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Behavior of High-Performance Concrete under Uniaxial

and Biaxial Loading


by Xiaadan Ren, Weizhang Yang, Yang Zhau, and Jie Li

A systematic experimental research was carried out to investigate the conventional materials and mixing, placing and cun
the mechanical properties of high-performance concrete (HPC). A practices." Because HPC is much superior to ordin~
total of 9] plate specimens were tested in four different loading concrete in strength, toughness, workability, and durabili
conditions including uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, which makes HPC particularly suitable for construction
biaxial compression, and tension compression with the help of a
tall buildings, long-span bridges, and other special structu
closed-loop testing machine. Uniaxial and biaxial complete stress-
such as nuclear reactor containment, thus considerab
strain curves were obtained under a strain control loading scheme.
Based on the stochastic process theory, the average curves and attention has been attracted to relevant researches in the p
standard deviation curves were obtained for uniaxial loading two decades (Rougeron and Ai:tcin 1994; Gutierrez a
conditions. The rehardening of concrete after having entered the Canovas 1996; Persson 1996; !ravani 1996; Neville
softening stage was observed in this experiment. The ultimate Aikin 1998; Candappa et al. 1999; Pfeifer 2000; Chu
strength envelopes in both stress and strain space were developed 2002; Aikin 2003). On the other hand, most conct
through parameter identification of the complete stress-strain (including HPC) materials used in modem structures, such
curves. This research laid a foundation forfurther research on the those mentioned previously, generally suffer multiaxial str
multiaxial constitutive law of concrete. and damages. So it is reasonable and necessary to empl
nonlinear material models verified by multiaxial experime
in the refined analysis of concrete structures (Kupfer et
1969; Buyukozturk et al. 1971; Nelissen 1972; Tasuji et'
INTRODUCTION 1978; van Mier 1986; Yin et al. 1989; Li and Guo 199
Although concrete is currently the most widely used Traina and Mansour 1991; Candappa et al. 1999; Niels
construction material in the world, its mechanical properties 1998; Hussein and Marzouk 2000; Lee et al. 2003; Seow a
when suffering damages have not been fully understood, Swaddiwudhipong 2005).
which may be the reason that, up until now, no generally In the case of biaxial loading experiments on concrel
accepted nonlinear theory had been available for the analysis although started as early as in the 1930s, the results we
and design of concrete structures. In fact, the complexity of found valid only after the influence of the friction betw
concrete material originated from two essential characteristics, loading platens and concrete specimens on testing resul
that is, nonlinearity and randomness (Li 2004). As the had been correctly considered, which was first done
nonlinear continuum mechanics and finite element theory Kupfer et al. (1969), who adopted a brush platen to minimi
have achieved great progress in recent years, the accuracy of the friction as much as possible. The essential considerati
the nonlinear analysis of concrete structures will greatly is still the paradigm until recently. For example, Li and G
depend on the development of constitutive models of (1991) reported a series of biaxial experiments on C20 ordin
concrete. Always a fundamental problem in concrete concrete with the 28-day compressive strength of 20
research, the constitutive relationship has drawn intensified (2.9 ksi). Sixty 100 mm (3.94 in.) cubic specimens we
study and many models have been proposed, among which loaded under compression-compression, compressio
the fracture mechanics-based models (Hillerborg et al. 1976; tension, and tension-tension and a piecewise continuo
Bazant and Oh 1983; Bazant 1984; Bazant and Ozbolt 1990; function of the biaxial envelope was obtained by data regressio
Carol et al. 2001), and the continuum damage mechanics- It should also be noted that three layers of butter-lubricat
based models (Ortiz 1985; Mazars 1986; Mazars and aluminum foil were employed in the tests as the antifrictio
Pijaudier-Cabot 1989; Iu 1989, Lee and Fevens 1998; Wu et Lee et al. (2003) experimentally investigated the biaxi'
al. 2006) are the hotspots at present. On the other hand, the behavior of concrete used in nuclear containment buildin
stochastic theory has been successfully introduced into the Specimens 200 x 200 x 60 mm (7.87 x 7.87 x 2.36 in.) we
structural analysis of reinforced concrete structures and loaded in the stress ratios of 0, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 for compressio
several stochastic constitutive models have already been compression; -0.05, -0.1, -0.2, and -0.3 for compressio
developed (Krajcinovic and Silva 1982; Carmeliet and Hens tension; and 00, 5, 2, and 1for tension-tension. In addition, 0.1
1994; Kandarpa and Kirkner 1996; Li and Zhang 2001). A (0.00394 in.) tetrafluorethylene pad was used to erase t
lack of systematic and accurate experimental data for verification, friction at the interface of the concrete and loading platens.
however, restricts the acceptance of these new models.
The term "high-performance concrete" (HPC) was coined
in 1980, although sporadic researches started much earlier ACI Materials Journal, V. 105, No.6, November-December 2008.
MS No. M-2007-320.R I received May 12, 2008, and reviewed under [nsti
(Aikin 1998). In 1993, ACI cleared the definition ofHPC as publication policies. Copyright © 2008, American Concrete Institute. All rights res<:
"concrete which meets special performance and uniformity including the making of copies unless permission is obtained from the copyright propri
Peninent discussion including authors' closure, if any, will be published in the Septem
requirements that cannot always be achieved by using only October 2009 ACI Materials Journal if the discussion is received by June 1,2009.
Xiaodan ReD is a PhD Candidate in the School of Civil Engineering at Tongji University,
Shanghai, China. His research interests include theoretical and experimental research
of the constitutive law of concrete and nonlinear analysis of structures.
Constituent Weight, kglm3 (lb/ft3)
Portland cement 204 (12.75)
WeizhODg Yang is an Associate Professor in the School of Civil Engineering, Zhengzhou
Fly ash 204 (12.75)
University, Zhengzhou, China. His research interests include the constitutive law of
concrete, analysis of concrete structures, and design a/masonry structures. Ground-granulated blast-furnace slag 102 (6.38)
Water 175 (10.94)
Yong Zhou is a Lecturer in the School of Civil Engineering at Tongji University. He
received his PhD in 2005 from Northwestern University, Evanston, IL His research High-range water-reducing admixture 15.3 (0.956)
interests include the constitutive law and durability of concrete. Natural siliceous sand 640 (40)

