first time you enter this window you will see
one entry, for the LIF you used to first connect to this LUN. When you are done you will see four entries
in this window.
25. Click Add Session.

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24 25

Figure 11-24:

The “Connect to Target” window opens.


26. Check the Enable muti-path checkbox.
27. Click Advanced….

26
27

Figure 11-25:

The “Advanced Setting” window opens.


28. Select the “Target port IP” entry that contains the IP address of the LIF whose path you are adding in
this iteration of the procedure as an alternate path. The following screenshot shows the 192.168.0.134
address, but the value you specify depends of which specific path you are configuring.
29. When finished, click OK.

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28

29

Figure 11-26:

The “Advanced Settings” window closes, and focus returns to the “Connect to Target” window.
30. Click OK.

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30

Figure 11-27:

The “Connect to Target” window closes, and focus returns to the “Properties” window where there are
now 2 entries shown in the identifier list.
Repeat steps 24 - 30 for each of the last two remaining LIF IP addresses. When you have finished
adding all the additional paths the Identifiers list in the Properties window should contain 4 entries.
31. There are 4 entries in the Identifier list when you are finished, indicating that there are 4 sessions,
one for each path. Note that it is normal for the identifier values in your lab to differ from those in the
screenshot.
32. Click OK.

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31

32

Figure 11-28:

The “Properties” window closes, and focus returns to the “iSCSI Properties” window.
33. Click OK.

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Figure 11-29:

The “iSCSI Properties” window closes, and focus returns to the desktop of Jumphost. If the
“Administrative Tools” window is not still open on your desktop, open it again now.
If all went well, the Jumphost is now connected to the LUN using multi-pathing, so it is time to format
your LUN and build a filesystem on it.
34. In “Administrative Tools”, double-click the Computer Management tool.

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34

Figure 11-30:

The “Computer Management” window opens.


35. In the left pane of the “Computer Management” window, navigate to Computer Management (Local) >
Storage > Disk Management.

35

Figure 11-31:

36. When you launch Disk Management, an “Initialize Disk” dialog will open informing you that you must
initialize a new disk before Logical Disk Manager can access it.
Note: If you see more than one disk listed, then MPIO has not correctly recognized that the
multiple paths you set up are all for the same LUN. If this occurs, you need to cancel the
Initialize Disk dialog, quit Computer Manager, and go back to the iSCSI Initiator tool to review

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your path configuration steps to find and correct any configuration errors, after which you can
return to the Computer Management tool and try again.
Click OK to initialize the disk.

36

Figure 11-32:

The “Initialize Disk” window closes, and focus returns to the “Disk Management” view in the Computer
Management window.
37. The new disk shows up in the disk list at the bottom of the window, and has a status of “Unallocated”.
38. Right-click inside the Unallocated box for the disk (if you right-click outside this box you will get the
incorrect context menu), and select New Simple Volume… from the context menu.

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37

Figure 11-33:

The “New Simple Volume Wizard” window opens.


39. Click the Next button to advance the wizard.

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Figure 11-34:

The wizard advances to the “Specify Volume Size” step.


40. The wizard defaults to allocating all of the space in the volume, so click the Next button.

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Figure 11-35:

The wizard advances to the “Assign Drive Letter or Path” step.


41. The wizard automatically selects the next available drive letter, which should be E.
42. Click Next.

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42

Figure 11-36:

The wizard advances to the “Format Partition” step.


43. Set the “Volume Label” field to WINLUN.
44. Click Next.

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44

Figure 11-37:

The wizard advances to the “Completing the New Simple Volume Wizard” step.
45. Click Finish.

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Figure 11-38:

The “New Simple Volume Wizard” window closes, and focus returns to the “Disk Management” view of
the Computer Management window.
46. The new WINLUN volume now shows as “Healthy” in the disk list at the bottom of the window,
indicating that the new LUN is mounted and ready to use.
47. Before you complete this section of the lab, take a look at the MPIO configuration for this LUN by right-
clicking inside the box for the WINLUN volume. From the context menu select Properties.

