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Feasibility of Mansanitas (Ziziphus jujuba) as an alternative source of sugar

CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

1.1 Introduction

The Philippine archipelago is a tropical country filled with a rich variety of tropical

fruits wherein more than 20 different species are cultivated in the entire archipelago (Espino

R, Espino M, 2008). These fruits come in different sizes and are usually found on stalls in

wet markets, supermarkets and streets in the rural areas all over the country. However, not all

fruits in these stalls or streets can be sold and these fruits are left to rot or thrown in the

garbage cans.

One of these fruits is Manzanitas. Manzanitas is a small tree whose fruit is fleshy and

mealy, smooth, orange or red, ovoid or somewhat rounded, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter,

with a bony and irregularly furrowed stone within. It is edible and is used in a variety of

recipes for it contains mucilage, fruit acids and sugar (Ho Dinh Hai, 2017). Because of its

ability to grow and bear fruit quickly and of its sugar composition, the researchers considered

manzanitas as a possible candidate as an alternative source of sugar.

Sugar is a basic commodity that Filipinos used in their daily lives. It has many uses

and is much needed in most people’s meal. It is used as a sweetener to coffees, teas, viands

and desserts. Sugar is a term for a class of edible crystalline carbohydrate that can be found in

almost every type of fruit and vegetables. There are three main form of sugar family which

are sucrose, lactose, and fructose. Sucrose and lactose are disaccharide molecules while

fructose is monosaccharide molecule which is the simplest form of sugar. But, in society,
sugar is almost exclusively refers to sucrose in food and it is primarily comes from sugar cane

and sugar beet.

Fruit is one of the most natural sources of sugar. To make use of the leftover fruit in

the market or primarily the manzanitas left to rot in the sidewalk, the researchers conducted a

research on manzanitas as a possible alternative source of sugar that is not only affordable but

is also easy to make.

REFERENCES:

1. Espino R, Espino M. The Status of the Fruit Industry in the Philippines., 2008

2. Ho Dinh Hai. Muntingia calabura Jamaica cherry. The Worldwide Fruits., 2017
1.2 Conceptual Framework/Theoretical

Mansanitas (Ziziphus
jujuba) is analogous
to the sugar

Nutritional profit for the Low-budget cost than


consumers the commercial sugar

Mansanitas
(Ziziphus jujuba),
preference for an
alternative source
of sugar

Fig. 1 shows the representation of the scope to be assess that Mansanitas is a good

alternative source of sugar having the same component, the sucrose by which at time

Mansanitas. With all those Mansanitas at home we can commercially made our own supply

of sugar noting that a simpler process could be done gaining less money to be spilled. In

addition, users would likely benefit to its nutritious content which only not good for kids but

also for the whole family.


1.3 Statement of the Problem

The researchers aimed to determine whether the Marang fruit meat extract can really

produce sucrose and can be an alternative use for the commercial one.

Here are the study sought to answer the following questions;

1. What is the proportion of sucrose content a Mansanitas (Ziziphus jujuba) meat extract

has?

2. How cost efficient is the sugar production Mansanitas (Ziziphus jujuba) of meat?

3. How Feasible is Mansanitas (Ziziphus jujuba) as an alternative source of sugar in

terms of sugar content and cost as compared to commercially sold sugar?

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study was able to help people living in urban and rural areas. The researchers

believed that the Mansanitas (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit meat extract as an alternative source

of sugar is beneficial. It was cheap, environment-friendly, and doesn’t harm the body for

its main component is out of pure Mansanitas (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit meat extract and

doesn’t contain harmful chemicals that can affect the surroundings.

1.5 Scope and Delimitation

The focus of this study was to qualify the use of Mansanitas (Ziziphus jujuba) as

an alternative source of sugar focused towards developing a new source of sugar, a

product produced out of a simple process. The researchers aimed to meet the
prerequisite requirements in determining the feasibility of Mansanitas (Ziziphus

jujuba) as an alternative source of sugar in terms of its sugar content and cost

compared to the commercially sold sugar.

1.6 Definition of Terms

Alternative – a choice limited to one or two more possibilities, as of things,

propositions, or courses of action, the selection of which precludes in other possibility

Commercial – prepared, done, or acting with sole or chief emphasis on salability,

profit, or success

Extract – to separate or obtain (a juice, ingredient, or etc.) from the fruit which is

Rambutan (Nepehelium lappaceum) with the use of manual extraction or with the process of

machines

Mansanitas (Ziziphus jujuba) - is the sample used in the study

Sucrose – a sweet crystalline dextrorotatory disaccharide sugar 𝐶12 𝐻22 𝑂11 that occurs

naturally in most plants specifically in Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and is

commercially.

