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Sirosis Hati

Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.[1] This damage is characterized by the replacement of
normal liver tissue by scar tissue.[1] Typically, the disease develops slowly over months or years. [1] Early on, there are often no symptoms.[1] As the
disease worsens, a person may become tired, weak, itchy, have swelling in the lower legs, develop yellow skin, bruise easily, have fluid build up in the
abdomen, or develop spider-like blood vessels on the skin.[1]The fluid build-up in the abdomen may become spontaneously infected.[1] Other
complications include hepatic encephalopathy, bleeding from dilated veins in the esophagus or dilated stomach veins, and liver cancer.[1] Hepatic
encephalopathy results in confusion and may lead to unconsciousness.[1]

Cirrhosis is most commonly caused by alcohol, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.[1][2] Typically, more than two or three
alcoholic drinks per day over a number of years is required for alcoholic cirrhosis to occur.[1] Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has a number of causes,
including being overweight, diabetes, high blood fats, and high blood pressure.[1] A number of less common causes of cirrhosis include autoimmune
hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, hemochromatosis, certain medications, and gallstones.[1] Diagnosis is based on blood testing, medical imaging,
and liver biopsy.[1]

Some causes of cirrhosis, such as hepatitis B, can be prevented by vaccination.[1] Treatment partly depends on the underlying cause,[1] but the goal is
often to prevent worsening and complications.[1] Avoiding alcohol is recommended in all cases of cirrhosis.[1] Hepatitis B and C may be treatable
with antiviral medications.[1] Autoimmune hepatitis may be treated with steroid medications.[1] Ursodiol may be useful if the disease is due to blockage of
the bile ducts.[1] Other medications may be useful for complications such as abdominal or leg swelling, hepatic encephalopathy, and dilated esophageal
veins.[1] In severe cirrhosis, a liver transplant may be an option.[1]

Cirrhosis affected about 2.8 million people and resulted in 1.3 million deaths in 2015.[3][4] Of these, alcohol caused 348,000, hepatitis C caused 326,000,
and hepatitis B caused 371,000.[4] In the United States, more men die of cirrhosis than women.[1]The first known description of the condition is
by Hippocrates in the 5th century BCE.[5] The word cirrhosis is from Greek: κίρρωσις; kirrhos κιρρός "yellowish" and -osis (-ωσις) meaning "condition",
describing the appearance of a cirrhotic liver.[6][7][8