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47

Figure 11-39:

The “WINLUN (E:) Properties” window opens.


48. Click the Hardware tab.
49. In the “All disk drives” list select the NETAPP LUN C-Mode Multi-Path Disk entry.
50. Click Properties.

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48

49

50

Figure 11-40:

The “NETAPP LUN C-Mode Multi-Path Disk Device Properties” window opens.
51. Click the MPIO tab.
52. Notice that you are using the Data ONTAP DSM for multi-path access rather than the Microsoft DSM.
We recommend using the Data ONTAP DSM software, as it is the most full-featured option available,
although the Microsoft DSM is also supported.
53. The MPIO policy is set to “Least Queue Depth”. A number of different multi-pathing policies are
available, but the configuration shown here sends LUN I/O down the path that has the fewest
outstanding I/O requests. You can click the More information about MPIO policies link at the bottom
of the dialog window for details about all the available policies.
54. The top two paths show both a “Path State” and “TPG State” as “Active/Optimized”. These paths are
connected to the node cluster1-01, and the Least Queue Depth policy makes active use of both paths
to this node. Conversely, the bottom two paths show a “Path State” of “Unavailable”, and a “TPG State”
of “Active/Unoptimized”. These paths are connected to the node cluster1-02, and only enter a Path
State of “Active/Optimized” if the node cluster1-01 becomes unavailable, or if the volume hosting the
LUN migrates over to the node cluster1-02.
55. When you finish reviewing the information in this dialog, click OK to exit. If you changed any of the
values in this dialog you should consider using the Cancel button to discard those changes.

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51

53

52
54

55

Figure 11-41:

The “NETAPP LUN C-Mode Multi-Path Disk Device Properties” window closes, and focus returns to the
“WINLUN (E:) Properties” window.
56. Click OK.

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56

Figure 11-42:

The “WINLUN (E:) Properties” window closes.


57. Close the “Computer Management” window.

Basic Concepts for NetApp ONTAP 9


246 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
57

Figure 11-43:

You may see a pop-up message from Microsoft Windows stating that you must format the disk in drive
E: before you can use it. (This window might be obscured by one of the other windows on the desktop,
but do not close the Administrative tools window as you will be using it again shortly.) As you may
recall, you did format the LUN during the “New Simple Volume Wizard", meaning this is an erroneous
disk format message.
58. Click Cancel to ignore the format request.

58

Figure 11-44:

Finally, verify that Windows has detected that the new LUN supports space reclamation. Remember
that only Windows 2012 and newer OSs support this feature, and you must have a suitable version of
NetApp Windows Unified Host Utilities v6.0.2, or later installed. Jumphost meets this criteria.
59. In the “Administrative Tools” window, double-click Defragment and Optimize drives.

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247 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
59

Figure 11-45:

The “Optimize Drives” window opens .


60. Find the WINLUN (E:) entry in the drive list and look at its “Media type” value. If that value is “Thin
provisioned drive”, then Windows has recognized that this drive supports space reclamation. If that
value is “Hard disk drive”, then it does not.
61. Click Close.

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60

61

Figure 11-46:

The “Optimize Drives” window closes.


62. Close the “Administrative Tools” window.

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62

Figure 11-47:

Feel free to open Windows Explorer on Jumphost, and verify that you can create a file on the E: drive.
This completes this exercise.

11.3.3 Create, Map, and Mount a Linux LUN

In an earlier section you created a new SVM, and configured it for iSCSI. In the following sub-sections you will
perform the remaining steps needed to configure and use a LUN under Linux:
• Gather the iSCSI Initiator Name of the Linux client.
• Create a thin provisioned Linux volume, create a thin provisioned Linux LUN named “linux.lun” within
that volume, and map the LUN to the Linux client.
• Mount the LUN on the Linux client.
You must complete all of the following subsections in order to use the LUN from the Linux client. Note that you
are not required to complete the Windows LUN section before starting this section of the lab guide, but the screen
shots and command line output shown here assumes that you have. If you did not complete the Windows LUN
section, the differences will not affect your ability to create and mount the Linux LUN.