Sugar – a sweet substance usually in the form of white or brown crystals or white

powder that comes from plants and is used to make foods sweeter
CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Manzanitas or Muntingia calabura L., (Family: Muntingiaceae) is a fast-growing

slender tree, native to the American continent and is commonly cultivated in warm areas of

Asian region. Other names of this plant are straw berry tree, Jamaican cherry (English),

Chinese cherry (or) Japanese cherry (India) and cherry chettu (Telugu), (Fosberg, et all.,

1979). The aratiles fruit is known in other countries as Jamaican cherry, Panama berry,

Singapore cherry, bolaina yamanaza, cacaniqua, capulín blanco, nigua, niguito, memizo, or

memiso. In certain areas of the Philippines, these little red fruits are called manzanitas

(“small apples”), also spelled mansanitas or manchanitas. Locals of Tarlac province and

Nueva Ecija call them saresa, while the Ilonggos of the Visayas region call them sarisa.

It is a minor but well-known as tropical and edible fruit that belongs to the

Muntingiacea family. It is a very fast-growing tree, reaching 25 to 40 ft in height, with

spreading, nearly horizontal branches. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, lanceolate or

oblong, long-pointed at the apex, oblique at the base. A 100 g edible fruit portion of the

berries contain approximately 76. 3 g water, 2.1 g protein, 2.3 g fat, 17.9 g carbohydrates, 6.0

g fiber, 1.4 g ash, 125 mg calcium, 94 mg phosphorus, 0.015 mg vitamin A, 90 mg vitamin C.

The energy value is 380 kJ/100 g.

Ripened fruits are used into jams and used in tarts. Although the plants bear fruits

throughout the year, its peak flowering and fruiting season is mainly from April to July.

During the peak fruiting season berries turn red as indicating maturity (ripening). The ripened

fruit respire and transpire resulting in weight loss and become softened. Further, the berry

drops as soon as it reaches maturity. The ripened berries cannot be stored for more than a

couple of days.
Harvesting time is the most important factor that determines the storage life and final

fruit quality. Any fruit picked either too early or too late is more susceptible to physiological

disorders and has a shorter storage life than fruit picked at the proper maturity. When the

berries reach approximately 1.0 cm in length or 1.17 cm in diameter, the berries could be

harvested. The harvested fruit’s edible part of the fleshy fruit is juicy pulp.

Fiber, protein and fat in fruit in fruit may be gradually degraded and converted to

organic substances and sugar. Glucose and fructose content of the fruit is higher prior to

maturity. Around that time, the fruit turn from deep green to yellow or red/pink color

indicating visual index of fruit harvest. These indices are partially important because the fruit

start abscising near harvest maturity. Fruits of this plants are, therefore, should be harvested

to maturity (Rahman et. al, 2010).

To be able to determine if a fruit is suitable to be an alternative source of sugar, its

sugar content is determined. The determination of sugar content in fresh fruits is an important

chemical analysis carried out to evaluate quality and maturity of fruits. Analytical techniques

such as liquid chromatography using different separation techniques (reverse-phase, ion-

exclusion, ion-chromatography) and detectors, thin layer analyses of fruit juices.

Chromatographic techniques are also accurate yet very time consuming. Enzymatic methods

have also been used for the quantitative analysis of sugars. However these methods need

sample preparations and are also time consuming and are very costly.

Apart from these methods, density refractometric measurements and infrared

spectroscopy have been used for obtaining the amount of sugar. Unlike density and

refractometric measurements, which give the total amount of sugar, infrared spectroscopy

may be coupled with multivariate analysis to quantify different sugars, in particular glucose,

fructose and sucrose (Jhaumeer-Laulloo et.al, 2003).


Though the researchers we’re not able to get their sample tested using FTIR, the

researchers opted to another test using glucometer.

In taking a sample to be tested for sugar content, extraction of fruit extract is very

important. Soft fruits give very fluid pulps that are difficult to withhold a press. Press clothes

are formally traditional in extracting fruit juice compare to commercial machinery presses.