Jie Li is the Distinguished Professor and Director of the Institute for Building Structures Crushed limestone 1100 (68.75)
in the School of Civil Engineering at Tongji University. He received his PhD in 1988
from Tongji University. His research interests include structural and seismic engineering,
essential mechanical properties of concrete, and the theory of stochastic structure
analysis and modeling.
Table 2-Strength comparison of cut and uncut
specimens
Although the biaxial behavior of concrete has been
Dimension, Peak load, Peak stress, Mean, Remar
experimentally investigated comprehensively, most of the mm(in.) kN (kips) MPa (ksi) MPa (ksi) k
experiments only involved ordinary concrete. Except some 178 x 178 x 57.4 -511 -49.7
remarkable early works (Scavuzzo et al. 1983; van Mier (-6.20) Cut
(7.00 x 7.00 x 2.26) (-114)
-
1986; Vonk 1992), almost all of the previous biaxial 180 x 180 x 59.3 -534 -50.0
(-120) Cut
experiments only concern the strength envelopes, that is, (7.09 x 7.09 x 2.33) (-7.25) -51.3
-
curves of the peak stresses, instead of complete stress-strain 180 x 180 x 59.6 -520 -48.6 (-7.43)
Cut
curves, which contain more abundant information about the (7.09 x 7.09 x 2.35) (-117) (-7.05)
-
multiaxial behavior of concrete. 179 x 179 x 56.5 -576 -56.8
Cut
(7.05 x 7.05 x 2.22) (-129) (8.24)
The objective of the current research was to experimentally
200 x 200 x 57.5 -548 -47.8
investigate the mechanical properties of HPC materials (7.87 x 7.87 x 2.26) (-123) (-6.93) Uncut
under uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions. A total of -
200 x 200 x 58 -559 -48.3 -48.6
91 square-shaped plates made of HPC were tested in four Uncut
(7.87 x 7.87 x 2.28) (-126) (-7.00) (-7.05)
-
different loading conditions, including uniaxial tension, 200 x 200 x 58 -576 -49.8
Uncut
uniaxial compression, biaxial compression, and tension (7.87 x 7.87 x 2.28) (-129) (-7.22)
compression. The full uniaxial and biaxial stress-strain
curves and the strength envelope were obtained after
analyzing the experimental data. Although the load carrying water-reducing admixture was used to improve the workability
capacity and the strength still play important roles in the ofHPC. Table 1 shows the detailed mixture proportions ofHPC.
design and analysis of concrete structures, this study is primarily A slump of 200 to 220 mm (7.87 to 8.66 in.) and a slump
concerned with more elaborate behaviors ofHPC during biaxial flow of 450 to 500 mm (17.71 to 19.68 in.) were obtained for
loading process through experimental approaches. HPC made according to the aforementioned mixture
proportions. And the 28-day compressive strengths
RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE measured by using the cubic (150 x 150 x 150 mm [5.90 x
As HPC has currently been extensively used in many parts 5.90 x 5.90 in.]) and prismatic (100 x 100 x 300 mm [3.94 x
of the world and is generally in a multi axial stress state 3.94 x 11.8 in.]) specimens were 71.3 MPa (10.34 ksi) and
during its service life, there is an urgent need for a comprehensive 63.3 MPa (9.18 ksi), respectively.
and accurate multi axial constitutive law for the precise and
reliable evaluation of the nonlinear behavior of modem Specimens
concrete structures. This experimental research aims to Specimens used in this experiment were prepared in two
provide necessary data for the validation and improvement steps. First, large plate specimens with dimensions of 500 x
of the existing multiaxial constitutive laws for HPC as well 500 x 50 mm (19.68 x 19.68 x 1.97 in.) were cast in wooden
as ordinary concrete. Besides the routine strength envelope molds and carefully compacted with a shake table. The
for biaxial experiments, the complete stress-strain curves specimens were demolded after 48 hours and then moved to
were particularly obtained from this research with biaxial a curing room where the temperature was 20°C (68 OF)and
proportional strain controlled loading scheme, which had not the relative humidity exceeded 95%. Second, after 28 days
been previously reported. of curing, the specimens were cut into small pieces of 150 x
150 x 50 mm (5.90 x 5.90 x 1.97 in.) with the help of a high-
precision cutter. The cutting surfaces were smooth and neat
Materials so that no further preparation of the loading surfaces was
In this experiment, three cementitious materials were necessary. Some preliminary tests were conducted to determine
used. The first was ASTM Type I cement with a 28-day whether the cutting process would introduce initial damages
compressive strength of 42.5 MPa (6.16 ksi). The second into the HPC specimens (Table 2). It can be found that small
was the first grade fly ash, with specific surface being specimens directly cast using wooden molds of 150 x 150 x
6000 cm2jg (4.21 x 105 in.2/lb). The third was ground- 50 mm (5.90 x 5.90 x 1.97 in.) have the similar compressive
granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS). strength as specimens cut from large specimens of 500 x 500
The fine aggregate was natural siliceous sand. The coarse x 50 mm (19.68 x 19.68 x 1.97 in.). It can therefore be
aggregate was crushed limestone with a maximum size of concluded that the influence of the cutting process on
15 mm (0.59 in.), which is less than one-third of the shortest mechanical properties of HPC specimens is negligible in the
dimension of specimens. A commercially available high-range following tests and analyses.
-40
(-5.80)

-10
(-1.45)

~mm(l.97in.)
Interlayer
Concrete near the loading surfaces was confined by fri
between the concrete specimen and the loading platens u
compression. As well known, Kupfer et al. (1969) reae
Strain au e the conclusion that such confining effect would result in
I 100x5mm apparent increase of the compressive strength of cone
I
I (3.94 x 0.197in.) To avoid the restraint effect under compressive loading,
Specimen : slices of tetrafluorethylene pads were inserted between con
----------------~" specimens and steel platens in this experiment. The thic
" of each tetrafluorethylene pad was 0.1 mm (0.00394 in.).
the other hand, when subjected to tension, the concrete spec'
were glued directly to the steel platens using a structural adhes
with the tensile strength of 35 MPa (5.01 ksi). The adhesi
took less than 48 hours to reach the specified tensile stren
Experimental system Herein, both the tetrafluorethylene pads and the struct
According to the discussions of Krajcinovic (1996), to adhesive between the loading platen and concrete spec'
obtain the full stress-strain curves of concrete, especially in were referred to as interlayer. It is obvious that the interla
tension tests, a stiff loading system and a deformation- would be deformed during the loading process. Theref
controlled loading scheme are the prerequisites. Thus, a stiff- the output of extensometers actually consisted of deformati
framed servo-hydraulic closed-loop testing machine was of the interlayer and the concrete specimens. In other wo
the original stress-strain curves collected by the data acquisili
adopted in the current study. The biaxial loading system
system were contaminated. To eliminate the contaminati
consisted of a vertical four-column testing machine and a
to make the subsequent experimental data analysis accura
horizontal loading frame, both of which had the stiffness of
a simple uniaxial loading test with the concrete specim
more than 6 x 106 MPa (8.7 x 105 ksi), sufficient for
replaced by a steel plate of the same dimension was carri
preventing sudden rupture of specimens during the loading
out in advance. Then the stress-deformation relationship
process. In both the vertical and horizontal directions, two one interlayer was calculated from the following equation
extensometers were set up along the whole length of the
specimen to measure the deformations as well as global
strains (Fig. 1). To obtain the full stress-strain curves in each
loading direction, the outputs of extensometers in the same
direction were averaged and collected by the data acquisition where Li. was the deformation of the interlayer, EeCcr) was
system as the feedback signals. A microcomputer was global strain measured by extensometers, EgC cr)was the strain
employed for collecting the feedback signals and giving the steel plate measured by strain gauges, and L stood for t
command signals calculated in a real time way based on a length of the steel plate. Figures 3 and 4 show the stress
closed-loop control algorithm. Besides the extensometers deformation curves and corresponding linear regressio
mentioned previously, strain gauges and a corresponding curves of the tetrafluorethylene pads and structural adhesive
data collection system (Fig. 2) were used to measure the respectively. It is obviously that a linear stress-deformatio
local strains of concrete specimens. model of the interlayer is accurate enough for furthe
The vertical direction was set as the primary loading direction data analysis.
because the transducer in that direction had a higher resolution.
Real-time communication between the vertical and horizontal Experiment design
loading systems was established to ensure the constant strain The behaviors of HPC specimens, with the dimension 0
ratio (the ratio of global strains in the two directions measured 150 x 150 x 50 mm (5.90 x 5.90 x 1.97 in.) subjected to
by extensometers) during biaxial loading experiments. uniaxial and biaxial loading were investigated in this research.
1.5
(0.212)