11.3.3.1 Gather the Linux Client iSCSI Initiator Name


You need to determine the Linux client's iSCSI initiator name so that you can set up an appropriate initiator group
to control access to the LUN.
You should already have a PuTTY connection open to the Linux host rhel1. If you do not, then open one now
using the instructions found in the “Accessing the Command Line” section at the beginning of this lab guide. The
username will be root, and the password will be Netapp1!.
1. Change to the directory that hosts the iscsi configuration files.

[root@rhel1 ~]# cd /etc/iscsi


[root@rhel1 iscsi]# ls
initiatorname.iscsi iscsid.conf
[root@rhel1 iscsi]#

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2. Display the name of the iscsi initiator.

[root@rhel1 iscsi] cat initiatorname.iscsi


InitiatorName=iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:rhel1.demo.netapp.com
[root@rhel1 iscsi]#

Important: The initiator name for rhel1 is iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:rhel1.demo.netapp.com.

11.3.3.2 Create and Map a Linux LUN


In this activity, you create a new thin provisioned Linux LUN on the SVM “svmluns” under the volume “linluns”,
and also create an initiator igroup for the LUN so that only the Linux host rhel1 can access it. An initiator group,
or igroup, defines a list of the Fibre Channel WWPNs or iSCSI node names for the hosts that are permitted to see
the associated LUNs.
1. If you do not currently have a PuTTY session open to cluster1 then open one now following the
instructions from the “Accessing the Command Line” section at the beginning of this lab guide. The
username is admin and the password is Netapp1!.
2. Create the thin provisioned volume “linluns” that will host the Linux LUN you will create in a later step.

cluster1::> volume create -vserver svmluns -volume linluns -aggregate aggr1_cluster1_01


-size 10.31GB -percent-snapshot-space 0 -snapshot-policy none -space-guarantee none
-autosize-mode grow -nvfail on
[Job 271] Job is queued: Create linluns.
[Job 271] Job succeeded: Successful
cluster1::>

3. Display the volume list.

cluster1::> volume show


Vserver Volume Aggregate State Type Size Available Used%
--------- ------------ ------------ ---------- ---- ---------- ---------- -----
cluster1-01
vol0 aggr0_cluster1_01
online RW 9.71GB 6.92GB 28%
cluster1-02
vol0 aggr0_cluster1_02
online RW 9.71GB 6.27GB 35%
svm1 eng_users aggr1_cluster1_01
online RW 10GB 9.50GB 5%
svm1 engineering aggr1_cluster1_01
online RW 10GB 9.50GB 5%
svm1 svm1_root aggr1_cluster1_01
online RW 20MB 18.85MB 5%
svmluns linluns aggr1_cluster1_01
online RW 10.31GB 10.31GB 0%
svmluns svmluns_root aggr1_cluster1_01
online RW 20MB 18.86MB 5%
svmluns winluns aggr1_cluster1_01
online RW 10.31GB 10.28GB 0%
8 entries were displayed.
cluster1::>

4. Display a list of the LUNs on the cluster.

cluster1::> lun show


Vserver Path State Mapped Type Size
--------- ------------------------------- ------- -------- -------- --------
svmluns /vol/winluns/windows.lun online mapped windows_2008
10.00GB
cluster1::>

5. Create the thin provisioned Linux LUN “linux.lun” on the volume “linluns”.

cluster1::> lun create -vserver svmluns -volume linluns -lun linux.lun -size 10GB
-ostype linux -space-reserve disabled
Created a LUN of size 10g (10742215680)
cluster1::>