Factors contributing to the efficiency of pressing include the viscosity of the juice, the

resistance to deformation of the solid phase of the pulp, pulp porosity, and the applied

pressure. These parameters depend on the nature of the pulp and are subject to change during

the pressing or extracting process. Several types of press are available, including the

traditional rack and cloth press, screw presses, Bucher-Guyer horizontal press, and the belt

press(T. Beveridge & Dr. M. A. Rao, 1997)

Conventional filtration relies on gravity, pressure or vacuum to create the driving

force necessary for the liquid phase to pass throughout different kinds of filters.In food

industry separation technologies, sustainability problems are mainly related to two factors:

(1) energy, and (2) water consumption. The mechanisms which are involved in the separation

of juice from ground pulp by the various pressing procedures include partial destruction and

squeezing of the cellular tissue by force.

In crystalization of sugar, the sucrose syrup obtained is the process using a vacuum

evaporator pan, allowing for the sucrose to separate. Since sucrose solubility in water is high,

multiple steps are necessary to remove as much of the sucrose in the solution as possible.

Last, sucrose crystals are removed from the mother liquor using centrifugation.
REFERENCES:

Md. Masudur Rahman, M. S. (2010). Fruit Growth of China Cherry (Muntingia calabura).
Botany Research International, 4-5.

Sabina Jhaumeer-Laulloo, P. R. (2003). Quantitative Determination of Sugar in Fruits by


Different Methods. Chemistry: An Indian Journal, 1-6.

Fosberg, FR, Sachet M-H, Oliver RL. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian

dicotyledonae. Micronesica., 1979;15:1-295.

Perez GRM, Zavala SMA, Perez GC. Antidiabetic effect of compounds isolated from plants.

Phytomedicine.,1998; 5: 55-75.

Nshimo CM, Pezzuto JM, Kinghorn AD, Farnsworth NR.Cytotoxic constituents of Muntingia

calabura leaves and stems Thailand. International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 1993;

31: 77.

Verheij EWM. Coronel RE. Plant Resources of South East Asia: Edible Fruits and Nuts,

PROSEA., 1992; Bogor, Indonesia, 2nd edition.

Su BNE, Jung Park JS, Vigo JG, Graham F, Cabiess HH, Fong JM, Pezzuto, Kingborn AD.

Activity-guided isolation of the chemical constitutents of Muntingia calabura using a

quinone Reductase induction assay. Phytochemistry., 2003; 63: 335-341.

Zakaria ZA, Mat Jais AM, Mastura M, Mat Jusoh SH, Mohamed AM, Mohd NS, Jamil MS,

Rofiee, Sulaiman MR. In vitro antistaphylococcal activity of the extracts of several

neglected plants in Malaysia. Int J Pharmacol., 2007a ; 3(5): 428-431.

T. Beveridge & Dr. M. A. Rao (1997): Juice extraction from apples and other fruits and

vegetables, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 37:5, 449-469

Sabina Jhaumeer-Laulloo, P. R. (2003). Quantitative Determination of Sugar in Fruits by


Different Methods. Chemistry: An Indian Journal, 1-6.
CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODS

This chapter contains the methodology and procedures of the study which contains the

research design, research locale, sampling procedure, data gathering procedure, and analysis

of the data that are useful to the researchers and to the study.

3.1 Research Design

An experimental research that determines Mansanitas (Ziziphus jujuba) was a good

alternative for commercial sugar. The researchers are attempted to study the Mansanitas

granular sugar similarities to common one. In Mansanitas monthly day of harvest the

researchers are able to compare and contrast these subject matter. The design was helpful in

describing the differences between variables. Noting every idea to be distinguished like

budget. To show that the study is to new the objectives of the research. The nutritional

benefits of the Mansanitas is to least compare with the common commercial sugar, on

research Masanitas has more benefit than that of the common sugar. At the end, the research

must be extended to the content of the study, it is to inform the public of the research.

3.2 Sample of the Study

The sample of this study was the Mansanitas (Ziziphus jujuba) meat fruit, commonly

seen all over the Philippines and also in Southeast Asia countries. The sample was the main

component of this study and acted as the basis to answer the following research questions.
3.3 Setting of the Study

The study was conducted at Prosperidad, Agusan del Sur with the samples that were

gathered together. These samples were collected in the abovementioned place because of the

easy access of the materials needed. As for the Mansanitas (Ziziphus jujuba), the sample was

congregated at Lapinigan, Agusan del Sur.