Fig. 5-Expanded view of a failure specimen under uniaxial


compression.

Table 3-Loading conditions and corresponding


number of specimens
Loading condition Strain ratio Number of specimens
Although a great number of uniaxial full stress-strain
Uniaxial compression - 8
curve tests have already been carried out worldwide, eight
Tension-compression 1:-2 7
and 21 specimens under uniaxial tension and uniaxial
Tension-compression 1:-4 6
compression, respectively, were tested in this experiment to
Tension-compression 1:--6 21
pursue not only the precise complete stress-strain curves but
also the variance among them. Compression-compression -0.1:-1 12
Compared with the biaxial proportional stress (force)- Compression-compression -0.3:-1 12
controlled loading scheme adopted in most traditional biaxial Compression-compression -0.3:-1 6
strength tests, the biaxial proportional strain (deformation)- Compression-compression -1:1 17
controlled loading scheme adopted herein was much more Total 91
precise. As mentioned previously, the global strain measured
by extensometers was used as the controlling parameters in
other hand, even if the specimen was centered on the testing
this investigation. During the biaxial loading process, the
machine perfectly, the main crack may be located randomly
ratio between global strains measured in different loading
along the specimen height rather than near the center of it.
directions maintained a constant value that had been specified in
Most of the coarse aggregates in the cracking surface were
advance. Actually, the local strain ratio of concrete specimen
split due to the high strength of cementitious mortar. The
changed all the time mainly due to the deformation of the
simple failure mode and crack pattern reveal that the rupture
interlayers, which would be further explained when the
process of concrete specimen under uniaxial loading could
complete stress-strain curves in biaxial experiments is
discussed in the forthcoming section. be described by linear or nonlinear fracture mechanics.
In this research, compression-compression and tension- Because the strain (deformation)-controlled loading was
compression biaxial loading were applied to HPC specimens. stable in both the ascending and descending stage, large
Let Ej stands for the global strain of loading direction. deformations were observed before failure for specimens
According to material mechanics, tension is taken as positive under uniaxial compression. Several cracks nucleated and
and EI > E2 is always assumed. For each biaxial loading propagated parallel to the loading direction in the specimen
case, three different global strain ratios 0.(= EIIE2) were until splitting the specimen into several parts (Fig. 5). It was
chosen, that is, 0. = 1,0.3, and 0.1 for compression-compression observed that the damage mechanism of concrete specimens
loading and 0. =-0.167, -0.25, and -0.5 for tension-compression under uniaxial compression was rather complicated even
loading. The detailed loading conditions and corresponding though the uniaxial compression test for concrete was
specimen numbers are listed in Table 3, and only typical results relatively simple.
and curves are illustrated in the following figures. Complete stress-strain curves-The complete stress-strain
curves were obtained in both uniaxial tension and compression.
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Because of the intrinsic randomness and complexity of
Uniaxial tests concrete materials, there was certain difference among those
Failure mode-Because the damage and failure process of full curves measured under the same loading conditions. It is
concrete is extraordinarily complicated, different failure obvious that the two primary properties of a set of experimental
modes exist for different loading and boundary conditions. curves were the central tendency and variability. Assume aj
To fully understand the mechanical properties of HPC and
= alE) the i-th full curve measured in the experiment. The
the failure mechanism of specimens, it is necessary to
average curve that represents the integral trend of the experi-
carefully record and study the failure modes of the specimens
mental curves can be calculated from the following expression
in this experiment.
The failure modes and crack patterns of uniaxial loading
specimens were similar to those described in classic textbooks. N

Specimens under uniaxial tension were ruptured by only one ~L aj(E)


dominant crack perpendicular to the loading direction. On the j= I
MPa MFa
4.0 CF -70 CF
(0.580) (ksi) (-10.15) (ksi)

3.5 -60
(0.507)
(-8.70)
3.0
(0.435)
2.5
(0.362)

2.0
(0.290)
1.5
(0.212)

1.0
(0.145) J
0.5
(0.0725)
f
0.0
o 300 400 -4000
& 10-{i & lO-{i

Fig. 8-Complete stress-strain curves under unia


compression.

4.0
(0.580)
3.5
(0.507)
3.0
(0.435)
2.5
MPa
CF (ksi) --Mean

--
Standard deviation
Mean-Standard deviation
-T- Mean+Standard deviation
-60
(-8.70)

-50
(-7.25)
0'
MFa
(hI'

f~'--
~

;;:;;..~ \
--Mean

-T-
-Standard deviation
Mean-Standard deviatioo
Mean+Standard deviatiOi'

(0.362)
1/1 \\~\
2.0
(0.290)
1.5
-30
(-4.35) II ~I ~
(0.212)
1.0
(0.145) 4
-20
(-2.90) f -.....:~~
0.5
(0.0725)
0.0
,

p' -.