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6. Add a comment to the LUN “linux.lun”.

cluster1::> lun modify -vserver svmluns -volume linluns -lun linux.lun


-comment "Linux LUN"
cluster1::>

7. Display the list of LUNs.

cluster1::> lun show


Vserver Path State Mapped Type Size
--------- ------------------------------- ------- -------- -------- --------
svmluns /vol/linluns/linux.lun online unmapped linux 10GB
svmluns /vol/winluns/windows.lun online mapped windows_2008
10.00GB
2 entries were displayed.
cluster1::>

8. Display a list of the cluster's igroups.

cluster1::> igroup show


Vserver Igroup Protocol OS Type Initiators
--------- ------------ -------- -------- ------------------------------------
svmluns winigrp iscsi windows iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:Jumphost.
demo.netapp.com
cluster1::>

9. Create a new igroup named “linigrp” that grants rhel1 access to the LUN “linux.lun”.

cluster1::> igroup create -vserver svmluns -igroup linigrp -protocol iscsi


-ostype linux -initiator iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:rhel1.demo.netapp.com
cluster1::>

10. Display a list of the igroups.

cluster1::> igroup show


Vserver Igroup Protocol OS Type Initiators
--------- ------------ -------- -------- ------------------------------------
svmluns linigrp iscsi linux iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:rhel1.demo.
netapp.com
svmluns winigrp iscsi windows iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:Jumphost.
demo.netapp.com
2 entries were displayed.
cluster1::>

11. Map the LUN “linux.lun” to the igroup “linigrp”.

cluster1::> lun map -vserver svmluns -volume linluns -lun linux.lun -igroup linigrp
cluster1::>

12. Display a list of the LUNs.

cluster1::> lun show


Vserver Path State Mapped Type Size
--------- ------------------------------- ------- -------- -------- --------
svmluns /vol/linluns/linux.lun online mapped linux 10GB
svmluns /vol/winluns/windows.lun online mapped windows_2008
10.00GB
2 entries were displayed.
cluster1::>

13. Display a list of the LUN mappings.

cluster1::> lun mapped show


Vserver Path Igroup LUN ID Protocol
---------- ---------------------------------------- ------- ------ --------
svmluns /vol/linluns/linux.lun linigrp 0 iscsi
svmluns /vol/winluns/windows.lun winigrp 0 iscsi
2 entries were displayed.
cluster1::>

14. Display just the LUN “linux.lun”.

cluster1::> lun show -lun linux.lun


Vserver Path State Mapped Type Size
--------- ------------------------------- ------- -------- -------- --------

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252 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
svmluns /vol/linluns/linux.lun online mapped linux 10GB
cluster1::>

15. Display LUN mappings for just “linux.lun”.

cluster1::> lun mapped show -lun linux.lun


Vserver Path Igroup LUN ID Protocol
---------- ---------------------------------------- ------- ------ --------
svmluns /vol/linluns/linux.lun linigrp 0 iscsi
cluster1::>

16. Display detailed LUN mapping information for “linux.lun”.

cluster1::> lun show -lun linux.lun -instance


Vserver Name: svmluns
LUN Path: /vol/linluns/linux.lun
Volume Name: linluns
Qtree Name: ""
LUN Name: linux.lun
LUN Size: 10GB
OS Type: linux
Space Reservation: disabled
Serial Number: wOj4Q]FMHlq7
Comment: Linux LUN
Space Reservations Honored: false
Space Allocation: disabled
State: online
LUN UUID: 1b4912fb-b779-4811-b1ff-7bc3a615454c
Mapped: mapped
Block Size: 512
Device Legacy ID: -
Device Binary ID: -
Device Text ID: -
Read Only: false
Fenced Due to Restore: false
Used Size: 0
Maximum Resize Size: 128.0GB
Creation Time: 10/20/2014 06:19:49
Class: regular
Node Hosting the LUN: cluster1-01
QoS Policy Group: -
Clone: false
Clone Autodelete Enabled: false
Inconsistent import: false
cluster1::>