3.4 Sampling Procedure

In producing the product, this consists preparing the sieve, pan, ladle, stove, container,

oven, sucrose seeding and most of all the raw material Mansanitas fruit. First, the sample was

washed with water. The Mansanitas fruit meat was then extracted by squeezing using a clean

cloth. The extract was filtered using a filter paper to collect the residue that was during the

extraction. The extract was poured on a heated pan and stirred thoroughly until it

caramelized. Then the sticky syrup was added sucrose seeding and then it was stored on an

oven to crystallize the caramelized syrup. Afterwards, the crystallize syrup was blended with

the use of blender to grind the crystallize product. It was added corn starch in order for it to

granulized The finished product will be tested as an alternative sugar that can be used in

flavouring juices, pastries, beverages, and others.


CHAPTER 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

Manzanitas is a small tree whose fruit is fleshy and mealy, smooth, orange or red,

ovoid or somewhat rounded, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, with a bony and irregularly

furrowed stone within and can be found in the wet markets or fruit stall or even the sidewalks

in the rural areas of the Philippines. It is edible and is used in a variety of recipes for it

contains mucilage, fruit acids and sugar (Ho Dinh Hai, 2017). Sugar is one of the basic

necessities everyone uses. It mainly comes from sugar cane and sugar beet. Sugar is a term

for a class of edible crystalline carbohydrate that can also be found in almost every type of

fruit and vegetables. To be able to make use of the leftover fruits in the market of the fruit left

to rot in the sidewalks primarily the manzanitas, this research is conducted to determine

whether manzanitas is a possible alternative source of sugar that is affordable and easy to

make.

The data recorded on physical parameter of the Manzanitas such as the weight of the

fruit of the fruit before and after extraction, amount of extract and amount of residues are

presented in Table 1. The color of the fruit was red or yellow. The data obtained on the

glucose content of the fruit is presented in Figure 1. Fruit extract contained 49 glucose.

Amount
Amount after Amount of Amount of
before extract
extract (mg) extract (ml) residue (mg)
(mg)

MANZANITAS 386 289 93 4

Table 1: Mass and weight of Manzanitas before and after juice extraction.
The mass of fruit taken and volume of fruit juice extracted are reported in Table 1.
The amount of fruit before extraction is reduced as the juice is being extracted by hand. Red
and ripe manzanitas fruits are observed to contained more fruit juice than the yellow-green
colored ones. There are also some extract that are wasted in the extraction process as they
stick in the spoon and on the gloves.

The extracted juice is put into the oven and is added with a pinch of sucrose seeding
to aid in its crystallization. The temperature of the oven is held constant to 90oC for two (2)
hours. This results to a brownish sugar that is used as a sample for the glucose content test
using a glucometer at a hospital in Patin-ay.

Figure 1: Glucose content of Manzanitas using Glucometer

The amount of glucose present in the Manzanitas is measured using the Glucometer
found in hospitals. The glucose content is 49 which mean that there really is glucose in the
fruit.

The availability of glucose in the fruit means there are other sugars present in the fruit
namely sucrose and fructose. These sugars present in the Manzanitas determine that
Manzanitas is a possible source of sugar. It is not only affordable but it is also easy to make.
Summary

Muntingia calabura is an oriental fruit tree in the Philippines whose flesh and seed

contains mucilage, fruit acids and sugar. Sugar is a basic need in a Filipino diet. This research

is conducted to determine whether manzanitas is a possible alternative source of sugar that is

affordable and easy to make. The results of the study indicated that more fruit juice extract

could be extracted in the red fruits that in the yellow fruits. The fruit contains juice extract

which contains 49 glucose as measured using a glucometer. Muntingia calabura can be an

alternative source of sugar.

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

I – CONCLUSION

Mnazanitas fruits are suitable alternative source of sugar. It is not only because it
bears fruit all year long but also because its fruit juice contains glucose which is a type of
sugar. The amount of fruit juices that could be extracted in a single manzanitas fruit is so
little and so many manzanitas fruits are needed to be able to make a lot of sugar.

II - RECOMMENDATION

The researchers recommended that further research is to be conducted about the


study. FTIR test of the manzanitas fruit is also recommended to be able to determine the
amount of fructose, glucose and sucrose of the fruit.

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