-.
-10
(-145)
o
II...
__
----------
.--.
o 300 o -3000
& 10-6 E lO-{i

Fig. 7-Statistical characteristics of complete stress-strain Fig. 9-Statistical characteristics of complete stress-sf
curve under uniaxial tension. curve under uniaxial compression.

where N is the number of curves, and the average stress is cr deviation, and coefficient of variation of the peak stress
a function of strain E. On the other hand, the standard deviation strain, of uniaxial tension-compression experiments.
S was adopted to represent the variability among experimental Strain localization-It is well known that the nonlin
curves according to the statistics theory. behavior of concrete originates from the propagation
cracks inside the cement matrix and aggregates. After
peak in the descending branch, concrete specimens w
divided into several pyramids and wedge-shaped blocks
cleavage cracks. The global deformation was localized i
the opening and sliding deformation between both sides
A set of experimental curves under uniaxial tension are cracks. Although the global strain kept increasing due
plotted in Fig. 6. The corresponding average curve and standard external loading of the testing machine, the local str'
deviation curve are illustrated in Fig. 7. Figure 8 shows part recorded from separated blocks of specimen started
of the experimental curves under uniaxial compression. decrease. This phenomenon is known as strain localizati
Figure 9 displays the average curve and standard deviation which is discussed in Newman and Sigvaldason (1965), \
curve corresponding to Fig. 8. It is observed that the average Mier (1986b and 1991), and Torrenti et al. (1993).
curve is similar to the experimental curves but smoother than In Fig. 10, the axial stress-strain curves for uniaxial tens'
any individual curve. Both Fig. 7 and 9 present that the standard and compression are shown. It is observed that the I
deviation curve also has an ascending part and a descending strains recorded from the surface of specimen are smaller
part. Furthermore, the strain corresponding to the peak of the global strains recorded by extensometers between loa'
standard deviation curve approximates the strain corresponding platens. Therefore, in the descending branch of the stre
to the inflection point of the average curve. Tables 4 and 5 list strain curve, structural behavior becomes essential rather
the statistical characteristics, including the average, standard material behavior. The aforementioned results suggested
MPa
3.0 a
(0.435) (ksi)

2.5
(0.362)

2.0
(0.290)

1.0
(0.145)

0.5
(0.0725)

100 200 300 400 SOO 600 700 800


l: 10-6
(a) Uniaxial tension
-70 () MPa
(-10.15) (ksi)

-60
(-8.70)

-50
(-7.25)

-40
(-5.80)

-30
(-4.35)

-20
(-2.90) (b) Failure schematic
-10 Fig. ii-Single shear failure mode.
(-1.45)

o
o -1000 -2000 -3000 -4000 -5000 -6000 -7000 Table 5-Statistical characteristics of uniaxial
l: 10- 6 compression experiments
(b) Uniaxial compression Uniaxial compression
Number Peak stress, MPa (ksi) Peak strain, ~e
2AC-2 -56.48 (-8.19) -1906
2AC-4 -50.39 (-7.31) -1778
2AC-8 -48.11 (-6.98) -2395
Table 4-Statistical characteristics of uniaxial
tension experiments 2AC-9 -45.45 (-6.59) -2325
2AC-1O -61.80 (-8.96) -2185
Uniaxial tension
2AC-l1 -49.44 (-7.17) -2171
Number Peak stress, MPa (ksi) Peak strain, ~e
2AC-12 -54.57 (-7.91) -1820
2AT-1 3.56 (0.516) 148.8
Average -52.32 (-7.59) -2082
2AT-2 3.27 (0.474) 127.6
Standard deviation 5.62 (0.815) 247.5
2AT-3 3.43 (0.497) 119.2
Coefficient of variation, % 10.7 11.9
2AT-5 2.85 (0.413) 106.6
Average 3.28 (0.476) 125.6
Standard deviation 0.309 (0.0448) 17.74 failure modes of concrete specimens and suggested four
Coefficient of variation, % 9.42 14.1 types of failure modes needed to be considered in the 3D
experiment and analysis of concrete material. In the
current study, all speci mens subjected to biaxial
the proper local averaging approaches should be carefully compression failed in single shear failure mode or
considered during the continuum modeling of concrete. multiple shear failure mode, alternatively.
In the case of single shear failure mode (Fig. 11), specimens
Biaxial tests
were divided into two triangular prisms by a unique diagonal
Failure mode-According to previous discussions, even
crack that inclined at angles of 30 to 40 degrees to the load
though the specimen was under uniaxial or biaxial loading
conditions, the cracks propagation and the ultimate failure free surface of the square plate. Specimens generally failed
modes were actually three dimensional (3D), let alone the in this mode when deformations in the two loading directions
more intricate multiaxial compression. According to van differed from each other. For multiple shear failure modes
Mier (1986a), there were two primary failure modes under (Fig. 12), specimens were split into several triangular
multiaxial compression, that is, the planar failure and pyramids by several diagonal cracks that inclined at
columnar failure. Yang (1989) discussed the multiaxial angles of 30 to 40 degrees to the corresponding loading
According to foregoing discussion in this paper,
reasonable to define the stress-deformation relation
interlayer in a linear form

where k) and k2 are the elastic compliances of the int


in corresponding directions. Combining Eq. (4) throu
directions. This failure mode often occurred when specimens
and using the expression a = E)IE2, it can be found t
were subjected to equal biaxial compression.
The failure mode under tension-compression was similar
E, L + 2k,!(E" E2)
to that under uniaxial tension. The specimen was fractured
by the formation of a unique dominant tensile crack, which E2L + 2k2g(E" E2)

was perpendicular to the tensile loading direction (Fig. 13).


Complete stress-strain curves-Generally speaking, the Equation (8) defines the intrinsic relationship betw
biaxial complete curves measured in the experiment should principle local strain components E] and E2 under a
proportional (global) strain-controlled loading co
include the information of a mapping between the principle
Also from this equation, it is obvious that the local
stress vector (a), (2) and the principle local strain vector (E),
ratio cannot always be kept constant if the global strai
E2)' Under monotonic loading condition, the mapping takes
a is assumed so. Furthermore, the abstract equation
the form of

can be derived to describe the relationship instead of


in brief. According to 3D analytical geometry, the com
ofEq. (4) and (9) stands for a curve in 3D space, and
that of Eq. (5) and (9). On the other hand, it is feasl
Illustrating this bivariate function through planar curves is
represent a curve in 3D space by two of its two-dime
relatively intricate. Therefore, descriptive geometry is (2D) space projections with reference to descriptive g
adopted herein to describe the 3D curves in a planar drawing. Herein, the experimental curves measured in the 3D
As mentioned previously, the global strain ratio a (= E/E2) determined by a - E) - E2 are illustrated using th
remained constant during the loading process. Using Eq. (1), projections in the space of a - E) and E) - E2'
the components E) and E2 of the global strain can be A set of typical complete stress-strain curves of thes
given by subjected to compression-compression loading are s
Fig. 14 using planar view graphs. It is observed that the
of biaxial full curves is similar to that of uruaxial
2~, because most of them have both an ascending part
E] E,+- descending part. There are certain but continuous ch
L
(6) those curves, which is caused by the variation of local
2~2 ratios due to the deformations of the interlayers. On
E2 = E2+- hand, an abnormal reascension of the softening stres\
L
curve was observed in Fig. 14(b), which had nlll
reported previously. As is well known, after the initial elastic (-IO~:~ ---;; MPa
Jl •••.

r ~
stage during uniaxial compression, the strains in the load- .•• (ksi)

free surfaces normal to the loading direction increase <-.:


nonlinearly due to the instable propagation of inner cracks,
that is, shear dilation. This phenomenon also happens to
(-6.: I
biaxial compression, especially for unequal biaxial loading. (-4.35) J
In the later stage of unequal biaxial compression, although ."
concrete had already entered the softening stage in both
(-2.18)

o
(

:~o-8
loading directions, the shear dilation became more and more 0'., o -1000 -2000 .J(XX) -4OX) -6000 -eooo -7000 -8000

conspicuous. That is to say, the specimen intended to dilate


more in the less loaded direction due to shear dilation. The
-1500 '-
..... '...
compressive deformation in the less loaded direction,
however, had to increase to keep a constant strain ratio.
' ..... ..•...
Therefore, the combined action between shear dilation
'.,
~ L •••••••

caused by the vertical testing machine and compressive


deformation caused by the horizontal loading frame led to
the reascension on condition that certain loading ratios and
rates were achieved. This phenomenon occurred only under
multiaxial proportional strain-controlled compressive loading -75
(-10.88
r--MPa
(j ..•••..

conditions at certain strain ratios. Whether this will happen .•• (ksi) ..••• ~.r>.
in practical concrete structures requires further studies. (-8.70 / \.