Data ONTAP 8.2 introduced a space reclamation feature that allows Data ONTAP to reclaim space
from a thin provisioned LUN when the client deletes data from it, and also allows Data ONTAP to
notify the client when the LUN cannot accept writes due to lack of space on the volume. This feature
is supported by VMware ESX 5.0 and later, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 and later, and Microsoft
Windows 2012. The RHEL clients used in this lab are running version 6.7 and so you will enable the
space reclamation feature for your Linux LUN.
17. Display the space reclamation setting for the LUN “linux.lun”.

cluster1::> lun show -vserver svmluns -path /vol/linluns/linux.lun -fields space-allocation


vserver path space-allocation
------- ---------------------- ----------------
svmluns /vol/linluns/linux.lun disabled
cluster1::>

18. Configure the LUN “linux.lun” to support space reclamation.

lun modify -vserver svmluns -path /vol/linluns/linux.lun -space-allocation enabled


cluster1::>

19. Display the new space reclamation setting for the LUN “linux.lun”.

lun show -vserver svmluns -path /vol/linluns/linux.lun -fields space-allocation


vserver path space-allocation
------- ---------------------- ----------------
svmluns /vol/linluns/linux.lun enabled
cluster1::>

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11.3.3.3 Mount the LUN on a Linux Client
In this section you will use the Linux command line to configure the host rhel1 to connect to the Linux LUN /vol/
linluns/linux.lun you created in the preceding section.
This section assumes that you know how to use the Linux command line. If you are not familiar with these
concepts, we recommend that you skip this section of the lab.
1. If you do not currently have a PuTTY session open to rhel1, open one now and log in as user root with
the password “Netapp1!”.
2. The NetApp Linux Unified Host Utilities kit has been pre-installed on both Red Hat Linux hosts in this lab,
and the iSCSI initiator name has already been configured for each host. Confirm that is the case:

[root@rhel1 ~]# rpm -qa | grep netapp


netapp_linux_unified_host_utilities-7-0.x86_64
[root@rhel1 ~]# cat /etc/iscsi/initiatorname.iscsi
InitiatorName=iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:rhel1.demo.netapp.com
[root@rhel1 ~]#

3. In the /etc/iscsi/iscsid.conf file the node.session.timeo.replacement_timeout value is set to 5 to better


support timely path failover, and the node.startup value is set to automatic so that the system will
automatically log in to the iSCSI node at startup.

[root@rhel1 ~]# grep replacement_time /etc/iscsi/iscsid.conf


#node.session.timeo.replacement_timeout = 120
node.session.timeo.replacement_timeout = 5
[root@rhel1 ~]# grep node.startup /etc/iscsi/iscsid.conf
# node.startup = automatic
node.startup = automatic
[root@rhel1 ~]#

4. You will find that the Red Hat Linux hosts in the lab have pre-installed the DM-Multipath packages and
a /etc/multipath.conf file pre-configured to support multi-pathing so that the RHEL host can access the
LUN using all of the SAN LIFs you created for the svmluns SVM.

[root@rhel1 ~]# rpm -q device-mapper


device-mapper-1.02.95-2.el6.x86_64
[root@rhel1 ~]# rpm -q device-mapper-multipath
device-mapper-multipath-0.4.9-87.el6.x86_64
[root@rhel1 ~]# cat /etc/multipath.conf
# For a complete list of the default configuration values, see
# /usr/share/doc/device-mapper-multipath-0.4.9/multipath.conf.defaults
# For a list of configuration options with descriptions, see
# /usr/share/doc/device-mapper-multipath-0.4.9/multipath.conf.annotated
#
# REMEMBER: After updating multipath.conf, you must run
#
# service multipathd reload
#
# for the changes to take effect in multipathd
# NetApp recommended defaults
defaults {
flush_on_last_del yes
max_fds max
queue_without_daemon no
user_friendly_names no
dev_loss_tmo infinity
fast_io_fail_tmo 5
}
blacklist {
devnode "^sda"
devnode "^hd[a-z]"
devnode "^(ram|raw|loop|fd|md|dm-|sr|scd|st)[0-9]*"
devnode "^ccis.*"
}
devices {
# NetApp iSCSI LUNs
device {
vendor "NETAPP"
product "LUN"
path_grouping_policy group_by_prio
features "3 queue_if_no_path pg_init_retries 50"
prio "alua"