Typical full stress-strain curves of the specimens under ~ / "


I~
...
(-6.52
tension-compression loading are shown in Fig. 15 in planar
viewgraphs. It is observed that the shape of the complete (-43' /.-/
·15
stress-strain curves in the tensile direction are similar to that
under uniaxial tension. And the curves in the compressive
<-2.18[/ o
o -1000 -2000 -6000 -eooo -7000 -8000
direction remain straight lines even though the specimens
,
o -'-.~-L

were nearly ruptured at the end of loading process. As shown


...•....•.•.••.. " (10"
..•..
from Fig. l5(a) to (c), with the increase of the strain ratios in
absolute value, the curves measured in the tensile direction
become smoother due to the Poisson's effect. It could be
concluded that under the loading condition adopted in this
investigation, only tensile damage happened to the specimens
under tension-compression loading.
Strength envelope-The multi axial strength and the strength
envelope are an important basis for the analysis and design of
<_11)7858) -MPa
concrete structures. Although the objective of this investigation IJ (ksi)
was to obtain the biaxial full curves instead of the strength
envelope, the latter could be achieved through parameter .• 5

identification of the experimentally measured full curves. (-6.52) ~

... I

r-, .
Strength envelope in stress space-Not only the mean (-4.35 /
curve but also the mean curves plus/minus one time of the -15
(-2.1')
standard deviation are shown in Fig. 16. Normalized mean
strength envelopes in the compression-compression region o
o -1000 -2000

measured in this experiment are shown in Fig. 17, which also 100

included the experimental results in other literatures (Kupfer


et al. 1969; Tasuji et al. 1978; Li and Guo 1991). It is
observed that the biaxial compressive strengths obtained
from this experiment are higher than those from Kupfer et al.
(1969) and Tasuji et al. (1978) but close to that from Li and
Guo (1991). It could be indicated that some friction still ....
exists because the stress is higher than values obtained by -500 c, (10"
other researchers when (JI = (J2'
Strength envelope in strain space-Peak strain envelope is
very important for those theories established in strain space. Fig. 14-Complete stress-strain curve for biaxial compression
Based on the parameter identification of full curves, the loading with nominal strain ratio a: (a) a = 1; (b) a = 0.3;
strength envelopes in strain space as well as variation range and (c) a = 0.1.
within one time of standard deviation are shown in Fig. 18.
It is observed that the obtained envelope in strain space is a and design, biaxial envelopes in both stress and strain space
convex curve. The biaxial peak strains in most conditions, should be considered.
however, are lower than those obtained in uniaxial compression
tests. It is mainly due to the strength increase in the biaxial CONCLUSIONS
compression region sacrificing the deformation capacity of Uniaxial and biaxial behaviors of HPC squared plate
concrete materials. Therefore, in practical structural analysis specimens were experimentally investigated in this research.
MPa MPa MFa

~- ."
(ksi)
1.• 0", ·1.
(-0.261 '0", (ksi) (-2.61) 0') (ksi)
.•.
.•........ -.-. ......... r-.~'".•..•.
4- --
1,S -.--- cr 1"e:1 ·80 -'- -~- - _.
---- I--
(-0.218) - (-2.18) A_
(-11.6)
1,2
--6-- 0'2-£2 .'
.•..•. .• ·12 :-t
....•....•..•. "'.
..
HU74) (-1.74)
./~
.- •
•........•...
0_
(-130)
(-{I. 130)
·60
'-,- ..
06
(-0.0870)
./
/
.•.......... (-0.870)
(-8,70)

Y

03 ...•
(-0.0.435) 1•• ""JJ..Io.- (-0.435)
.•.. e (10") ·40

\\
0.0 0
(-580) Mean
0 30 60 90 120 150 160 -_ Mean-5tandard deviation

.•........
0
e, (10") -A- Mean+Standard deviation

·200 '. ...... ·20


;,

....... ..
..........
(-2,90)
I' MFa
0'2,(ksi)

=t ~ ..I 1 2
. .~
.•... .~.~. a_. 0
0 -20
(-2,90)
·40
(-5,80)
.~

-60
(-8.70)
~
-80
(-11.6)

-- e, (10")

(a) MFa
Fig. 16-Biaxial strength envelope in stress space.
MFa
3.0
(-0.435) 0", (ksi) 0", (ks") .,.
'.,.. (-2.61)
2.S --e-(J1""E
·15
1,5
1
(-0.]6)
-A-<J -E ",/ (-2.18) e
e
e__
.......
1 .•.• ···\ .•.

',0
(-0.290)
2 2
,
...•.....•.•-.,. ,./
·12
(-1.14) ,/' ""-
15
(-0.217)

••... /*
,.J' ~ V
.•.....•....
.•
.,
(-1.30)

-
-'" /
U
1,2 .••........••• ...•

\d
10
(..().14S) , ~ •..•..•.•.•.••.••. <:.870)
O.S •...... b
0,9
(-o'o72S)

0.0 l.~
0 50 100 200 250
e, (10") -0.435)

0
300
'50
-e- Present exp
O·r •.•.• " e

·200
...... e, (10") 0.6 - -x- Guo ZH et.al.
-e- Kupfer et.al.
...•.•.... - ••- Tasuii et.al.
'. e
""" ..•....•' .. -d
-..-. .....
0,3
-EOO

-600

·1000
------

e, (10")
£1-&2

I
......•.....•
.•.•.•.... 0,0
0.0 0.3 0.6 0.9
/ 1.2 1,5
b) (j1 I fc
MFa MPa
25
(-oJ63) 0", (ksi) --.- CJ1"'e:1
(J
'~
I -10
••••• (-I.4')
Fig. 17-Normalized biaxial strength envelope in stress sp
.•.•..
/ I"...
2.0 ~cr2-E2
(-0.290) •••••• .,.,- (~.16)
·5000
.•
.•.. ~
I.S
(-0.217)