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path_checker tur
failback immediate
path_selector "round-robin 0"
hardware_handler "1 alua"
rr_weight uniform
rr_min_io 128
getuid_callout "/lib/udev/scsi_id -g -u -d /dev/%n"
}
}
[root@rhel1 ~]#

5. You now need to start the iSCSI software service on rhel1, and configure it to start automatically at boot
time. Note that a force-start is only necessary the very first time you start the iscsid service on host.

[root@rhel1 ~]# service iscsid status


iscsid is stopped
[root@rhel1 ~]# service iscsid force-start
Starting iscsid: OK
[root@rhel1 ~]# service iscsi status
No active sessions
[root@rhel1 ~]# chkconfig iscsi on
[root@rhel1 ~]# chkconfig --list iscsi
iscsi 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
[root@rhel1 ~]#

6. Next discover the available targets using the iscsiadm command. Note that the exact values used
for the node paths may differ in your lab from what is shown in this example, and that after running
this command there will still not yet be active iSCSI sessions because you have not yet created the
necessary device files.

[root@rhel1 ~]# iscsiadm --mode discovery --op update --type sendtargets


--portal 192.168.0.133
192.168.0.133:3260,1028 iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4
192.168.0.136:3260,1031 iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4
192.168.0.135:3260,1030 iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4
192.168.0.134:3260,1029 iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4
[root@rhel1 ~]# iscsiadm --mode session
iscsiadm: No active sessions.
[root@rhel1 ~]#

7. Create the devices necessary to support the discovered nodes, after which the sessions become active.

[root@rhel1 ~]# iscsiadm --mode node -l all


Logging in to [iface: default, target:
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4, portal: 192.168.0.134,3260]
(multiple)
Logging in to [iface: default, target:
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4, portal: 192.168.0.136,3260]
(multiple)
Logging in to [iface: default, target:
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4, portal: 192.168.0.135,3260]
(multiple)
Logging in to [iface: default, target:
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4, portal: 192.168.0.133,3260]
(multiple)
Login to [iface: default, target:
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4, portal: 192.168.0.134,3260]
successful.
Login to [iface: default, target:
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4, portal: 192.168.0.136,3260]
successful.
Login to [iface: default, target:
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4, portal: 192.168.0.135,3260]
successful.
Login to [iface: default, target:
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4, portal: 192.168.0.133,3260]
successful.
[root@rhel1 ~]# iscsiadm --mode session
tcp: [1] 192.168.0.134:3260,1029
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4
tcp: [2] 192.168.0.136:3260,1031
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4
tcp: [3] 192.168.0.135:3260,1030
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4
tcp: [4] 192.168.0.133:3260,1028
iqn.1992-08.com.netapp:sn.beeb8ca5580c11e4a8070050569901b8:vs.4

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[root@rhel1 ~]#

8. At this point the Linux client sees the LUN over all four paths, but it does not yet understand that all four
paths represent the same LUN.

[root@rhel1 ~]# sanlun lun show


controller(7mode)/ device host lun
vserver(Cmode) lun-pathname filename adapter protocol size
product
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
svmluns /vol/linluns/linux.lun /dev/sde host3 iSCSI 10g cDOT

svmluns /vol/linluns/linux.lun /dev/sdd host4 iSCSI 10g cDOT

svmluns /vol/linluns/linux.lun /dev/sdc host5 iSCSI 10g cDOT

svmluns /vol/linluns/linux.lun /dev/sdb host6 iSCSI 10g cDOT

[root@rhel1 ~]#

9. Since the lab includes a pre-configured /etc/multipath.conf file, you just need to start the multipathd
service to handle the multiple path management and configure it to start automatically at boot time.

[root@rhel1 ~]# service multipathd status


multipathd is stopped
[root@rhel1 ~]# service multipathd start
Starting multipathd daemon: OK
[root@rhel1 ~]# service multipathd status
multipathd (pid 8656) is running...
[root@rhel1 ~]# chkconfig multipathd on
[root@rhel1 ~]# chkconfig --list multipathd
multipathd 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
[root@rhel1 ~]#

10. The multipath command displays the configuration of DM-Multipath, and the multipath -ll command
displays a list of the multipath devices. DM-Multipath maintains a device file under /dev/mapper that
you use to access the multipathed LUN (in order to create a filesystem on it and to mount it). The
first line of output from the multipath -ll command lists the name of that device file (in this example
“3600a0980774f6a34515d464d486c7137”). The autogenerated name for this device file will likely differ
in your copy of the lab. Also pay attention to the output of the sanlun lun show -p command which
shows information about the ONTAP path of the LUN, the LUN's size, its device file name under /dev/
mapper, the multipath policy, and also information about the various device paths themselves.

[root@rhel1 ~]# multipath -ll


[1m3600a0980774f6a34515d464d486c7137 dm-2 NETAPP,LUN C-Mode
size=10G features='3 queue_if_no_path pg_init_retries 50' hwhandler='1 alua' wp=rw
|-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=50 status=active
| |- 6:0:0:0 sdb 8:16 active ready running
| `- 3:0:0:0 sde 8:64 active ready running
`-+- policy='round-robin 0' prio=10 status=enabled
|- 5:0:0:0 sdc 8:32 active ready running
`- 4:0:0:0 sdd 8:48 active ready running
[root@rhel1 ~]# ls -l /dev/mapper
total 0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 Aug 20 06:50 3600a0980774f6a34515d464d486c7137 -> ../dm-2
crw-rw---- 1 root root 10, 58 Aug 19 18:57 control
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 Aug 19 18:57 vg_rhel1-lv_root -> ../dm-0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 Aug 19 18:57 vg_rhel1-lv_swap -> ../dm-1
[root@rhel1 ~]# sanlun lun show -p
ONTAP Path: svmluns:/vol/linluns/linux.lun
LUN: 0
LUN Size: 10g
Product: cDOT
Host Device: 3600a0980774f6a34515d464d486c7137
Multipath Policy: round-robin 0
Multipath Provider: Native
--------- ---------- ------- ------------ ----------------------------------------------
host vserver
path path /dev/ host vserver
state type node adapter LIF
--------- ---------- ------- ------------ ----------------------------------------------
up primary sdb host6 cluster1-01_iscsi_lif_1
up primary sde host3 cluster1-01_iscsi_lif_2
up secondary sdc host5 cluster1-02_iscsi_lif_1
up secondary sdd host4 cluster1-02_iscsi_lif_2

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[root@rhel1 ~]#

You can see even more detail about the configuration of multipath and the LUN as a whole by issuing
the multipath -v3 -d -ll or iscsiadm -m session -P 3 commands. Because the output of these
commands is rather lengthy, it is omitted here, but you are welcome to run these commands in your lab.
11. The LUN is now fully configured for multipath access, so the only steps remaining before you can use
the LUN on the Linux host is to create a filesystem and mount it. When you run the following commands
in your lab you will need to substitute in the /dev/mapper/… string that identifies your LUN (get that
string from the output of ls -l /dev/mapper).
Note: You can use bash /lintab completion when entering the multipath file name to save
yourself some tedious typing.