1.0
f
'--
/'
V

~I'--'•• ...,
.......•.• .....
(-0.870)

..
(-0.580) ~-4000
~
/---
-----
I
(-0.145)

V "i'0
os .••.... .•.~ ·2 ..-
(-o.072S)

00
1/ e, (10")
0
(-0.290)

"''''.3000 ~ ~

1\\\
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
0
....• e (10")
..•..•. -....•. ·2000
..~-..•.•10·•.•.•
·200

-400
.•..... -1000
I~Mean
~
__ Mean - Standard deviation
Mean - Standard deviation ~\\
.....•.•..
-600 ~&1 .•.E2 .•.• .•...•...• ).
0 i
-600 ~10·LL ~ 0 -1000 -2000 -3000 -4000 -5000
(C) E
1
(10-6)

Fig. IS-Complete stress-strain curve for tension-compression


loading with nominal strain ratio a: (a) a = -0.167; (b) a = Fig. 18-Biaxial strength envelope in strain space.
-0.25; and (c) a = -0.5.
with that by another directional loading. For the loa
Using biaxial proportional strain-controlled loading scheme, scheme adopted herein, however, the specimens u
the biaxial complete stress-strain curves of HPC were tension-compression were only damaged in the tensile dir
obtained. Based on the study of the stress-strain curves with a split that was parallel to the compressive direc'
measured when the specimens subjected to compression- Biaxial envelopes in both stress space and strain space ~
compression loading, it is found that the compressive achieved through parameter identification of the full s
damage caused by one directional loading would interact strain curves. Relative strength in the biaxial compression re

556 ACI Materials Journal/November-December 2


of the envelope is slightly higher than previous experimental Aug., pp. 656-666.
data in stress space. On the other hand, the biaxial peak strains in Lee, J., and Fenves, G. L., 1998, "Plastic-Damage Model for Cyclic
Loading of Concrete Structures," Journal of Engineering Mechanics
most conditions are lower than those obtained in uniaxial Division, ASCE, V. 124, pp. 892-900.
compression tests. It is concluded that the strength increase in the Lee, S. K.; Song, Y C.; and Han, S. H., 2003, "Biaxial Behavior of Plain
biaxial compression region is accompanied by the strain Concrete of Nuclear Containment Building," Nuclear Engineering and
softening, both of which should be carefully considered Design, V 227, pp. 143-153.
Li, J., 2004, "Research on the Stochastic Damage Mechanics for
in analysis and design of complicated HPC structures.
Concrete Material and Structures," Journal of Tongji University (Nature
Science), V 32, No. 10, pp. 1270-1277. (in Chinese)
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Li, J., and Zhang, Q. Y, 2001, "The Stochastic Damage Constitutive
Financial support from the National Science Foundation of China for Law of Concrete," Journal of Tongji University (Nature Science), V 29,
Innovative Research Groups (Grant No. 50621062 and 50321803) and for No. 10, pp. 1135-1141. (in Chinese)
general program (Grant No. 50608057) are greatly appreciated. The authors Li, W. Z., and Guo, Z. H., 1991, "Experimental Research for Strength and
would also like to acknowledge the kindly help of State Key Dam-Large Deformation of Concrete under Biaxial Tension-Compression Loading,"
Structure Laboratory of Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, and the helpful Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, V 71, No.8, pp. 51-56. (in Chinese)
suggestion ofX. Su of Tongji University at Shangbai, China, during this study. Mazars, J., 1986, "A Description of Micro- and Macro-Scale Damage of
Concrete Structures," Engineering Fracture Mechanics, V 25, pp. 729-737.
REFERENCES Mazars, J., and Pijaudier-Cabot, 1989, "Continuum Damage Theory:
Ai"tcin, P. c., 1998, High-Peiformance Concrete, E&FN Spon, New Application to Concrete," Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, V 115,
York, 591 pp. No.2, pp. 345-365.
AIkin, P. c., 2003, "The Durability Characteristics of High Performance Nelissen, L. 1., 1972, "Biaxial Testing of Normal Concrete," Heron, V 18,
Concrete: A Review," Cement and Concrete Composites, V 25, No. 4-5, No. I, pp. 603-611.
pp. 409-420. Neville, A., and AIkin, P. c., 1998, "High Performance Concrete-An
Bazant, Z. P., 1984, "Microplane Model for Strain Controlled Inelastic Overview," Materials and Structures, V 31, No. 206, pp. 111-117.
Behavior," Mechanics of Engineering Materials, C. S. Desai and R. H. Newman, K., and Sigvaldason, O. T, 1966, "Testing Machine and
Gallagher, eds., J. Wiley, London, UK, pp. 45-59. Specimen Characteristics and Their Effect on the Mode of Deformation,
Bazant, Z. P., and Oh, B. H., 1983, "Crack Band Theory for Fracture of Failure and Strength of Materials," Proceedings of the Institute of Mechanical
Concrete-Materials and Structures," RILEM, V 16, Paris, pp. 155-177. Engineers, V 180, Part 3A, pp. 399-410.
Bazant, Z. P, and Ozbolt, J., 1990, "Non local Microplane Model for Nielsen, C. V, 1998, "Triaxial Behavior of High-Strength Concrete and
Fracture, Damage, and Size Effect in Structures," Journal of Engineering Mortar," ACI Materials Journal, V 95, No.2, Mar.-Apr., pp. 144-151.
Mechanics, ASCE, V 118, No.3, pp. 540-556. Ortiz, M., 1985, "A Constitutive Theory for Inelastic Behaviour of
Buyukozturk, 0.; Nilson, A. H.; and Slate, EO., 1971, "Stress-Strain Concrete," Mechanics of Materials, V 4, pp. 67-93.
Response and Fracture of a Concrete Model in Biaxial Loading," ACI Park, R., and Pauly, T, 1996, Reinforced Concrete Structures, John
JOURNAL,Proceedings V 68, No.8, Aug., pp. 590-599. Wiley & Sons, New York, 800 pp.
Candappa, D. P.; Setunge, S.; and Sanjayan, J. G., 1999, "Stress Versus Persson, B., "Hydration and Strength of High Performance Concrete,"
Strain Relationship of High Strength Concrete under High Lateral Advanced Cement Based Materials, V 3, No. 3-4, pp. 107-123.
Confinement," Cement and Concrete Research, V 29, No. 12, pp. 1977-1982. Pfeifer, D. W., 2000, "High Performance Concrete and Reinforcing Steel
Carmeliet, J., and Hens, H., 1994, "Probabilistic Nonlocal Damage with a 100- Year Service Life," PCI Journal, V 45, No.3, pp. 46-54.
Model for Continua with Random Field Properties," Journal of Engineering Prat, P. C., and Bazant, Z. P., 1997, "Tangential Stiffness of Elastic
Mechanics, ASCE. V 120, No. 10, pp. 2013-2027. Materials with Systems of Growing or Closing Cracks," Journal of
Carol, I.; Jinisek, M., and Bazant, Z. P., 2001, "A Thermodynamically Mechanics and Physics of Solids, V 45, No.4, pp. 611-636.
Consistent Approach to Microplane Theory-Part I: Free Energy and Rougeron, P., and Aitcin, P. c., 1994, "Optimization of the Composition
Consistent Microplane Stresses," International Journal of Solids and of a High-Performance Concrete," Cement Concrete and Aggregates, V 16,
Structures, V 38, No. 17, pp. 2921-2931. No.2,pp.115-124.
Chen, W. E, 1982, Plasticity in Reinforced Concrete, McGraw-Hill Scavuzzo, R.; Stankowski, T; Gerstle, K. H.; and Ko, H. Y, 1983,
Book Company, New York, 474 pp. "Stress-Strain Curves for Concrete under Multiaxial Load Histories,"
Chung, D. D. L., 2002, "Review: Improving Cement-Based Materials by Report, Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering,
using Silica Fume," Journal of Materials Science, V 37, No.4, pp. 673-682. University of Colorado-Boulder, Boulder, CO.
Gutierrez, P. A., and Canovas, M. E, 1996, "High-Performance Seow, P. E. c., and Swaddiwudhipong, S., 2005, "Failure Surface for
Concrete: Requirements for Constituent Materials and Mix Proportioning," Plain Concrete and SFRC under Multi-Axial Loads-A Unified Approach,"
ACI Materials Journal, V 93, No.3, May-June, pp. 233-241. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE, V 17, No.2, pp. 219-228.
HilIerborg, A.; Modeer, M.; and Petersson, P. E., 1976, "Analysis of Crack Tasuji, M. E.; Slate, EO.; and Nilsson, A. H., 1978, "Stress-Strain
Formation and Crack Growth in Concrete by Means of Fracture Mechanics and Response and Fracture of Concrete in Biaxial Loading," ACI JOURNAL,
Finite Elements," Cement and Concrete Research, V 6, pp. 773-782. Proceedings V 75, No.7, July, pp. 306-312.
Hussein, A., and Marzouk, H., 2000, "Behavior of High-Strength Torrenti, J. M.; Benajia, E. H.; and Boulay, c., 1993, "Influence of
Concrete under Biaxial Stresses," ACI Materials Journal, V 97, No. I, Boundary Conditions on Strain Softening in Concrete Compression Test,"
Jan.-Feb., pp. 27-36. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, V 119, No. 12, pp. 2369-2384.
Iravani, S., 1996, "Mechanical Properties of High-Performance Traina, L. A., and Mansour, S. A., 1991, "Biaxial Strength and Deforma-
Concrete," ACI Materials Journal, V 93, No.5, Sept.-Oct., pp. 416-426. tional Behavior of Plain and Steel Fiber Concrete," ACI Materials Journal,
Jirasek, M., and Bazant, Z. P., 200 I, Inelastic Analysis of Structures, V 88, No.4, July-Aug., pp. 354-362.
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 722 pp. Van Mier, J. G. M, 1986a, "Fracture of Concrete under Complex
Ju, J. W., 1989, "On Energy-Based Coupled Elastoplastic Damage Stresses," Heron, V 31, No.3.
Theories: Constitutive Modeling and Computational Aspects," International Van Mier, J. G. M., 1986b, "Multiaxial Strain-Softening of Concrete-Part I:
Journal of Solids Structures, V 25, No.7, pp. 803-833. Fracture," Materials and Structures, V19, No.lll, May-June, pp. 179-190.
Kandarpa, S., and Kirkner, D. J., 1996, "Stochastic Damage Model for Van Mier, J. G. M., and Vonk, R. A., 1991, "Fracture of Concrete under
Brittle Material Subjected to Monotonic Loading," Journal of Engineering Complex Stress-Recent Developments," Materials and Structures, V 24,
Mechanics, ASCE, V 126, No.8, pp. 788-795. No. 139, Jan., pp. 61-65.
Karsan, I. D., and Jorsa, J. 0., 1969, "Behavior of Concrete under Vonk, R. A, 1992, "Softening of Concrete Loaded in Compression," PhD
Compressive Loadings," Journal of Structural Division, ASCE, V 95, thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