[root@rhel1 ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/3600a0980774f6a34515d464d486c71377


mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Discarding device blocks: 0/204800 done
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=1 blocks, Stripe width=16 blocks
655360 inodes, 2621440 blocks
131072 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=2684354560
80 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
This filesystem will be automatically checked every 34 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
[root@rhel1 ~]# mkdir /linuxlun
[root@rhel1 ~]# mount -t ext4 -o discard /dev/mapper/3600a0980774f6a345515d464d486c7137
/linuxlun
[root@rhel1 ~]# df
Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/vg_rhel1-lv_root 11877388 4962816 6311232 45% /
tmpfs 444612 76 444536 1% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1 495844 40084 430160 9% /boot
svm1:/ 19456 128 19328 1% /svm1
/dev/mapper/3600a0980774f6a34515d464d486c7137 10321208 154100 9642820 2% /linuxlun
[root@rhel1 ~]# ls /linuxlun
lost+found
[root@rhel1 ~]# echo "hello from rhel1" > /linuxlun/test.txt
[root@rhel1 ~]# cat /linuxlun/test.txt
hello from rhel1
[root@rhel1 ~]# ls -l /linuxlun/test.txt
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6 Aug 20 06:54 /linuxlun/test.txt
[root@rhel1 ~]#

The discard option for mount allows the Red Hat host to utilize space reclamation for the LUN.
12. To have RHEL automatically mount the LUN's filesystem at boot time, run the following command
(modified to reflect the multipath device path being used in your instance of the lab) to add the mount
information to the /etc/fstab file. Enter the following command as a single line.

[root@rhel1 ~]# echo '/dev/mapper/3600a0980774f6a34515d464d486c7137


/linuxlun ext4 _netdev,discard,defaults 0 0' >> /etc/fstab
[root@rhel1 ~]#

Basic Concepts for NetApp ONTAP 9


257 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
12 References
The following references were used in writing this lab guide.
• TR-3982: “NetApp Clustered Data ONTAP 8.3.X and 8.2.X – an Introduction:, November 2015
• TR-4100: “Nondisruptive Operations and SMB File Shares for Clustered Data ONTAP”, April 2013
• TR-4129: “Namespaces in clustered Data ONTAP”, July 2014
• TR-4523: “DNS Load Balancing in ONTAP - Configuration and Best Practices”, July 2016

Basic Concepts for NetApp ONTAP 9


258 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
13 Version History
Version Date Document Version History
Version 1.0 October 2014 Initial Release for Hands On Labs
Version 1.0.1 December 2014 Updates for Lab on Demand
Version 1.1 April 2015 Updated for Data ONTAP 8.3GA and other application
software. NDO section spun out into a separate lab guide.
Version 1.2 October 2015 Updated for Data ONTAP 8.3.1GA and other application
software.
Version 1.3 September 2016 Updated for ONTAP 9.0RC1 and other application software.
Version 1.3 Rev 1 November 2016 Updated for ONTAP 9.0P1, various errata.

Basic Concepts for NetApp ONTAP 9


259 © 2016 NetApp, Inc. All rights reserved. NetApp Proprietary
Refer to the Interoperability Matrix Tool (IMT) on the NetApp Support site to validate that the exact
product and feature versions described in this document are supported for your specific environment.
The NetApp IMT defines the product components and versions that can be used to construct
configurations that are supported by NetApp. Specific results depend on each customer's installation in
accordance with published specifications.

NetApp provides no representations or warranties regarding the accuracy, reliability, or serviceability of any
information or recommendations provided in this publication, or with respect to any results that may be obtained
by the use of the information or observance of any recommendations provided herein. The information in this
document is distributed AS IS, and the use of this information or the implementation of any recommendations or
techniques herein is a customer’s responsibility and depends on the customer’s ability to evaluate and integrate
them into the customer’s operational environment. This document and the information contained herein may be
used solely in connection with the NetApp products discussed in this document.

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