No. 12, pp. 2535-2563. Wu, J. Y; Li, J.; and Faria, R., 2006, "An Energy Release Rate-Based
Krajcinovic, D., 1996, Damage Mechanics, second edition, Elsevier Plastic-Damage Model for Concrete," International Journal of Solids and
Science B.V, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 774 pp. Structures, V 43, No. 3-4, pp. 583-612.
Krajcinovic, D., and Silva, M. A. G., 1982, "Statistical Aspects of the Yang, X. S., 1989, "Strain Softening Model for Concrete under Triaxial
Continuous Damage Theory," International Journal of Solid Structures, Stresses," thesis, Tsinghua University, Beijing, Cbina. (in Chinese)
V 18, pp. 551-562. Yin, W. S.; Su, E. C. M.; Mansur, M. A.; and Hsu, T T c., 1989,
Kupfer, H. B.; Hilsdorf, H. K.; and RUsch, H., 1969, "Behavior of "Biaxial Tests of Plain and Fiber Concrete," ACI Materials Journal, V 86,
Concrete under Biaxial Stresses," ACI JOURNAL,Proceedings V. 66, No.8, No.3, May-June, pp. 236-243.
of the envelope is slightly higher than previous experimental Aug., pp. 656-666.
data in stress space. On the other hand, the biaxial peak strains in Lee, J., and Fenves, G. L., 1998, "Plastic-Damage Model for Cyclic
Loading of Concrete Structures," Journal of Engineering Mechanics
most conditions are lower than those obtained in uniaxial
Division, ASCE, V. 124, pp. 892-900.
compression tests. It is concluded that the strength increase in the Lee, S. K.; Song, Y C.; and Han, S. H., 2003, "Biaxial Behavior of Plain
biaxial compression region is accompanied by the strain Concrete of Nuclear Containment Building," Nuclear Engineering and
softening, both of which should be carefully considered Design, V. 227, pp. 143-153.
in analysis and design of complicated HPC structures. Li, J., 2004, "Research on the Stochastic Damage Mechanics for
Concrete Material and Structures," Journal of Tongji University (Nature
Science), V. 32, No. 10, pp. 1270-1277. (in Chinese)
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Li, J., and Zhang, Q. Y, 2001, "The Stochastic Damage Constitutive
Financial support from the National Science Foundation of China for Law of Concrete," Journal of Tongji University (Nature Science), V. 29,
Innovative Research Groups (Grant No. 50621062 and 50321803) and for No. 10, pp. 1135-1141. (in Chinese)
general program (Grant No. 50608057) are greatly appreciated. The authors Li, W. Z., and Guo, Z. H., 1991, "Experimental Research for Strength and
would also like to acknowledge the kindly help of State Key Dam-Large Deformation of Concrete under Biaxial Tension-Coplpression Loading;'
Structure Laboratory of Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, and the helpful Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, V. 71, No.8, pp. 51-56. (in Chinese)
suggestion of X. Su of Tongji University at Shanghai, China, during this study. Mazars, J., 1986, "A Description of Micro- and Macro-Scale Damage of
Concrete Structures," Engineering Fracture Mechanics, V. 25, pp. 729-737.
REFERENCES Mazars, J., and Pijaudier-Cabot, 1989, "Continuum Damage Theory:
Altcin, P. c., 1998, High-Peiformance Concrete, E&FN Spon, New Application to Concrete," Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, V. 115,
York, 591 pp. No.2, pp. 345-365.
Aikin, P. c., 2003, "The Durability Characteristics of High Performance Nelissen, L. J., 1972, "Biaxial Testing of Normal Concrete;' Heron, V. 18,
Concrete: A Review," Cement and Concrete Composites, V. 25, No. 4-5, No. I, pp. 603-611.
pp. 409-420. Neville, A., and AYtcin, P. C., 1998, "High Performance Concrete-An
Bazant, Z. P., 1984, "Microplane Model for Strain Controlled Inelastic Overview," Materials and Structures, V. 31, No. 206, pp. 111-117.
Behavior," Mechanics of Engineering Materials, C. S. Desai and R. H. Newman, K., and Sigvaldason, O. T, 1966, "Testing Machine and
Gallagher, eds., J. Wiley, London, UK, pp. 45-59. Specimen Characteristics and Their Effect on the Mode of Deformation,
Bazant, Z. P., and Oh, B. H., 1983, "Crack Band Theory for Fracture of Failure and Strength of Materials;' Proceedings of the Institute of Mechanical
Concrete-Materials and Structures," RILEM, V. 16, Paris, pp. 155-177. Engineers, V. 180, Part 3A, pp. 399-410.
BaZant, Z. P., and Ozbolt, J., 1990, "Non local Microplane Model for Nielsen, C. v., 1998, "Triaxial Behavior of High-Strength Concrete and
Fracture, Damage, and Size Effect in Structures," Journal of Engineering Mortar," ACI Materials Journal, V. 95, No.2, Mar.-Apr., pp. 144-151.
Mechanics, ASCE, V. 118, No.3, pp. 540-556. Ortiz, M., 1985, "A Constitutive Theory for Inelastic Behaviour of
Buyukozturk, 0.; Nilson, A. H.; and Slate, F. 0., 1971, "Stress-Strain Concrete," Mechanics of Materials, V. 4, pp. 67-93.
Response and Fracture of a Concrete Model in Biaxial Loading," ACI Park, R., and Pauly, T, 1996, Reinforced Concrete Structures, John
JOURNAL,Proceedings V. 68, No.8, Aug., pp. 590-599. Wiley & Sons, New York, 800 pp.
Candappa, D. P.; Setunge, S.; and Sanjayan, J. G., 1999, "Stress Versus Persson, B., "Hydration and Strength of High Performance Concrete,"
Strain Relationship of High Strength Concrete under High Lateral Advanced Cement Based Materials, V. 3, No. 3-4, pp. 107-123.
Confinement," Cement and Concrete Research, V. 29, No. 12, pp. 1977-1982. Pfeifer, D. W., 2000, "High Performance Concrete and Reinforcing Steel
Carmeliet, J., and Hens, H., 1994, "Probabilistic Nonlocal Damage with a 100- Year Service Life," PCI Journal, V. 45, No.3, pp. 46-54.
Model for Continua with Random Field Properties," Journal of Engineering Prat, P. c., and Bazant, Z. P., 1997, "Tangential Stiffness of Elastic
Mechanics, ASCE. V. 120, No. 10, pp. 2013-2027. Materials with Systems of Growing or Closing Cracks," Journal of
Carol, L; Jirasek, M., and Bazant, Z. P., 2001, "A Thermodynamically Mechanics and Physics of Solids, V. 45, No.4, pp. 611-636.
Consistent Approach to Microplane Theory-Part I: Free Energy and Rougeron, P., and Altcin, P. c., 1994, "Optimization of the Composition
Consistent Microplane Stresses," International Journal of Solids and of a High-Performance Concrete," Cement Concrete and Aggregates, V. 16,
Structures, V. 38, No. 17, pp. 2921-2931. No.2, pp. 115-124.
Chen, W. F., 1982, Plasticity in Reinforced Concrete, McGraw-Hill Scavuzzo, R.; Stankowski, T.; Gerstle, K. H.; and Ko, H. Y, 1983,
Book Company, New York, 474 pp. "Stress-Strain Curves for Concrete under Multiaxial Load Histories,"
Chung, D. D. L., 2002, "Review: Improving Cement-Based Materials by Report, Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering,
using Silica Fume," Journal of Materials Science, V. 37, No.4, pp. 673-682. University of Colorado-Boulder, Boulder, CO.
Gutierrez, P. A., and Canovas, M. F., 1996, "High-Performance Seow, P. E. c., and Swaddiwudhipong, S., 2005, "Failure Surface for
Concrete: Requirements for Constituent Materials and Mix Proportioning," Plain Concrete and SFRC under Multi-Axial Loads-A Unified Approach,"
ACI Materials Journal, V. 93, No.3, May-June, pp. 233-241. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, ASCE, V. 17, No.2, pp. 219-228.
HiUerborg, A.; Modrer, M.; and Petersson, P. E., 1976, "Analysis of Crack Tasuji, M. E.; Slate, F. 0.; and Nilsson, A. H., 1978, "Stress-Strain
Formation and Crack Growth in Concrete by Means of Fracture Mechanics and Response and Fracture of Concrete in Biaxial Loading," ACI JOURNAL,
Finite Elements," Cement and Concrete Research, V. 6, pp. 773-782. Proceedings V. 75, No.7, July, pp. 306-312.
Hussein, A., and Marzouk, H., 2000, "Behavior of High-Strength Torrenti, J. M.; Benajia, E. H.; and Boulay, c., 1993, "Influence of
Concrete under Biaxial Stresses," ACI Materials Journal, V. 97, No. I, Boundary Conditions on Strain Softening in Concrete Compression Test,"
Jan.-Feb., pp. 27-36. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, V. 119, No. 12, pp. 2369-2384.
Iravani, S., 1996, "Mechanical Properties of High-Performance Traina, L. A., and Mansour, S. A., 1991, "Biaxial Strength and Deforma-
Concrete," ACI Materials Journal, V. 93, No.5, Sept.-Oct., pp. 416-426. tional Behavior of Plain and Steel Fiber Concrete," ACI Materials Journal,
Jirasek, M., and Bazant, Z. P., 2001, Inelastic Analysis of Structures, V. 88, No.4, July-Aug., pp. 354-362.
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 722 pp. Van Mier, J. G. M, 1986a, "Fracture of Concrete under Complex
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